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American Diplomacy^?ndL^^ Handin Hand
\ IP jineteen Men of Letters Have Been Appointed Ambassa- fi? dors or Ministers I IT IS almost always an honor to be the ambassador of one great nation to another. Hardly any political debt can ^ to paid by such an appoint? ?t. But in the American diplo? me service it has grown to be a frequent practice to confer this honor on distinguished literary men. El*v,?n out of twenty-eight Presidents have appointed nineteen literary men to ambassadorial or ministerial post?. One and one fourth per **'ent of America's prin? cipal diplomatic representatives hare thus been literary men, which ?t pretty high ratio of recognition af letters President Wilson, who already has ?roed six literary men into diplo nst_,b*s now made his seventh ani kmadorial choice from that profes Mif). Robert Underwood Johnson. ?x is annpunccd, is to succeed Thomas Nelson Page as ambassador to Italy. Mr. Johnson has been as lociate editor of "The Century" from 1881 to 1909 and editor in chief from 1910 to 1913, and in 1917 was designated director of New York University's hall of fame for great Americans. He was sixty seven years old on January 12. An Italian Admirer ? He has always been extremely fond of Italy. In 1895 King Hum? bert made him a Cavalier of the Order of the Crown of Italy and a year ago King Victor Emmanuel conferred on him the cross of a com? mander of that order. Mr. Johnson was chairman of the American Poets Ambulances in Italy, which .pent a total of 1176,807 on hospital equipment foi Tue Italian army uur cg the war. He was always strongly I pro-Ally, arid in March, 1917, in his ' poem "The Answer of the Lord," published in The Tribune, wrote: I gave you Law, to guide, That needed not my hand; With Reason, to decide, And Conscience, to command. Ye are not beast or tree, Ye are not stone or clod. Your upward path is . re?*? Ye are the sons of God And .ha'., ye then descend From your divine estate, The craven neck to bend And call the yoke your fate'.' Wake from the sloth of night And drain life's precious bowl. The hour has come to smite Ur ?ose a people's soul. Washington Irving was the first American literary diplomat. Irving bad lived in Spain from 1826 to 1829 and as a result of that visit produced four books: "History of Columbus." "Chronicle of the Con iflMt of Granada," "Voyages and Discoveries of the Companions of Columbus" and "The Alhambra." The last book was written while he was secretary of legation in Lon? don, from 1829 to 1831. John Tyler made him Minister at Madrid in 1841, where Irving lived a second timo until 1846. continuing his his? torical writing with his work on Mahomet. The next litcrai'y diplomat w*> Georgo Bancroft, who was sent tc London by ?Tames K. Polk jjj 1846, Yet. though the first volume of Ban? croft's "History of the United States" appeared in 1834, it must bf ?dmitted that he was a combinatior literary and political ambassador for ho had been Collector of the Pon of Boston under Van Buren, Demo ?ratic candidate for Governor oi Massachusetts and ?Secretary of th? Navy fbr a year in Polk's Cabine' and for a month Acting Secretary o: ?War. He established the Nava academy ?t Annapolis, gave th? Drders which led to the occupation o California and sent Zachary Taylo :o occupy the disputed territory be :\veci. Te::as and Mexico. Bancroft remained three years i: London and on his return to Americ ?vithdrew from public life until h ?vas again called upon to fill a dipic natic post, Ir, 1867 Andrew Johr on made Bancroft Minister to Bej in, whore he remained until 187' rhe naturalization treaties he neg? ;iat?'d with Prussia and the othe ?orth German states were the fir! n ter national recognition of the rig! >f ?expatriation. "irst to England England har, been a favorite fie' or American literary ambassador Fhe.re have been five besides Ba :roft, and it is a pleasant tradith vith the British that Ameri? ?hooses the best of her literary m? is ambassadors to London. T cond?n newspapers have a habit neasuring new American ambe ;adors by comparing them wi .heir literary predecessors. Charles Francis Adams was t irst literary man to follow Ba roft in London, and, like Ba?ero ?e was a combination politician a itt?rateur. His first choice was t aw, which he studied in the off f Daniel Webster. After being t nitted to the bar he gave him? o writing for ten years and th lerved five 3'ears in the Massacl etts State Legislature. Varit ?olitical pursuits were followed mother literary period, which en< n 1858, when he went to Congr? emaining there until Lincoln s< im to London as minister In 18 The British aristocracy and up; Our Literary Ambassadors k ,v?5K_. ' =ai classes were pronouncedly in favor of the South, and the British gov? ernment occasionally let its favorit? ism be manifest. Adams's position was most difficult, and Lowell later said of him: "None of our generals in the field, not Grant himself, did us better or more trying service than he in his forlorn outpost in London." Founded the Tradition Adams came home in 1867, and President Grant sent John Lothrop Motley to London in 1869. He was an entirely literary ambassador, de? spite the fact that he had been Minister to Austria from 1861 to 1867. Motley served his country faithfully and with tact in Vienna, but his reputation rested on the solid foundation of his work as a his? torian, his "History of the Rise of the Dutch Republic" having ap? peared in 1856 and the first two volumes of his "History of the United Netherlands" in 1860. His tenure of the London post was com? paratively brief, as he was recalled in November, 1870. Ten year? later, in appointing rrOP line, left to right, Thomas Nelson Page, R. U. Johnso * Henry van Dyke and Brand Whitlock. At the left Andrew D. White, rind, at the, riaht James Russell. Lmnell ) :?ynes Russell Lowell as Minister to England, President Hayes founded he British tradition of American terary diplomats. While Lowell bad always been intensely interested in important political questions, as evidenced by "The Biglow Papers" in 1846, satirizing the Mexican War, and the second series of "Biglow Papers," published from 1862 to 1866, satirizing the slavery party of the Civil War, he had never been in any sense a politician. His first po? litical experience was when Presi? dent Hayes made him Minister to Madrid in 1877. In 1880 he was transferred to London and served there with distinction until 1885. His speeches are still remembered and quoted by the British, who hold him in reverence and love as the type of the best in American diplo? macy. Preferred the Farm After Lowell there was a lapse in London until 1897, when President McKinley made John Hay Ambassa? dor, the post having by then been raised from a legation to an em? bassy. The appointment of Hay was in accord with the best traditions of the American diplomatic service. He was not only a literary man of high rank, but an experienced diplo? mat and had been intimately associ? ated with statesmen and- national affairs from the time when he was one of Lincoln's secretaries. He con? tinued as ambassador until he was recalled to become Secretary of State. The late Walter Hlnes Page was the last literary ambassador to Lon don. He was appointed by Preside m Wilson in April, 1913, caught jus' as he was about to do what he really wanted to do?be a North Carolins farmer. He had never been con cerned in politics, but had alway: been either a newspaper man or ; magazine editor, greatly intereste ? in his fellow countrymen. The Brit ish were pleased with his appoint ment. They are always please? when America sends them a literar man, and he soon achieved a per sonal popularity with them which i: no wise diminished during the try ing, exacting labors of the great wai Mr. Page returned home in Octobei 1918, just before the signing of th armistice, because of his failin health, and died but little more tha two months later. George H. Boker was the onl American playwright who became diplomat? Among his plays wer "Anne Boleyn," "Leonor de Gu; man," "Framaesca da Rimini" an 'The Widow's Marriage." "Fraj cesca da Rlmtni," which has bee revived several times-and was of te played by Barrett, was the be; known. President Grant took hi; from writing plays and poems 1 send him ?as Minister to Turkey i 1.871, and transferred him to Russi ?n 1875, where he remained und? Hayes until 1879. Hayes N.amed Four President Hayes had four ?iteraj ambassadors. Besides Lowell Spain and Boker in Russia he sej Bayard Taylor to Germany in 187 Taylor had had a brief diplomat experience as secretary of legath - in St. Petersburg in 1862 and 1863, 1 but he was essentially a literary man. He began life as a printer's apprentice in 1842. His first volume j of poems was published in 1844, and j in 1847 he joined the staff of The i Tribune and never broke his con? nection with this paper from then to r the end of; his life. Through all his t wide travels in Europe, Egypt, Asia ; Minor, Syria, India, China, Japan . and In California in 1849 he was ? I correspondent of The Tribune, and - the sketches of many of his books i were first published here. He died i in Germany in 1878 while Minister ; to that country and President Haye, i appointed as his successor Andrew ? D. White. i Ambassador White began his dip : lomatic experience before his literarj ? work. He was an attach? at the American legation in St. Petersburg during part of the Crimean War anc it was after that that he became ? professor of history and English i literature in the University oJ ; Michigan. His writings were chief ly historical, and in 1884 he wa. i elected the first president of the American Historical Society. Afte. > -; Washington Irving Was Jthe First to Represent the United States at a Foreign Caoital ! he resigned the presidency of Cornell ! he gave that university his histori i cal library, comprir.rg about 30,000 volumes and 10,000 pamphlets and manuscripts. He was Minister to Germany from 187!. to 1881 and was sent to Germany a second time by President McKinley in 1897 and re? mained there until 1902. -In the i mean time, he had been Minister to : Pwussia from 1892 to 1894. In 1899 h * was chairman of the American allegation to The Hague peace con ! ??.ren?e. Author of "Ben-Hur" General Lew Wallace, who was ; President Arthur's literary diplo i mat, was a lawyer and a soldier be j fore he became an author, but was ! an author before he was a diplomat. i General Wallace was born in 1827, studied law in Indiana, served in the I Mexican War, practiced law again until the Civil War, in which he served with -distinction, and once more resumed the practice of law His novel "The Fair God" was writ ten in 1873, while "Ben-Hur," whici achieved a remarkable success, was published in 1880. It was in 1881 that he was appointed Minister t< Turkey, where he served until 1885 Dr. David Jayne Hill goes to tht credit of Presidents McKinley Roosevelt and Taft, while Dr Maurice F. Egan is credited to Presi dents Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson Dr. Hill is the author of biographie: of Washington Irving and Willian Cullen Bryant, but the majority o his books have dealt with question of government or international rela tions. So much of his life has beei given to diplomatic affairs that it i perhaps, questionable if he shoul be classed as a literary diplomal though he is probably best known f o his writings. Before he entered th diplomatic service he had been presi j dent of Bucknell University and th University of Rochester. He re signed the latter position in 1898 t study law and diplomacy. Presiden ! McKinley appointed him an ai sistant Secretary of State in 189. and in 1903 President Rooseve made him Minister to Switzerlan. He was promoted to Minister to t_ Netherlands in 1905 and in 1907 w_ named Ambassador to Berlin,.whic poet he held until he resigned i 191L Egan a Teacher Dr. Egan, who had been an edito and the author of several popula novels, came out of retirement as teacher of English at the Catholi University at Brooklands, on the oui skirts of Washington, to accept th nr___: /%# Minia.?? fr. It...... _?.l. ??? 4-V. I behest of President Roosevelt in ! 1907. He remained in that post j until 1918, when he resigned on ac j count of ill health. President Wilson has been the ! most prolific appointer of literary ; diplomats. Besides holding over Dr. Egan from President Taft, he has . appointed seven literary ministers, or ambassador-? on his own account. The five besides Robert Underwood ' Johnson and Walter Hines Page are ?Thomas Nelson Page, Dr. Henry ! van Dyke, Brand Whitlock, Paul S. Reinsch and Norman Hapgood. Thomas Nelson Page was a Iaw ! yer by education, a writer by choice ; and a diplomat by inculcation of I ideas. When he was appointed Am jbassador to Italy in 1913 he had ! never taken an active part in poli : tic3, but his home in Washington was one of the handsomest in that city and his social doings were '< among the exclusive diplomatic set. j Dr. van Dyke had had the excellent I diplomatic training of twenty years ; as pastor of the Brick Presbyterian j Church, after which he went to ? Princeton as professor of English literature. He and President Wil? son were at Princeton at the same time, which may explain why Dr. van Dyke was glad to go to Holland when Wilson became President. j Whitlock and Belgium Brand Whitlock has been eo many j things that it was hardly possibk j for him to escape diplomacy. The ; ease with which he carried through ? the work of representing seven ?countries besides his own in Bel? gium during the war is explained by bis having been four times Mayor of Toledo on an independent ticket and being compelled to refuse a fifth term. He was born in Ohio, which state, in former years sup plied more Federal officeholders j than any other one state in the Union, and this alone would have ei> titled him to public office. He be? gan life as a newspaper reporter, became secretary to Governor Alt geld of Illinois, studied law, wrot; poetry and finally to^k up being Mayor of Toledo ?as a career. Pres? ident Wilson rescued him from To ! ledo in 1913 and sent him to Bel 1 gium. Dr. Reinsch, had long been a stu? dent of Far Eastern affairs when he was sent to China in 1913. He has written extensively on law and politics, and his books have been translated into Japanese and Chi? nese. He gave up the post of pro? fessor of political science at the University of Wisconsin to become Minister to China. Norman Hap? good followed Dr. Egan in Copen Prohibition Is Closing Alcoholic Wards and Homes for Drunkards By Arnold D. Prince WHATEVER the merits in the prohibition agitation, a partial survey of con? ditions just completed in ^?w York and throughout the coun? ty lewis to show that with the sus P??lon of the sale of liquor radi? al changes resulted in institutions tooted to the care of alcoholics or tf persons who became dependents ?cauae of excessive indulgence ? in 'iqtwr. ^ests Fall Off A* the same time the records of !he police courts show a marked fall 1Bi off in the number of arreste due :o intoxication. Savings institutions rePort increases in small deposits, Hut aa thfts? are partly attributed to ni8? wages and plentiful employ? ?t not all the benefits can be ^ted to prohibition. . 01 th? organisations which came !nto direct contact with the liquor pr?blem none was more prominent J* the Salvation Array. Major d*?rd Underwood, head of the t,*itern Social Welfare Department th* Salvation Army, announces 2 the activities of the five hun *** homes, "hotels" and shelters, ^?nttined throughout the United "?J* by the Army for the care of ?Nkardi," have been so radically y%??** that ??riona consideration ! being given to the proposal to ** most of them. ^olic Wards Empty J^BeK.ivu? and Klng8 County T^W?, which cared for thousands ^?koholic cases annually, need for |*J* these wards virtually has rjj^wd, and they are to be con 2* into wards for the care of **$ fcfecttvat and for the ob ; servation of persona suffering with i psychopathic ailments. At the offices of the New York As j sociation for Improving the Condi ! tion of the Poor, 105 East Twenty second Street, one of the greatest welfare organizations of the conn try, William H. Matthews, in charge i of the Department of Family Wel? fare, announces that not a single case of dependency due to alcohol? ism is now on the books of the asso? ciation Mr. Matthews said it was too early to give figures showing the decrease in the number of oases from pre prohibition days, but Major Under? wood, of the Salvation Army, was not so conservative. A Thonsand a Day "Before prohibition we had about one thousand men constantly in our institutions in and about greater j New York devoted to the care of I alcoholic cases, or of persona out of employment because of drinking," said Major Underwood. "We have one place on Forty eighth Street which cared for 200 j'men; another on 120th Street with ! room for 125 men ; two in Brooklyn ! caring for 100 and 200 men respect? ively; one in Jersey City with ac? commodations for 160 men, and others in Yonkers and nearby places caring for more than 200. Mostly Alcoholics "Of the men cared for in these institutions at least 75 per cent or 85 per cent were alcoholics. "To-day these institutions are al? most vacant, the only inmates left being aged men, whom we dislike to | cast adrift and who are too old to I make their living in the competitive ! fields. 1 "In other havens where we cared for from forty to fifty men only eight or nine remain now. "Because of this condition we are seriously thinking of closing down a majority of our homes for alco? holics, and would have decided to do so already but for the fact that in case there is an industrial de? pression there may be a demand for room from men thrown out of employment, and the Salvation Army desires to be in a position to care for these." Homes May Close Major Underwood frankly ad? mitted that he is on the side of the Anti-Saloon League in the fight now being made for a relaxation of the prohibition laws, but he insisted that the figures given out by him were absolutely accurate nevertheless. "Not only has our population of drinkers been all but wiped out, but | there also has been a curtailment of ' other charities, much of which I at? tribute to the shutting off of the supply of liquor," ?aid the Salvation Army official. "As you know, it has long been the practica of the Salvation Army to distribute Christmas dinners. For the last ten years that I have been in New York about 5,000 baskets were sent out each Yuletide, and the demand was generally for twice that number. "Last Christmas, even though prohibition, was not then fully in effect, the demand for Christmas dinners fell off to such an extent that we gave out only about 8,000." Court Records At the office of the chief city magistrate these records were ob i tained, showing the number of ar [ rests for Jofeaication p*da In 1818, the figures being divided into three month periods for the purpose, of comparison: 1919 Men. Women. Total First quarter. 1,526 388 1,914 Second quarter_ 1,486 377 1,863 ! Third quarter. 773 171 9441 Fourth quarter. ... 802 184 936 j Average per day Men. Women^Total First quarter. 17 4 21 Second quarter. 16 4 20 Third quarter. 8.4 1.4 9.8 Fourth quarter. 8.7 1.8 10.6 Disorderly Arrests Gain At the same time, however, the arrests for disorderly conduct in 1919 increased, the figures being: Men. Women. Total First quarter. 8,744 E,400 11,144 Second quarter_10,783 1,174 11,957 Third quarter.13,190 1,664 14,744 Fourth quarter-12,390 1,403 13,712; i The average? a day for the same periods were: Men. Women. Total First quarter?. 97 27 124 Second quarter~,. 118 18 181 Third quarter. 148 17 160 Fourth quarter.... 133 15 148 At the same time, these figures, compiled by the Commissioner of Correction, show how the popula? tion of New York City's penal in? stitutions has been decreasing in the last nine years: Men. Women. Total 1910._-*._ 3,182 740 3,872 1911? .....?__._,. 3,464 701 4,166 1912.?.-.. 3,675 784 4,409 1918.?.?-. 3,966 776 4,731 1914. 4,530 808 5,838 1915. 5,461 865 6,416 1916. 4,222 857 5.079 1917. 4,385 791 5,176 1918. 3,572 680 4.204 1919. 8,188 484 2,576 Th two biggest hospitals in the city caring for alcoholic cases are Bellevue and Kings County hos? pitals. Both receive cases from the Department of Public Charities. "Prohibition unquestionably has had an effect on these two bos pit?is,'* said Commissioner of Char? ities Coler. "At Bellevue there were formerly accommodations in the alcoholic wards for 126 men and for from 25 to 40 women. These beds were some times all full. "Formerly there were 5,200 ad? missions of male patients suffering from acute alcoholism and 1,500 ; such female patients a year. The average stay in the hospital was five and one-half days a patient, making the average number of such ; patients in the hospital at one time 102, of them 79 being men and 23 \ women. Down to Three or Four "There are now only three or four such patients in the hospital. The wards are temporarily given | over to influenza and pneumonia cases, but later will be used for mental defectives and for observa tion and diagnosis." Commissioner Color said that there was a similar condition at i Kings County Hospital, although ' the contrast is less marked, the j hospital never having cared for as many "drunks" as Bellevue. "The hospital formerly had ao- i commodations for 29 men and 10 ' women, the beds often being all filled," said Mr. Coler. "At the time we made our last investigation, a few days ago, there were five of i such men at the hospital and no women. "It may be added that the reduc? tion in the number of these cases ? means a considerable saving to the ? taxpayer." In considering the figures given by Major Underwood and Commie sioner Coler it is only fair to call attention to the. fact, long estab? lished by welfare and settlement workers, that men who are profit- i ably employed and unworried by i financial considerations are far less j prone to indulge in excessive drink- ? ing than when conditions are less ideal, and so the present improve? ment can be attributed in part at least to existing prosperity. But even after allowances have been made for this the reports of welfare workers, visiting nurses employed by charity organizations, etc., show a marked improvement which can, it is said, only be attrib? uted to the closing of the saloons. "We are preparing some figure? now, but they are not yet ready for publication," said Mr. Matthews, of the Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor, when discuss? ing this point. "It might be unfair to give out the number of alcoholic cases in which relief was given before prohi? bition went into effect, because of the difficulty of dividing the alco? holic cases from the rest. By this I mean that sometimes aid was given where alcoholism was only partly responsible. Sometimes ex? cessive drinking and insanitary con? ditions of living resulted in tuber? culosis cases which are still receiv? ing aid, and so it might lead to a wrong impression to give out com? parative figures at this time. "Prohibition has not been in ef? fect long enough to do that. Not a Case Left "But I will say, and it is a fact, that we are not giving assistance in a single instance now where alcohol ism is responsible for the need. "Of course, it must be remem? bered that there was a sharp de? crease in excessive drinking during the war, and then, too, there was ar improvement in conditions because of the high wages." If it be admitted that condition! at the city lodging houses are also i reflex of the ban on the sale oj liquor, then it will have to be con ceded? also, ti&% another argumen has been added to the case for the '' "drya." Whereas, in February, 1918, the daily average of the "down and outers" cared for at these institu? tions was 248, the average for Feb? ruary, 1920, was only 87. A still more striking comparison is ob? tained if one considers the figures for February, 1916, when the daily average was 488. One of these lodging houses, that at 482 East Twenty-fifth Street, formerly had a capacity of 1,064, but is now virtually without inmates. "That is why we are closing most of the floors of the municipal lodg? ing house," explained Commissioner Coler. Finally, here are some figures for the country at large, provided by the Anti-Saloon League, which that organization asserts are accurate: A Comparison In Pittsburgh the league an? nounces that a comparison between the last six months of 1919 "dry" and the first six months "wet" shows there were 7,464 persons in the county jail during the "wet" period as against 3,125 in the "dry." "This is a reduction of more than 50 per cent," the league's announce? ment sets forth. Continuing, the statement sent out by the league says: "Sheriff Hanratty, of Cleveland said that on September 12 the coun? ty jail had fewer prisoners that sum mer than at any time in ten years Charles F. Burns, superintendent o? the workhouse near Cleveland, saie the population of the city work house was reduced from 1,000 t? less than four hundred. Judg< George Adams, of the juvenil? court in Cleveland, said prohib? tion is the direct cause in the de creasing of juvenile crime. Th chief of police in Cleveland, Fran! Smith, says murders have decrease? 50 per cent since thf? saloons hav closed. In Cincinnati the felony court has been abolished. "Springfield, 111., reported 85 per cent decrease in arrests the firs* eighteen 'dry* days. In ten Massa? chusetts cities formerly "wetf the ar rests are reduced from 4,962 to 895 under the 'dry' r?gime. In Colum bus, Ohio, the city prison is without prisoners many days at a time. Or? December 26 the county jail at Lan caster, Ohio, had been reported empty for two weeks. The arrests for crime in Youngstown, Ohio, have been reduced more than 40 per cent. Arrests for drunkenness decreased about 1,000 a month for the first four months under prohibition. Philadelphia Figures "The inebriate ward in the Gen? eral Hospital In Philadelphia cared for 2,326 alcoholics in 1918. It closed its doors on July 1, 191?. The Denver State Hospital, Colo? rado, decreased its patients foj alcoholism more than 50 per cent. Alexander Haddon, judge of the Probate Court in Cleveland, says in? sanity is on the decrease?fewer al coholics. "Raymond Stockton, of the Asso dated Charities, 'Boston, says that formerly 10 per cent of the families under the care of that board were there because of drink. They have not had a single person from that cause since September. The record says: 'We find men taking joy and pride in their home life that hitherto they had not known. Instead of idleness and dissatisfaction, we find men and women holding more stead? ily to their jobs.' In Beloit, Wis., the chairman of the board in charge of the poorhouse announced : 'Pro hibition is robbing the poorhouse of its tenants.' Recently in Columbus Ohio, the Salvation Army supplied 200 baskets for charity, against 50f the same date under the saloon pol icy. The Elks in Columbus took oui nine baskets, and five were returned and the committee brought back $; te use for charity."