Newspaper Page Text
By L. J. de Bekker
A SPECTACULAR shooting of on?
Hindu by another in a Sat
Francisco court last Tuesdaj
recalled to the world the almost for
gotten fact that one of the most gran
diose of the farce-tragedies of the wai
has not quite been played out. Th<
end is sordid enough, but the drama ir
the playing has brought death to thou
sands, from American jails to th?
slopes of the Himalayas. Its stage wa;
set with all the romance and mysterj
of India and her amazing vases, an?
across the boards moved picturesque
pawns with which the German Kaisei
played for an empire.
Thirty-two men had been on tria
since November 20 for violating the
neutrality of America by plotting revo
lution against British rule in India
German consular officers, Indians and
American business men.
The evidence was all in. Counsel foi
the defendants had been heard, and the
United States Attorney, John W. Pres?
ton, had just completed his closing
argument. The bark of an automatic
broke the silence of the courtroom, and
Ram Chandra, who had just left his
chair, fell, shot through the heart. Two
more bullets entered his body before it
touched the floor.
The murderer was Ram Singh, co
defendant with Ram Chandra and for?
merly his associate in publishing a
revolutionary paper. As he turned to
Btrike down another victim, his finger
pressed against the trigger, James B.
Holohan, United States marshal, fired
over the heads of the panic-stricken
spectators from the opposite side of
the courtroom, instantly killing him.
Holohan is a giant, but Preston stood
between him and Ram Singh. To get
his man he fired with the revolver held
high above his head, the bullet break?
ing Ram Singh's neck.
Murder or sudden death has not un?
commonly been the fate of pro-German
plotters who knew too much or were
suspected of an inclination to talk.
Sometimes it may be pneumonia or
other natural cause, as in the case of
the Beautiful Turk; sometimes suicide,
as when Magu Ram, arrested in Ha?
vana for complicity in the Hindu plot,
hanged himself in Jacksonville en route
to San Francisco. Sometimes a fate
worse than death befalls. There is
John Singh, brother of Ram Singh,
caught in the dragnet in Chicago and
taken West for trial. He is insane.
But such things are to be expected
from the* diplomacy of a nation which
is not satisfied to have its representa?
tives lie for their own country, but in?
sists that they must also plot against
the peace and welfare of the countries
to which they are accredited, even t;o
the extent of becoming accessories to
the facts of murder, arson, the mali?
cious destruction of property.
After all, the Kaiser would not have
been involved in this Hindu plot but
for a slight error in the Wilhelmstrasse
Bureau of Psychological Research. Ex?
perts of the German Foreign Office,
hearing from their spies in India of
the discontent of a small percentage
of the. population, pictured themselves
as instigating another Sepoy mutiny.
at the least, and of involving the war?
like Moslems of India in a Holy War
at the best, which would rot only crip?
ple Great Britain but divert her troops
from Europe to Southern Asia. There?
fore, no price could be too high. What
the price actually was ?3 a matter of
dispute, but according to testimony
brought out at the San Francisco trial
on December 31 last Srinivas R.
Wagel, an Indian well known in New
York, had asked Count von Bernstorff
Took $60,000 From
Wolf von I gel
Thomas L. Tunney, bead of New
York's police bomb squad, testified that
he had been told of Wapel's request
by Dr. Chandra K. Chakravarty, one
of the defendants, and that Chakra?
varty admitted having received from
Wolf von Igel $60,000, and said that
Herambra Lai Gupta, another defend?
ant, had taken $21,000 from Captain
Dr. Chakravarty, who seems to have
been the directing min-i for the plot
^ ters in this country, electrified his co
m, conspirators in court on April 17 when
Br he said: "I do not deny my relations
w with Germany." In a word he con?
fessed, but his story in court was so
phrased as to represen'., lim as the
mildest of conspirators:
"I had not the right to violate the
neutrality laws of the United States
and I did not do so," Dr. Chakravarty
said. "Why did I accept German gold ?
Beeause internal organization without
external aid is impossible in our pre
dicament? and Germany offered the
best way out. We in India are endeav?
oring todo justas America did in 177*5.
While Washington wa? struggling at
home Benjamin Franklin was reeking
aid in France. While my countrymen
are struggling at home I sought aid in
"Personally, I did not attempt to put
?B foot ? military enterprise, for the
r*ason that I did not think a military
enterprise possible without the tacit
consent o? the United States?arid that
w?? out of the quextion. But I did
spread ovr psopsganda and expended
HINDU PAWNS LOST IN KAISERS
THE HINDU PLOTTERS AND THE MEN BEHIND THEM
WOLF VON IGEL.
secretary to Captain von Pape and
paymaster in the Hindu plot.
Killed by U. S. Marshal after Blaying
..pyri?'li; Underwoud ?? Uuu.rwond
(Above)?CAPTAIN FRANZ VON PAPEN, Count von Bernstorff's military
attach? and agent in dealing with the Hindus. (Below)?DR. ERNEST
SCHUNNER, German physician, and DR. CHAKRAVARTY. They lived and
worked toirether when arrested in New York.
Murdered in court by Ram Singh.
CAPTAIN HANS TAUSCHER,
Krupp agent and prima donna's hus?
band, implicated in Hindu plot.
thousands of dollars doing it in the
name of patriotism. The government
of the United States has been good to
me. At the same time I realize that
war has shaken the world to its centre.
We have tried everything in India to
bring about an amelioration of our
condition, but have failed. Force is
the only weapon left to use.
"I have tried to inspire a revolu?
tion in India, but not from these
shores, by shipping arms and ammuni?
tion to my countrymen. The govern?
ment would decorate me with powen,
I do not possess when it endeavors to
give me credit for 'setting on foot a
military enterprise' in the Unite'd
States.. I have not the magical charm
to work miracles, gentlemen of the
Dr. Chakravarty revealed for the first
time the cause of the ill will existing
between Ram Chandra, editor of the
"Hindustan Gadar," and himself when
he told the jury that he had been sent
by the Berlin Foreign Office to "call
off" Chandra's "violent publications."
"I told Ram Chandra and his asso?
ciates," Dr. Chakravarty said, "that the
Berlin Foreign Office was not pleased
with their efforts. I endeavored to in?
duce Chandra to discontinue publica?
tion of the 'Gadar.' When he refuse I
parted company with him and his
methods of aiding our countrymen."
It is assumed that Ram Singh had
intended to kill Chakravarty after
shooting Ram Chandra, and that only
the United States marshal's quickness
on the trigger saved the worthy doctor,
who found time in a confession lasting
only sixteen minutes to implicate many
of his associates.
While admitting his "relations with
Germany," Dr. Chakravarty told the.
jury that he personally did not have a
part in "putting on foot a military en?
terprise," as charged by John W. Pres?
ton, United States Attorney.
The effect on the defendants differed
in the different groups. The "Mave?
rick Indians" scowled; the "Gadar
group" muttered and threw out dark
looks; the German defendants, headed
j by Franz Bopp, f<
General in San
I with anger; the
>rmor German Consul
deeply concerned, but exhibited no
trace of uneasiness.
Dr. Chakravarty's "relations with
Germany" as contained in his confes?
sion made to the United States Secret
Service March 1, 1917, briefly follow:
Conferred with Alfred Zimmermann,
former German Minister of War, in
Berlin in December, 1915.
Was given $1.000 and told to return
to New York City in the interest of
the Indian revolutionists. *
Reported to Wolf von Igel, head of
the Military Information Bureau main?
tained in New York City by Germany.
Acknowledged that he obtained
$60,000 from von Igel, $40,000 of which
he "held out."
Asserted that Heramba Lai Gupta re?
ceived $21,000 from Captain Franz von
Papen, former military attach? of the
German Embassy in Washington, D. C.
Asserted that Franz Bopp, former
German Consul General; E. H. von
i Schack, former German vice-consul;
Lieutenant Wilhelm von Brincken, for?
mer military attach?, all of San Fran?
cisco, and Ram Chandra, editor of the
"Hindustan Gadar" in San Francisco,
were arranging for the shipment of
arms and ammunition purchased in New
York City by Hans Tauscber, husband
of Mme. Johanna Gadski, grand opera
It goes without saying that Dr. Chak
ravarty's revelations were especially
unpleasant to the German defendants,
who found themselves facing, in conse?
quence, not merely imprisonment, but
the ridicule of officials at home and
abroad for having parted with the
Kaiser's money so freely and so fool?
Former Consul General Bopp and Dr.
i Chakravarty staged a verbal clash after
"You say you were inspired by patri
| otism?" Bopp asked.
! "Yes," Dr. Chakravartv replied.
"Patriotism and $60,000," commented
i Bopp as he turned away, red of face.
Of the thirty-two defendants who
? actually stood trial, two having been
I killed outright in the courtroom, the
! jury acquitted one?John F. Craig, a
j shipbuilder, of Long Beach, Cal.
i Twenty-nine were found guilty and
will be sentenced next Tuesday.
The German defendants were not en
j titled to bail, Judge W. C. Van Fleet
' ruled, and the following were ordered
? interned pending sentence, which will
?be passed next Tuesday:
Franz Bopp, former German Consul
! General at San Francisco; E. H. von
| S?hack, vice-consul; Charles Tatten
| dorff, bodyguard to Wilhelm von
s Brincken, military attach? of the Ger?
man consulate; Walter Sauerback, nav
; ipating officer of the German gunboat
1 Geier; Captain Edwin Deinat, com
Turk and Hun Turn Armenian People Into Procession to a Graveyard
ARMENIANS FED TO VULTURES LEST GERMAN PLANS BE HINDERED
. ^^ , , ^ ^^^
The plight of the mothers is the saddest of all?for such victims of Turkish depravity death seems a blessed release.
By Agnes V. Williams
THE death knell sounds again for
the Armenians. They clutter the
way of the War Lord en route
from Hamburg to the Himalayas.
About 350,000 Armenians who es?
caped the cutlass of the Turk in the
slaughter of 1915 have found refuge
i in the Russian Caucasus. Most of
I these unhappy people are women and
' children; again shall they be fed to
? the vultures of Turkey lest the Ger
: man Empire be hindered in spreading
i its blot on the map of the world.
We know only too well of the Tar
| tar's former efforts to dispose of the
j Armenian question for her ally.
The whole civilized world is outraged
at the revolting story of the crimes
perpetrated against the Armenian peo?
ple, the grossness of which has never
been equalled in the history of the
i world. These reports of the deporta
' tion are so horrible that they chal
; lenge belief, but upon investigation I
? find that far from being exaggerated
they have been modified in publica?
tion, some of the facts being too re?
pulsive to put into print.
After talking with many physicians
and missionaries recently returned
from the stricken districts of Turkey.
and al.so with a few of the refugees
themselves, I am appalled by the awful
plight of the mothers of Armenia, for
i theirs is the saddest story of all, in
; these dark days when brotherly love
| seems to have been forgotten and na
! tions rise against nations.
The men of Armenia were separatjd
| from their families, tortured and mas
: sacred wholesale- a horrible end, in
t deed. But for the women left unpro?
tected, helpless in the grasp of Turkish
: birds of prey, there was no end until
, they had been subjected to every un?
speakable humiliation and suffering.
The mental anguish v/hich many of
them endured for their children was so
great as to entirely unhingo their rea
| ?on; for such unhappy victims of
| Turkish depravity death was indeed a
I blessed release. It is of these wretched
; mothers I would tell you in particular
j and of the little ones held always close
! to their valiant hearts.
The process of extermination was
carried on in the most systematic man?
ner. A house-to-houne nearch wan
made in all the Armenian villages at
practically the same time, and the in?
habitant? routed so suddenly n? to
render any attempt at defence or es
; cape imposwibie, even were they not
i hopelessly outnumbered. ?Short work
was made of the men; some were
thrown into prison; others, numbcrlnj*
j 2,000, were forced to dig a long trench;
they were then hacked to death with
' knives and hatchets in the very grave
that they had dug for themselves; the
rest were shot or bayonetted.
The women and children were forced
j to witness the massacre of their loved
i ones, and many of the latter have lost
| their reason from the shock of such
j 1 -rrors.
After helping themselves to all they
i wished, the soldiers usually set fire
to the homes they raided, never allow
the refugees to take with them even
the barest necessities.
Then began the march of terror.
Unprotected women and children were
herded into carts like, so many cattle
; on the Way to slaughter yards, and
such was their destination. Those who
could not be packed into the wagons
: were driven aleng on foot. It mattered
not if they were enfeebled by age or
: illness. Women with bubies only a cou?
ple of days old, und some in the last
days of pregnancy were herded along;
, if they fell they were driven on with
kicks and blow-:. When finally they
could rise no more, they were left to
die on the roadside. Some were even
In this way wretched procession"
travelled for months toward their in?
tended graveyard the barren desert
of Der-el-Zor. Hero they were to be
abandoned to a lingering death fron
starvation, and the Armenian qucstior
thus disposed of forever. Few actually
survived long enough to meet their in?
tended fate, owing to the lust and cru?
elty of the guarda in charge of the
march, most of whom were the lowest
criminals released from jail to help
with the work of deportation. Though
the ranks were constantly swelled by
new victims picked up In each town
and village they passed through, 'they
! were diminished still faster by th_
atrocities perpetrated on the way.
Many of the old women who were
unable to keep up were packed into
a shack, saturated with kerosene and
burned to death.
The young girls were regularly
placed on exhibition before "public
buildings, that the Moslems might take
their choice; some were sold, others
simply carried off to the harems. To
save their girls from this fate, heroic
mothers cut off their daughters' hair
and eyebrows and mutilated their
faces, endeavoring to make them as
hideous as possible. Nevertheless, few
young women escaped a fate far worse
than death; even children ten yean
of age died from the shameful treat?
ment they received. Many girl.; cast
themselves down from the cliffs 01
into tho river to save their honor, bu
ovon this method of escape was no
Diseaso was rampant; victims o
plague and typhus dropped out of thi
lines until the route was lined witl
corpses, and the guards fearing for
their own health decided that they
must be buried.
One of the refugees, who later ef?
fected her escapp, tells how she saw
the guards dragging a woman toward
a grave; when she protested that the
woman was not .dead, yet they re?
plied that they could not wait all day
for her to expire, and she was buried
alive, her dead baby clasped in her
One of the saddest stories of that
frightful pilgrimage is that of Navort
Takvorian, a native of Kheiban. In
company with about 8,000 other wom?
en, accumulated from different vil?
lages, she started on the journey un?
der convoy of one hundred guards,
who treated them as they pleased.
Those of her company who were too
old to keep up were clubbed to death.
Mothers went mad and abandoned
their babies by the wayside.
As they passed through the towns
Kurds not only stolo their clothing
but carried off their girls.
The baby of one of these unfortunatt
young women was brained on a rock
Slowly the caravan moved on, pro
visions gave out, und they lived or
the wheat they could gather from th?
A few of 'the girls who were fa
miliar with the. mountains ran away
some of them made their way to
Sassoun, others were drowned in the
Mourad River. Navort had no family
to go back to; all those she loved,
excepting her two-year-old son, whom
she still bore in her arms, had been
killed before her eyes.
When they reached the Khozmo
Pass only half the original number
remained. The route was now
changed; they began to move westward
toward the Euphrates.
Arriving at the boundary of Jabagh
iihour, they were conducted through a
narrow valley. Here the guards gave
them permission to rest, and they at
once moved toward the river for water.
Suddenly they found themselves sur?
rounded by Kurds, who drove them
into the river at the point of their
guns. In the terrible panic that fol?
lowed Navort swung her little boy
on to her back and, plunging in, pro?
ceeded to swim across the river. Be?
ing a good swimmer, after a long and
desperate struggle she at last reached
the opposite shore and hid with her
child in some shrubbery. When dark?
ness fell she picked some wheat ir
a neighboring fiehl for herself ant
the poor baby, now quite ill fron
hunger and fear. She then followec
the Euphrates in a northerly direc
tion and finally reached the plain o;
Moush. Having heard that there wer?
many Armenians in the mountains o
Sourp Garabed, Navort decided to seek
refuge with them.
At last one night she arrived at an
Armenian camp, fainting from hunger
and exhaustion, the only survivor of
her group, and it was here that she
told her story. In a few hours the
little boy died from malnutrition and
exposure. Five days later, after all
her brave struggle, Navort was captured
and killed by a party of searching
Another refugee has told of similar
experiences to those of Navort Tak
vorian, but in addition to all the other
tortures the women of her band were
stripped of every vestige of clothing
and forced to travel in this condition
under the scorching sun. In each
village they passed through they were
mocked and jeered at by the rabble.
Among these unfortunates was a very
young girl, who confided to a com?
panion that she would never go back
to town in her present condition. That
night she leaped from a high cliff and
ended her troubled life.
A teacher and missionary told me
that wherever they went they found
starvation and disease, and as a pre?
caution against plague and typhus they
always used quantities of camphor ir
Her trip through Asia Minor was ?
nightmare never to be forgotten. P
seemed that some poor victim of the
plague was carried out from almos'
every house she passed, and to he:
eating seemed impossible, when sh<
saw the crowd of starving faces tha
would gather at the windows. Thi
little food she could obtain was wholl.
inadequate to relieve such numbers.
Each day this woman visited th
refugee camps, and finally took int<
her own family a little Armenian gir
about eight years of age.
Sara was a pathetic little figure, gro
tesquely clad in clothes much to
large for her frame, her head fror
dire necessity shaven and bound u
in a handkerchief. Her face was ah
solutely expressionless, and her ac
tions entirely automatic even when eat
ing. To all the other children's ef
forts to draw her into pluy there wa
no response. Always silent and indu
ferent, she watched the games wit
unseeing eyes, and those about her be
tr?n to fear for her mentality. How
ever, much to the surprise of the chi
dren, after several weeks one of thci
suddenly noticed a change in Sara, an
running to her mother in great e>
citemetit, said: "Sara has smiled
From that day Sarn made rapid prof
ress, and proved to be not only quit
normal, but unusually intelligent. Sli
was not only perfectly familiar wit
the Armenian and Turkish language
but very soon learned English als
This strange mental condition had bee
caused by shock from the appallii.
scenes which she had witnessed, tc
horrible for the childish mind to ei
mander of the steamer Holsatia Ger?
man merchantman interned at Hono?
lulu; Captain Heinrich Elba, com"
mander o? the steamer Ahlers. German
merchantman interned at Hilo and
Henry Kauffman, chancellor of the Ger?
The bail of each Hindu defendant
was fixed at $25,000. am
The remaining defendants and then
bail were announced a? follow.?-;
J. Clyde Hysar, San Diego. Cal. City
Attorney of Coronado. Cal., and former
paymaster of the United States i?_i
militia, $15,000. "'
Jo.eph L. Bley. member of a loci!
brokerage firm, $15,000.
Bernard Manning. San Diego realty
man and politician, $25,000.
Robert Capcllo, local agent of tiY?
North German Lloyd Steamship Con?'
pany, $25,000. y ^on'*
Harry J^ Hart, wealthy San Francisco
shipping broker, $lo,000.
Morris Stock von Goltzheim, local
real estate and insurance man, $25 000
Louis J. Hengsstler, San Francisco
admiralty lawyer, $15,000.
So ends the great Hindu plot against
Germany's enemies, born in the Wil
helmstrasse, nurtured in the United
States, and with ramifications involv?
ing the Straits Settlements, the Philip.
pines and Shanghai and other Chinese
cities. In all probability its cost was
greatly in excess of the $20,000,000
originally demanded. Its immediate
effect was the consolidation of pro
Ally sentiment throughout the vast
Indian Empire, which has contributed,
according to official British statements!
1,000,000 men to the armies fighting
against the Hun and a vast amount of
It implicated such contrasting liter?
ary lights as Emma Goldman and the
inseparable Alexander Be^kman and
Sir Rabindranath Tagore.
It gave the German Overseas News
Agency ("wireless by way of Sayville,
L. I.") material for a number of thrill?
ing and highly imaginative stories of
how high officers of the British gov?
ernment in India were being massacred
by infuriated natives, how native
troops were mutinying and whole
provinces were in revolt.
It really did incite seven distinct
attacks from tribesmen on the north?
ern border of India, all of which were
repelled with such heavy losses that
India has been at peace for the last
It confirmed the generally prevailing
impression that Captain Hans Tauschet
should have been sent to prison instead
of being allowed to return to Ger?
Germany Built on
Why did it fail ?
Because Germany assumed that 60,
000,000 Moslems in India and the entire
population of Afghanistan would fly
to arms on behalf of the Sultan of
Turkey, who claimed to be the Caliph,
and were stupid enough not to see that
the Moslem world is divided into sects
no less bitter against each other than
Christians themselves, and that Far
Eastern Islam will no more acknowl?
edge the spiritual supremacy of the
Turk than an Orangeman will that of
Because Germany made it plain from
the very moment she invaded Belgium
that subject peoples might easily pre?
fer to be ruled by the devil rather than
the Kaiser and that the British were
actually fighting for India.
It failed so utterly that as far back
as April, 1916, Austen Chamberlain,
then Secretary of State for India, wa?
moved to give out a statement praising
in glowing terms the devotion and loy?
alty of the Indians, princes and people
alike, which ended with these words:
"India, instead of being a cause of
anxiety, has been a substantial help to
the empire in time of need. She wa?
able to send troops to aid in the great
Battle of Ypres in those critical dayi
?when the Germans were str'**?_? to
reach Calais. She has also sent troops
to Egypt, Gallipoli, East Africa, Meso?
potamia, Persia and Chins. No less
than twenty-one regiments of Indian
cavalry and eighty-six battalions of In?
dian infantry, in addition to the troops
placed at the disposal of the govern?
ment by the rulers of the Indian natlMp
states, have been fighting the battles?
the empire far beyond the Indian -Or?
"These have been dispatched s?m
pletely equipped, and, in addition,
draft? more than filling up the vacan?
cies caused bv casualties have been
regularly forwarded. And the people ?I
India, Sepovs and Maharajas, village?
and highly educated public men, ha?
given their sunport because they aw
deeply convince that in this war ?e
British Empire Q fighting in a *4stCM
righteous cause. The Indian people
have a high sense of right and wro*i<*.
Thev saw that in this war the Allies
were in. the right, and they regarded
the cause of the Allies as the cause ol
! India." . ,_
The foundations of the Hindu P10j
i were laid long before the beginning o.
? the World War. There had been the
same manifestations of unrest wni?
preceded the insurrection in Ireland
There were demands for an Indian 'Df?
gress with enlarged powers for hoffl
rule; there were literary groupai ap?
parently concerned with revivals of li?
ters in the native tongues. And ?"
old Prussian trick of "exchange P"j
fessors" was being employed to err?
and solidify propaganda in Amcrit*
To Har Daval must be ascribed ?*
doubtful honor of having been ?*
first leader of the Hindu conspirw
in this country. At one time proies5"'
lof Hindu philosophv i:i L-elano WW
' ford University, Har Dayal was ?J
1 rested in Sacramento in March. I?*
charged with b?in<r an umiesii*?''*
alien and therefore subject to depon?'
Of course, the plot continued, w
that was the period of painful me???
to all Americans those days. wnenT
were urged to be neutra! in thoug*
?s well as deed. But the conspi?-?w\
talked too much, published too Ml
(about their plans. There were to m
been risings in Lahore. Umball?i P?l
rut and other cantonments of n?w ,
troops in India. A general "u,&jf_
was to take place in the Punjab ana
the northwest frontier provinsejl
?February 21, 1915. Sepoys at H"**
Ikong and Singapore were to be *
I ruptod bv German money an<1_5S
| to mutiny. But a full week bei??'
I February 21 certain of the Germ?*
i Hindus fell into snares laid for tn*
bv that admirable secret service mm
Kipling has so well described. "??
confessed, and eighty-one arrest??
lowed. Indue time six men were in*
found guiltv and executed; one
sontenced to transportation f.r., V,
and divers others were sent to ja"
longer or shorter terms.