EDITORIAL - SPECIAL ARTICLES
3tew jtotk STritotra
EDITORIAL - SPECIAL ARTICLES
PART HI EIGHT PAGES
SUNDAY, JUNE ?), 1918
PART III EIGHT PAGES
A HEARST ATTACK ON MEXICO
This cartoon, "Watchful Waiting," was published in Hearst's "Ameri?
can" on January 13, 1916, one of many while we were not at war with
By Kenneth Macgowan
F JOHANN VON BERNSTORFF, posing as a convert to
Americanism, had control of eleven American newspapers,
and was steering the careful course necessary to avoid
suppression by even our complacent government while doing his
utmost to prevent America's effective participation in the war
and to prepare her to grant lenient terms when the peace con?
ference met, what would be his attitude toward Germany and
her leaders ?
Obviously, he would attempt to pr?vent American
hatred and loathing from crystallizing upon that nation
and those leaders.
Obviously, therefore, he would picture the war as one
against abstract evils rather than against personal
Obviously, he would try to find other objects toward
which to direct attention, sentiment and activity.
Obviously, too, his direct attacks upon them would
be as few and as innocuous as he deemed safe.
But, equally obviously, he could not long delude either
the public or the government if he NEVER made such
attacks. They woidd be a necessary part of his camouflage.
It has been shown that William Randolph Hearst, since
we entered the war, has attacked Britain and Japan directly
and the Allies in general, and that he has opposed American
participation in the war at the place where the war is being
Now let us see what Hearst has done to fight Germany.
The answer is : Editorially, almost nothing.
Just Six Attacks on Germany
It is impossible to be certain in tabulating the editorials and editorial
phrases in "The American" during our first year of war that none has
UNCLE SAM'S FOURTH OF JULY DREAM
May Peace and Liberty Come Soon to All the World.
This cartoon is notable as the only on? published in Hearst's "Ameri
f*?" la the first seven and a half months of war in whioh the words "Ger
*???*" or "Austria" appear.
Months Pass After Declaration of War Before Enemies Are
Even Named in Cartoon? Attacks on Spain and Mexico
_Show His Methods When in Earnest
been overlooked which might possibly be interpreted as an attack on
? Germany. The statement that only six specimens occurred between
?April 6, 1017, and April C, 1918, is, therefore, open to challenge. Yet
i r very careful inspection of "The American" resulted in that record. And
! certainly that is a fair moral estimate of the work which Hearst's
! papers have done against the enemy. Here are the six attacks:
Oct. 17?"The German autocratic militaristic government with
its lust for power and greed of conquest is a continual menace to
the peace of the world, and must, for the protection of society, he
democratized either from within or without."
Oct. 29?"There is a very dangerous likelihood that the German
General Staff may succeed in accomplishing some part of its gigantic
purposes of conquest."
Nov. 15?"Surely there [before Venice] the mailed hand will
pause to redeem in one human touch the ruthless record which has
shocked history and antagonized the future."
March 21, 1918?". . . the hideous nightmare of 'frightfulness,'
which Germany has exhumed from thu dark ages of barbarism, mag?
nified its cruelty, multiplied its horrors, and brutally flung into the
methods of civilized warfare."
March 29?". . . its pretence that it wanted neither in?
demnities nor annexations was as false as the belated excuses which
it made for the invasion of Belgium."
April 5?". . . despotic oncroachments of the Teutonic
? "The American" attacked the Kaiser editorially on August 5
1917, and on March 17, 1918, reflecting largely on his paternal an
cestors and his theological future.
Against these there are not onlv far more vicious attacks on Enerlanc
! than made up for by the propaganda quoted immediately above?you
I have still the Hearst cartoons to reckon with. If* you hope to find in
them real hostility toward Germany you will be disappointed. The car?
toons of Winsor McCay on the back page of "The American" are the best
[ demonstration of the stuffed club which Hearst swings at Germany.
Hearst is very1 v/ise as to the use and power and limitations of the
cartoon. He knows that a picture is a simple statement of emotion
I which leaps direct to the brain and is comprehended in a few seconds.
<It has therefore dangers as well as advantages. It is bald and direct;
i it cannot handle, subtleties. Hearst has used it sparingly in the complex
; and dangerous work of obstruction which "Th$ American's" editorials
? have done.
The simplicity and directness of the picture have forced "The
American" to be more patriotic in its cartoons than in its editorials.
| The stark power of the picture has made the cartoons of "The American"
1 deliberately wary in their attitude toward the enemy.
A very large proportion of McCay's cartoons have dealt with
| Hearst's three pet "respectable" campaigns of camouflage?government
! ownership, woman suffrage and whiskey. Universal military training
I comes next. After that comes a group of cartoons dealing with Hearst's
; camouflaged attacks on the war?cartoons on "America First," "Alien
? Slackers" and the iniquities of England. Liberty bonds and War Sav
? ings Stamps have got considerable attention at the proper times, but al?
ways in a form innocuous to Germany and to German readers. German
revolution has been pictured now and then. And occasionally Messrs.
' McGay and Hearst have indulged in a straight war cartoon.
America's Allies Attacked Directly
Several of "The American's" cartoons have been such direct assaults
on the Allies as the picture printed on July 2, 1917, of the honey bee
with wings of Great Britain, France, Russia and Italy, hovering above
HEARST'S IDEA ON AMERICAN RIGHTS IN MEXICO AND EUROPE
AT LAST OUR FLAG HAS BEEN SALUTED
In Hearst's "American" on March 18, 1918, the reading matter under this cartoon, saysx
"SEE WHAT OCCURS WHILE YOUR GOVERNMENT QUIBBLES AND SPLITS HAIRS OVER THE TRIVIAL QUES?
TION OF A FOOL'S RIGHT TO RISK HIS FOOL'S LIFE ON HOSTILE SHIPS."
and Japan, and the whole campaign of obstruction to the war, but also
such direct praise of the enemy as:
Oct. 17, 1917?"The German government inaugurated many of
the popular benefits which our government and other democratic
and semi-democratic governments have since adopted."
March 29, 1918?". . . the German people are among the
most intelligent in the world. Moreover, the Germans are
a well informed people. They know that when the United
States entered the war against them they were opposed for the first
j time by a nation of greater population, greater wealth, greater in?
dividual initiative and equal culture."
April 10?". the most economical and efficient nation on
the face of the earth."
April 26?"The German people are the best educated people
Stock Phrases of German Propaganda.
And to these we must add stock phrase after stock phrase of com?
mon German propaganda. If you talk of "world domination," "The
American" promptly repeats the phrase with the word "England's" pre?
fixed. If you say "military necessity," "The American" interjects: "We
are making a terrible mistake in this sentimental objection to submarine
warfare." (April 13, 1917.) From April 6, 1917, on the editorials of
"The American" are littered with phrases only understandable in the
columns of a German language paper prior to that date. Here are a few :
July 11, 1917?". . a war entered upon with such high
sounding declarations of honorable and unselfish purposes."
July SO?". . . the dragooning of the Greek regular forces,
the .deposition of the Greek King and the spoliation of the grain
fields of Thessaly." *
July 84?"Plural voting in the Kingdom of Prussia is indeed a
political evil which should be abolished- It should also be abolished
in England, where it is well established and has been longer prac?
tised than in Germany."
Sept. k?"? we think, not merely as a matter of fairness,
but as a matter of absolute assurance to the whole world, the gov?
ernments of Great Britain, France, Russia and Italy, and of the
United Staters, if required, should fortify their offers with some
expression of the sentiment of their peoples and with popular guar?
antees that these governments will keep faith. The plain
truth is that the German government is by no means the only gov?
ernment in Europe which has broken treaties and violated ter?
When you have read those handful of attacks upon Germany?more
the money bags in the heart of an American Beauty rose, which is care?
fully marked with the Stars and Stripes; and "The Reckoning," of June
29, in which Uncle Sam, after a night in the "Hotel Europe," is paying
| i he whole bill of the war and tipping the English butler, the French chef,
! the Russian porter, the Italian maid and the Serbian bellboy as well.
Such direct attacks on the Allies have been varied by cartoons in
which the rulers of all the nations at war have been held up to derision.
' In one the rising tide of "demand for peace without annexations or in
j demnities" is overwhelming them. Another, called "Clean-up Week?
i After the War," shows the broom of "democracy" brushing off the globe
i two czars, three emperors, three kings, two plutocrats, one bureaucrat
? and two autocrats.
But the most remarkable thing about McCay and his art is the
I manner in which he has wielded the stuffed club om Germany. And the
| essence of his attitude?and Hearst's attitude?toward America's enemy
I is to be found in the following significant fact:
In the first seven and a half months of our war the words
"Germany" and "Austria" appear in only one cartoon. And in
! that cartoon, printed on Independence Day, the military figures
i of Germany arid Austria are shown in fond embrace with Eng?
land, France, Russia, Serbia and the rest of the Allies. The title
! is "Uncle Sam's Fourth of July Dream?May Peace and Liberty
I Come Soon to All the World !" and Uncle Sam, as he toasts the
assembled nations, says: "The happiest moment of my life!"
America declared war on Germany on April t>, 1917. From that
date till December 13 only one other cartoon on the editorial page of
i "The American" used the words Germany or Austria or any combination
i of letters?such as H-u-n, T-e-u-t-o-n or K-a-i-s-e-r?commonly understood
to apply exactly to America's enemies. On November 21, 1917, the
i words "Germany" and "Austria" reappeared in a cartoon on "Unity of
' Command." It must*be said for McCay that in'such a cartoon it was
i practically impossible to avoid their use. And as this cartoon appeared
j during a period of pictorial enthusiasm over government ownership,
j woman suffrage and universal military service, it may justly be ques?
tioned whether this lapse did any appreciable harm to the German
From November 21 to Deccmher 13 came another breathing spell.
Then Hearst and McCay discovered the possibilities of the Kaiser as a
bubject for attack. Hence, "Blindfolded"?a drawing showing the Kaiser
: blindfolded with "World Domination" leading "The German People,"
i blindfolded with "Contentment."
Within less than a week the Kaiser flowed from McCay's pen again.
This time the Kaiser dragged a wounded, bedraggled figure of "The Ger?
man People" before the judgment seat of the world, saying, "I did not
A HEARST ATTACK ON GERMANY
This cartoon, entitled "Our Three Greatest Enemies," appeared in
Hearst's "American" on March 8, 1918-one of FIVE cartoon attacks
during our first year of* war.
know when I declared war that I should have to fight so many countries."
To which "the World" made answer: "A man who does not know what
he is doing must not rule a great people." All this was called "Judg?
On March 8, 1918, occurred another direct frontal attack. "Our
Three Greatest *Enemies" were depicted as "Germany," "Austria" and
In other words, during our first year of war, when "The American's"
editorials contained only six direct and open attacks on Germany, its
cartoons pictured the enemy directly and labelled it fearlessly only five
times. This out of a possible 365.
Outside these lapses, our first year of war took its normal Hearstian
course, so far as McCay was concerned. Through this cartoonist Hearst
fought the war not against Germany but against "Devastation," not
against the Kaiser but against "Militarism," not against Hindenburg
but against "Pestilence."
The cartoons for the Liberty loans are typical. The cause was a
cause that Hearst had elected to accept, just as he had elected to accept
the war. There was nothing else for it. But he campaigned pictorially
for the Liberty loans in his characteristic way. His cartoons, like the
money from the bonds, had to fight something or other. But he made
the best of the fact that in the case of his cartoons he couUl at least pick
the things they should fight. And those things were never Germany or
its rulers or its armies.
To consider in particular the second loan, which strikes a happy
medium in many ways, "The American" began on October 4, 1917, with
"To Shield the World." The cartoon showed a huge American shield
labelled "Liberty Bonds," which appeared to be defending fields and
rivers from the attack of either Father Time or sunlight breaking
On October 9 "New York's Best Defence" was a wall of Liberty
bonds over which you caught a glimpse of the sea, with "The Enemy,"
a flock of battleships, ornamenting the horizon. Somehow, they didn't
seem very German. The periscope was not a feature of their architecture.
The next day "The Eclipse of His Place in the Sun" showed a figure
called "Autocracy" standing on a hill of graves, with a large coin
| marked "Liberty Loan" keeping the light of the sun of "Dream of
? World Dominion" from shining on him.
On October 13 Hearst gave you your choice between buying a Lib
Continued on Page Seven, This Section
A VITAL DEFENSE
i-*?** ?T. tmmmm?i ?w. ?**~
Une ot many examples of Hearst "patriotic" cartoons in which ho aub
i stituted abstract evils for America's personal and living enemies?41 will be
? seen that there is no mention of Germany.
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