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and BOOK SECTION f&tOmw PART VII TWELVE PAGES MAGAZINE and BOOK SECTION SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 8, 1920 PART VII TWET.VF. PACTS Scientists, Agreeing Mai Believe That Plane tians Are t May Be uper-Race, ignaling to Us life on Our Distant Neighbor Is "Grand, Intense, Formidable/9 Says M. Perrier By Arnold D. Prince IF IT should prove to be the case after all that those mysterious Marconi "messages" came from Mars or even Venus, the next problem of importance will be the "dud of people who sent them. For, of course, if the earth is to have new neighbors with whom to exchange gossip across the back yard of the sidereal firmament, it will want to know something about them. It will want to know something of their habits, appearance, how they dress, act and possibly their views on in? terplanetary relations. All sorts of situations may arise wherein a mutual understanding of personal traits, characteristics and general disposition will aid in establishing and preserving amicable relations. Signor Marconi, unfortunately, was not able to throw much light on the subject. Virtually all that came within the scope of his observation was that when prosecuting wireless ' experiments certain "signals oc? curred'' with persistent regularity which could not be explained on the theory of casual interference. As ' these signals had been received "simultanecuslv_ at New York and London with identical intensity," he admitted the possibility of their be? ing attempts by the inhabitants of fother planets to communicate" with us. \ enus or Mars? Subsequent discussion, in which ; ientists in Great Britain, France . i the United States participated, i ..! ..'vu an almost hopeless confu ? . i.*:' views on the reasonableness .. tir ? conclusion, but resulted in ? ?*. agreement on one point at least, i ... ?.;?:? that if any attempts had ! . made Lo communicate at all, ' . ? y must have originated from : ...,rs or Venus, the only worlds ?de our own upon which there a. possibility of human habita What kind of people, then, in i ?bit these two planots? In seek? ing an answer to this question the inquirer is thrown back almost ex? clusively, of course, on the con? clusions of the scientists who have made a 6tudy of the subject. No one, so far as known, is in a posi? tion to give first hand information. Nor is there anything specially help? ful in such suggestions as emanated recently from one authority, who, when asked his opinion as to the population on Venus, replied with hopeful animation that they were "chorus girls." Such jocularity is merely beclouding the issue and add? ing difficulties to a problem that is difficult enough as it is. Among scientists who have won the righ*- to speak with authority . the foreu?v- was the late Professor Percival Lowell, director of the observatory at Flagstaff, Ariz. Professor Lowell was the brother of Abbott Lawrence Lowell, presi? dent of Harvard University. Be? fore taking charge at Flagstaff he had been attached to the observa? tory at Harvard and had conducted astronomical investigations in many parts of the world, including Japan, Tripoli, the Andes and other coun? tries. He had delivered lectures on his findings before important scien? tific societies in Great Britain and the United States. Not only was Professor Lowell convinced that Mars was inhabited, but he believed the people had a "?finch higher degree of intelligence than those on earth. He dwelt Particularly on their inventive genius. *i*eat Inventors "Quite possibly," wrote Professor '-owell in his book, "the Martian [oik are possessed of inventions of which we have not dreamed, and "With them electrophones and kineto scopes are things of a bygone past, preserved with veneration in mu? teras as relic? of the clumsy con? trivances of the simple childhood of the race. 'Certainly, what we see hints at the existence of beings who are in advance of, not behind, us in the Journey of life. "Startling as the outcome of ?**? observations' may appear at -fr"*-"? in truth there ia npthing ?tartling about it whatever. Such P?ttibility has been quite on the ??***? ?ver aince the existence of -P*9HmM ?M -mocBisMd by the Chaldean shepherds, or whoever the still more primitive astronomers may have been. Its strangeness is a purely subjective phenomenon, arising from the instinctive reluc? tance of mind to admit the possi? bility of peers. Such would be comic were it not the inevitable conse? quence of the constitution of the universe. To be shy of anything resembling himself is part and par? cel of man's own individuality. "Like the savage, who fears noth? ing so much as a strange man; like Crusoe, who grows pale at the sight of footprints not his own, the civi? lized thinker turns from the thought of mind other than he himself knows." The peculiar relevancy of this view to the discussion resulting from Signor Marconi's announcement will strike- any one who reads Professor Lowell's statement. His brother scientists were indeed "shy," as he had predicted, of the deductions reached by him, but they at least contained the views of the Flagstaff astronomer as to the kind of people, who, if we accept the pleasing possi? bility suggested by Signor Marconi, are trying to "strike up a speaking acquaintance" with us. Not only are they masters in the knowledge of electricity, but they have already relegated to the museum of antiqui? ties many of the discoveries in that field which we, here on earth, look upon as last minute achievements in scientific effort. Professor Lowell, while comment? ing strongly on the intellectual at? tainments of the Martians, made little or no reference to the actual appearance of the folk living on that distant planet True, he did say in another part of his book that they probably were not interested in party politics, and that, judging from their canals, they were favored by a "comprehensiveness" of mind much more embracive than that "which presided over the various depart? ments of our own public works" in the United States, but as politicians look much like other persons very little could be gained from that. First Martian Pictures It was M. Edmond Perrier, direct? or of the museum of the Jardin des Plantes, in Paris, who constructed the first picture of the Martians, as he conceived them. At the time M. Perrier undertook this task the division among the au? thorities on Professor Lowell's the? ory had assumed wide p reportions. Some were decidedly "cold" to the notion that Mars?the question as to Venus was temporarily in eclipse? was inhabited at all, and they con? sidered it futile and profitless, there? fore, to attempt to depict a non-ex? istent people. Others, as has hap? pened even recently, considered the matter in a light vein, thinking to get some humor out of it, and one newspaper carried a cartoon, cap tioned "Hello Central," showing Pro? fessor Lowell "calling up" Mars. Still another group seemed to take it as a personal affront that the as? tronomer had sought to enlarge their list of acquaintances by introducing a race about which they had abso? lutely no knowledge. M. Perrier approached the problem from a highly speculative viewpoint, but made clear the fact, nevertheless, that he saw no reason for condemn? ing the position of Professor Lowell. "Dreams are not a crime," con? tended the French scholar, "and in this case contradiction i? difficult." The director of the museum of the Jardin des Plantes led up to his description of the inhabitants of Man by ?rtabiiahing the premia?, that conditions on Mars are not inimical to human life. Rain, snow, thunder and hail are known there, as on earth. There are seaweeds in the ocean, grass and trees on the land, fields available for cultivation and a friendly soil to provide food for the people. "The life which animates the earth also animates other planets," said the French savant. "From what goes on around us we may divine what is happening elsewhere by ex? amining the exact conditions under which each planet finds itself en rapport with ? every other. On the planets which are furthegt away, it is impossible that human beings should exist, for no organism could, for example, be formed in the al? kaline seas of Jupiter, while Mer? cury, which is too near the sun, could not engender life. Only Venus, the Earth and Mars are habitable." On Mars, M. Perrier went on, life is "grand, intense, formidable." The mean temperature is 40 degrees Fahrenheit, as against 76 degrees on earth, the winters are more se? vere, the summers warmer, the year longer and the seasons more marked than ours. The sea animals are, much like ours, the fishes have a sense of hear? ing, there are insects in the animal kingdom and flowers and butterflies, but the humans are very, very differ? ent. Before going on and giving M. Per? ri?re picture of the kind of people the Martians are, and in order to re assure such sensitive souls as may I fear to establish speaking relations I with a people too alien in -appearance to make acceptable neighbors, it should be stated that M. Perrier does not agree with the conception of the Martians set forth by H. G. Wells in his book "War of the Worlds." Mr. Wells, in that work, caused the Mar? tians to resemble cuttlefish, with round, gray bodies, with "sort of faces" and long, groping tentacles. This conception, M. Perrier as? serted, did the Martians a great in? justice and created a prejudice against them, which is not only un? scientific and unsound, but entirely undeserved. The Martians, the French scholar held, bear a certain resemblance to man, although many of their fea? tures are more prominent. For this, the difference in the forces of grav? ity and in environment are chiefly responsible, he said. Their ears, for example, are very large. Continniug? tie? gsmtos of thai museum of the Jardin des Plantes] said: . "The low atmospheric pressure has produced a considerable devel? opment of the pulmonary apparatus, and consequently the general char? acter of the Martians has been in? fluenced by this development, which is unknown on earth. Why Martians Are Tall "The men on Mars are tall be? cause the force of gravity is slight. They are blond, because the daylight is less intense. They have less pow? erful limbs. They have some of the characteristics of our Scandinavian type, although they probably have larger skulls. "Their large blue eyes, theii strong noses, their large ears, con? stitute a type of beauty which we doubtless would not appreciate ex? cept as suggesting superhuman in? telligence." Going further into details, M. Per rier concluded that the jaw of the Martian is narrower than ours.be cause time and evolution have re moved him further from his anima forebears than they have us. His | lung capacity is enormous because of the thin atmosphere, although his legs are extremely thin, due to the little effort needed in walking. He has little or no neck. Touching on the question of intel? ligence, the French savant deduced j that ' the Martians have solved the problem of existence, and know no such thing as industrial strife. Be? ing older, they are also wiser than we. They have long since conquered disease, and know the hour of their demise, awaiting the event calmly. They have overcome poverty, are too sophisticated to engage in war, and need no law or government to keep them orderly. Philosophers and brothers, they live in amity and understanding, devoting all their thought to the promotion of large undertakings in which selfishness, avarice and earthly trifles have no part. They are, in a word, as different from tha ?*ncifui And unpieasing picture painted by Wells as are we from the Simian types referred to by Darwin. Returning to tho question of flora and fauna, M. Perrier concluded that because of the reduced force of gravity, animals are much larger on Mars than here, and hop, run and fly about much more easily. Grass is higher, fruit is bigger, and the flowers possess undreamed of beauty. The light is something lik? our dusk, and the general landscape much more attractive than on earth. "The year on Mars is twice as long as our earthly one," he ex? plained, "and hence plants and in? sects have twice the time in whicr to evolve. Mars is the land of hug? plants and ideal flowers, of bird; abnormally powerful in song an< wondrous in appearance, and o: four-footed animals with extraor? dinarily developed fur and skin." Neither M. Perrier ?or the other scientists who believe in the habita bility of other worlds paid so much attention to Venus. They agreed, however, with the head of the Jardin des Plantes that as this planet is much younger than the earth, life there is much less advanced. Because of the greater nearness to the sun, the climate is something like that in our tropics, and the air is always misty. Animals and plants are much like ours, especially at the. poles, where the temperature is not so high, but humans are not much beyond the development that existed on earth during the secondary geo? logical period. Not From Venus In other words, there is much less likelihood that those strange Marv coni signals came from Venus than that they came from Mars. j Having thus disposed o? the kind j of beings supposed to exist on the only two eligible planets, two other questions arise?Why are the Mar? tians or the Venusians trying to communicate with us, that is, if they are? and, What atmospheric condi? tions will we on earth have to over? come in order to reply to them? As to tho first question, a possible explanation may be found in Jtha so-called cataclysm on Mars that was I reported by the British Astronomical Association in 1909. In that year the "planet of mystery" was nearer to earth than at any time since 1892, and so in a favorable position for observation. The phenomenon which was her? alded as without parallel in the rec? ords of the past was the appearance of a gloomy, yellow veil which en? shrouded immense tracts of the Mar? tian surface, obliterating important markings. On account of the theory, then recently advanced by Professor Lowell, that Mars was inhabited, the changes aroused extraordinary inter? est. It previously had I*? ;i sug? gested that the canals on the planet had been constructed by a dying race, a race menaced by starvation on a desert planet, which had sought by means of these enormous via? ducts to carry water from t?e melt? ing ice caps at the poles, and the appearance of the yellow mist com? bined with the simultaneous erasure of some of the canal markings gave riso to the fear that a gigantic i Professor Lowell Held That Mar? tians Were Far Advanced in Inventions and Science catastrophe had occurred, the effects of which were only too apparent. Can it be, some of the observers of conditions now are asking, that CCIENTISTS agree that *"* the people of Mars differ from us in many ways. The Martians are believed to have very large noses and ears and immense lung de? velopment, because of the rarefied atmosphere. Their legs are poorly developed, be? cause matter on Mars weighs less than here and sturdy legs are not needed to bear their weight. Birds and but? terflies are very large and j beautiful ?some such similar catastrophe has j overtaken the Martians, who, in their desperation, are attempting to communicate the fact to us? In August, 1909, astronomers working at their telescopes had re? ported what they surmised to be a new fracture of the southern polar cap and the appearance of a dark streak along the line of the break. About the same time a brilliant spot, which may have been a segment of the shattered terrain, had- separated itself from the polar cap and had moved over to one of the dusky areas of the planet, partly hiding it from view. Great Convulsion Possible All this seemed to strengthen the theory of a huge convulsion ad? vanced by the British scientists, al? though, as seems to be the fate of all questions concerning this much dis? cussed and little understood celes? tial body, eminent authorities at once took opposing ground on the subject. Professor Harold Jacoby, Ruther? ford Professor of Astronomy at Columbia University, contended that "the Martians are not likely to have their world destroyed any more than are we," adding that if any such catastrophe as hinted had actually occurred the news would have be? come known through some quicker channel than the British Astro? nomical Association. By this, it should be explained hastily, Profes? sor Jacoby did not mean that the scientists across the Atlantic were slower in observation than others, | but only that the disaster would have been revealed by telescopes ! everywhere long before a formal | report could have been prepared. Professor F. R. Moulton, of the ! University of Chicago, also doubted the accuracy of the report, and Pro? fessor Lowell himself, author of the notion that Mars is inhabited, was not particularly impressed with it. . Professor Lowell, it will be re? membered, held to the belief that the Martians were anything but a starving, needy people, and he con? stantly sought to fortify his posi? tion by offering new proofs of their prosperity, advancement and skill. In 1914 he found a new opportunity for strengthening his pet belief by announcing that instead of losing any of their canals the Martians had built two new ones, which could be seen plainly through the tele? scope. "We have actually seen them formed under our eyes," Professor | Lowell said at the time, "and the | importance of it car. hardly be over? estimated. Tho phenomenon tran? scends any natural law, and is only explicable sc far as can be seen by the presence out yonder of animate will." By animate will he meant, of course, human beings. Professor Lowell was admittedly tho leading spokesman for the Martians, and anything he said was worthy of the moat respectful consideration, but in view of recent developments many thinkers are asking if, after all, he was not mis? taken in at least one particular, and if the "signals" picked up in New York and London were not efforts on their part to notify the earth folk of their desperate plight. Xo unusual manifestations to sup? port this view have been witnessed recently on the distant planet, but? it is at least a new guess on the subject, which is all that its origi? nators claim for it. Tesla Believes It To Nikola Tesla there is nothing remarkable or impossible in the sug? gestion that the mysterious signals are from the Martians. Discussing the question, he said: "To most people the mere idea of flashing a signal over the immense gulf of 50,000,000 or 100,000,000 miles will naturally appear prepos? terous, but as I have stated in an article I wrote for 'The Harvard Illustrated Magazine' of March, 1907, it is simply a feat of electrical engineering, apparently hazardous, but made perfectly feasible through inventions with which the experts are familiar. "That the planets are inhabited is a foregone conclusion. It would be stupid to deny the existence of con? ditions suitable for the development of organic life on other plftnet3." The next question is how the earth is to reply to these signals, supposing they are signals at all and what are the atmospheric ob s-itacles that will have to be over come. Mars at times is only 50,000,00 miles away from the earth and a other times 250,000,000. ft is frc quently surrounded by vapors, a is the case, too, with Venus, wfsicl would be extremely difficult of pen etration by light radiation, but thi chief problem to be met would bi the creation of a wireless apparatui of sufficient strength to send a mes sage over the required distance Dr. Charles P. Steinmetz, chief con suiting engineer of the Genera Electric Company, believes such ai instrument possible, provided tb world devoted itself to the inventioi with the same thoroughness it em ployed in the great war, but esti mates it would cost at least $1,000, 000,000 to do it Wireless messages have bee transmitted over a distance of fror. 3,000 to 4,000 miles when condition were favorable, although an officii of the Radio Corporation of Amei ica, of which the Marconi system : a part, said that signals had bee sent as far as 10,000 miles und? unusual circumstances. "But there is one thing thi should be remembered," said Davi Sarnoff, comme??ial manager of ? Radio Corporation of America, "thi there are a great many conditions i the atmosphere of which we do n< know, even when sending a m-sssag say, across the Atlantic or even shorter distance. "We know something about wa* lengths, and we know what happe: when we send a message and whi we receive it, but what happens < route is still pretty much of a mj tery. Niagara Falls Would Help "In connection with the actr. practicalities in sending a wirelt message over such a distance as th between the earth and Mars, that may say, is something about whi the newspaper men know almost much as we do. But the ch problem, it would seem to me, w?? be to find an instrument power enough, rather than anything el and this would be no small achie ment. We would have to ham Niagara Falls and every other po\ producing agency that I know of do it." Electricity travels at a speed o little more than 186,000 miles second, and a message going that rat? would take a little m than twenty-two minutes to re Mars when it is at its furthest p< from the earth, and abaut four n utes and twenty-one seconds whe: is nearest. According to the it calculation it would take two n utes and eighteen seconds to sen radiogram to Venus, two mini and fifty-nine seoonds to the i two seconds to the moon, thirty minutes to Jupiter, one hour and minutes to Saturn, two hours thirty-two seconds to Uranuf four hours and two minutes to 1 ton*. ?