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New-York tribune. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, September 09, 1920, Image 6

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Text of Senator Harding's Speech at the Minnesota State Fail*
Urges Farm Policy to Stop
Exploitation of Resources
Candidate Declares Agriculture Has Suffered in United
States Because Energies of Country Have
Gone Into Cities
ST. PAUL, Sept. 8.?-The full text of Senator Warren G.
Harding'8 speech at the Minnesota State Fair to-day follows:
"Fellow citizens of Minnesota, it is'
a matter of very great satisfaction and
a very particular interest to me to
join with you in this notable exhibition
of the agricultural industry of your
wonderful state. I come to you with
a co?nmon interest and awery common
concern for the welfare of our country.
While it is in my thought to speak to
you specifically concerning agriculture,
I want to so convey my thought as to
have it known that I am thinking not
of the welfare alone of those engaged
in agriculture but the welfare of ag?
riculture as it relates to the good
fortunes of the United States of Amer?
ica.
"I very much deplore the present-day
tendency to appeal to the particular
group in American activities. It has
become, a very common practice to
make one address to those who consti?
tute the ranks of labor, another to
those who make up the great farming
community, and still another to the
manufacturing world and its associates
in commerce, and to other groups of
less importance. There is a very nat?
ural and a very genuine interest in
each and every one, but the utterance
of a poiitica! party nominee ought, in
every instant?, to be inspired bv a
purpose to serve our common country.
If America is to go on and come to
the heights of achievement, we must
of necessity be all for one and one
for all.
Dollar Wheat Story Explained
"Let me say, in passing, I hope it
is entirely seemly to remind you that
no public man, particularly no public
servant, from the great wheat-raising
State of Ohio, would dare to think,
much less to say, he believed in dollar
wheat amid the price wildness which
the world is contemplating to-day. I
speak of it because we are getting ac?
quainted to-day, and I do not mean to
have any misunderstanding between
you and me, and I will not be ?grossly
and unfairly misrepresented.
"I have helped to cut 60-cent wheat.
I have known it to sell at 40 cents. I
have followed the cradle and sweated
behind the reaper when binding was a
cross to bear, and I know I spoke the
truth when I said, some years ago, that
Ohio farmers, in the normal days be?
fore the war, rejoiced to raise dollar
wheat. That statement had no refer?
ence to war time, none to the present
after-war period. Conditions, as well
a? prices, have changed since I made
that perfectly natural and truthful
statement, and other great and impor?
tant changes are in contemplation, and
no misrepresentation is necessary to
bring them about.
Conditions Cause Concern
"A good many years ago a Chinese
philosopher uttered a profound truth
when he said: 'The wellbeing of a peo?
ple is like a tree. Agriculture is its
root, manufacture and commerce are
its branches and its life. If the root
is injured the leaves fall, the branches
break and the tree dies.'
"It may seem strange to many good
people that at this particular timo any
one should quote this saying of a wise
o!d Chinese. Never In aii our history
have prices of farm products ruled so
high, measured in dollars, as during
the past four years. Farm land in the
great surplus-producing states has ad?
vanced to unheard-of prices, with
every indication that but for the tight
money conditions it would <ro still
higher.
?Apparently the farmers of the land
are enjoying unprccedn^Red prosperity.
Why, then, even by implication, suggest
that something may bo wrong with our
agriculture, and that the trouble may
be communicated to our manufac?
tures and commerce? People in the
cities are disposed to think that if
there is anything wrong it is in the
cities, where food is selling at such
high prices, and r.ot in the country,
where the food is produced. But both
farm and city students of national
problems see in the present agricul?
tural situation certain conditions which
give cause for real concern to every
lover of his country.
' Agriculture Discussed
"An intelligent discussion of oui
agriculture at the present time must
take note of what has happened since
the middle of the last century. At
that time a fine rural civilization had
been built up east of the Mississippi
River, with Ohio in the heart of the
corn belt and standing in about the
?.ame relation to the agriculture of that
day that Iowa stands to-day. The agri?
cultural frontier had been pushed
beyond the Mississippi and abundant
food was being raised to support the
growing industrial life of the Bast.
"Then came the Civil War, and fol?
lowing it the great Western migration
into the fertile, open plains of what
is now the central West. Through the
homestead law the government gave o
farm of the richest land in the world
. to every man who wanted one. Rail
I roads were built, the prairies were
F plowed up, and almost overnight the
agricultural production of the United
States increased by 60 per cent. Graini
were produced and sold at the bar?
cost of utilizing the soil, and the farm?
ers of the older states to the casi
were smothered by this flood of cheaj
grain.
"The only thing that could be don?
with this superabundance of food wai
to build cities out of it. And great
cities we did build, not only in tin
United States, but across the seas.
Farm Production Aided Cities
"The world has never seen, and prob
ably may never again see, such t
terrific impulse toward city buildin?
on a vast scale as that which wai
given by the overproduction of farrr
products during the latter part of th?
nineteenth century and tho first f?M
years of the twentieth.
"What are ordinary dull statistic!
will strikingly illumine tho situatioi
which I have been trying to convey
In the decade from 1900 to 1910 th?
city population of the United State)
increased 35 per cent, whHe the rura
population increased only 11 per ctnt
The number of farm utilities probabl]
increased less, but we do know officially
that the city population increased mon
than three times as rapidly m thi
rural population.
"The figures are not y?st complet?
for the decade ending this year, but
sufficient reports have been published
to give us a very dependable estimate
The indications are that no increase
will be shown in the number of fartni
and no increase in strictly farm popu?
lation. In all probability, dating fron
1920, we shall estimate our farm popu?
lation as 30 per cent of the whole
while the urban population will mak?
?p the other 70 per cent.
Danger la Changing Condition?
"Another interesting fact to reveal
the danger in, changing conditions
Only a few decade? ago, indeed, from
the very beginning, the export? ol
the United State? we*? ?oil-grown ot
farm-produc?d materials. On the othei
hand, matt ofr?ur importa mtat* mann?
?sztvroi *rt$LM. I? th? tost hail
g>
century, year after year, the exports of
farm-grown products have decreased?
except during the World War?and ex?
ports of manufactured products have
increased until again we are rapidly
reaching the zero mark from the stand?
point of agricultural supplies to the
world.
"Each year our imports show larger
and larger quantities of farm-grown
products, and the time is almost with
us when the imports of farm-grown
products will exceed the exports?in
short, when our farm population will
not be 9upplji*ng the products neces?
sary for our own people.
"The farmer suffered during this
changing period. Overproduction means
low prices, and he overproduced with
a vengeance, though it was an In?
evitable part of the scheme of Ameri?
can development. He was obliged to
practice grinding economy, and to live
as far as possible from his own acres.
He did live essentially within his own
productivity, and the farm was the
factory for the agricultural home.
"'Land poor' was a common expres?
sion in the farming country.
Boys Attracted to Cities
"Many, and especially the ambitious
boys, abandoned the farms and added
themselves to the growing population
of the cities, driven by the hardships
of the farm and attracted by the
greater rewards offered by the cities.
"By 1905 it was becoming apparent
that? the consuming power of the cities
and industrial centers would soon be
large enough to equalize the producing
power of the farms. Prices of farm
products began to advance, and with
this advance came an increase in the
price of farm land. Improved ma?
chinery increased the numbw of acres
one man could farm, thereby decreas?
ing his1 cost of production. The ex?
pression 'farm poor' was no longer
heard. Men who had not secured farms
of their own began to seek them, and
the march to the West and Northwest
was resumed. Irrigation projects were
started and the homestead law made
more liberal in order to make the
settlement of??)the semi-arid country
more attractive. New areas of govern?
ment land were opened for entry.
Cities Built Up on Cheap Food
"In the mean time the consuming
public had become concerned over the
prospect of paying higher prices for
foodstuffs. Cities and industrial cen?
ters had been built up on ridiculously
cheap food. Indeed, their building was
the first essential in developing farm
values. Then the increase in price called
for readjustment and required wage
advances. Organizations of city busi?
ness men began to take an interest
in farm affairs and preach the duty of
increased production.
"The 'back-to-the-land' cry began
to be heard. Increased appropriations
by Congress and by state legislatures
were made to stimulate better methods
of farming and thus increase produc?
tion in the hope of keeping down food
prices. The rural uplift movemeniXwas
started with the thought that by
making conditions on the farm more
attractive the drift from the farm to
the city might be checked.
"The work of agricultural colleges
was strengthened by the addition o?
extension departments, the function
of which is to take the teaching of
better methods of farming and stock
growing into the counties and small?
er communities, and especially ic
stimulate an interest in farming among
the boys and girls. All sorts of efforts
were made to check the drift from the
farm to the city and to maintain farir
production.
Farming Became a Science
"In truth, here in America farm
ing came to that stage where it cease<
to be a mere struggle for sustenance
and it found its place amid the com
petition for achievement. It was n?
longer the inherently directed opera
tion with the soil for restricted living
but became a commercial, scientifi
operation with Mother Nature to shan
in the accomplishments of a moderi
life and know a participation in mod
em rewards.
"Then came the World War, whicl
accelerated greatly the movement whicl
was already under full headway. Th?
cry for food which came from the na
tions across the sea caused further ad
vanees in prices of farm products, a
well as in prices of farm land, and botl
profits and patriotism stimulated pro
duction.
"But with this increased demand fo
the products of the farm came als
an increased demand fjr the product
of our factories and othfr industria
enterprises, resulting in higher wage!
and the city continued to pull from th
farm large numbers of young men wh
did not have farms of their own an
could see no prospect of getting then
and who thought they cou'd see in th
city better wages and greater oppoi
tunities for advancement, as well a
more attractive living conditions.
"If the facts were available it woul
be found probably that during th
period from 1906 to 1917, the time o
our entrance into the war, the drii
from the farm to the city continue
with little abatement, notwithstandin
the moro hopeful conditions on th
farm.
"Farmer 100 Per Cent American''
"The splendid part played by th
farmers of the nation during the wa
probably never will be understood o
fully appreciated by our people. Moi
than '?h per cent of all our fiehtln
men came from the farms, and afte
sending thoir sons to the camps th
fathers and mothers, with the help c
the younger children, turned to an
produced more food than was ever bi
fore produced in the history of th
world in the same time and from th
same nrea of land. Their workin
days were measured not by the cloc
but by the number of daylight hour
"They took to themselves the r?
sppnsibility of feeding not only oi
own people, but also our allies acroi
the sea. In more ways than one ot
farmeis made the wnr their war, ar
counted no sacrifice too great to he!
fight it through to a successful finis
The stary of what they did, written I
some one who understands it, wi
furnish one of tho most glorious cha?,
ters jn American history. One thir
f may 'say- in every American coi
flict, from the revolution for ind<
pendence to the World War for mal?
?tained fights, the farmer has been 1<
per cent American and ready for evei
sacrifice.
Stock Producers Suffer
"Without spraking at length of far
production und prices during the wa
ft is necessary to note certsin result
if wo are to deal understanding^ wit
the agricultural situation at the pre
?nt tiipe, and sneak intelligently of
future'police TVidr ?conditions put
premium on grain growing at the e:
pense of llvflstocV production. As
consequence, many stock producers ar
Ut?tra nava ?uffarad heavy and, i
lonta ess*?, mlaoflis tost??. If this ?sot
dition should continue we are in dan?
ger in the near future of having to pay
very high prices for our meats.
"For two outstanding reasons the
maintenance of a normal balance be?
tween livestock and grain production
is a matter of national concern. One
is that we are a meat-eating people,
and should have a fairly uniform sup?
ply at a reasonable price.
"Conditions which either greatly
stimulate or greatly discourage live?
stock production result in prices alto?
gether too high for the average con?
suming public or altogether too low for
the producer. The other is that the
overstimulatlon of grain production de?
pletes the fertility of our land, which
is our greatest national asset, and re?
sults in a greater supply than can be
consumed at a price profitable to the
producer, and finally to *x widespread
agricultural distress, from which all of
our people suffer.
"As a reconstruction measure, there?
fore, our government should do every?
thing in its power to restore the nor?
mal balance between livestock and
grain production, and thus encourage
the prompt return to that system ol
diversified farming by which alone we
can maintain our soil fertility. This
is a matter of immediate importance
to all of our people.
Period ol Unco alnty i
"No one can forecast with certainty
the trend of prices of farm products
during the next two or three years
Recovery from a world crisis such as
we have experienced is slow inevita?
bly. It is like the human convalescence
from a long and dan?erouB illness. Oui
relations with the world at large ure
such that important happenings in
other lands have a marked effect upon
conditions here at home.
"Order must be restored, industries
rebuilt, devasted lands reclaimed
transr ortation reestablished, the vast
arn.ies reabsorbed in the occupation!
of normal life. The near futur?
promises to be a period of uncertaintj
for the farmer, as well as for the mer
engaged in industrial enterprises
America has no greater problem thai
returning securely to the normal, on
ward road again. This isn't lookinj
backward?it is a forward look ti
stability and security.
"It must be evident, however, to an;
one who has given the matter evei
superficial consideration that we hav
now come to the end of the long perioi
of agricultural exploitation in th
United States. No longer are ther
great and easily cultivated areas o
fertile land awaiting the land hungrj
We have now under the plow prac
tically all of our easily tillable lane
though idle areas await reclamatio
and development by that genius an
determination which ever have mad
nature respond to human needs.
"I Want a Soul In Farming"
"Additions of consequence which w
may make to our farming area, froi
this time on, must come by puttin
water on the dry lands of the arid an
semi-arid country, or by taking wate
off of the swamp lands, of which w
have large areas in some sections, o
by digging the stumps out of the cut
over timber lands of the North an
South." There are, of course, large poi
sibilities in intensive farming, in tin
land thrift which admits of neithe
waste nor neglect, and in ever-improi
ing methods, which must be as inspi:
ing to agricultural life as to the pr<
fessions or to commercial leadershv
"I want a soul in farming, to s<
aglow the most independent and sel
respecting activity in all the world.
"The time has come when, as a ni
tion, we must determine upon a del
nite agricultural policy. We must di
cide whether we shall undertake t
make of the United States a self-su
taining nation? which means that w
shall grow within our own boundarii
all of the staple food products neede
to maintain the highest type of civil
zation?or whether v:e shall contint
to exploit our agricultural resourc?
for the benefit of our industrial ai
commercial life, and leave to posted'
the task of finding food enough, 1
strong-arm methods, if necessary,
support the coming hundreds
millions.
For a Self-Rellant Nation
"I believe in the self-sustaining, i
dependent, self-reliant nation, ag)
culturally, industrially and political!
We are then the guarantors of o
own security and are erual to t
task.
"If we should unhappily choose t
course of industrial and commerc
promotion at the expense of agrict
ture, cities will continue to grow at t
expense of the rural community, ag
culture will inevitably break down a
finally destroy the finest rural civilii
tion, with the greatest possibilities, t
world has ever seen.
"Decreased farm production v,
make dear food and we shall
obliged to send our ships to far aw
nations in sear-h of cheap foodstul
the importation of which* is sure
intensify agricultural discouragcmi.
and distress at home. Ultimately th?
will come the same fatal break-do
and from the same causes which h?
destroyed the great civilizations
centuries past.
"If, on the other hand, we shall
termine to build up here a self-s
taining nation?and what lover of
country can make a diffeient choi.
?then wo mu<?t at once set about
development of a system of agricult
which will enable us to feed our poo
abundantly, with some to spare for
port in years of plenty, and at pri
which will insure to the farmer i
his family both financial rewards i
educational, social and religious liv
conditions fairly comparable to th
offered by the cities.
FtUr Return Essential
"A sound system of agriculture c
not be maintained on any other ba
Anything short of a fair return u
invested capital and a fair wage
the labor which trocs into the t?
and enough in addition to enable
farmer to maintain tho fertility of
soil and insure against natural iiaza
will drive large numbers of farmer:
the cities.
"A frank recognition by all of
people of this fundamont.il ?!??;? h
necessary if we are successfully
work out this great nat?o: > ??
It is a matter of even greater cone
to the people of the cities lain tu
farmer and the farm community,
we cannot, by painstaking study
wise statesmanship, arrive at such
derstanding and application of
nomic laws as will enable us to b?
about a fair balance between our ui
and rural industrie?, bringing pros
ity to both and permitting neithei
fatten at the expense of the other,
cannot hope for concord, and witl
concord there is no assurance for
future.
Farmers Rapidly Organizing
"Heretofore the farmer has beer
individualist. Living a somewhat
latcd life and being compelled to v
long hours, it has not been easy
him to gather with, his fellows. He
not had a ready means of def<
against the stror,? organizations
both capital and labor, which in t
own interest hnve at times imposed
fair conditions upon him. It is
that at times during the last
years thero have been temporary fai
organization? brought together to <
bat some unusually burdensomo co
tion, but usually breaking down v
the emergency has passed.
"But of late years there 1
sprung up farmer organisations <
quit? diff?rant sort ? organis?t
with a very large memhership,
an aggressive and intelligent leader?
ship, and with a way of raising what?
ever* funds they may find necessary to
promote the interests of their mem?
bers. The leaders of these organiza?
tions are learning rapidly how to
adapt to their work the methods which
business men and working men have
found successful in furthering their
own interests.
"The fruit growers of the western
coast have become so strong that they
are now able not only to do away with
many of the expenses heretofore paid
to others, but also to influence the
price of their products.
"The grain growers of the West and
Northwest have become strong enough
to bring about many changes they de?
sired in the marketing of their crops.
The farmers of the corn belt states are
rapidly perfecting the most powerful
organization of farmers ever known
in this country. All of these are nat?
ural developments in the evolving
change of relationship and the modern
complexities of productivity and ex?
change.
"It is more than conceivable, it is ap?
parent, that we are able to deal more
wisely and more justly with our agri?
culture than we have in the past. Un?
less we do deal more fairly there may
come a conflict between tho organized
farmers in ( the surplus-producing
states and those who insist on buying
their crops below production costs. We
have witnessed the restricted produc?
tion of manufactures and labor, but
we have not yet experienced the in?
tentionally restricted production of
foodstuffs. Let us hope we never may.
It is bur business to produce and cor.
? rerve, not to deny, deprive or destr>y.
Farmer Needs Fair Chance
"I have no thought of suggesting
that the government should work out
an elaborate system of agriculture and
then try to impose it on the farmers of
the country. That would be utterly
repugnant to American ideals. Govern?
ment paternalism, whether applied to
agriculture or to any other of our great
national industries, would stifle am?
bition, impair efficiency, lessen produc?
tion and make us a nation of depend?
ent incompetents. The farmer requires
no special favors at the hands of the
government. All he needs is a fair
chance and such just consideration for
agriculture as we ought to give to a
basic industry and ever seek to pro?
mote for our common good.
"Some of the things which ought to
be done, if we are to put our agricul?
ture on a sound foundation, have been
mentioned in the national platform o?
the party to whose pledges I am com?
mitted."
"First, the need of farm representa?
tion in large governmental affairs is
recognized. During the last sever
years the right of agriculture to t
voice in government administration has
been practically ignored, and, at times
the farmer has suffered grievously as f
result. The farmer has a vital interest
in our trade relations with other coun?
tries, in the administration of oui
financial policies and in many of th?
larger activities of the government'
H?3 interests must be safeguarded by
men who understand his needs; he
must be actually and practically repre?
sented.
Expense Must Be Cut
"Second, the right of farmers tc
form cooperative associations for th?
marketing of their products must b?
??ranted. The concert of agriculture i?
as essential to farms as a similar con
cert of action is to factories. A pros
perous agriculture demands not onlj
efficiency in production but efficiency
in marketing. Through cooperative
associations the route between th?
producer and the consumer car
and must . be avoided. Unnec
essary expenses can and must b<
eliminated. It is to the advantage o
all of our people that every possibl?
improvement be made in our method,
of getting the products of our farm
into the hands of the people who con
sume them. The legitimate function
of the middleman may continue to b
performed, by private enterprise, un
der conditions where the middleman i
necessary and gives his skill to ou
jcint welfare. The par?sito in distri
bution who preys on Doth producer an
consumer must no longer sap the vi
tality of this fundamental life.
"Third, the Republican party pledge
iteelf to a Scientific study of agricul
tural prices and farm production costi
both at home and abroad, with a vie
to reducing the frequency of abnorme
fiunctuations here. Stabilization v/l
contribute to everybody's confidenc?
Farmers have complained bitterly c
the frequent and violent fluctuation
in prices of farm products, and e?
pecially in prices of livestock. The
do not find fluctuations?such fluctuf
ticr.s?in the products of other indus
tries. In a general way prices of fan
products must go up or down accor?
ing to whether there is a plentifi
crop or a short one.
"The farmer's raw materials are tr
fertility of the soil, the sunshino ar
the rain, and the size of his crops
measured by the supply of these ra
materials and the'skill with which 1
makes use of them. He cunnot contr
his production and adjust it to the d
mand as can the manufacturer!?. But 1
can see no good reason why the prie?
of his products should fluctuate so vi
len'tly from week to week, and som
times from day to day. We must get
better understanding of the facto
which influence agricultural price
with a view to avoiding these violei
fluctuations, and bring about av?rai
prices, which shall bear a reasonab
relation to the cost of production. \\
do rot offer any quack remedies in th
matter, but we do pledge ourselves 1
make a thorough study of the diseas
find out what causes it, and then app
tho remedy which promises a cure.
"Fourth?We promise to put an ei
to unnecessary price fixing of far
products and to ill-considered effor
arbitrarily to reduce farm produ
prices. In tim?'s of national erisi
when there is a known scarcity of ai
necessary product, price control for tl
purpose of making a fair distributi?
of the stores on hand may be both ne
essary and wise Hut we know th
there can be no repeal of natural la\
--the eternal fundamentals. The hi
tory of the last three thousand yea
records the folly of such efforts,
the price of any farm product, for e
ample, is arbitrarily fixed at a poi
which does not cover the cost of pr
duction, the farmer is compelled to r
duce the production of that particul
crop. This results in a shortage whi
in turn brings about higher prices th
before, and thus intensities the dang
from which it was sought to escape,
times past, ninny nations have trie?!
hold dewn living costs by arbitrar
fixing prices of farm products. Ail su
efforts have failed, and have usual
brought national disaster.
"Government drives against fo
prices s"ch as we have experienc
during tho past two years are equal
vain and useless. The ostensible pi
pose of such drives is to reduce t
price the consumer pays for food. T
actual result is unjustly to depre
for a tim?! the prices tho farmer i
ceivea for hi? grains and livostoi
hut with no appreciable reduction
the price the consumer pays. Su
drives simply give the speculator a
the profiteer additional opportuniti
to add to their exactions, while th
add to the uncprtainty and discouraj
ment under which th? farmer is lab<
ing deving this period of readjustme
T*Flfth--We favor the administrai
of the farm loan act so as to h<
men who farm to secure farms of th?
own, and to gfv? to them long tii
credits needed to practice the best
methods of diversified firming.
Personal Credit Tor Men
"We also favor tho authorization of
associations to preside the necessary
machinery to furnish personal credit
to the man, whether land owner or
tenant, who is hampered for lack of
working capital. The highest type of
i rural civilization is that in which the
land is farmed by the men who own it.
Unfortunately, as land increases in
j value, tenancy also increases.
"This has been true throughout his-*
tory. At the present time probably one
, half of the high-priced land in the corn
belt states is farmed by men who, be
cauae of lack of capital, find it neces?
sary to rent. This increase in tenancy
brings with it evils which aro a real
menace to national welfare. The land
owner, especially if he be a speculator
who is holding for a profit through an
advance in value, is concerned chiefly in
securing tho highest possible rent. The
tenant who lacks sufficient working cap?
ital, and who too often is working under
a short time lease, is forced to farm the
land to the limit and rob it of its fer?
tility in order to pay the rent. Thus
we have a sort of conspiracy between
the landlord and tenant to rob the soil
upon which our national wellbeing and
indeed our very existence depend. Amid
such conditions we have inefficient
schools, broken down churches, and
a sadly limited social life. We should,
therefore, concern ourselves not only
in helping men to secure farms of their
own, and in helping the tenant secure
the working capital he needs to carry
on the best methods of diversified
farming, but we should work out a sys?
tem of land leasing which, while doing
full justice to both landlord and tenant,
will at the same time conserve the fer?
tility of the soil.
"Sixth?We do not longer recognize
the right to speculative profit in the
operation of our transportation sys?
tems, but we are pledged to restore
them to the highest state of efficiency
as quickly as possible. Agriculture has
suffered more severely than any other
industry through the inefficient railroad
service of the last two years. Many
farmers have incurred disastrous loases
through inability to market their grain
und livestock. Such a condition must
not be permitted to continue. We must
bring about conditions which will give
us prompt service at the lowest pos?
sible rates.
"Seventh?We are pledged to the re?
vision of the tariff as soon as condi?
tions shall make it necessary for the
preservation of the home market for
American labor, American agriculture
and American industry. For a perma?
nent good fortune all must have a com?
mon interest. If we are to build up
? self-sustaining agriculture here at
home, the farmer must be protected
from unfair competition from those
countries where agriculture is still
being exploited and where trie stand?
ards of living on the farm are much
lower than here. We have asked for
higher American standards; let us
maintain them.
"The farmers of the ..orn belt, for
example, are already^ threatened with
unfair competition from the Argentine,
whose rich soil is being expoited in
heedless fashion, and where the rent?
ers who farm it are living under con?
ditions more miserable than the poor?
est tenants in the United States. In
times past duties on agricultural prod?
ucts were largely in the nature of
paper tariffs, for we were a great
surplus producing nation. Now that
consumption at home is so nearly
reaching normal production the Amer?
ican farmer has a right to insist that
ia our trade relations with other coun?
tries he shall have the same considera?
tion that is accorded to other indus?
tries, and we mean to protect them all.
"So long as America can produce the
foods we need I am in favor of buying
from America first. It is this very
preference which impels development
ard improvement. Whenever America
can manufacture to meet American
'needs?and there is almost no limit
to our genius and resources?I favor
producing in America first. I com?
mend American preference to American
productive activities, because material
good fortune is essential to our higher
attainment, and linked indissolubly are
farm and factory in the great economic
fabric of American life."
"Under a sound system of agricul?
ture, fostered and safeguarded by wise
an?! fair administration of state and
Federal government, the farmers of the
United States can feed our people for
many centuries?perhapo indefinitely.
But we must understand conditions,
and make a new appraisal of relation?
ships, and square our actions to the
great, underlying foundation of all
human endeavor.
"Farming is not an auxiliary; it is
the main point, and geared with it in?
separably is every wheel of transpor?
tation and industry. America could
not go on with a dissatisfied farming
people, and no nation is secure where
land hunger abides.
"We need fewer land ho?gs, who
menace our future, and more ?at hogs
for ham and bacon. We need less be
guilement in cultivating a quadrennial
crop of votes and more consideration
for farming as our basic industry.
"We need less appeal to class con?
sciousness and more resolute intelli?
gence in promptly solving our problems.
We nel?d rest and recuperation for a
soil which has been worked out in
agitation, and more and better har?
vests in the inviting fields of mutual
understanding.
"We need less of grief about the ills
which we may charge to the neglect of
our own citizenship and more confi?
dence in just government, along with
determination to make and hold it just.
Farmers to Have Full Share
"We need to contemplate the mir?
acle of America in that understand?
ing which enables us to appreciate
that which made us what we are, and
then resolve to cling fast to all that
is good and go confidently on to great
things
"Wo need to recall that America
and its triumphs are not a gift to the
world through paralyzing interna?
tionally, but the glories of the Re?
public are the fruits of our own na?
tionality and its inspirations ? of
freedom, of opportunity, of equal
rights under the Constitution, of Co?
lumbia offering the cup of American
liberty to men thirsting to achieve and
beckoning men to drink of the waters
of our political life and be rewarded
as they merit it.
"I think that the paths which
brought us to the point where the
world leadership might have been ours
?as it might have in 1919?in the
first century and a third of national
life, ought to be the way to the an?
swered aspirations of this great Re?
public. I like to turn for reflection
some times, because I get therein the
needed assurance for the onward marcn
of the morrow.
"To-day we have contemplated Amer?
ican farming in the broadest possible
way, have been reminded where we
have been remiss; to-morrow we want
to greet the farmers of America in the
freedom and fullness of farming pro?
ductivity, impelled by the assurance
that they are to have their full part
in the rewards of righteous American
activity."
Mrs. Algoe Out for Senate
PROVIDENCE, R. I., Sept. 8.?Mrs.
James W. Algoe, a ?teading suffrage
worker in Rhode Island, to-day an?
nounced that she would be a candi?
date for the Republican nomination of
State Senator from Providence. In
notifying the Republican leaders of her
purpose she declared that she would
run on a "women-and-children first"
platform.
Harding Says
Farmers Are
Hope of U. S.
(Continuai! fn?m gw ?il_
open-air theater where the presentation
was made.
Picture Meant for White House
"This pieture can T>e seen to best ad?
vantage from a distance of twenty-five
feet," said Mr. Roe, "and there is a
building in Washington in which all
Amenons have an interest in which we
hope it will be displayed after March 4,
1921."
In accenting Senator Harding said:
"Since this most plea*sant gift comes
from you I am going to leave it to you
to decide where it is to be exhibited."
When the applause ended ho contin?
ued: "I congratulate you as fellow
countrymen that in America, where we
are less than a hundred years old in
our development, we are now having,
with agricultural progress, time, inter?
est and concern for the development of
art, which adds to the refinement and
enjoyment of practical life.
"I want to go one step further. I
want to find not only art encouraged
and developed in the general progress
of every community throughout tho na?
tion, but I want to reach that stage of
mutuality of interest and common ad?
vancement where there is just as much
art on the American farm and among .
the American wage earners as there is
in the more fortunate or better com?
pensated of our people."
Turning to Mrs. Harding, who stood
near by, Senator Harding said "This
is the artist in our family," and the
introduction was acknowledged with
more cheers.
Visit Farm Boys' ?Camp
From the art exhibit the Senator
and his party were taken to the farm
boys' camp, where lads who have shown
a special aptitude for agriculture or
animal husbandry in contests are being
given a short course in scientific farm?
ing.
As the Senator entered the building
that served the half-grown boys as a
combination classroom and dormitory
these youngsters in work clothes, with !
sun-bleached hair and large hands,
familiar with plow handles, began to
sing, "Here's to you, Senator Harding."
When they finished the Senator said
heartily: "Boys, here's to you in re- ?
turn. I like to show my good wishes
to a bunch of prize winners wherever I
find them in the United States of Amer?
ica. I like fellows who can win. That
is what I am thinking about myself.
"It doesn't make any difference much
what pursuit one follows in life. The
big impelling thought is be the win?
ner, boys, in whatever you undertake.
It is fine to be out in front.
"The best product of the American
farm is leadership of the citizenship :
of America. The best crop in America j
consists of the farm boys and the farm ?
girls of this country. I don't care j
where you go, whether it is in the
large cities of the Northwest or the
still larger cities of tho more populous
East, there the farm boys are having !
their great say about the trend of hu?
man activities which lead to the tri?
umphs we all so much rejoice in.
Says Opportunity Still Beckons
"Don't let anybody ever tell you that
the American farm is a poor place to
begin. It is the best place in the
world to begin. Don't let anybody ever
tell you thac there is not an equal
chance for you in American life, boys,
because there is just as good a chance
fo.' any of you sitting before me to-day
as there ever was in any single period '?
of this .republic, and the rewards to- |
day are greater than they ever ^mj
in American life or in the civiiw,tu?
of the world.
"Men may tell you that oppo^a^?-*.
are not like they used to be. ???j,
give you a little illustration of Km*
wrong they are: They used to j|?tu
the United States Senate was the Wk
man's club. Did you ever stop t? ]mv
into the story of the men who conati
tute that great legislative body? ^^
"Take your own Senator Knut? Jto.
sou. immigrant boy, and your otW
Senator, Frank . B. Kellogg. D?^??f
know where he came from? He'S?
a farmer boy up in the AdirondacSeJS?
tien of New York State. That it 3?
ho amounts to something. He ttartt?
on an American farm and has cook
into eminence.
"I could tell you the story of tweet*
Senators, and in no case would it h?
the story of some one favored by cea,
ditions. It would not be the success 3
privilege; it would just be a typta?
American boy in each case who had i?
his heart the ambition to get on asi
succeed. Why, one of the Senators whs
sits next to me in th? Senate, or at
lecst not far away from me, started S
a jockey, because he was slight ?>{
build and had a big. strong heart and
could ride to win. This boy. without
any other chance in American life, roda
his way into a trusted place i? th?
United States Senate.
"I only tell you that, boy?, bacsci?
out of the American farm comes ta?
most promising citizenship of the S*.
public. And I want you winners to m
on in leadership and lead America into
the full realization of the possibilit?
of this wonderful land of ours."
As Senator Harding was leaving the
building and the boys' cheers die?!
away one of them, in a tattered gray
sweater and overalls, voiced a though
that was frecjuently expressed in Tart.
ing forms in St. Paul to-day. g(
said: "Gee, that ole boy sure look]
like a President!"
The Senator was led through the
horse show ring, where brood marei
and Shetland ponies were corapetiaj
for attention.
"Mrs. Harding is the horsewoman,"
said the Senator to the fair officith
who were leading him about. "Youwanl
to show her these animals."
After luncheon at the fair ground
he was taken to the grandstand to d*
liver his ?speech. It was there tail
Governor Cox was heckled about his
Irish stand a few days ago. But thtn
was no heckling of Senator Harding
In fact, there was a great deal of com?
ment, contrasting the warmth of tb(
receptions given. the two candidat?
under similar circumstances. By at
odds, neutral observers said, Senat?
Harding was given the more enthusiw
tic greeting.
Greets Thousands at Club
When he had finished his formal ad
dress, Senator Harding was dirven t
Minneapolis, where he and Mrs. Hard
ing were the guests of honor at a H
ception at the Lincoln Club, nhakin?
hands with thousands of residents 0
St. Paul's twin. There were -jo man
people there that it finally becso
necessary to close the doors of th
club. To those inside Senator Hardi?
made a short talk, taking the League!
Nations for his subject. He pledgt
himself to protect American 'onstitt
tional rights. "If I am elected Pred
dent," he told them, '"there ihsll 1
no surrendering of nationality to pa!
alyzing internationally."
There was a wild yell of approval.
Returning to St. Paul, Senator it
Mrs. Harding went to the home (
Senator Kellogg for dinner and at
o'clock went to the State Capitol whei
there was an official reception, wtj
Governor J, A. Burnquist, State And
tor J. A. Preus (a candidate for til
Governorship), Senator Kellogg an
many other officials, in attendant
Senator Harding and his party vere I
start back for the front porch at Ml
rion aj/ll o'clock to-night.
e Painters' Strike
The Brotherhood of Painters are on strike
owing to the refusal of the members of the
Master Painters' Association, the Society of
Interior Decorators and the Cabinet Makers'
Association to meet their demands of $10.00
per day.
The proposed schedule forbids work on Sat?
urday mornings under any circumstances, and
makes various . arbitrary demands that tend
to cause inconvenience to the public and
higher cost of work. The employer organi?
zations believe that the time has come to re?
sist these demands with all their power, at
whatever inconvenience or cost, and confident?
ly rely upon the public to sustain them.
Since August 1st, 1919, the pay of painters
has already been increased fifty per cent,
which is largely in excess of the increase in
cost of living since that time. There is every
indication that the decline in general prices
already begun, will continue, and the argu?
ment for further increase of wages on account
of the increase in the cost of living is not
tenable.
This is but another imprudent and unjustifi?
able stoppage of essential production.
The painters can increase their income to the
amount now demanded if they will work on
Saturday mornings as is customary in all other
trades. If they insist upon being idle for an
entire working day each, week, the cost of
maintenance for their idleness should not
be a charge upon the public.
The owners of the buildings under construc?
tion, almost unanimously, have signified their
approval of our position. If the employer or?
ganizations have the benefit of full public
support at this critical time, a great obstacle
to the construction of much needed homes
will be speedily removed.
Many false claims of success in securing ac?
ceptance of the(new demands result from the
active propaganda of the strikers in the pub?
lic press. The established organizations,
which employ a large proportion of painters
of the better class, oresent a solid front in op?
position. Statements to the contrary should
lot be accepted without verification.
In this situation the employers are not prin?
cipals, but trustees of the public, whose inter?
ests primarily they are serving.
The Society of Interior Decorator? of New York City
The members of the following organizations are too numerous to he given individually.
The Association of Master Painters and Decorators of the City of New York
The Cabinet Makers Employers Association of New York
The following- are the Members of
THE SOCIETY OF INTERIOR DECORATORS OF NEW YORK CITY:
L. Alavoine & Co.
Wm. Baumgarten & Co.
J. R. Bremncr & Co.
Carlhian & Co.
Charles of London
Cowtan & Sons, Inc.
Henry J. Da-vison, Inc.
Chamberlin Dodds
F. N. Dowling
Franklin P. Duryea & Co.
Emil Feffercorn
Duncan Fraser, Inc.
P. W. French & Co.
Hampton Shops
Herter Looms
Herts Bros. Co.
D. S. Hess & Co.
Theo. Hofstatter & Co.
H. F. Huber & Co.
John H. Hutaf
Jansen, Inc.
H. F. Dawson
A. Kimbal & Son, Inc.
Leed. Inc.
Lenygon & Morant, Inc.
A. Lowenbein's Sons
Jos. P. McHugh & Son
Horace Moran
John J. Morrow
Victor J. Petry
George P. Reinhard
Frederick Rose & Co,
G. W. Richardson & Son
Schmitt Bros.
F. O. Scrruller
W. & J. Sloane
J. Greenleaf Sykes
Tiffany Studies
C. Victor Twiss
Warwick House, Ltd.
Waters & Crowninshield
Clarence Whybrow
Mack, Jenney & Tyler
James Duane Taylor. Inc.
Irving & Cassen. A. H.
Davenport
White, /-dlcna & Co.
R. Leventritt

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