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New-York tribune. (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, June 23, 1918, Image 28

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Money Lure of Other Professions Depleting
?* Ranks While Artisans' Wages Are Higher
in Most Industrial Centres
By Katherine Wright
?""MIOM ?H parts of the country
H comes the cry of shortage in the
teaching forces of the United
States. "The teacher shortage is con?
stantly increasing, and embarrassingly
large in some sections," declares Dr.
P. P. Claxton, United States Commis?
sioner of Education.
In Iowa there are 160 schools without
teachers. In Louisiana the State Super?
intendent reports the situation "a real
crisis." The public schools of Ohio are
facing a crisis unless relief legislation
is speedily enacted.
Everywhere the failure of young men
and women to register in training
schools is reported. From December,
1917, to February, 1918, the State Nor?
mal Coliege of Georgia was unable to
fill seventy-tire vacancies. The problem
in New York is merely part of a nation?
wide problem, but unless protective
measures are adopted the public schools
of our state will be supplied with those
who arc inefficient and unqualified to
give a high grade of instruction. At?
tendance at New York City's three
training schools within the last few
years shows a reduction of approxi-.
mately 50 per cent.
Why Teaching Is
Under a Cloud
Meanwhile, many are turning from
tnaching to other professions. "Any?
thing but teaching" is the slogan among
the ablest high school and college men
and women. The causes for the swift
decline in willingness to adopt teach?
ing as a profession are not hard to find.
It is said the idealism that once illumi?
nated the work of teaching has become
attenuated. The training schools are
devoid of the joy of living. The teach?
ing of psychology is separated from the
practice. There is a tendency to make
a teacher "a mere cog in a soulless
educational factory, rather than a man
among men."
Non-helpful supervision is given as
another potent factor in causing both
men and women to leave the force. In
some cases district supervisors are said
ta .attach unwarranted importance to
questions of mere form; repression is
forced upon the teacher; expression
and self-development are discouraged.
There has been a change in the social
status of the teacher. The general at?
titude is one of toleration, rather than
regard. Only the other day one of the
oldest schools in this city celebrated its
100th anniversary, but no one of civic
or social prominence could be induced
to recognize the event.
"The stigma of effeminacy clings to
teaching," said William McAndrew, As?
sociate City Superintendent of Schools,
f peaking of the shortage of men teach?
er*. "If a young woman asked me to
describe a stranger and I said, 'He is
a typical school teacher,' is it likely
that she would express an Immediate
wish to meet him, to spend an after?
noon or dance with him?
"Of the papers tftat have criticisec
or praised President Wilson many said
'That's what comes of having a schoo
teacher for a President.' This is at
illustration in a nutshell of the aver
age attitude toward teachers."
The Money Lure of
Other Professions
The rule against married women a
teachers, which has been temporaril
barred in some places, permanently i
others, has bIbo acted as a means o
reducing the teaohing forces of thi
country. But beneath all these cause
for shortage is that of Inadequate tt
muneration, which results in the com
petitive lure of other professions.
Men and women are leaving the fore
because they can find more lucrativ
positions in other occupations. Th
government is urging young men an
women to go to Washington as stenog
raphere at hundreds of dollars abov
the maximum for able teachers, whil
on government "cost plus 10 per con
contracts" seventeen-year-old boy
may earn more than an experience
teacher's maximum salary.
The teacher's attention is constantl
called by rapidly changing social an
economic conditions to the seriou
problem of making his relatively sti
tipnary salary equal his steadily ir
creasing expenses. Those who see
necessity in an immediate financii
adjustment of the scale of salarie
point to the fact that in nine cast
out of ten the money will not "g
rqupd"--the salary is insufficient.
Teachers say they are not prcsentin
an ill considered or hastily indorse
matter. They ?imply claim that, ti
as they will, save as they will, den
themselves ap they will, their renn
neration is not adequate to the presei
cost of living.
Irving Fisher, of Yale Universit
* tetes that the price level in the Unit?
States has increased 40 per cent in tl
last three years.
The Teacher's Pay
And the Artisan's
"i-i teacher- c< New Haven compla
that the men who build their schoc
houses ?re better paid than the teac
?r?. According to the salary schedu
for adoption in New Haven on Janua:
1, 1919, the man who builds with bri<
gets $1,390 s year, the carpenter ear
$2,340 a year, the shop artisan $1,860
year, while the teacher who builds wi
brain earns only $1,000 a year, the ve
highest wage possible for s gra
Thus the plumbers, bricklayers, pis
terers, moulders, carpenters and m
chutist* exceed the teacher in pay fro
20 to 60 per cent. In order that t
best results may be obtained a teachei
work requires fine judgment, soui
-.ens?, a judicial mind, a delicately bi
aneed sense of discrimination, ment
freedom, an unruffled temper, perf?
poise, self-command and the ability
direct other?. Yet with constant ai
harassing finaricial cares to consider,
with the continual necessity of practis?
ing trivial economies that sap the phys?
ical power in hours which should be de?
voted to recreation, it is Impossible for
a teacher to bring to his work the best
that he is capable of giving to it under
these conditions.
But it is not only in New Haven that
the teachers' salaries compare unfavor?
ably with the wages received for other
types of labor. "Inexperienced, ignorant
and incompetent girls from Southern
cotton fields or Balkan mountains can
earn and save more as maids, wait?
resses or factory workers than can ex?
pensively trained, experienced and
highly competent grade teachers in our
schools," says William H. Allen, the
well informed director of the Institute
of Public Service.
A Comparison
From Los Angeles
In Los Angeles a building inspector's
salnry is $3,000, a deputy city attorney's
$2,100 to $2,700, a gas meter inspector's
$2,100, a Health Department chemist's
$1,920, an oil inspector's $2,100, a super?
intendent of parks' $2,700. With few
exceptions, it is said, do these places
require a training equal to that of the
high school teacher in time or in ex?
pense; nor do they require the same
amount of continued preparation.
Eloquent human documents such as
these are on file giving practical rea?
sons why men and women are discour?
aged with school teaching:
"I have been a schoolmaster since
1882, in the meantime graduating
from college, taking graduate work
at Goettingen, at Leipsic, and at the
University of Chicago. I have been
an employe and an employer, but al?
ways a subordinate.
"I have taught country school at
$35 a month, college academic work,
high school a3 teacher and principal
in? three states, superintendent of
schools since 1914. My present sal?
ary is $3,000.
"As a result of long experience, I
can give you some reasons why peo?
ple won't teach school.
"In the first place, it is a profes?
sion requiring long, careful and ex?
cellent preparation. We' embark in
it for life. Wc are enthusiasts, but
sooner or later we lose our illusions
and seek other work. To us it is a
profession, but to the people it is a
job, and anybody can teach school.
"Wc have absolutely no tenure of
office. We are wandering, intel?
lectual hoboes, dismissed at the ill
will or insinuation of any black?
smith, carpenter or shoemaker.
"The final word in all the prob?
lems of education is settled not by
men of education, but by laymen, in
most case without education, a multi?
tude of whom have never completed
the seventh grade. Yet these men
under our system pronounce solemn
judgment and their word is law up?
on the most important problem oi
human life, the education of the
rising generation.
"We find ourselves worn out in
body and in mind, with nothing be?
fore us except pennilessness and old
age. Only in large cities is there any
alleviation of this condition.
"Why should people of educatior
and culture engage in such a profes?
sion? More and more inefficient
incompetent and helpless person;
will take up teaching, especially ir
the present and future.
"Tackle this and do not pitch int<
the teachers. Except in the smal
communities, we are social inferiors
We have to eat cheap food, wea
cheap clothes, and our wives havi
to work like slaves that we ma;
make ends meet, and, if possible, sav
a few thousand dollars to buy us ?
bit of land that we may not starve
At fifty years of age we are goiii;
to be summarily dismissed. I knoi
from thirty-livo years of experienc
what I am talking about.
"Some of these days school sha'
sec me no more. I shall proceed t
that poverty-stricken vegetating unt
death which awaits me."
j What They Do With
Their Salaries
Perhaps this particular teacher 1
special reasons for bitterness and c
heartenment after a life of high act
ity and earnestness of purpose un
But there are others without m
ber who will testify to the impossil
ity of keeping body and soul togct
without a revision of the salary sch
In Kansas City during 1917
teachers, at a salary of $1,000, sp
$16,537 on war and local charities i
Liberty Bonds. Of these 110 sp
$5,553 on recreation during 365 di
360 teachers on vai?ous salaries sp
$42,182 on war and charities
$18,995 on recreation.
More experienced teachers on
aries of $1,000 last year, after pay
board and clothing bills, doctor's i
and necessary car fares, reported 1
they had left for recreation, opera, )
atre, social clubs, parties and t
sums like there:
Total ?pent last year, 52 weeks, 365 di
year? For For d<
Uiicht. recreation, and del
10. $5 $3
20. _5 1
12. 10 A
20. 20 <
10. 3 ?
12. 20 ?
15. 10 '
18. S t
13. 25 ?
9. 5
15. 5 ;
20. *50 ;
17. 30 ?2(
Those on salaries of $500 or
during their first year of teac
Recreation, den
$?_::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: $
20. 1
Out of twenty-seven teachers re
ing for salaries of $500, save)
spent more than $500 even when 1
?t home.
It is doubtful if the average pi
realises what a task faces the tei
in the public schools. An inexh
ibte su:?>Lv of self-control end indi
gable patience are indispensable req- ?
uisites in teaching. Added to the
nervous tension of imparting, there is
the necessity of controlling refractory
pupils whose training at home results
in far from perfect behavior in class
and of stimulating the ambition of
lazy or stupid children. The teacher
must not only be learned in the sub?
jects that he teaches, he must be quick
at reading human nature?he must be a
practical psychologist.
Women and Men
As Teachers
Many earnest men and women fol?
low strict, self-imposed schedules of
living. Those who have their work at
heart, the born scholars, spend many
of their intervening hours in prepara?
tion for the work of the ensuing day.
"Seven or twenty dollars or even
540 spread out over a year will not
recreate a woman, whether just en?
tering the schools or in her twentieth
year of teaching, to the extent that
she can bring fresh life and vim and
human interest and companionship
into her work with children," says
Helen McMillen, chairman of teachers'
salaries committee, of Kansas City.
One serious phase of the teacher
"If you pass this?plumber's examination?you earn
$1,140; if you pass this?teacher's examination?you earn
"The Fort Wayne (Ind.) News" recently printed on its
front page the examination questions for plumbers and for
teachers, with the above comment.
shortage is the fact that as a whole
the schools of the United States are
almost entirely in the hands of women
or of men whose virility is unpro
nounced. As regards the presence of
a comparatively greater number of
women teachers, this state of affairs
is looked upon with unconcealed joy by
the extreme feminists.
Although war alone has removed
many men teachers f*om the force,
Mrs. Grace Strachan Forsythe, presi?
dent of the Interborough Association
of Women Teachers, reports the ratio
of men to women teachers as being
about as usual?that is, about one to
eight. She considers teaching as pri?
marily a woman's business and asserts
that men are lacking in patience, while
teaching in itself is not exciting
enough to attract the average man.
On the other hand, if a woman Bpends
three years in the probationary course
she is unlikely to take up another voca?
tion. Moreover, she contends, women
should have the same chance as men
for promotion to lucrative positions.
Other thoughtful minds take a less
radical view and assert the necessity
for the combined influence of men and
women teachers in order that the best
results may be obtained for the chil?
dren in their charge.
Why More Men
Do Not Teach
Mr. McAndrews i-egrets that teaching
does not permanently attract the ad?
venturous type of man, who invariably
makes of it a stepping stone to other
"Men leave the force for much the
same reason that is now preventing
young women from registering in the
training schools of the country?be?
cause they can find so much more lucra?
tive positions in other professions," he
"I feel sorry for children whose
mother dies and who have to be en?
tirely controlled by the father. ? I feel
equally sorry for children who are left
without a father.
"Men are needed rh the elementary
schools. Boys over twelve years of age
should be taught by men. Positive in?
fluences of a masculine character are
needed in the grammar grades. Strong
masculine qualities cannot be contrib?
uted by women. The unanimous opin?
ion of the Gaynor commission was that
every boy should come under the influ
j ence of a man before completing his
! school course. The shortage of men in
I elementary schools is critical. Th??
I number of men preparing to enter ele?
mentary schools is decreasing. Practi?
cally no men are now available."
Mrs. Grace Strachan Forsythe Percy Stickney Grant Mrs. Mary Kingsbury Simkhovitch
500 Women on City Street Cars
Prove Their Worth as Conductors
EVER since last December, when the :
first women conductors, in smart
uniforms and becoming caps,
made their appearance in charge of
New York streetcars, men and women
who feel called upon to regulate the
affairs of the universe have had a new
and fascinating channel in which to
divert their surplus energy.
The question of women conductors
involved important considerations. In
the first place the sacred line which
separates what women are capable of
doing from that which they should not
do was being trampled upon and cast
to the four winds. That a woman
should stand on a platform, grind the
cash box, press the foot mechanrem and
answer questions, while enjoying the
fresh air, could in their eyes be fol?
lowed by only one result. She would
immediately become "tough" and a men?
ace to the community. Furthermore,
they have contended?and one or two
are stubborn enough not to give up the
fight in spito of the falsity of their
predictions?a woman is not fitted for
such arduous physical labor, and what
would happen if any serious altercation
arose among the passengers?
According to these conscientious ob?
jectors the art of being a conductor is
unquestionably a man's job.
These same men and women would,
no doubt, be shocked if they realized
with what amusement their efforts in
behalf of struggling womankind are
being watched by the women conduc?
tors. For the victims are i-apidly prov?
ing their right to an important plact
in the squad of war workers whe
are filling men's places with the
utmost efficiency. Those who would lik?
to see the women conductors remove?
from office are looked upon with mucl
the same scorn that marks the derisiv?
laughter at the "cranks" whose publi?
expressions of disapproval on the sub
ject of bloomers have added a minoi
discomfort to their daily and now skirt
ed task. To be sure, in the recruitinj
of the women conductors some mis
takes were made, but the great ma
jority of them give no just groun?
for criticism.
To-day in England women can manu
facture a destroyer. There is no ques
tion as to the strenuousness of tha
occupation. Between that and a nice
easy place in charge of a streetca
there can be no comparison. Nor hav
f the most conservative of the European i
countries objected to women's recent
entrance into fields of labor hitherto
regarded as the exclusive property of
men. It is time for luxurious Ameri?
cans to realize that we are at war, and
one of the most effective methods of
bringing this truth home, if the daily
casualty list is happily insufficient, is
the sight of the women conductors,
whose efficiency and willingness to
work should be an incentive to idle
Long before the war a few French
women decided that instead of bending
all day over a needle in a stuffy atelier,
subject to the whims and caprices of a
temperamental forewoman, it would be
pleasanter to spend their time on a
driver's box. Many of them were from
the country, sturdy peasants, used to
driving to market and back with sup?
plies; wise in the ways of horses,
versed in cuss words or the fifty-seven
varieties of the familiar "Hue, done!"
which may stimulate the interest of a
languid horse. They knew their Paris
these women. So. they applied for li?
censes, and after the usual red
tape with which any departure foi
women is bound had been untied thej
were allowed to try their venture.
They were indisputably successful
They turned in more money at nigh
than the men. Passengers were ashame*
to quibble about the fare, or if theri
were recriminations a torrent of ver
nacular struck terror to the soul of th
objector. These women held their owi
with the men, their colleagues* on th
fiacres. Their rows were as heated,, a
picturesque. In the end?as in all row
which soon collected a curious crow
in the Paris of before the war and a
once developed partisans?they eithe
kissed and made up or drove oft* i
opposite directions, muttering, wit
smiles that belied the rancor of thei
But that was France, where display
of temper in public were an everyda
occurrence before war made the Frene
nature less ebullient and volatile. Th
American woman conductor is n<
called upon to settle more than occi
sional disputes. Nor does one noti?
any wrangling from car to car.
Among the 600 women who are quie
ly earning their living in this new ai
healthy manner ere to be found gir
from fa-torieju ladies' maids, milliner
; even an occasional mother of a family.
Recruits are by no means largely taken
from conductors' households Several
of the girls are working for the first
time. Others, like their French sis?
ters, were only too glad to change their
occupation from a sedentary to one
that included activity in the open air.
One girl donned a uniform because her
brother, the main support of the fam?
ily, had gone to France, and she wisheil
to surprise him with a photograph,
proving her eagerness to replace him
at home. Another, a bright-eyed little
Jewess, married for nine years, wishes
to help her husband, who is over age,
to support the home, and incidentally
her country. Still another, a red
haired Irish girl, had no other reason
for joining the force than to help Un?
cle Sam. Girls from other cities have
enlisted. One came all the way from
Those who object to this occupation
for women on the grounds of physical
disability are in error. The men con?
ductors that one meets in a day's wan?
derings are far from complying in each
case with herculean standards. Women
applying for positions on cars are sub?
jected to a rigid physical examination.
, Lung, kidney or heart trouble means
i rejection. Those who are accepted are
I able-bodied, stout or wiry, as the case
may be. The work required of them
is less arduous than that of factory
life. A rest room is provided for them,
under the supervision of a friendly
matron, where they may chat and re?
fresh themselves between runs. Th?
pleasantest spirit pervades these rooms
The girls compare experiences anc
there is good natured rivalry.
The vocational preparation for the
job includes one or two days in th?
training school and four days on th.?
road with an instructor. After the phys
ical examination has been successfullj
passed the conductor is initiated inte
the mysteries of making out a day card
Men and women are instructed at th?
same time in the training school. Mei
sit on one side of the room and womei
on ' the other. They are given simplt
sums in addition, Subtraction and mul
tiplication. The correct answers mus
be given before the subject of the da;
card is discussed. Then there is in
struction as to the correct method o
filling out the name card. The in
structor, capable and precise, with per
haps just a bit of brogue, points to the '
blackboard, where a duplicate of the
two carda may be observed. On the
back of the day card is a* space for the
proper report on transfers. There are
twenty-five transfers in each pad, and
the numbers of the first and last trans?
fers must be recorded on the card. At
the end of the day the transfers left
over must be returned to the receiver
in a sealed wrapper provided for the
The bell signals are also written
down on another blackboard. These are
copied and committed to memory. They
range all the way from one bell, which
m$ans "stop at the next corner"; two
bells, or "go ahead"; three bells, or
"stop immediately," to "2?2?2,"
meaning "put the 'car full' sign up."
After the first lesson men and women
are sent to get their uniforms and hats.
A company, otherwise paternal and con?
siderate, does not furnish these. The
cost i? $9. Two dollars in change is
provided at the start of the first trip.
The ability of the student varies.
One instructor said the other day that
about 2 per cent were Rejected on ac?
count of inability to figure rapidly. The
average course is one day in the school
and four on the road with an instruct?
or. Sometimes two days in the school
are required. Women applicants must
be, over twenty-one and under forty
five years of age.
.The women receive the same pay as
j the men?$18.90 a week. On request,
! they may have a day off during tht
j week. In other words, the company
pays for service not for sex.
The general impression derived fr?re
talking with a number of the womer
conductors is that they are satisfiec
with their work and with the com
pany's treatment of them. Many are
delighted to escape from the monotonj
of sedentary occupations. The averag?
report is "no trouble at all with pas
sengers." In case any man shows signi
of starting something others in the ca?
are quick to leap to the conductorette'i
One matron reports^ that her girl
complain of the number of women wh?
try to get by with transfers that ma:
ha,ve been good the day before yester
day. But that is the exception. Thei
there is the recent story of a friendl;
"drunk" who boarded a car at midnigh
with a huge pie. It was pay day, am
the man's wife had sent him out on th
errand at 6 o'clock. He had not ye
reached home. The conductor share
his pie, but frankly told him what he
welcome would be were she hi?'wif<
A week later she met the same man o
another run. His wife's welcome ha
coincided in every respect with he
view, and the husband had been with
out a home since.
And so it seems that the aims of th
conscientious objectors are foiled agai
and that the women conductors w!
continue unmolested to be dignifie?
1 efficient and courteous.
Problem of Adjusting Salaries Must Soon Be
Worked Out and Secured by Lav/ If
High Grade Is To Be Held
Mrs. Mary Kingsbury Simkhovitch, 1
director of Greenwich House, says: I
"Boys at school should come under !
strong, manly influences that tend to
develop similar qualities. At the same
time they Bhould have the benefit of
feminine sympathy and guidance along
the avenue that eventually leads to a
home. It is equally important for girls
to come under the control of both men
and women teachers.
"There is one way in which women
teachers of to-day should use their in?
fluence?that is, in making the school?
rooms and the schoolhouses more pre?
sentable looking, more attractive to the
eye. Nowadays surroundings are sup?
posed to have a strong effect upon
character. If schoolhouses and school?
rooms were more artistically planned
arid more inviting, perhaps it would not
be necessary to exert so much pressure
upon boys and girls to induce them to
go to school."
Meanwhile, at Jefferson City, Mo., in
March, 1918, seven teachers were
taking a course in stenography, while in
Pittsburgh one private commercial
school had fifty public school teachers
taking a similar course.
In a recent report of the committee
on salaries to the Board of Education
of the City of New York the statement
was made that public school teachers
are the poorest paid city officials. It
was shown that 7,620 teachers received
less than $1,200 a year.
New York Teachers
And Some Others
The following salaries were undei
consideration by the city Board o?
Estimate and Apportionment at its
meeting on June 14:
Telephone switchboard operators.$l,02f
Medical inspector.$2,100 and 2.28f
Clerks .$2,100 and 1.74(
Attendants at public baths?Male. 911
Female . 1,76!
Stenographers and typewriters. 1,20(
Cleaner in the Department of Public
Markets . 86-'
Temporary copyists .*. 1,20(
Social investigator . 1,08(
Driver in Street Cleaning Department. 81(
Junior institutional clerk (with main?
tenance) . 54(
Stripers (per day). ?
Stonecutters (per day). 5.5(
Keepers of menageries. . .$1,380, 1,200, 1,08(
Farm instructors at reformatory (with
maintenance). 1,02(
Stenographer to Commissioner of Cor?
rection . 2,34(
Clerks in Brooklyn prison. 1,44(
v Initial. Maximum
Elementary. $800 $1.?5(
Grades 7 and 8. 940 1,82(
High school assistant teacher 900 2,65(
First assistant. 1,680 3,15(
Average Annual Salaries
Elementary Academic
Cities. teachers, teachers
Buffalo .$838.00 $1,150.0(
Ithaca . 68T.50 800.0(
New Rochelle._898.72 1,247.8',
Troy . 700.00 900.0(
Albany . 611.72 1.091.8:
White Plains?Men.825.00 1,500.01
Women . - 1,050.01
Probation and
Illiberal Salary
From February, 1915, to September
1916, the Board of Education in thii
city made no appointments from th<
No. 1 eligible lists, with the conse
quence that there was an accumulatioi
of names running into the thousands
This abnormal increase meant a lon?
postponement for many hundreds o
qualified teachers, and the uncertaint;
of the time of the deferred appoint
ment induced many to go into othe
occupations. Those who stuck to th
determination to be teachers wer
obliged to endure a long period of sut
stituting at poor pay and with irregu
larity of employment.
No provision was made for the reg?
lation of substitute service in a mar
ner that would fairly admit of givin
salary credit for such service when th
teacher's regular appointment shoul
Then, of course, there was the illit
eral salary schedule.
Thus it will be seen that the presen
shortage has been a plant of slo<
growth. War has but aggravated th
condition and precipitated a crisis.
"The state should take steps to in
prove teachers' ability. Any improv?
ment they wish to make comes now ov
of their own pockets," says Dr. Perc
Stickney Grant, rector of the Church t
the Ascension.
"Teachers' salaries must be raise.
Increased prices have practically c\
them in half," affirms William McAi
drew, of the Board of Education.
"I want to see teachers paid as muc
as they can get," asserts John H. Fla?
1er, public spirited millionaire ar,
Yet with nearly every element in ti
community in favor of higher salarie
there are still some men who object 1
the plan, who seek to oppose an
amelioration in the financial conditic
of teachers.
There Are Those
Who Object
The chief objectors are, of coura
the taxpayers. The most conservati'
and careful speakers among them spei
anxiously of increasing the amount
the city's budget and of the leg
and constitutional difficulties that w
arise with the possible necessity
taxing real estate beyond the 2 p
cent designated by the constitution.
But this type of objector is mi
There is another and more virule
variety who does not stop after waili
over a heavier budget. He does n
confine himself to proving that r<
estate in New York City is no long
worth owning. He empties vials of cc
tempt and hurls poisonous gases up
the heads of the teachers themselv
"What do you think," he cries, '
a minister who tried to put an ex>
valuation in terms of dollars and cei
upon his services to the community
"In what other profession, pray, d?
the novice receive pay during the fl
j three years of probationary servie?
continues the objector, ready with il
lustrations and statistics.
"The young doctor must spend three
years in a hospital before he can go
out into the world to build op a place
for himself. During these three years
he receives his board and keep?noth?
ing more.
"The young lawyer does not expect
to make $1,000 the first year he starts
out in business."
If the conscientious objector Is high?
ly educated himself?brilliant lawyers,
eminent physicians of this city share
his views?he will try to point"out th?
advantages in the community that go
with a teacher's position. In these com?
mercial days He has an old-fash ione<
respect for brains. Unfortunately thii
is not true of the pleasure loving, nn
thinking members of the community.
"Don't talk like a school tracher; i
isn't becoming in a peach of a girl lilt
you," says the hero to the heroine i
; a certain musical comedy now in towi
Encouragement in
The Latest Report
! For those who look favorably up<
i higher pay for teachers recent even
j are encouraging. Following a conf?
i ence with Mayor Hylan and Control!
Craig last week, Arthur S. Some
! president of the Board of Educati?
I announced the minimum salary of
teachers will be increased to ?1,00(
year, beginning July 1. The Board
Estimate was informed that the ent
] salary list of teachers would have
! be revised, and that from $4,000,000
| $5,000,000 would be needed each y
' above the amount now appropriated
care for the increase. As a rei
teachers who have been receiving $
$900, $940 and $960 annually will d
pay checks in July for $82.33, <
twelfth of the new minimum salary
Four cities have granted
bonuses: Milwaukee, a graduated b<
from $4.50 to $12 a month for tl
receiving $60 a month or less; Phili
phia a bonus of $150 for the year
for all classes; Pittsburgh a boni
$100 a year from January 1, 1918
all employes "as a war emergen
Washington, D. C, a bonus of 1C
cent for the year 1917-'18 only.
In Kansas City women's clubs
women reporters aided greatly ii
curing a tax levy for increasing i
teachers' salaries 25 per cent.
Following the announcement b:
Now York Board of Education ths
minimum salary of all teachers w
increased to $1,000 a year begi
July 1, 1918, there was a meeti
the Interborough Association of
en Teachers, at which a motioi
made for a war-time bonus of $2
keep the wolf from the door" p?
the revision of the salary schedul
The intention of the motion wa
the surplus of about $4,000,000
board's salary account for the
should be distributed equally am'
teachers as a war bonus rathe
exclusively among the teachers
ing less than $1,000, as was agree
at the Board of Education's con
on Monday.
The $1,000 minimum met wit!
enthusiasm from the women
meeting. Most of them represer
than seven years of teaching,
quently they have passed thi
point of the schedule. Mrs.
Strachan Forsythe, who preai
president of the association, si
"There is nothing either enco
or discouraging in this report
The big question of adjusting
for all the teachers will hav
worked out by the teachers th?
and secured by legislation. The
of money available to make
ments at ell compatible with
vanee in the cost of living ci
h_d with less than ten or twe
?on dollars, which will have t
cured by legislative enactmen
to increafe the present educat
of four and a half mills to
would settle the question of v
money ?3 to come from."
Increased Pay Only
Part of the Remedy
"Grade teachers' salaries i
tional peril," says William
the farseeing director of t
tute of Public Service in
"But the increase in pay is
of many steps necessary to n
shortage. If prominent men
en of the country could be pel
t_ke an interest in the life o
lie schools a great point
gained. Let each man and
Mayor Hylan's Committee fo
Defence agree to attend
mencements in the public
this city. The encouraging ?
the teachers would equal ai
pay. Why is not this possi
easy enough to get men and
attend commencement exerc
vate schools."
"How do you make teachei
intendent Etxtcger was asi
ly. "We don't make them,"
"we let them grow." This
lightened attitude toward t
The President of the Un
teveral governors, lnnumen
ma^iy Congressmen were??
Fifty college and unlve
dents have agreed to pr?s
ptudents during the scho
serious shortage of teache
rank of teaching as a patr
the intangible rewards <
satisfactions of successf
the rapidly increasing tanj
of teaching, especially fo
college training, the splei
offered by teaching for
| ?ent of character, leaden
; _?_! -Lili??

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