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ADVERTISED IN THE ?$UBUNE IS GVARA?TEED Vol. LXXX1 No. 27Am (Copyright, 1081. Ntnv Vdt-U Trllnuu? Inc.) First to Last -the Truth: News ? Editorials?Advertisements THE WEAT?I B B Fair ?nd continued cold fo-t!;?* : i creasing cloodinaM and w to-morrow; northwest winds shifting to southerly. Full Report on l,?*t I'??.-. I'lUD.U, l>|?]< 'EM HUH. 30, 1921 :*< sji * # TWO <*KNTS In i.rniter ?w York THREE CEXTS Within 200 Mitra I'OIK ? F.NT? 1 . i?-.- iv-r 3 S !ai n and 2 Shol in Battle Of Thugs and Bank Helpers Bullets Fly -When Pearl River Cashier Resists Gunmen and Bandits Flee Without a Dollar Wound*? Robber as He Falls and Dies j\. Y. and Jersey Posses Search Countryside in Hunt for Four Who Escaped in an Auto : -. . ? '.-, n. Tribune PKAR1 RIVER, N>Y.! Dec 29. -At ?' ' clocli this afternoon, an hour ' ?-?? ? ts of this \ ?liage aro ?? J most of the eight hun are taking luncheon, Irew tin to the rear of National ?ank, which .faces oad tracks, ?bout twenty feet ?men climbed out of the car, ers in it, with the en ng. ites later the two men who tered the bank, after shooting i ssistant cashier ?nd .< i old bookkeeper and ounding ; he night out, leaped to the d of the waiting auto away. They left be : ? me of which was ? I with a ?ilenci -. and fledwith ? ich the currency on a table within ... reach. ?sTot h dollar was taken. On? ? ? I - gunmen who entered d, perhaps seri .. ? ; b ? i he ;? ssistant . pon the hank ? -.-. . id and an bo T te v ouniled bandit ? I I?1?. ?d in the snow. dead bank employees are,lames fi. '? j ea rs old, the as ? -, ?? nd - egJ 'ie Butz, . i r, who had been working for ' about a year. The night n, Ott i Miller who was shot ? ?- n, is in Nyaek Hospital, .-, d 'it his condition bank after and was fired upon 1]- ' sight of n ?v*- Man Hunt ble ;'i''cu: of law ? i and adjoi ting riffs' p? ? ps ?? '" - ? : -, trucks, motorcycle afoot were ? mtry ?de for a trace ? ?' ' i nmen. The poli of Jersey mi ?? sou) li of here: '. City were aid hui '. Aui. mobiles were in towns and villages of flftj mi es, . nd ? ' ?ials of the ? ? " ; to ? that the ? to P arl River in the th | ly roll of ! older < lompany, whose ?street, and whose Friday. The folder '??? than four hundred polici a so believe that Uva ? four men ? ei e si range rs bank y - ter?';.y to < !1 ?.? deposit \ a nit, as it is the pair, both quirt dressed, took mor-.' teresl in the ? quip i.. location ol the vault ,? and fables. occupies the I? ???- - tory yellow lal stands at the cor and hi ero - sing of York Rail te the bank is the Mail reet, th?1 principal ilia ?', is fringed \. ith the vill ige stores, ime Well Chosen ? las been Pear! River's ' i ? ob ???? ved bv scores in this vicinity?to n and 1 p. in. During ? business is transacted, ???:? '.i inery is silent and ??? -? en on the i treets. that do remain open have two employees on hand found that customers tin? are rare. aj men who descended cw all this. They had i !.?? sittiation and had to stage the hold-un. TI thai they would find one 'Con!l-utd on page eight) Flames Drive Thirty Families From Homes Comrades Reson? Fireman Who Volunteers to Cut Off Gas h? Flooded Cellar -, iMes were driven from the vicinity of Sixth ; 'ty-eighth Street early by a fire which swept iur-story apartment- house Wenue and spread to th* ? top ?o. of 995 Sixth Avenue. l)QFirer" ' Coi ley, of Engine Company red to enter the cellar of and turn off the gas, ?'??? > aping in great volume from melted pipes and rendering the work of : he firemen perilous. He was overcome by the gas and the sn?oke and fel! in the three feet of ??ter which ?-as in the cellar. Other member? of ,Y company found him n out. Mr. Harry M.I -\'< ? r. tif i?,,- pjre Department, re ?'.'?' '?'' ; nd bound up a cut in his >':K'tt hand, and Con lev stuck to his po&t. I, a ] at rolman attached '-,;'' i ??? '? Street police station, who :Vb\- ? th Avenue, discovered he got home about l :30 lie aroused his own and the ? house and them i . the sire.-'. f.io.s?.. -.,.-:. ....,,. driven to the streel ? ? ??- round sheltei ? n ta> icabs. which were lined ' "tj eventh Street, near the '?""? North? n Hole!. Later they "i by neighbors. 1 W> Federal Fight on Profiteers To Concentrate on This City Burns's Report on Price Conditions Here Basis for Drive; Stale Laws, Buyers' Strikes and Publicity To Be Used Fro??! The Trtliune's Washington KurroH WASHINGTON, Dec. 29. Details of the line of action to be followed and legal weapons to be used by the De? partment of Justice in its recently begun tight to lower the retail costs of foods and other necessaries of life were discussed to-day by Attorney Gen? eral Daugherty. A study of the prices problem by government experts, he re? vealed, bus shown that almost any type of case thai can be made against prof ?teering can be handled adequately through state laws. The course to be followed by the Department of Justice, therefore, will permit the conduct of ?Host, prosecutipns by local authorities after Federal investigators have col? lected evidence. Where stair laws may be weak in their application to extor? tion and profiteering, the Federal authorities will lend their' legal re? sources. Following the return to-day of Wil? liam J. Hums, chief of the Bureau of Investigation, from New York;where he has been in conference with United States District Attorney Hayward, it was learned that tho depart- ' mont's activities in the price fight will center particularly in New York City, Main- of the larger manufactur- | ing organizations of the country have their directorate? in New York. The | lact that fie business policios of n majority of the larger organizations | and commercial associations that are j upholding excessive prices have head- . quarters in New York, means the cam- '. palgn is to be waged with part?cula? i intensity there. Mr. Burns's visit is understood to ; have been for the purpose of pushing the gathering of information on pro? duction, wholesale and retail prices. In addition to the Federal and state ; anti-trust laws, the Interstate Com merce regulations will*be used against; profiteers. Since the invalidation of ' the Lever act, which was largely re? sponsible for the failure of the original government drive on profiteers, the op? erations of the Interstate Commerce j regulations, it was said, have shown where a good proportion of extortion is practiced. i Another weapon which will be used (Continued on pig? tlx) Police Capture 2 Bandits in Street Fight Chinese Sound Alarm on Whistle After Hold-Up in Brooklyn Restaurant With Patrons Looking on - Thieves Active in Holidays [Furs and Gems Valued at' Over $.100,000 Taken in Middle West Sale Raids Two masked men, each with a re? volver in his hand, stepped into"Char? ley Kce's Chinos?, restaurant on the second floor of 80.'! Broadway, Brook? lyn, about 2 a. m. to-day. One of them stationed himself in front of Charley and the cash register. The former's ds went up automatically. His follow bandit swept the half dozen persons sitting at the tables with muzzle of his revolver and ro raarked: "Hands up, everybody." The animous clatter of falling forks and . n ih of breaking crockery testified to the prompt obedience of his audience. Forks laden with chicken chow mein, chop suey and other delicacies were relinquished half way to mouth.;. Cups were dropped, tea and all, the drinkers' hands shot toward the ceiling. The ho-Hr-up man kept his revolver swinging from, one to another of them until his companion had emptied the cash regis- '. ter. Then both of them backed out of the place. Theii feet still were clumping on the stairs when Charley Kee snatched a police whistle from his pocket, and darted to the window. Throwing up the sash, he keened a shrill lament which brought Patrolmen Bode, Elii ? nd Strand of the Vernon Avenue po ! ce station on the run. Fugitives Fight Policemen They were in time to seo two men I racing down Broadway and gave chase. n * fugitives turned and tired four1 hots at the pursuing police and the patrolmen returned th? fire. neither slackened pace : take aim, however, rind all the hi.!lei-; went wild. After a chase of about two blocks ? patrolmen overtook tho fleeing men, who.il i said, turned at bayand fought; off their captors \ ?th the butts of their i revolvers. By the time they wore sub? dued they were subjects for tho atten? tion of a doctor ?nd an ambulance was called from the WilliamsDurg Hospital. B< fore they could be booked on ? charges of robbery and assault at the Vernon A-venue police station the am? bulance sure-con had to patch up scalp wounds and other injuries. The prisoners said they were Alex- | ander Botofsky and Joseph Cochocki. Following a widespread search for the gang believed responsible for ex? tensive fur thefts in the middle West j Side, eight men arraigned yesterday i before Magistrate Bernard Douras in West Side Court were held in 9*2,000 !),iil each for examination on January :;. They are charged with being impli I c ted in taking ??i.">,000 worth of goods from the establishment of W. E. Bail & Co., 33 West Forty-sixth Street, on Di comber 22. Three of the men were, arrested ; ci.rly yesterday morning at Forty seventh Street and Sixth Avenue I whiic riding in an automobile which they an* alleged to have stolen. They. described themselves as Joseph Bern- ! tcin, Bertram Boernoer and Banjamin j Casti, and were held in additional bail i of $2,000 each on a charge of appro? priating the car. The other five were captured soon afterward in a house in West Forty sixth Street. They said they were] Jacob Fiss, Max Birnbaum, Herman Rich., Albert Guidice and Albert Horo? witz. More Furs Stolen Robbers may not have done heir Christmas shopping early, but it ap? pears that they did it well, with par- | ticular care in th. ?r selection of furs I and jewelry. 'J he total amount of certain predatory excursions during the holiday week, which became known yesterday, is estimated at ? 100.000. Three of the fur robberies were in West Twenty-sixth Street, and one was in : shop situated behind a police (Continued on pao?; eight) Fliers Up 17 Hours in Gale And Still Going Stinson and Bertand in En durance Test Circle Hazel hurst Field All Day and Night in Metal Monoplane I - Fight Zero Temperature I Forced by Wind and Snow to Stay Low; Searchlights Their Guides After Dark Upon the wings of the icy gale which swept the East yesterday and last night Eddie Stinson and Lloyd Bertaud drove ?an all-metal monoplane hour after hour above the plains of Long Island in an effort to establish a new world's rec? ord for endurance. At times, when fly? ing into the teeth of the wind, they were held practically motionless by the ferocity of the sixty-mile blow in a temperature rapidly approaching zero. At 2 o'clock this morning they had been in the air seventeen hours. The temperature then, even on the ground, was not far above zero. No attempt to establish a world's aerial record of any kind was ever un? dertaken under such adverse conditions as existed when the JL monoplane took off from Hazclhurst Field. Mine?la. The start of the flight was made one minute befo:" '-1 a m., when a blinding snowstorm dimmed the landing field, forced to Fly Low Under the conditions it. was impos? sible for the aviators to fly higher thai; LOO reet above the ground; at a ?rcatet altitude they could not. see. For thrc? hours they continued the flirrli? in the snowstorm before the freshening breeze cleared the skies. Then for anothei three hours conditions remained nor. mal until the wind increased to gall force. Preparations for the flight had beer .nude several flays in advance. Just before the hour for the take-off the two pilots held a conference with Johr M, Larson, owner of the machine,whei it was decided to make the attemp regardless of weather conditions an< the adverse prediction. In order to establish an enduranci record Stinson and Bertaud mus eclipse the performance of the Farmai Goliath biplane made at Etampes France, June 4, 1920, when Lieutenant Bossoutrot and Bernard remained ii the air 24 hours 19 minutes 7 seconds This machine was equipped with t \v 260-horsepower Salmson motors. As srion as the snow storm abate yesterday the two pilots took thei craft to an altitude of 800 feet, an remained there. Their course lay ove a circle which encompassed Hempsteae Carden City, Mine?la and Wcstburj at all times in full sight of the aere drome, where two official observer from the Aero Club of America wer lakinp; turns watching the test. Immediately after darkness settle several searchlights placed about th field turned their beacons upward an formed pylons around which the? monc plane flew along its never-endin course. Equipped for 2G-Hour Trip The machine in which they went u is of the Junkehs-Larsen type of mom plane, built entirely of aluminum alio; It is driven by a B. M. W. moti r of IS horsepower. At the time the craft too off there were on board 350 gallons i gasoline and twenty-eight gallons < oil, most of which was carried in e: lia tanks placed in the limousine-pa; senger body. With this fuel it is e: peeled that the monoplane will keep i the air more than twenty-six hour-*. 1)- spite the frigid atmosphei neither pilot was equipped with ele trically heated clothing. The inclose cabin back of the pilot cockpit, )?o\ ever, is heated by the exhaust pip' of the motor, and the men are alte nating in taking naps there. They a well supplied with fo"d and hot. co fee contained in vacuum bottles. In the event of a fog during tl night huge flares were to be burni about the searchlights. These w? so arranged that 111?j pilots would 1 able to see them from any altitude. INVESTMENT INFORMATION ior the LAYMAN The Tribune is ready to help its readers with their in? vestment problems. See the INVESTMENT INFOR? MATION Column on the Financial Pages of to-day's ?Vctt) loi* afriiwne 20 Million! Month's Loot Of Rum Ring Day Charges Withdrawal Plot Here Involving Forgery, Mail Frauds and Possible Bribery - Dry Agents Unable To (Ja te h Criminals Only Small Percentage of j Operations of Bootleg-' gers Brought to Light; The existence of a highly organized | bootlegging conspiracy, through the operations of which, about, $20,000,000 worth of alcohol and liquor is believed to have been withdrawn on forged per- j mits here since December 1, was re? vealed yesterday by Ralph A. Day, Fed oral Prohibition Director, lie said that in Ihe month since he went into office ? more than forty instances of fraudu? lent withdrawals had been detected, in? volving about $1,500,000, and that there ', is reason to believe that not more than ? a smali percentage of the forgeries have come to the attention of his of? fice, possibly only one in a hundred. "And the worst of it. is," he con-1 tinued, "that even when we discover I the forgery there is practically noth ing that we can do. The vendor pre? sents to us a complete set of all the papers required for withdrawal and j asks us how he could tell they were , forged. The vendee has given a false | address and cannot be traced. Inspcc- ! tors are working night and day on the i conspiracy, but so far about all we have been able to do is to prosecute i the truckmen." ? Four Crimes involved in System j Forgery, mail fraud, bootlegging and ; possibly bribery are the crimes in? volved in the operation of the fraudu- ? lent withdrawal system, Paper bearing ' tire watermark of the internal revenue service and government manila en? velopes must be counterfeited, official' letter heads mast be printed, with-: drawal forms must be run off on the I mimeograph and six separate forgeries,; in some eases involving more than one ; name, must be committed before the most difficult task of all can be at- ; tempted. This is the evasion o? the enforce? ment ruling that permits for the with? drawal of more than one barrel or fif? teen cases, of liquor or alcohol must be confirmed by tho director's office here before they can be acted upon The vendor must write by registered mail to prohibition headquarters, ask in;; verification of the permit, a copy ol which he encloses, and must obtain a return card announcing the receipt of the letter. He must then await, a let? ter of confirmation from the director before he can make delivery. In every withdrawal fraud which las attracted Director Day's attention the vendor has shown the postoffice receipt for ihe registered letter, the return card and the answering confirmation, f'ostofficc inspectors arc co-operating with Chfcf Hugh McQuillan's internal revenue men in an effort to' run to earth the method by which these papers wore obtained, but so far it is understood that they have had little success. Some >".e connected with tit her the mail service or the prohibi? tion staff, it is th eight, must be work? ing' wit h t he conspi rator ?. Forgeries Are Perfect. The watermarks on the paper used by the bootleggers are so perfect that even ,\?r. Day finds himself unable to detect a flaw, and the mimeographed forms have been copied with such, ac? curacy that the omission of two dots i n-on- a line of periods in th?* genuine blanks is also found on the false for ns. So far the forgeries have been de tected only in cases in which the sus? picion of inspectors on their monthly rounds of the warehouses have been ; roused by some trifling inconsistency in the form.-. In one case a permit, called for delivery from \'e\v York to Philadelphia by truck, contrary to the policy of the enforcement office here. In others the inspectors have known that the vendee named in the papers was not entitled to the amount set forth in the permit. There is no chance of detection at headquarters, as the forged papers never pass through the hands of the officials. Raid Park Avenue Cafe Posing as Englishmen attending the | disarmament conference, Prohibition Enforcement Agents Harry and Man-j ?t night visited a cafe at Park | Avenue and Fifty-third Street, where, thej say, they bought two drinks of liquor, paying 75 cents for each drink. Behind the bar, the agents said, tncy found a suitcase containing urn. Thomas Ellison, the bartender, of 986 I Sixth Avenue, was arrested and taken; to the East Fifty-first Street station. Summonses were left for the two pro-; prietors. Liquor valued at more than $50,000 wa.- seized in Hoboken last night when a score of prohibition agents raided thi Grand Hotel and Meyer's Hotel, on opposite corners of Third and Hudson stri '? The proprietors of both were ordered to appear before United Commissioner Stanton this ' morning, Th ? bartender at the Grand executed a skillful getaway down a ' coal chute as he was- leading the (Continued on pago lour) , Janitor Dies Fighting Fire on Day He Gets Job After Uc Arouses Fifteen ?Fami? lies Faithful Employee is Suffocated iii Cellar Henry Mehrtens, who got a job yes-1 terday as superintendent of an apart , . nt at 301 Twenty-seventh la si night lighting a fire single handed; in the cellar of the building. On discovering the tire, he ran through the house, arousing the fifteen families. When they wen- safe outside the buil : i n :?; he seized two buckets and ; ? i the c. Mar to try to hold hack the tlame; until the firemen arrived. The firemen fourfd his body there. Smoke had Buff.icated him. The tire was ex? tinguished with a loss of about $300. Meinten.' was twenty-two years old. He was married and had one child, two : years old. llmnlliit?The t'enlus of Kscap?? v .vi Week?JKeHh's Palace.?Advt. Irish Find Method for Settlement Agree Present Dail Can't! Ratify Treaty, but That ! Southern Parliament ? Must Take Final Aetion: Membership Almost Same in 2 Houses Commons, Fleeted 1920, | Never Assembled, Mayj Be Called to Meet Now ! DUBLIN, Dec. 29 (By The Associ? ated Press).?Although no compromise between the opponents and advocates of the Anglo-Irish treaty in the Dail i Eireann has yet been attained, future plans designed to avoid wrecking the I agreement are being considered. It- is generally recognized now "that Fanion de Valora was right in assert ing that the Dail has no power to ratify ! the treaty. The treaty itself prescribes'| the mode of ratification to be by the members elected to sit in the House of Commons of southern Ireland which was constituted under the home rule act of 1920, but which actually never met, and which, except for the pur? pose of ratifying the treaty, probably ': never will meet. Its membership is I nearly, hut not quite, the same as that I of the Dail. Plan to Summon Commons '1 he Dail includes some members ; from northern Ireland and excludes four elected to the southern Parlia ment from Trinity College. The idea | is that after the Dail approves the j treaty, which it is expected to do by ai comparatively small majority, the rati- ! fying body named in the treaty shall ! be summoned. The Dail members who j are dissatisfied with the treaty need' not attend this gathering, it is pointed ; out, and thus their colleagues, plus the Trinity members, might ratify the doc- j ument unanimously. The Dail would ? still function as Ireland's only recog- | nized elected parliamentary assembly. A provisional government would be \ formed under the treaty, and the Dail ? Eireann could act as a check on its ! functions. It will take many months ! for the new Uriah constitution to be i put into working order and in the \ mean time it is hoped the differences ? between the Sinn Fein leaders might I he accommodated. There is, however, ? a possibility that Mr. de Valora, Aus- ! tin Stack, Charles Burgess and Erskine ? Childers may, as De Valera has said, ! regard the new provisional government '? as * usurpation and campaign against j it. Some eif Mr. de Valera's most influ? ential and valued friends outside the Dail have seen him ami urged the de sirability of accepting the treat*,-. They are said to have come away convinced that on the ground of principle he is entirely uncompromising and will light the matter out, whatever the consc quences. Country's Attitude Plain The country's opinion on acceptance of the treaty is not in doubt. Even the members of' the Dail Eireann oppos? ing the treaty admit that they could | not carry more than a very small pro portion of their constituents with them, j At the last election the Sinn Fciners ! secured undisputed control of all the ? great municipal and county governing ; bodii's over most of Ireland. These j bodies are now being asked to ?nfltj- i once their representatives in favor of i the treaty, and county after county is adopting resolution.-' urging their mem? bers in the Dail to vote approval. Thus far there has been no instance i of any public body adopting resolutions against acceptance, although at most ? of the meetings there has been a mi- j nority holding that view. A remarkable : feature of the resolutions favoring the ; treaty is the general lack of enthusi- , asm for its terms. It. is accepted; mostly with an accompaniment of criti- | cisma regarding its deficiencies, but the ? view is practically that, such as it is, it should be accepted. For the moment there is a lull in the | controversy, as it. was agreed that the holiday was not to bo utilized for propaganda, but the line of argument > is that Mr. de Valera had ceased to | stand on the fixed rock of republican ism and that the issue is really be tween two forms of compromise. Official Boards Favor Treaty The Offaly County Council, in the j constituency of Dr. Patrick MacCartan, former Sinn Fein "Ambassador" to the : United States, to-day adopted a reso? lution in favor of ratification of the treaty. The resolution carried with ii an amendment appealing to the Dail Eireann to act unitedly in whatever decision it should take. The corporation of the town of Sligo was among the other bodies to-day which passed resolutions supporting ratification. The official organ of the Irish Vol-i (Continuod on next p?9??) Berlin Ordered To Pay Debt! Without Delay Reparations Board Serves ; Notice Failure in Jan? uary Will Be Considered Violation of the Treaty Fischer Sees Commission ; Receives Ultimatum in Re? ply to Query as to Con? sequences of Default Special Cable to The Tribune Copyright, 10-2, New York Tribune inc. PARIS, Dec. 29.? The Reparations Commission informed Germany to-day that she must pay the January 16 in? stalment of the reparations without de? lay or she would be considered to have violated the treaty. The notification was given through Dr. Fischer, chair-I man of the German War Debt Commis- | sion, who is in Paris conferring with ? the Allied representatives. Dr. Fischer told the Reparations Commission to-day that in spite of the impression that he was here to explain Germany's demand for delay he really had come to ascertain the commis ion's opinion of what would happen if Ger? many gave no information before January 15. After receiving the Allied demand for prompt payment of the instalment, Dr. Fischer promised to telegraph his gov? ernment and bring a reply before j Saturday. j Kathenau to Meet Financiers Walther Kathenau, who arrived in ! Paris unexpectedly, sent word to the ! commission that he was holding him- \ self at its disposal in case they should call on him. The commission diel tiot invite Kathenau to to-day's conference j with Dr. Fischer. Rathenau's real reason for being in j Paris is to confer with the European financiers who are planning the eco- ; nomic reconstruction of Furope. He ; also will go to Cannes, where the AI- j lied Premiers are to meet, and hold ! himself in readiness to give any in- j formation desired as to reparations or other matters in which Germany is I concerned. PARIS, Dec. 2!) (By The Associated; Press). Roland W. Boyden, the Ameri- i can unofficial representative on the ; Reparations Commission, was in at tendance at to-day's meeting. The j meeting was limited to five principal ; members anel two secretaries general. British Business Men in Paris A number of British financiers and : manufacturer.; arrived in Paris to-day for a meeting to-morrow afternoon i with a simi'ar French delegation, headed by .Minister of Liberated Re- j gions Loucheur and M. Seydoux, eco-; nomic adviser of the French Foreign (Continued en next page) Earth Moving North Foot a Year | As Pole Shifts, Scientist Finds ! _ SWARTHMORE, Pa., Dec. 29 I By The Associated .Press).?Great interest was shown to-day by the sixty members of the American Astronomical Society at? tending the third annual meeting here in the paper read by Walter D. Lam? bert, mathematician of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey and attached to the Ukiah Observatory, in California. His discussion related to earth movements revealed, he declared, by observations at Ukiah that unmis? takably indicate a change in latitude. The earth, he believes, is shifting tow- i ard the north. Computed in terms of time and space, the Ukiah Observatory has been moving north at a rate of a foot a year during the period from i 1900 to 1917. Interest was displayed by tlu> astron? omers as to the causes of lIi?s phe? nomenon. Whether it is a local move? ment of the crust of the earth or due to a shifting of the North Pole to the south caused much speculation. Some i believed the apparent movement of the \ earth northward wa?' attributable to I errors of observation^in large part, but < were quite ready to believe, whatever ? the cause and whatever the rate, that ' the axes of the earth may have shifted ? slightly, causing the changes in lat?- ? tude. Study of the movement of the poles | showed, according to Mr. Lambert, i that the earth does not always revolve ? perpendicularly on its axis, hut that the head of tho pole, describes an ellipse, moving at times as much as sixty feet fron: its course. Position of the North Pole, ha said, is determined by computing the center of the line between the highest and lowest points of the polar star. Sometimes, he ex? plained, the pole is nor. there and it was this shifting of position that held the greatest interest of the scientists to-day. By study of spectra about certain stars. Dr, Harlow Shapley, director of Harvard Colleg? Observatory, said he had discovered ? new substance which has been called "nebuluni." The dis? covery, he added, was made through photographs which showed a spectrum not known to exist op any other body. Stars, he explained, ordinarily are made up of the same substances that are known to exist on the earth. The study of "nebulum," he declared, opens new -oossibilities for the astronomer. Hope Revived for Curb On Submarines; British Would Pledge 5 Powers Briand Defends Policies in Senate; Talks Too Much, Poincare Suggests PARIS, Dec. 29 (By The Associated Press).?Premier Briand reiterated in the Senate debate on the foreign affairs budget this after? noon France's naval policy and reviewed reparations and the Angora Treaty. The Premier insisted upon talking, although M. Poincare sug? gested that lie gave confidential information to the commission on these subjects. To this M. Briand replied: "I do not wish to hear further that 1 am carrying on in obscurity a policy dangerous to my country." The Premier oxplaineei again how France reduced her claim for capital ships, but had refused to sacrifice cruisers and submarines. "Therefore," he declared, "we remain true to our policy, which is to seek only security. We maintain our position on that point." For the present the French government is unable to see its way to any recession from the attitude taken by its representatives at Washington on the submarine question, it was said in official circles earlier in the day. The submarine question involves other considerations than the ton? nage allotted to each nation, it was said, and inasmuch as the coun? tries represented at Washington were not the only ones able to build undersea boats, an arrangement among these countries alone would have to be considered an insufficient way of dealing with the problem Borah Talks on 4-Power Treaty _ st \ With Tumulty Belief Is Senator Discussed With Former Secretary Speeches Made Abroad by Pr?sider t Wilson Pact Opposition Grows Agreement To Be Modified lo Exclude its Application to Mainland of Japan From The Tribune's Washington Bureau WASHINGTON, Dec. 29.?A confer? ence to-day, which lasted for an hour or more, between Senator Borah, of Idaho, and Joseph P. Tumulty, Secre? tary to the President in the Wilson administration, set in motion a flood of gossip and speculation concerning the four-power treaty and the con? troversy over its ratification in the Senate. The meeting was in Senator Borah's office in the Senate office building. The treaty was discussed at length, but the details of what passed were not dis? closed. Senator Borah declined to say what was said at the conference, but did not deny reports that he and Mr. Tumulty had taken up the treaty. It is understood that; along with the treaty the general work of the Confer? ence on Limitation of Armament was likewise discussed. Senator Borah had requested Mr Tumulty to furnish him with copies ol certain of Mr. Y\'ilson's speeches ir Europe, especially the Manchestei speech. Mr. Tumulty personally lookei after the matter, and this served t? bring about the meeting. Reports a once were heard that former Presi dent Wilson was preparing to take ; stand against the treaty, but Senato: Borah disdained having any informa tion as to Mr. Wilson's attitude. Opposition Grows Coincident with the conference be tween Senator Borah and Mr. Tumultj however, it became known there is . concerted movement in the Senat? backed by the Wilson Democrats, t line up Senators on the Democrat: side against the treaty. This fact nlu the conference Mr. Tumulty had wit: Senator Borah is looked on as pointin strongly to the proposition that th former President is not friendly to th four-power pact. His opposition wil be based, it is said, on the theory th alliance of four powers relative to th Pacific islands is a return to the bar anee of power idea and is not cor sonant with the League of Nations an its program for world peace. The opposition to the treaty in th Senate to-day made stronger claim with respect to the scope of that o| position than it has made heretofor It was represented there would I twenty-seven Democratic Senators 01 of thirty-six against the treaty. Th conflicts with assertions of the Repul lican leaders, who say Senator Unde woo'l will rally fourteen Democrats : the support of the four-power agre inent. The Democratic opposition wi fight the treaty regardless of reserv tions, on the ground that it is an all ar.ee which, instead of making f? (Continued on next page) Temperature Drops 24 Degrees in Eight Houi Still ("older Weather Predict? To-day as 62-Mile Gale Bombards City The mercury dropped yesterday fr< 40 degrees at 2 p. m. to lfi de<^r? at 10 p. m., and will go even lower tl morning, according to the weatl ni a n. The city was swept in the afterno by sixty-two-mile-an-hour winds. Hea winds are scheduled to prevail agi to-day. Yesterday's snow melted quickly the business thoroughfares, but ms sledding possible and popular in pi; grounds and parks. The fl r snow storm of the winter will find Str. et Cleaning Department's Beet motor plows and tractors ready action. Fair weather is predicted for to-d "Tbp Bent Writing 1'apiT? ftr* Whit big J'aperu,"?A?vt. Root Resolution, Reaf? firming Present Itiierna tional Law on Seas, ?* Adopted in Principle Second Rule Bars War on Commerce French Policy of D?ilay Explained a? Linked to Parley on Reparations By Carter Field WASHINGTON, Dei .29.-5 hope that an agreement not to submarines against merchai I under ai3y circumstances will be reached by the live naval powers at? tending the armament limitai conference was held out to-night. Confident that this would b? adopted, British spokesmen declared that the conference had "recovered a lot of the ground lo t yesterday ' ?when the French prevented agreement as to li ion .on eil submarines or auxiliary craft. The original proposition to p merchant ships from I arines, as discussed in to-day's meeting of the committee rn armament, was made by Klihu Roe)t and propo ange in international law. to take effect when all the nations have ratified it, just as an amendment to the United States Constitution takes effect if anel when ?1 is ratified by threc Eourths of the states. Existing Rules Reaffirmed Tending th mcc of his pro? posed change in international law, Mr. Root asked that the ex ing governing the activities oi surface craft in warfare, with application to submarines, be reaffirmed. This pro? posal vas agi ! ? " i pie and sent to a Bub-co drafting. This resolution rea.. : "The signatory le ?ring to make mi fe ed by ? tion of the live of neuti-a ..? war in? vito the aui ?? . r civi? lized po\v< state ? end lie un derstanding thr [he standards of - : ; I ! |. \ I l i S tO I . ?. judgment lik'e IV The ' d pro? posal, on v ich Id not be rea? "The i I-.'" pracl.' submarine? : without violating tl lit! universallj ace I na tions for ; he . rol of ! to the end that ' of ac : ? of :ia tions th? t to h prohibition ai ol her - I British I . : of Five The Bri1 le seconel Hoot prop . lould gd furthe r in thfl mean time I ; attend? ing the Arma n Ci tifer-* ence she : i lit with each othr-j? that the subma i t be use! by any one of them against any othel in th? m any oj the five. Before there had been !,mc'? discuss ion th? m Ijour led unt:: to-morrow, but weire ra. diant to night at 'll" prospect of ac< complishing ?; . ? ? .ca-( elelegat.es were not Ear l - no i. their enthusiasm. ?Senator Root i ;ir- Britis*) campaign against th? prohibition issue, saying a very broad prohibition like ; at w< now live under here was nee order to make ?\ simple rule w'hici v/ould prevent people from doing thing? in an objectionable way. In this cas; if they tried to make the prohibition in detail it would be impossible t? enforce it, and so it was impossible to have a glass of wine at dinner be? cause it was necessary to have broa?! prohibition to prevent ;; lot of pool fellows from gett ng drunk on bai The [?3 tried U abolish sub". but ha ? r ??>?? ded, to no< they were trying t? get rid Of ?he evils |>y detailed nsteai of general prohibition. A?? a matter of fact, the British op? to I agre? ? ment among the five powers not t? use? ; he - ubi ? ? other's mere seeniei t?, be justified by ? at;.o>i?? around French headquarters late t&, night. The British based their on' timism as to French acceptanc? speech which Alber: Sarraut, head e< the French delegation, made; at to day's ses-',.,!:. This speech, however was made not on .ih?. to oufc law all submarine Operations againr merchant ships, but on a posa!, quite generally approved, whiei would restate the old law of the ^j with respect to visit and search, g?sv anty of the safety e crew, etc. it svas aft th-.s r-roposal that Mr. Root made hi further proposal, with a vjew t0 ol, ; taim~g the ?agreement of all nations \ ! cnange international law, and Mr Bal four, for the British, sought to amer, i it by having in the me ".agree: ;lpcnt ?" the five pow< i aaented. France Silent on Proposal A;; " " ff? of the proceeding l-no word w! Preft3 !ft a/w"* ?r dK',ont' the til.'. after that bemg (??tirely consumed h' j Messrs. Root and RalfouT | Later, however, hints around Fret? ! heaeiquarters were clear that ?would have to take ;,,,? time aboil [this business of agreeing not U :? tack merchant, ihips at all, buch l9?