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to rials?Advertisement? Mimi-vr X Um aiuIu Bur?au el L'irculattoM MONDAY, NOVEMBER 8, 1920 Owned and p\ibi'.?:i?d dill? Sj New Tork Tribun? M?., a Ne? York Corporation, luden Rrtd. Pr?ai ?ent. O Vt-?ior Rofer?, VW President; Helta li?t?r? K?ld. Secretary, R K Majleld. Treaauref ??dreee. Tribuna I. i] dint. 15? Naaaau Street. New Vert. Telephone, H<r>.n.ir, 3oe? ?VBSCTUPTI' N RATJCH ? By mitt, tadudlng rutase IN TliK IMPED STATE?. On? Si? On? Bj Mali. Pndip^a. T(ar. Wi*?ai Mcuih Oatiy and Sunday....%\l.oo J6.?? }i o? On? week. S5c, Daily or, y . 10?0 5W .to One week, SOr. '.?ml?) ot-.;j . 4 00 t .25 .4? fcuailay only. Carada .. . C40 S ii .it> KUIUCION IIATK9 Pal.? and Sunday.126.?6 ?13 S? |X,4? i'aUy ?c.y . 17 40 8.1? 1.4S ?und?? oo:y . j ;j o.la .M Colpred at th? Poitonv? >i New Tort as Seexmd C.na? Mall Mattor. Te'J eae, purrhate rnrrchantl^e a<1vcrtl??d In THE TRIBUNE with t i i- lafrty?t?r It dl?<atl?fao ti?a rteuits In any ca?e THE TRIBUNE iuarantro? I? pay >?ur monry n.? upon rcQurst. Ne red tape, N? ?ulbbllnu We make ?o?.u promptly It th? tdVtrtljer iio-j ret ?rrMBrn ?-if tub a?po<-iatet> rnras The Auo.-ls>ed l"re*a la ttcluaiiet? entitled t? th? epe for r?pu . of ?:; new? dlsiitrhea crevllt?d t? It ?r not otherwise credued In Ui.e paiwr. and ?Jto Uj? ?oca: units ot ?(xniiautjouj o:,?io publiautd ntrnn. A ? rlfl-.ta et r?t>ublleatleq at an ?cn?r auiu? ?j?r?ln ?it are rettf-ted. Recapturing Politeness Bad temper and bad manners have so long marked the behavior ?f political leaders that the exchange of courteous telegrams between Presi? dent .Wilson and President-elect Harding seems a novelty. It seems remarkable that the White House was moved to offer to make Senator Harding the government's guest in his journey to and from Panama, and that the answer was polite. It is not necessary to go into the ??nestion of who first set the bad ex? ample. It is enough to welcome the fact that it is for once not fallowed. Xo good cause was ever helped by spitting at its opponents, and per? haps a time will come when this fact is recognized in conduct, and not solely in won1.-. But speaking of White House mes? sages, there is one for which the public has- waited in vain. We do not refer to the fact that no tele? gram of congratulation has been forwarded, but to the more impor? tant and significant neglect. There has been no word that the verdict of the American people is loyally ac? cepted; no offer to place the influence of the Administration at the dispo? sal of Senator Harding in the hope that he will be able to bring to a success what the Administration failed in. It will be recalled that Abraham Lincoln, when he believed that Gen? eral McClellan would be elected, Wrote and put in a sealed envelope a memorandum, to be opened after his defeat, '.'.daring that it would be the first duty of his Administra? tion, as it wished to save the Union, to tender General McClellan its un? divided support and assistance. The Reparations Compromise The Franco-British difference over reparations hinged largely on the question of outside interference with the functions of the Reparations Commission, The commission derived its authority from the treaty, and was logically bound to uphold the latter's terms. But the governments which ratified the instrument are not so strictly bound. They may have changed their minds, and thus be in? clined to do what they can to secure modifications dictated by new poli? cies. France has been holding out for an enforcement of the reparations clauses by the commission charged with enforcing them. She named ex President Poincar? a?; her member, hoping to add thereby to the board's prestige and sense of independent authority. M Poincar? resigned when he found that the commission was being shorn of its original powers and turned more and more into a mere agency of the Allied Council. The French theory had much to commend it. But, as a matter of fact, each government represented on the commission was left free to control its delegate. So if there was no agreement- among the govern? ments there could be no agreement among the commissioners, a unani? mous vote b< ing required on most questions. The French are begin? ning to realize that the agencies created by the treaty cannot enforce the treaty. There are no sanctions behind the document except those of diplomatic and military pressure, and that pressure must come from the existing signatory governments. The French Foreign Office has therefore compromised with the British. The compromise reduces the Reparations Commission to a secondary r?le. It will be allowed to appoint experts to discuss with Gern^in experts the details of repa? ration. The experts will report not to the commis i- n but u-> the govern? ments concerned, am) then the gov? ernments will confer directly. The results of this meeting will be laid ; before the commission, which will fix the total due the Allies. Finally, | the Allied governments will review the commission's decision and guar? antee execution. The way is left open in this round? about process to revise and modify the treaty terms to a far greater ex? tent than the commission might have felt free to modify them. The repa? rations sections may, in fact, be transformed. That would be a great disappointment to the French. But France's representativos in the peace conference allowed ?themselves to be put off with the shadow of the guar? anties which the French people ex? pected instead of the substance. Now the realization of reparations contemplated in the treaty is to be? come more or less a matter of post? war politics. The Girl Scouts This is Girl Scout Week in the United States. Organized in 1912, ?the membership has grown to 82,176, and thousands of girls are turned away every month because there are not funds to meet the demands of expansion. A sustaining member*, ship of over a million is required to carry on the work. The threefold aim of this organi? zation is to train in homemaking, health-building and citizenship. Non sectarian and non-partisan, its sole endeavor is to develop the young womanhood of the nation. .. The training of the average girl, aside I from book education, is usually hap? hazard. If she is tho home type she absorbs certain knowledge of home making. If she is not she manages to evade responsibilities as irksome to her as chopping wood is to the ' average boy. Heretofore citizenship i has meant less to her than to the | boy. With suffrage, all is changed. j As for the great outdoors, only the tomboys have reaped the benefits ; from it. i All of this the Scout organization ? has taken into consideration. Home | making is recognized as the big ' thing it is. Washing dishes is no j longer a hateful task when it counts j in the test for household efficiency. | Child care and home nursing become I accomplishments to be proud of. | Citizenship means much more when j it is translated into terms of com i munity helpfulness at all times. And the pleasure of having a strong and ; healthy body is so manifest that it dees not have to be drummed into careless young cars. In achieving these things the teamwork and sex loyalty, so often lacking among girls, will broaden and deepen their under ' standing of life. Every girl should he a Scout. Something more than a million mem? bers at a dollar apiece will go a long way to make it possible. About Postponing Purchases Sweeping, even sensational, price ! declines have taken place, with the I result that manufacturing activity is at a low ebb in many places and ! trade generally is marked by dull ? ness, in striking contrast to the j frenzied buying of last winter. The I depression is felt everywhere, al ! though some districts naturally are suffering more* than others. In New England, where the hard hit textile industry is centered, there ', is perhaps more unemployment than [ in any other geographical division. ! In Michigan, the automobile center, ? conditions are almost equally un? favorable, but although there are ? degrees in the effects of the read? justment, one of its phases is eom | mon to ail sections?namely, the pro I nounced inclination on the part of the public to confine purchases to needs of the moment. That people are practicing self denial is commendable. Certainly no one wished for an indefinite pro? longation of the extravagance wit? nessed last year. But there is as much danger in penuriousness as in extravagance. The dangers are twofold: First, that over-abstention in purchasing will compel factories to suspend op? erations, owing to lack of demand for 'their products, thus throwing more workers out of employment and making the unemployment problem acute, and, second, that it will react on prices, for if production should be heavily curtailed a great rise in prices would surely follow when peo? ple at last began to buy the things the purchasing of which is postponed. Those who are advising people to buy only absolute necessaries are thus not giving wise counsel. It is true ! that if every one buys as littlo as possible prices will go lower, but it is also true that if that should hap? pen a good many of us wouldn't have the money to buy even the necessa? ries, and in the end all of us would >ay the piper later by another ad? vance in the cost of living. The Small Depositor The Brotherhood .of Locomotive Engineers' Cooperative Bank just opened in Cleveland seems to have found a way to solve one difficulty of ! the small depositor by offering to re? ceive deposits of any size. In small cities and towns almost any thrifty person may have a \ checking account, if only to pay fam ily bills. There the bank is a friendly institution, for a small depositor, ex- j perience has shown, may become a large one. The country bank, not overrushed with business, can afford to do this. In large cities the snjall depositor is largely lost in the shuffle. The bank finds it costs too much to han? dle an account whose credit balance ! is little when monthly tills are paid. ; The amount required to open and re-1 tain an account is therefore more than the average person has idle, j Savings go to the savings banks, j where they are likely to remain for j the sake of the interest. But, the ; checking account never gets started. ! Much of the careless spending and extravagance In cities is due to the j impediments to depositing on a small ' scale. Savings bank deposits arc purposely hedged about with restric? tions to discourage their sudden withdrawal. Consequently, the sur? plus of the family income, if there is any, is kept in tho sugar bowl, to the injury of all. The example of the Cleveland engineers may well be commended to banks in general. If cooperative hanks have an attractiveness not possessed by others they will get the business. The Sevres Compact Tho Sevres agreement of August 10 last, signed by Great Britain. France and Italy, creates certain spheres of influence in what is left of the Turkish Empire. This docu? ment was signed on the same day as the Sevres treaty, which took Syria, Palestine, Arabia, Mesopota? mia and Armenia from the Sultan and established Allied control vover Constantinople. It is a supplemen? tary compact intended to lessen fric? tion in the economic development of Anatolia and Kurdistan, which left to themselves would be incapable of clambering out of the primitive ruts in which they have traveled for centuries. The Turkish peace settlement is still incomplete, inasmuch as the fate of Constantinople cannot be deter? mined until the Russian situation is cleared up. The Entente powers promised Constantinople to Russia. The Kerensky government renounced the gift. No one would think of turning control of the straits over to the L?nine r?gime or to one equally irresponsible in the interna? tional sense. Yet!* if Russia is not split into fragments and manages *-o retain the territory fronting on the Black Sea from Odessa to the Caucasus her vital interest in the ; Dardanelles outlet cannot be disre ; garded. Constantinople lies on an ancient j trade route and controls the sea com ' munications not only of southern j Russia, but of Rumania, Bulgaria, j the new Turkey in Asia, Armenia I and the Caucasus republics. These : countries have a big stake in the | preservation of an open channel. It ; is to their manifest advantage as well as to the economic advantage of j Europe that the straits passage shall I be internationalized. The power | which administers the former Turk | ish capital and the tiny European \ strip of territory attached to it : should be a trustee, not a selfish I exploiter. Great Britain is said to i be anxious to devolve the trusteeship j *m Greece. But the enlarged Greek state is still an experiment and Greece's preferment would exasper? ate Rumania and Bulgaria and be ! intolerable to Russia, should the lat? ter become once more a great power. Tho Near East is stiil chaotic. Unity in Allied policy is required to enforce the Sevres treaty and sup? press disorder. Great Britain, France and Italy haven't held to? gether very well ip their dealings with Germany. They realize, how? ever, that they cannot yeL afford to agree to disagree in the Near East. an emotional man and what he con? tends for in one mood he abandons in another. The Motor Truck's Use Not the. Railroad's Competitor, but Us Needed Co-]Vorl(cr To the Editor of Tho Tribuno. Sir: The common conception ap? pears to indicate a feeling that be I twetn tho railways and tho motor track I operators there exists a condition of ' competition; of the pilfering and un ' dermining of legitimate trade of the formar by the latter under the pro? tection of a 'public subsidy; chat the railways must suffer, and ultimately succumb to thu rapidly advancing: horde of Invading gasoleno carriers. Casual observation encourages this belief. Actual knowledge, study ?f conditions and statistics prove the con? trary to be tho case. Moro so to-day than ever before is the short hauHcss-tlum-carload lots the entangling allianco which binds to a minimum and generally defeats effi? cient and effective solving of th? trans? portation problem confronting tho rail? roads and the country at large. Our common carriers aro helpless in the ? endeavor to move this type of shipment ?conomically for either themselves or the shipper. The statement of Mr. C. A. Morse, of the Railroad Administration, and j Mr. J. J. Hill are significant: "Considered as a unit, practically none of the small branch railway lines ? feeding trunk lines pay expenses. The traffic gathered by them is turned over to the main line with a deficit attached, which has to be overcome during the main line movement before any profit is mude. It would be a decided advan? tage if this traffic could be delivered to the trunk lino by means of motor truck." As long ago as 1012 the late Mr. James J. Hill said: "I confess I have aot yet planned a satisfactory lolutiou to tha riddle of tho city termin/1. It ?r a puzzle that incrt.asca in com? plexity and complication as cities grow." Much of the condition is caused by tho influx of "short haul traffic." This is the shipment of commodities | between relatively adjacent communi I ties and includes a large .volume of ?"less than carload" freight. Mr. R. E. Fulton, vice-president ?f tho International Motor Company, says relativo to public subsidy: "Motor vehicle owners in 1918 paid $50,000,000 in automobile licenso fees to tho va? rious? states. Including personal prop? erty taxes levied on cars in some states, axcisc and local charges, it is estimated that car owners paid no lesa than $150, 000,000. In addition, motor vehicle manufacturers paid $33,000,000 in taxe?, or about $25 for every car built. Out of 2,500.000 miles of highway in the United States, only 6,250 are equal to tho demands of heavy duty traffic. Motor vehicles, therefore, pay a total sum amounting to $75 a mile for every mile of highway in the United State3, improved oy unimproved. For every mile capable of carrying heavy duty motor traffic, motor vehicles pay yearly a sum equal to $2-1,000 a mile." Is it, then, good practice, good com? mon sense, to endeavor to continue to haul at a loss that which to-day tends to thwart the attempts to retrench the railroads financially by expediting loading and unloading shipments at terminals and 'way stations, so that tho coal fields, the grain fields, tho fruit crop and products of manufac? tories, may receive their full quota of cars to the end that scarcity, spoilage, congestion and delay may be mini? mized, if not eliminated? Thu long haul is that upon which the successful operation of tha railroads is predicted. Let us believe in facts. Tho action uf the motor truck in its allotted field Is not u predatory one. If competitive, it is with tho horse; rather it is co? operative with the railroads The truck with its flexibility is limited1 economically to a definite labor [t is confined, and yet confined to an ?deal limit. That limit is the short-haul- ; k'us-than-carload link winch connects j the outlying district or community with tho rail center or focus uf in- ! dustry. Further than that, it may go I on y under penalty of excess cost per ; ton mile to the owner, who muy make \ this sacrifico for speed or to alleviate an emergency. At the end of the short kaul radius lies competition with the railroad, which cannot be economically ; indulged in by the motor trui Is Motor trucks have met the test. They saved Paris ut the Marne; London dur? ing the railroad strikes; likewise they saved New York. They are effocting a saving to-day in millions to our farm? ers by minimizing ?spoilage through prompt transportation. They r.re sym? bolic of progress, the co-worker in this day of reconstruction, in this timo when maximum production is para? mount. EDWARD KARLE WYMAN. New York, Nov. 1, 1920. Debs Has Learned Interviewed in the -Atlanta prison by a correspondent of The London Morning Post, Mr. Debs makes a re? markable admission?one he would hardly have made to one of his fol? lowers. "The interviewer asked him what he would do, if he were elected, | to put socialism into effect. Debs | replied that his election would be a | great calamity; and when his ques? tioner, naturally surprised, said, "Why?" he replied: "Because the world is not yet ready for socialism and its agents are not yet ready to put socialism into effect. Before that can be done there must be a long process of edu? cation. Otherwise things will bn worse thun they are now." This unexpectedly moderate atti? tude on the part of Debs suggests that he has devoted some of his leisure at Atlanta to profitable re? flection and the lessons of Russia's experiment are penetrating the thick crust of Socialist dogmatism. Debs has the grace to become more scientific. He seems to have made a start toward considering man not perhaps as he ought to be but as he is. He recognizes that civilization represents a long evolution wherein effort has been to save individualism while enlarging social functions. So? cialism, to be successful, requires such a growth or change as tc amount to a transformation in human nature, and in default of this would be calamitous. The Morning Post correspondent finds that Debs's views of socialism are not original enough to give at length, being simply "repetitions o? well worn arguments." But it is worth noting that he does not advo? cate the use of force among English speaking people. His admiration oi tho Bolshevists leads him to approve their bloodthirsty policy as adapt?e to Russians. Even so, he would not have Americans support tho Third Internationale, because it advocates general armed insurrection. That Debs, as he himself contends is more reasonable than many whe are not in prison is easy tt> believe, But this does not so much acquit hire as prove the curious leniency to dan g?rons agitators on the part of this Administration. But as the threat enings of Debs are not always to be taken at their letter, so what is clos? to a recantation need not be. He is Debs's Name on the Ballot ! To the Editor of The Tribune. S:r: Could you kimlly publish an j explanation why Debs's name could be on the ballots? As the writer under? stands the Constitution and the law, no criminal or person sent to prison can I hold public office. Many people of, the street are dis | cussing this point., and no one seems tc understand. How can Debs be put on tho ballot and poll 2,000,000 votes ">r over when ho is in prison.for a crime? New York, Nov. 6, 1920. F. A. [Debs's name may have been on the ballot in the party circle. But nobody voted for him directly. The Socialist votes were cast for Social? ist state electors. They could, if chosen, vote later for a man who is in jail or even* dead, if they wished to.] Saving Trouble i. Front The Philadelvhla Inquirer) One gratifying feature of the elec? tion is that Wisconsin has made it un? necessary for the House of Represent? atives to waste any of its valuable tima in throwing Victor Berger back upon his questionable constituency again. tr? The Conning Tower Prohibition Mother Goose There wna a crooked man, And he climbed ?i crooked hill; lie bought some crooked liquor, i ( lose by a crooked still. Ho told some crooked friends, j And they filled his crooked houBe! And they all joined together In a little crooked souse. ! . MARCASCO. Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake, bootlegger man, Cot me some gin as fast as you can. Ice it and pour it and mix it with glee, I And put it in the shaker for Aleck and me. ? ? ? Sec-saw, Margery Daw, Henry has got a five plaster; I And ho shall have hut a highball an hour, Because he con't drink any faster. "When I was young," said President Lowell, "no young man wojld think of smoking while with a woman." Tut! tut!i Prexy! When you wero young your sister Amy hadn't cast of? the fet? ters of rhyme. Nor, now that you brine: ; the subject up, did tho women poets think of smoking cigars in or out of ! men's society. "Wo can see the way women dress on any Boston street," continues President ; Lowell. "Our mothers would call it an indecent way." Expert opinion on the way Boston women dress is all toward the idea that it is a tacky way. Mr. Harding will be the first cigar smoking President since (it is late, and there is nobody here to verify this! McKinley. What we are driving at is this: Undoubtedly, as President, ho will get more Christmas cigars than he can use. . . . Does a strong party Republican like us deserve no reward': ?Looks like an open winter. ? ' " a white Xmas. ?This dep't is for Daylight Saving in 1921. ?'Men. Canby lias moved into his house on Charlton St. ?Miss Cronin laid a safety razor on our desk Thurs. It shaves o. k. ?Olin llowkmd was looking at pictures last Monday afternoon. ?Francis Wilson the w. k. Thes? pian is in Baltimore to-day on bps. ? -Mrs. Alma II. Rogers of Pitts ford, Vt., was a welcome caller Fri. afternoon. ? Crock Pemberton of here and Emporia lias got an automobile, Rumi ir hath it. ?Pat Enright of here had a cer? tain party ti> the Cornell-Dartm'th game Sat. afternoon. ?Mrs. Emma Benedict of Calif. is visiting her nephew, Everly. M. Davis, of Englewood, N. j. -?Art Samuels was to Philada. Thurs., whore he was the luncheon guest as usual of Chas. Beck, -?Aleck Woollcott was a pleasant caller at this office early Wednes. a. in. to get the news of the election. _Miss Neysa McMein, Quincy, Ill's., talented daughter, to borrow an apt characterization from The Quincy Herald, was to Philada. Wednes. for lunch. ? Prices an- lower, the telephone : ,- !:as improved, and the sub wav service appears better. But there arc em ugh flaws in the world i clici r up say we. Consideration of the Boy Scouts leads to thoughts of Mr. Daniel Carter Beard. At the age of seven we re? ceived a copv of Mr. Beard's "The American Boy's Handy Book." and at. once tried to make everything dia? grammed in the book. The only thing we had any adroitness tn was making shadows, in the form of animals, on the wall. You did it, as May Sinclair says in her later manner, with your hands. Putting them together. Wig glii .- the ! ngers. Bats. ButterflicB. Snakes. Crocodiles. Till Mother turned out the gas. But the ability to make these shadows is costly. Oar agile ?a'., Mistah, loves to jump at these shadows. We enjoy seeing him jump, so we cast them. Hat it has ruined two" sets of wall paper in live months. They were close to the subway, and that was quicker. Norma could not talk in the packed and swaying train, and when they emerged at Sixty-fifth Street they had lippery, cold, dark block to walk. From "The Beloved Woman," by Kathleen Norris, in The Pictorial Re? view. The Sixty-sixth Street station ap? lic?is to have walked a block, also. lie realized that the girl was the victim of some form of poisoning and anecdotes were administered.?Sharon, !'a.. r/elegraph. Stet! (Continued) (Continuing a notion of Arthur II. Folwell's, in Leslie's Weekly.j Wynken, Blynken, and Nod one night Sailed <>'?' in a wooden shoo,? Sailed on'a river of crystal light (Continue! on page SI ? * ? It was many and many a year ago, In a kingdom by trie sea, That a maiden there lived whom you may know (Continued on paye S) ? * ? The blessed damozel leaned out From the gold bar of Heaven; Her eye:' were deeper than the depth Of water.-) stilled at even; She had three lilies in her hand I Continued on page 7) r. P. A. Boofys By Hey wood Broun i "The writing of advertising looks I easy," says Roy S. Durstine in Making Advertisements (Scribners). "It's one of those jobs which every man in his heart thinks he could do better than the man who's doing it?liko running a hotel, producing a musical comedy. and editing a newspaper." -Mr. Durstine has hit us only once out of three shots. We mean, of course, that we would never think of charging for bread and butter. Certain advantages accrue to the man who writes criticism in a frothy and frivolous manner. There often arises a belief that ho is really much smarter than he seems; that, like the Harvard football team when it falls short of success, he is holding back something for the Yale game. At Cam? bridge, for instance, I saw C. T. Cope i land, who is a professor of English, but also reads the newspapers. This may be becauso he is the literary godfather cf John Reed, Kenneth MacGowan, Robert C. Benchley, Harford Towel '? and scores of other young journalists. At any rate, Mr. Copeland took me to task a little and complained that while : he enjoyed much of the journalist-'c - writing of his young men, he found that they all seemed to work in mortal ter ! ror of being seized while conveying 1 knowledge or information. He main? tained that they rated the intelligence of the newspaper-reading public too lew. "Why," he asked, "did none of you dramatic critics in reviewing Richard III mention that just as it was John Barrymore's first venture in Shakes? peare, so it had been Booth's and David ' Garriek's?'' I ?pi ook my head dubiously and let him I? .ply that personally I had left it out because I doubted whether read? ers would be imcrested in such re? search. I did not dare to confess to Copey that thi3 was the first time I. had ever heard about it. But there are disadvantages, too, ir; froth and frivolity. It is hard to pet under anybody's skin with light ar? rows. In our entire newspaper career we have never succeeded in getting 1 anybody mad except Eva Tanguay and ' George Creel. It is not for want of trying. There is in New York a cer? tain popular preacher whose influence ? seems to us of doubtful good and whose point of view about life is de? plorable. We felt so strongly in the matter that we hammered away at him week after week with all our strength At the end of our campaign we receive?' a pleasant letter from him in which he said that he had been vastly amused by the articles and wouldn't we name a day and come and have Munch with him as he would like to have us mee! the children. Also, Irvin Cobb on the eve of a nets production once begged us to write ar unfavorable notice about his play be? cause, he said, he had never had a suc? cess in the theater. Unfortunately, tve could not see our way clear to doin^ him this favor and, instead, spoke ar? dently and glowingly about the piece It was withdrawn in a week. Harvard's last touchdown seemed t( us such thrilling business that we !>c came excited and left Commedienne (Putnams), by W. S. Reymont, at the top of the Stadium. Still, on the 'strength of 186 pages already dige ' i it seems safo to say that th's story from the Polish Of the* life of a pro ; vincial troupe""*of players is vivid and i entertaining. After seeing Sir Arthur Quiller ; Couch's new' book, On the Art of Read? ing (Putnam), we have decided not to | go to Westport, after all, when we re : tire. Botocudo sounds more attractive. I According to Dr. Paul Ehrenreich, who is ?looted by Quiller-Couch, "The Boto i endos are little better than a leaderless i horde, and pay scant respect to their 'chieftain; they live only for their im : mediate bodily needs and take small : thought for the morrow, still less for the past. No traditions, no legen?!-: are ; abroad to tell them of their forebears. 'They still use gestures to express feel? ing and ideal." And yet, we suppose, there's no good ' in building hope too high. Probably ; they have some, gesture which means "Botocudo first" and another to indi? cate that a person is "100 per cent Botocudoan." In his lecture on "Children's Read ' ing" Quiller-Couch says of the child: "His brain teeming with questions he asks them of impulse and makes his discoveries with joy. He passes to a school, which is supifsed to exist for the purpose of answering these or cog? nate questions even before he asks them, an?l behold, he ?3 not happy!" Here, to be sure, is the chief objec? tion to the greater part of the school system. The child's whole impulse and eagerness to learn is throttled because the process by which ho has gained most of this knowledge up to the time he went to school is suddenly not only checked, hut reversed. Now he must answer questions instead of asking them. As a matter of fact, we have used the same system ourself, thoup-h not for the good of II. 3d, but merely for our own peace of mind. When he gets into a streak of asking "How does the lion go?" "How does the zebra go?" "How does New York City go?" and even "How does the go-go-go?" there's ne stopping him except by counter questioning. When we just can't keep on answering for another moment we brush aside the last question as if it were a straw not yet on the camel's back and say -.irmly: "Woodie, who was George Washington?" This is enough to down him in his tracks and shut off completely his ques? tioning t'.t of high .spirits. Sullenly he \ tries to turn us aside once or twice with "1 don't know," and when we press the point he seel.s to be trivia! and to get by with "the father of the | Hippadrum." "But we have already been goaded to brutality, and we in? sist on the correct answer until he says, "The father of his country." Then he will go back to his rocking horse and let us get' on with our book, for all children feel that there's no fun in asking questions if you have to an? swer them, too. Fiume, City of Youth The Report o? a London Times Corre? spondent of Life Under D'Annunzio It would be easy, very easy, to write of Fiume in Gilbert and Sullivan strain. Here is the Paradise* of Youth, the wildest dreams of boyhood adven? ture come true. Everybody seems to be about twenty. Some of the more staid men may be twenty-five, and from time to time an elderly person serves to emphasize the immaturity of the overwhelming majority. In strong contrast with the background of list? less apathy furnished by the towns peopfe, whose children have 'been shipped away, there is among the "Con? quistadores" an atmosphere of enthu? siasm, of hero-worship, of self-confi? dence, of joy of life, altogether ex traordinary when one stops to think that for more than a year now trium? phant youth, bubbling over with vi? tality, has been cooped up in this nar? row space, without work to do or battles to fight, without knowing how its rrand adventure will end. Like a Pirate Piny The pieturesqueness of the scene makes one blush for the lack of imagi? nation which stage directors show when attempting to present a pirate play. Here are Arditi della Guardia I ? finest of shock troops- who fight virt? ually naked, in nothing but a tin hat and hobnailed boots, a pair of shorts and a leather belt, carrying large clus? ters of tiand grenades and a >rt wide-bladed trench knife. In Fiume, however, they sport horizon-blue put? tees, gray jerseys and a rather becom? ing gray tunic and rollet', collar, th< lapels of which are covered with deco? rations placed en ?chelon one above the other. Their headgear is a blacl Chechia, from which on a long cord ; huge black tassel dangles between theii shoulders. This costume emphasizi rather than hides their splendid phys ique. Besides the Arditi, there an legionaries, grenadiers, machine gun ners, bersaglieri, cavalrymen, airmei and volunteers, all wearing uniform blended according to personal taste Then above the town, at the top of ; steep street with staircased pavements is the Palazzo, over which float th flag of Italy and the purplo, gold an blue tricolor of Fiume. From irere th Illustrissimo Commandante Gabriel d'Annunzio rules his tabloid state. But it is not the comic opera settin that counts. It is not the w*eird co; turnes which youthful fancy has d? vised for its own self-glorification, nc the medals and stars that D'Annunzi has plastered all over his legionarie and which they value above any decor; tTon won in war. The thing that coun is tho force that eaves cohesion to a this turbulent quicksilver. It la a great mistake to undcrra' ' D'Anminzio. This man is a rea! force, not only by what he has been in the past, but by what he is, and stands fo ', , to-day. No one did more to bring Italy : into the war, a-d some of his speeches then, like - Fiume orations now, will endure as Ions ;>s the Italian Iai He fought on land, at sea and in the -\\y. il.- ??.'..? ? .-..?? " indi -?, and ', even aft?-r the loss of his right eye he ; remained in the figrht. He has always dreamed of a greater Italy, supreme in the Adriatic and extending its influ? ence over the Balkans. Ho is quite ? sure that Italv has been robbed of the spoils of victory by the "ingratitude and egotism" of the Allies, and he ii as ready to give his life no-w for what he believes to be his country'' due as he was to die for her in battle D'Annunzio possesses both construe tive imagination and executive ability He is an untiring worker, and has tha divine eTft of personal rnagnetisn which attracts the :.oya!ty and devotioi of other men. There can be no ques tion of his power to sway the masses The almost religious admiration i which he is held by the regular Italia forces -officers and men of the arm and navy alik" - is surpassed only b the fanatical fervor of h:3 own foi inoro? Abundance Without Effort For thirteen months Fiume has lived without working. The wharves are di rted, the railway is overgrown with weeds, the factories are mostly shut?the great Whitehead torpedo lop, which in 1913 employed 1,800 men, now has only some 350 workers ;; nesa in the town is limited tc supplying its needs and doing a littl? ?rade with Trieste, Venice and part; of Dalmatia. And yet in sume total!; unexplained fashion the soldiers an paid, the unemployed are given boun ? es, food is plentiful and. compare! with other Italian cities, living is cheaj The soldiers and sailors get regula Italian army rations, with somethin I, and extra allowances of wine Of everything there is an abundanci not excepting money. Fiume is th only city to-day where one gets re? paro wheat bread made from tho fine: white flour, it tastes like cake. I: deed, the other day D'Annunzio Wi able to sell 2,000 tons of white floi ? ? the Austrians. Another feature < tho Fiuman puzzle, which recalls tl miracle of loaves and fishes, is tl enormous and never diminishing su ply of ammunition?regulation Ita'.u ammunition?in spite of the quantiti used up almo-;*, every day in s'.ia fights and training. D'Annunzio boas ed to me of the fact that in train;! his storm troops his men went forwa ?with live band grenades under g a chine gun barrage twelve inches ?bor? their heads. His casualties, rart?-, i from orcmatare explosiona of hcnl? irrcnades, sometime? total a dost? day. Of course, it all provii}?! (,:, , youthful followers with that Mc?(. ment which is as essential *o the? ? ' a - ? hey breathe. D ir;ng the early day? of hli cecap?. tion o inie D'Annunzlo's whole ??. gram was summed op !n the word" : "Italia, o Morte!" and every pr?paration i was made* for the defenders t? w?'?' their lives an d-nriy <, possible ?.. , destroy the town rather than surre-" | der it. Fiume ws< ? and everything was made r^ady ?? 0;?' ! up public buildings, highways, ?a-f? | mains, wharves, piers, warehouses et ? if n<"fd should arise. The town \3 gtp ? !, but D'Annunzio knows now that he will never be called upon to ?^ i fend it against Italian troops. Ind?c? he ia entirely surrounded and protected the Italian army of occup?t]? which has been thrown forward, b?. yond the Treaty of London '. n?, ,.? ! now occupies the heights above B cari, where a small force o? Jrjr> Slavs is stationed. A Friendly Visitor The day before I saw D'Annuniio ?. had lunched with General Caviglii commander in chief of the army of oc? cupation, who had come down from ^ headquarters at Trieste to s?e tb? commandante. D'Annunzio hir-.se" told me that they liad Iain out on tki crass together and talked over the de i velopments likely in the rear future D'Annunzio also haa ? Buppor of Admira! Millo, commanding tki Italian naval forces in Dalmatia, ?host headquarters arc at Zara. So D'Annunzio, free from the dingv of interference, has organized thi Corpus Separatum of Fiume, has pro claimed its independence as the !> ger.za Italiana del Carnaro?this be:n? in his mind but the first step towan forma" annexation to Italy?and ba written fer it a constitution which i not one of the least of the anomalies o this wonderful place. There may be a tragic aide to a! this. The great captains of Italian ii dustry believe that the preset I Italia government is powerless the demands of Italian labor. To us their manrer of speech, "Italy needs shock." D'Annunzio Is to be the: agent. Lavishing upon him praise an 'hey urge a march on Romi They calculate that if once he start a Fiume there will be nothing : impede his triumphal progress throuj Italy. No Italian b? - raise hand against hint, for does he ri wear the medal of the mutilated a;: the Cold Award of Val r the equiv, 'lent of the Victoria Cress? Maca i the imme liate futuro of Italy nay 1 bound up in the three words D'Annunx lias inscribed upon his banner: Qu Contra Nos? General Wood for Secretary ot State To the Editor of The Tribune. Sir: The Tr bune ?? Elihu Roof r Se - ?'.h;, of >;&te anu names his magnificent for tl :?-' It is perfectly true that Mr. Root. even at seventy-five, is one of our greatest statesmen, and I it he ? ly and favorably known abroad. But, with ?U :?? | e Trib? une's preference, permit a reader to ? ; here . . an ther America' whose pre | t the work; is equal, and verj superior, to that of Mr. Root; while the marvelous record of th s other man and his trt men-dous achievement in creating a aa ou1 of nothing p! . an ad? ra- ir and a constru tive states? man h (ad and above any - . of President of th? United Stat s requires the exerc.se of -.. . ? talent r t?te manahip. ? ' a other man p ssesses tba of a statesman in ; ' degree, he, more than any one else, e choice ? . the R publicans (and. doubtless, many Democrats) for Pre:, dent. Now, as he is so ?m.nently quali? fied for the highest office in the lane, he is certainly the best man to fill tb* next place. Taking the second bes: man for the head of the Cabinet wber we can have the best?well, Is that a good business proposit Therefore, Dr. Leonard Wood, JOB* turned sixty years of age, bu: with the physical vigor of a man o. forty, is nominati ! for Secretary ?' State now and for President fofrFy<?ars hence. F. H. LAN G WORTHY. Warren, Pa., Nov. 5. 1920. No Defrauding of Go\rernment To the lif . of Th? Tribune. S ;?: I should ' .. i to disabase you mind of the idea that business people are, in the mam, dis nest, I have been it. business tor fifteen years In ? confidential capacity, and never have I discovered even a hin" of an attempt on the part of business people to defraud the govermnt. For his benefit, and for those others who have any doubts in the matter, ? will explain the working of the manu? facturers' excise tax law. The reta.' dealer does nut pay the tax direct to the government. He pays ?t to th' wholesaler from whom he purchases the good<. The manufacturer who ?alb any completed article on which the gov? ernment has placed a rax rr.utt ?*'? aside the proper amount cf the tax tot remittance to the Commissioner of IB~ terna] Revenue on the last day of tB* month following the month in wbi**1 the sale was made. I agree with your correspondent that there Is a 1K**C laxity in this department. In that th? government's agent no longer coaif around to inspect the records; but I presume that if there was anything questionable about the remittance or a cessation of it, tho said gentleman would he on the job. The manufacturer passes the ta* charge on to the dealer, whu in turn passes it on to the consumer. Whether or not he shows the consumer ho* much tax he pays has very little pal? ing en the matter. DIOGENES New York, Nov. 5, 192*. Back to Normal iFrom The Philadelphia ItiquArtfl The Tumulty and Shouting dit.