American Diplomacy^?ndL^^ Handin Hand
jineteen Men of Letters Have
Been Appointed Ambassa- fi?
dors or Ministers I
IT IS almost always an honor to
be the ambassador of one
great nation to another.
Hardly any political debt can
^ to paid by such an appoint?
?t. But in the American diplo?
me service it has grown to be a
frequent practice to confer this
honor on distinguished literary
men. El*v,?n out of twenty-eight
Presidents have appointed nineteen
literary men to ambassadorial or
ministerial post?. One and one
fourth per **'ent of America's prin?
cipal diplomatic representatives
hare thus been literary men, which
?t pretty high ratio of recognition
President Wilson, who already has
?roed six literary men into diplo
nst_,b*s now made his seventh ani
kmadorial choice from that profes
Mif). Robert Underwood Johnson.
?x is annpunccd, is to succeed
Thomas Nelson Page as ambassador
to Italy. Mr. Johnson has been as
lociate editor of "The Century"
from 1881 to 1909 and editor in
chief from 1910 to 1913, and in
1917 was designated director of New
York University's hall of fame for
great Americans. He was sixty
seven years old on January 12.
An Italian Admirer
? He has always been extremely
fond of Italy. In 1895 King Hum?
bert made him a Cavalier of the
Order of the Crown of Italy and a
year ago King Victor Emmanuel
conferred on him the cross of a com?
mander of that order. Mr. Johnson
was chairman of the American
Poets Ambulances in Italy, which
.pent a total of 1176,807 on hospital
equipment foi Tue Italian army uur
cg the war. He was always strongly
I pro-Ally, arid in March, 1917, in his
' poem "The Answer of the Lord,"
published in The Tribune, wrote:
I gave you Law, to guide,
That needed not my hand;
With Reason, to decide,
And Conscience, to command.
Ye are not beast or tree,
Ye are not stone or clod.
Your upward path is . re?*?
Ye are the sons of God
And .ha'., ye then descend
From your divine estate,
The craven neck to bend
And call the yoke your fate'.'
Wake from the sloth of night
And drain life's precious bowl.
The hour has come to smite
Ur ?ose a people's soul.
Washington Irving was the first
American literary diplomat. Irving
bad lived in Spain from 1826 to
1829 and as a result of that visit
produced four books: "History of
Columbus." "Chronicle of the Con
iflMt of Granada," "Voyages and
Discoveries of the Companions of
Columbus" and "The Alhambra."
The last book was written while he
was secretary of legation in Lon?
don, from 1829 to 1831. John Tyler
made him Minister at Madrid in
1841, where Irving lived a second
timo until 1846. continuing his his?
torical writing with his work on
The next litcrai'y diplomat w*>
Georgo Bancroft, who was sent tc
London by ?Tames K. Polk jjj 1846,
Yet. though the first volume of Ban?
croft's "History of the United
States" appeared in 1834, it must bf
?dmitted that he was a combinatior
literary and political ambassador
for ho had been Collector of the Pon
of Boston under Van Buren, Demo
?ratic candidate for Governor oi
Massachusetts and ?Secretary of th?
Navy fbr a year in Polk's Cabine'
and for a month Acting Secretary o:
?War. He established the Nava
academy ?t Annapolis, gave th?
Drders which led to the occupation o
California and sent Zachary Taylo
:o occupy the disputed territory be
:\veci. Te::as and Mexico.
Bancroft remained three years i:
London and on his return to Americ
?vithdrew from public life until h
?vas again called upon to fill a dipic
natic post, Ir, 1867 Andrew Johr
on made Bancroft Minister to Bej
in, whore he remained until 187'
rhe naturalization treaties he neg?
;iat?'d with Prussia and the othe
?orth German states were the fir!
n ter national recognition of the rig!
"irst to England
England har, been a favorite fie'
or American literary ambassador
Fhe.re have been five besides Ba
:roft, and it is a pleasant tradith
vith the British that Ameri?
?hooses the best of her literary m?
is ambassadors to London. T
cond?n newspapers have a habit
neasuring new American ambe
;adors by comparing them wi
.heir literary predecessors.
Charles Francis Adams was t
irst literary man to follow Ba
roft in London, and, like Ba?ero
?e was a combination politician a
itt?rateur. His first choice was t
aw, which he studied in the off
f Daniel Webster. After being t
nitted to the bar he gave him?
o writing for ten years and th
lerved five 3'ears in the Massacl
etts State Legislature. Varit
?olitical pursuits were followed
mother literary period, which en<
n 1858, when he went to Congr?
emaining there until Lincoln s<
im to London as minister In 18
The British aristocracy and up;
Our Literary Ambassadors
k ,v?5K_. ' =ai
classes were pronouncedly in favor
of the South, and the British gov?
ernment occasionally let its favorit?
ism be manifest. Adams's position
was most difficult, and Lowell later
said of him: "None of our generals
in the field, not Grant himself, did
us better or more trying service
than he in his forlorn outpost in
Founded the Tradition
Adams came home in 1867, and
President Grant sent John Lothrop
Motley to London in 1869. He was
an entirely literary ambassador, de?
spite the fact that he had been
Minister to Austria from 1861 to
1867. Motley served his country
faithfully and with tact in Vienna,
but his reputation rested on the solid
foundation of his work as a his?
torian, his "History of the Rise of
the Dutch Republic" having ap?
peared in 1856 and the first two
volumes of his "History of the
United Netherlands" in 1860. His
tenure of the London post was com?
paratively brief, as he was recalled
in November, 1870.
Ten year? later, in appointing
rrOP line, left to right, Thomas Nelson Page, R. U. Johnso
* Henry van Dyke and Brand Whitlock. At the left
Andrew D. White, rind, at the, riaht James Russell. Lmnell
) :?ynes Russell Lowell as Minister to
England, President Hayes founded
he British tradition of American
terary diplomats. While Lowell
bad always been intensely interested
in important political questions, as
evidenced by "The Biglow Papers" in
1846, satirizing the Mexican War,
and the second series of "Biglow
Papers," published from 1862 to
1866, satirizing the slavery party of
the Civil War, he had never been in
any sense a politician. His first po?
litical experience was when Presi?
dent Hayes made him Minister to
Madrid in 1877. In 1880 he was
transferred to London and served
there with distinction until 1885.
His speeches are still remembered
and quoted by the British, who hold
him in reverence and love as the
type of the best in American diplo?
Preferred the Farm
After Lowell there was a lapse in
London until 1897, when President
McKinley made John Hay Ambassa?
dor, the post having by then been
raised from a legation to an em?
bassy. The appointment of Hay was
in accord with the best traditions
of the American diplomatic service.
He was not only a literary man of
high rank, but an experienced diplo?
mat and had been intimately associ?
ated with statesmen and- national
affairs from the time when he was
one of Lincoln's secretaries. He con?
tinued as ambassador until he was
recalled to become Secretary of
The late Walter Hlnes Page was
the last literary ambassador to Lon
don. He was appointed by Preside m
Wilson in April, 1913, caught jus'
as he was about to do what he really
wanted to do?be a North Carolins
farmer. He had never been con
cerned in politics, but had alway:
been either a newspaper man or ;
magazine editor, greatly intereste ?
in his fellow countrymen. The Brit
ish were pleased with his appoint
ment. They are always please?
when America sends them a literar
man, and he soon achieved a per
sonal popularity with them which i:
no wise diminished during the try
ing, exacting labors of the great wai
Mr. Page returned home in Octobei
1918, just before the signing of th
armistice, because of his failin
health, and died but little more tha
two months later.
George H. Boker was the onl
American playwright who became
diplomat? Among his plays wer
"Anne Boleyn," "Leonor de Gu;
man," "Framaesca da Rimini" an
'The Widow's Marriage." "Fraj
cesca da Rlmtni," which has bee
revived several times-and was of te
played by Barrett, was the be;
known. President Grant took hi;
from writing plays and poems 1
send him ?as Minister to Turkey i
1.871, and transferred him to Russi
?n 1875, where he remained und?
Hayes until 1879.
Hayes N.amed Four
President Hayes had four ?iteraj
ambassadors. Besides Lowell
Spain and Boker in Russia he sej
Bayard Taylor to Germany in 187
Taylor had had a brief diplomat
experience as secretary of legath
- in St. Petersburg in 1862 and 1863,
1 but he was essentially a literary
man. He began life as a printer's
apprentice in 1842. His first volume
j of poems was published in 1844, and
j in 1847 he joined the staff of The
i Tribune and never broke his con?
nection with this paper from then to
r the end of; his life. Through all his
t wide travels in Europe, Egypt, Asia
; Minor, Syria, India, China, Japan
. and In California in 1849 he was ?
I correspondent of The Tribune, and
- the sketches of many of his books
i were first published here. He died
i in Germany in 1878 while Minister
; to that country and President Haye,
i appointed as his successor Andrew
? D. White.
i Ambassador White began his dip
: lomatic experience before his literarj
? work. He was an attach? at the
American legation in St. Petersburg
during part of the Crimean War anc
it was after that that he became
? professor of history and English
i literature in the University oJ
; Michigan. His writings were chief
ly historical, and in 1884 he wa.
i elected the first president of the
American Historical Society. Afte.
Washington Irving Was Jthe First
to Represent the United States
at a Foreign Caoital
! he resigned the presidency of Cornell
! he gave that university his histori
i cal library, comprir.rg about 30,000
volumes and 10,000 pamphlets and
manuscripts. He was Minister to
Germany from 187!. to 1881 and was
sent to Germany a second time by
President McKinley in 1897 and re?
mained there until 1902. -In the
i mean time, he had been Minister to
: Pwussia from 1892 to 1894. In 1899
h * was chairman of the American
allegation to The Hague peace con
Author of "Ben-Hur"
General Lew Wallace, who was
; President Arthur's literary diplo
i mat, was a lawyer and a soldier be
j fore he became an author, but was
! an author before he was a diplomat.
i General Wallace was born in 1827,
studied law in Indiana, served in the
I Mexican War, practiced law again
until the Civil War, in which he
served with -distinction, and once
more resumed the practice of law
His novel "The Fair God" was writ
ten in 1873, while "Ben-Hur," whici
achieved a remarkable success, was
published in 1880. It was in 1881
that he was appointed Minister t<
Turkey, where he served until 1885
Dr. David Jayne Hill goes to tht
credit of Presidents McKinley
Roosevelt and Taft, while Dr
Maurice F. Egan is credited to Presi
dents Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson
Dr. Hill is the author of biographie:
of Washington Irving and Willian
Cullen Bryant, but the majority o
his books have dealt with question
of government or international rela
tions. So much of his life has beei
given to diplomatic affairs that it i
perhaps, questionable if he shoul
be classed as a literary diplomal
though he is probably best known f o
his writings. Before he entered th
diplomatic service he had been presi
j dent of Bucknell University and th
University of Rochester. He re
signed the latter position in 1898 t
study law and diplomacy. Presiden
! McKinley appointed him an ai
sistant Secretary of State in 189.
and in 1903 President Rooseve
made him Minister to Switzerlan.
He was promoted to Minister to t_
Netherlands in 1905 and in 1907 w_
named Ambassador to Berlin,.whic
poet he held until he resigned i
Egan a Teacher
Dr. Egan, who had been an edito
and the author of several popula
novels, came out of retirement as
teacher of English at the Catholi
University at Brooklands, on the oui
skirts of Washington, to accept th
nr___: /%# Minia.?? fr. It...... _?.l. ??? 4-V.
I behest of President Roosevelt in
! 1907. He remained in that post
j until 1918, when he resigned on ac
j count of ill health.
President Wilson has been the
! most prolific appointer of literary
; diplomats. Besides holding over Dr.
Egan from President Taft, he has
. appointed seven literary ministers,
or ambassador-? on his own account.
The five besides Robert Underwood
' Johnson and Walter Hines Page are
?Thomas Nelson Page, Dr. Henry
! van Dyke, Brand Whitlock, Paul S.
Reinsch and Norman Hapgood.
Thomas Nelson Page was a Iaw
! yer by education, a writer by choice
; and a diplomat by inculcation of
I ideas. When he was appointed Am
jbassador to Italy in 1913 he had
! never taken an active part in poli
: tic3, but his home in Washington
was one of the handsomest in that
city and his social doings were
'< among the exclusive diplomatic set.
j Dr. van Dyke had had the excellent
I diplomatic training of twenty years
; as pastor of the Brick Presbyterian
j Church, after which he went to
? Princeton as professor of English
literature. He and President Wil?
son were at Princeton at the same
time, which may explain why Dr.
van Dyke was glad to go to Holland
when Wilson became President.
j Whitlock and Belgium
Brand Whitlock has been eo many
j things that it was hardly possibk
j for him to escape diplomacy. The
; ease with which he carried through
? the work of representing seven
?countries besides his own in Bel?
gium during the war is explained
by bis having been four times Mayor
of Toledo on an independent ticket
and being compelled to refuse a
fifth term. He was born in Ohio,
which state, in former years sup
plied more Federal officeholders
j than any other one state in the
Union, and this alone would have ei>
titled him to public office. He be?
gan life as a newspaper reporter,
became secretary to Governor Alt
geld of Illinois, studied law, wrot;
poetry and finally to^k up being
Mayor of Toledo ?as a career. Pres?
ident Wilson rescued him from To
! ledo in 1913 and sent him to Bel
Dr. Reinsch, had long been a stu?
dent of Far Eastern affairs when
he was sent to China in 1913. He
has written extensively on law and
politics, and his books have been
translated into Japanese and Chi?
nese. He gave up the post of pro?
fessor of political science at the
University of Wisconsin to become
Minister to China. Norman Hap?
good followed Dr. Egan in Copen
Prohibition Is Closing Alcoholic Wards and Homes for Drunkards
By Arnold D. Prince
WHATEVER the merits in
the prohibition agitation,
a partial survey of con?
ditions just completed in
^?w York and throughout the coun?
ty lewis to show that with the sus
P??lon of the sale of liquor radi?
al changes resulted in institutions
tooted to the care of alcoholics or
tf persons who became dependents
?cauae of excessive indulgence ? in
^ests Fall Off
A* the same time the records of
!he police courts show a marked fall
1Bi off in the number of arreste due
:o intoxication. Savings institutions
rePort increases in small deposits,
Hut aa thfts? are partly attributed to
ni8? wages and plentiful employ?
?t not all the benefits can be
^ted to prohibition. .
01 th? organisations which came
!nto direct contact with the liquor
pr?blem none was more prominent
J* the Salvation Array. Major
d*?rd Underwood, head of the
t,*itern Social Welfare Department
th* Salvation Army, announces
2 the activities of the five hun
*** homes, "hotels" and shelters,
^?nttined throughout the United
"?J* by the Army for the care of
?Nkardi," have been so radically
y%??** that ??riona consideration
! being given to the proposal to
** most of them.
^olic Wards Empty
J^BeK.ivu? and Klng8 County
T^W?, which cared for thousands
^?koholic cases annually, need for
|*J* these wards virtually has
rjj^wd, and they are to be con
2* into wards for the care of
**$ fcfecttvat and for the ob
; servation of persona suffering with
i psychopathic ailments.
At the offices of the New York As
j sociation for Improving the Condi
! tion of the Poor, 105 East Twenty
second Street, one of the greatest
welfare organizations of the conn
try, William H. Matthews, in charge
i of the Department of Family Wel?
fare, announces that not a single
case of dependency due to alcohol?
ism is now on the books of the asso?
Mr. Matthews said it was too early
to give figures showing the decrease
in the number of oases from pre
prohibition days, but Major Under?
wood, of the Salvation Army, was
not so conservative.
A Thonsand a Day
"Before prohibition we had about
one thousand men constantly in our
institutions in and about greater
j New York devoted to the care of
I alcoholic cases, or of persona out of
employment because of drinking,"
said Major Underwood.
"We have one place on Forty
eighth Street which cared for 200
j'men; another on 120th Street with
! room for 125 men ; two in Brooklyn
! caring for 100 and 200 men respect?
ively; one in Jersey City with ac?
commodations for 160 men, and
others in Yonkers and nearby places
caring for more than 200.
"Of the men cared for in these
institutions at least 75 per cent or
85 per cent were alcoholics.
"To-day these institutions are al?
most vacant, the only inmates left
being aged men, whom we dislike to
| cast adrift and who are too old to
I make their living in the competitive
1 "In other havens where we cared
for from forty to fifty men only
eight or nine remain now.
"Because of this condition we are
seriously thinking of closing down
a majority of our homes for alco?
holics, and would have decided to
do so already but for the fact that
in case there is an industrial de?
pression there may be a demand
for room from men thrown out of
employment, and the Salvation
Army desires to be in a position to
care for these."
Homes May Close
Major Underwood frankly ad?
mitted that he is on the side of the
Anti-Saloon League in the fight now
being made for a relaxation of the
prohibition laws, but he insisted that
the figures given out by him were
absolutely accurate nevertheless.
"Not only has our population of
drinkers been all but wiped out, but
| there also has been a curtailment of
' other charities, much of which I at?
tribute to the shutting off of the
supply of liquor," ?aid the Salvation
"As you know, it has long been
the practica of the Salvation Army
to distribute Christmas dinners. For
the last ten years that I have been
in New York about 5,000 baskets
were sent out each Yuletide, and the
demand was generally for twice that
"Last Christmas, even though
prohibition, was not then fully in
effect, the demand for Christmas
dinners fell off to such an extent
that we gave out only about 8,000."
At the office of the chief city
magistrate these records were ob
i tained, showing the number of ar
[ rests for Jofeaication p*da In 1818,
the figures being divided into three
month periods for the purpose, of
1919 Men. Women. Total
First quarter. 1,526 388 1,914
Second quarter_ 1,486 377 1,863 !
Third quarter. 773 171 9441
Fourth quarter. ... 802 184 936 j
Average per day
First quarter. 17 4 21
Second quarter. 16 4 20
Third quarter. 8.4 1.4 9.8
Fourth quarter. 8.7 1.8 10.6
Disorderly Arrests Gain
At the same time, however, the
arrests for disorderly conduct in
1919 increased, the figures being:
Men. Women. Total
First quarter. 8,744 E,400 11,144
Second quarter_10,783 1,174 11,957
Third quarter.13,190 1,664 14,744
Fourth quarter-12,390 1,403 13,712;
The average? a day for the same
Men. Women. Total
First quarter?. 97 27 124
Second quarter~,. 118 18 181
Third quarter. 148 17 160
Fourth quarter.... 133 15 148
At the same time, these figures,
compiled by the Commissioner of
Correction, show how the popula?
tion of New York City's penal in?
stitutions has been decreasing in the
last nine years:
Men. Women. Total
1910._-*._ 3,182 740 3,872
1911? .....?__._,. 3,464 701 4,166
1912.?.-.. 3,675 784 4,409
1918.?.?-. 3,966 776 4,731
1914. 4,530 808 5,838
1915. 5,461 865 6,416
1916. 4,222 857 5.079
1917. 4,385 791 5,176
1918. 3,572 680 4.204
1919. 8,188 484 2,576
Th two biggest hospitals in the
city caring for alcoholic cases are
Bellevue and Kings County hos?
pitals. Both receive cases from the
Department of Public Charities.
"Prohibition unquestionably has
had an effect on these two bos
pit?is,'* said Commissioner of Char?
"At Bellevue there were formerly
accommodations in the alcoholic
wards for 126 men and for from 25
to 40 women. These beds were some
times all full.
"Formerly there were 5,200 ad?
missions of male patients suffering
from acute alcoholism and 1,500 ;
such female patients a year. The
average stay in the hospital was
five and one-half days a patient,
making the average number of such ;
patients in the hospital at one time
102, of them 79 being men and 23 \
Down to Three or Four
"There are now only three or
four such patients in the hospital.
The wards are temporarily given |
over to influenza and pneumonia
cases, but later will be used for
mental defectives and for observa
tion and diagnosis."
Commissioner Color said that
there was a similar condition at i
Kings County Hospital, although '
the contrast is less marked, the j
hospital never having cared for as
many "drunks" as Bellevue.
"The hospital formerly had ao- i
commodations for 29 men and 10 '
women, the beds often being all
filled," said Mr. Coler. "At the time
we made our last investigation, a
few days ago, there were five of i
such men at the hospital and no
"It may be added that the reduc?
tion in the number of these cases ?
means a considerable saving to the ?
In considering the figures given
by Major Underwood and Commie
sioner Coler it is only fair to call
attention to the. fact, long estab?
lished by welfare and settlement
workers, that men who are profit- i
ably employed and unworried by i
financial considerations are far less j
prone to indulge in excessive drink- ?
ing than when conditions are less
ideal, and so the present improve?
ment can be attributed in part at
least to existing prosperity.
But even after allowances have
been made for this the reports of
welfare workers, visiting nurses
employed by charity organizations,
etc., show a marked improvement
which can, it is said, only be attrib?
uted to the closing of the saloons.
"We are preparing some figure?
now, but they are not yet ready for
publication," said Mr. Matthews, of
the Association for Improving the
Condition of the Poor, when discuss?
ing this point.
"It might be unfair to give out
the number of alcoholic cases in
which relief was given before prohi?
bition went into effect, because of
the difficulty of dividing the alco?
holic cases from the rest. By this
I mean that sometimes aid was
given where alcoholism was only
partly responsible. Sometimes ex?
cessive drinking and insanitary con?
ditions of living resulted in tuber?
culosis cases which are still receiv?
ing aid, and so it might lead to a
wrong impression to give out com?
parative figures at this time.
"Prohibition has not been in ef?
fect long enough to do that.
Not a Case Left
"But I will say, and it is a fact,
that we are not giving assistance in
a single instance now where alcohol
ism is responsible for the need.
"Of course, it must be remem?
bered that there was a sharp de?
crease in excessive drinking during
the war, and then, too, there was ar
improvement in conditions because
of the high wages."
If it be admitted that condition!
at the city lodging houses are also i
reflex of the ban on the sale oj
liquor, then it will have to be con
ceded? also, ti&% another argumen
has been added to the case for the ''
Whereas, in February, 1918, the
daily average of the "down and
outers" cared for at these institu?
tions was 248, the average for Feb?
ruary, 1920, was only 87. A still
more striking comparison is ob?
tained if one considers the figures
for February, 1916, when the daily
average was 488.
One of these lodging houses, that
at 482 East Twenty-fifth Street,
formerly had a capacity of 1,064,
but is now virtually without inmates.
"That is why we are closing most
of the floors of the municipal lodg?
ing house," explained Commissioner
Finally, here are some figures for
the country at large, provided by
the Anti-Saloon League, which that
organization asserts are accurate:
In Pittsburgh the league an?
nounces that a comparison between
the last six months of 1919 "dry"
and the first six months "wet"
shows there were 7,464 persons in
the county jail during the "wet"
period as against 3,125 in the
"This is a reduction of more than
50 per cent," the league's announce?
ment sets forth.
Continuing, the statement sent
out by the league says:
"Sheriff Hanratty, of Cleveland
said that on September 12 the coun?
ty jail had fewer prisoners that sum
mer than at any time in ten years
Charles F. Burns, superintendent o?
the workhouse near Cleveland, saie
the population of the city work
house was reduced from 1,000 t?
less than four hundred. Judg<
George Adams, of the juvenil?
court in Cleveland, said prohib?
tion is the direct cause in the de
creasing of juvenile crime. Th
chief of police in Cleveland, Fran!
Smith, says murders have decrease?
50 per cent since thf? saloons hav
closed. In Cincinnati the felony
court has been abolished.
"Springfield, 111., reported 85 per
cent decrease in arrests the firs*
eighteen 'dry* days. In ten Massa?
chusetts cities formerly "wetf the ar
rests are reduced from 4,962 to 895
under the 'dry' r?gime. In Colum
bus, Ohio, the city prison is without
prisoners many days at a time. Or?
December 26 the county jail at Lan
caster, Ohio, had been reported
empty for two weeks. The arrests
for crime in Youngstown, Ohio, have
been reduced more than 40 per cent.
Arrests for drunkenness decreased
about 1,000 a month for the first
four months under prohibition.
"The inebriate ward in the Gen?
eral Hospital In Philadelphia cared
for 2,326 alcoholics in 1918. It
closed its doors on July 1, 191?.
The Denver State Hospital, Colo?
rado, decreased its patients foj
alcoholism more than 50 per cent.
Alexander Haddon, judge of the
Probate Court in Cleveland, says in?
sanity is on the decrease?fewer al
"Raymond Stockton, of the Asso
dated Charities, 'Boston, says that
formerly 10 per cent of the families
under the care of that board were
there because of drink. They have
not had a single person from that
cause since September. The record
says: 'We find men taking joy and
pride in their home life that hitherto
they had not known. Instead of
idleness and dissatisfaction, we find
men and women holding more stead?
ily to their jobs.' In Beloit, Wis.,
the chairman of the board in charge
of the poorhouse announced : 'Pro
hibition is robbing the poorhouse of
its tenants.' Recently in Columbus
Ohio, the Salvation Army supplied
200 baskets for charity, against 50f
the same date under the saloon pol
icy. The Elks in Columbus took oui
nine baskets, and five were returned
and the committee brought back $;
te use for charity."
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