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Chicago Points the Way Toward Solving the Negro Problem
Race Can Attain Its Full Stature Here, Commission Be Heves (Whan thirty-tight parsons, white and negro, wer? killed and five hundred anc thirty-seven injured, in the raes riott that look plate in Chicago at the end of July, 1619. the sentiment of an arousec community demanded that measure! <**ur???*e and preventive be devised tt cheek the continuance or further recur renea of racial clashes. A mixed eommisison, composed o? vrominent men of both races, was ac? cordingly appointed by the Governor oj Illinois, Frank O. Lowden, to make c thorough study of every phase of racia relations, "to pet the facts and interpre them, and to find a way out,1" 2?ha; body's report ha? just been published tt a volume of 650 pages. A digest of th< report appears below, in which specia attention has been paid to those por tions of the document having a signifi, oance not only for Chicago but for ai those sections of the United State, where a problem similar to Chicago'. exists or may occur. The members of th* commission ar Robert S. Abbott, Edgar A. Ba?erof\ chairman; William Scott Bond, Edwan Osgood Brown, George C. Hall, Georg H. Jackson, Harry Eugene Kelly, Victo 'P. Ijaweon, Adelbert H. Roberts, Juliu Rosenwald, Francia W. Shepardson, vice chairman ; lio\r.ey Kirk Williams, Gra ham Rnmeyn Taylor, executive secretari and Charles S. Johnson, associ?t ?xeeutive secretary.) By Robert Cresswell THERE is no reason inherent i the mental, moral or physic* make-up of the negro rac which would prevent Its a1 talnlng ita full atature as a componer part of the American commonwealth I certain environmental conditions thi handicap it at present were to be r< moved. At the same time, there are n short cuts to the solution of the prol lem of fitting Caucasion and Ethiopia into their proper relative places in ov civilization. No laws and no restri tions will be effective in accomplishir what must be dono by toleranc?, pi tience and forethought in a ha? struggle against some of the mo stubborn and unreasonable and selfis elements in human nature. Such Is the gist of the opinion re; dered by the Chicago Commission < Race Relations in its report on tl causes, underlying conditions and rer edies for the race riots of 1919. Th opinion is the result of three yeara intensive inquiry, conducted a?03 strictly scientific lines. Thousands persons were questioned and hundre of homes and factories visited. The most important section of t report is that tending to ahow that t widespread belief that the negro p? plo is an inferior race is unfounded fact. This is more important than t perspicacious setting forth of t causes of racial friction, and more i portant even than those sections ape fylng definite measures for the avo anee of auch friction, for it Is tl belief which is not only at the bott? ,,o,f race prejudice, but is alao guilty making reaponsible citizens feel tl the case is really a hopeless one whi ?lalliatives may assuage but remed never cure. Negro Child Found Not To Be Inferior Mentally Careful scrutiny of the record negro children jn the public scho? of negro crisninality, of the negro industry and of negro thrift and h ??sty in business matters, as compa with the characteristics of whites der the samo circumstances, furrjs the background of facts on which t particular conclusion Is supported. In the first Instance the figures t ing the causes of retardation oi group of about 3,000 children, nes evenly divid-d between white and gro, are most illuminating. In caso of children retarded for backwa ness 192 negroes are noted, against whites; for irregular attendance, negroes, against 161 whites; for mentality, 49 negroes, against whites; for feeblc-mindedness, 9 groes, against 12 whites, and for health, 140 negroes, against 204 whi On the other hand, 564 negro chile were held back because of ente school at an older age than usual *_6.3 negroes, compared to 175 wh because of family difficulties. The vlous testimony of these figures li? the commission points out, that negro child is, if anything, more c ble mentally than the white chil< his own age and class, and that w' the negro Is alow it is usually beci social and family considerations 1 handicapped him. On the question of comparative gro criminality the commission, ing itself unable to rely on police tisticp, confesses that it can mak accurate findings. A canvass of . cago judges, however, resulted : consensus of opinion that the pre tionate criminf-litv of the two raci much the same. Kmplojera Find Negro < Labor Is Desirable In relation to the negro in industry it was developed that by far the ma? jority of employers of large numbers - of the race regarded them as being - just as satisfactory, efficient and desir? able as white labor of the same class when once they have been familiarized with the difference between the routine ef industry and the greater freedom '.e of the type of personal service or agri? cultural labor in which negroes have , traditionally made their living. Under the general headings of "The - Negroes as Home Owners" and "Finan ei.il Resources of Negroes'' the com? mission made some astonishing dis? coveries that quite controvert gun tmllej held opinions as to'the business methods and thrift of the negro peo? ple. A Urge number of real estate con? cerns were questioned, and "most of -those that had dealings with negroes, whether ?8 buyers, borrowers or rent? ers, expressed satisfaction -with their transactions with them.*' One man ?aid that his long experience showed that " -negroes carry out what they intend to 'do ?nd that very few default on their paysaervf?!. Another, who had bean deal The Negro Problem as It Was Emphasized hy the Chicago Riots Above, a striking picture of crowds armed with bricks searching for a negro during the Chicago outbreak in July, 1919. Below, a contrast in negro homes?on the left, a typical plantation home of one of those who migrated to Chic.aenz nn thp. rieht- n iieem home in C.hinaaa. Chicago; on the right, a negro home in Chicago. ing with negroes since 1907, declared that they undertake their obligations seriously and that as installment buy 'ers of property they are entirely sat? isfactory. That banks were usually unwilling to take mortgages on prop? erty bought by negroes, it was said, was due partly to misapprehension and partly to the fact that such prop? erty was customari?y in a section of the city where depreciation of values had set in, as negroes could not afford or were not permitted to buy else? where. The information as to negro deposits was provided by seven trust and sav? ings banks, three state banks, two na? tional banks and one trust company. One of the banks had $1,500,000 on de? posit for negroes, another $1,000,000. Still another had 4,000 negro deposit? ors. A state bank had $650,000 on de? posit for negroes, another $150,000, and one of the South Side banks $750,000. "In general," remarks the report, "it was found that the negroes are show? ing strong tendencies to open bank ac? counts, that they are steadily improv? ing in the amount of deposits made, in the steadiness of their accounts and in thrift generally." Not content with presenting these facts of achievement about the negro, the commission proceeds further in its report in the same direction, testing the popular beliefs in negro inferior? ity by making a profound study of their origins. Tho results, which aro substantiated in every case by epeciflc instances, lead to the following con? clusions: "That in seeking advice and informa? tion about negroes white persons, al? most without exception, fail to select for their informants negroes who are representative and can pr?vido depend? able information. "That negroes as groups sre often judged by the manners, conduct and opinion** of servants in families ot other negroes whose general standing and training do not qualify them to be the spokesmen of the group. Traditional Opinions Influence Literature "That the principal literature re? garding negroes is based upon tradi? tional opinions and does not always portray accurately the present statu* of the group. "Most of the current beliefs con? cerning negroes are traditional, and were acquired during an earlier period when negroes were considerably les* intelligent and responsible than now Failure to change these opinions, ir spite of the great progress of th( negro group, increases misunderstand? ings and the difficulties of mutual ad? ju?tment. "That tho common disposition to re? gard all negroes as belonging to on? homogeneous group is as great a mis? take as to assume that all white per? sons are of the same class and kind "That much of the current literatur? and psuedo-sclentific treatises concern ing negroc?, are responsible for sucr prevailing misconceptions as: tha' negroes have inferior mentality; thai negroes have inferior morality; tha' negroes aro given to emotionalism; that negroes have ?n innate tendenc: to commit crimes, especially se: crimes. "We believe that such deviations from recognized standards," further adds tho commission, "as have been apparent among negroes, are due to circumstances of position rather than ; to distinct facial traits. We urge os j pecially upon white persons to exert i their efforts toward discrediting ! stories and standing beliefs concerning ; negroes, which have no basis in fact, I but which constantly serve to keep ! alive a spirit of mutual fear, distrust and opposition." The next major premise set forth by the commission after disavowing the theory of Tacial inferiority, as far as general significance goes, Is the uttei rejection of proposals such as the deportation of 12,000,000 negroes to Africa, the establishment of a separat? negro state in the United States, com? plete separation and segregation from the whites, with the establishment of ? caste system of peasant class, or th? postponement of a solution in tho hop? of the negro race dying out. So impracticable, indeed, are sucl; plans in the eyes of the authorities or the commission, that very little con? sideration is given them except to dis? miss them, despite thai fact that thej I find support among many well-mean? ing people and some fanatics through? out tho country. Problem Must Be Worked Out In The United States "The only effect of such proposals is to confuse thinking on the vital issues involved and to foster im? patience and Intolerance," the report remarks. "Our race problem must be solved in harmony with the fundamen? tal law of the nation and with its free institutions. These prevent any de? portation of tho negro, as well as any restriction of the freedom of his move? ment within tho United Statos. . . . It is important for our white citizens to remember that the negroes alono of all our immigrants came to America against their will by the special com? pelling invitation of the whites." Turning from these two general and broadly constructive points, there is much that should be of great valuo to other cities with large negro popula? tions in the section of the report deal? ing with the causes and manifestations o&racial friction in Chicago before and during the period of the riot. These differed from the ones typical of an outburst in the South, just as the psychological attitude of the South? erner toward the negro varies from the' Northerner's. The main cause of the Chicago riot was apparently an extraordinary in? flux of negroes from 1916 to 1919, which caused the portion of tho town accepted as tho negro quarter to ex? pand and to encroach on neighboring aroas whose inhabitants were thereto? fore predominantly white. The latter felt that their property was being de? preciated in value by this infiltration; hostility developed and was recipro? cated to a small extent, and finally cumulative resentment burst into vio? lence. Tho cause of the negro migration to the North, by which Chicago was one of tho most largely affected cities, was twofold: industrial demand arising from war causes and a widespread feel? ing throughout the South that an op? portunity had come for the negroes to escape from what they felt to bo a land of discrimination and subserviency tc one where fair treatment would be ac? corded them. When the migrantf reached Chicago they found plenty oi employment, and practically no fric? tion, it i h said, was experienced in in dustry, wheto it might have been ex? pected, As has been indicated, the hous? ing'situation proved the bone of con? tention. A number of bombs were thrown at tho residences of negroes who had moved out of tho "Black Belt' into the "invaded" districts, as well ai at tho houses of real estate men o both races who had sold or rentoc houses to the newcomers. None o: those guilty of these outrages wert captured by the police, who wero popu larly credited with having made smal effort in this direction. A feeling o distrust toward the Police Departmcn was thus created among tho negroes i: general. Thompson's Opponents Charged With Hostility Two other factors seem also to hav played a part in creating the atmos phere requisite for the riots. One wa tho fact that in a recent municipE election Mayor Thompson was held t have been re-elected? largely because c tho support of tho mass of negi voters. The factional struggle ha been bitter, and many of Thompson opponents retained a feeling of hosti ity toward the race whose voters wei believed to have swunir the balance i the election. The other was the fric? tion that had existed for some time past among gangs of young thugs liv? ing near the negro section and th? ne? groes whom they were in the habit of molesting and attacking wantonly. Two negroes had, in fact, been brutally murdered by these hoodlums only five wcek3 before the riot. Noticeably absent from the causes assigned for the commencement of troub:* is the sex report usually as aoci: d with such affairs. The un? derlying bad feeling seems to have ticen largely economic, while the spark i (,hat lit the magazine was evidently the aggressiveness of irresponsible and fractious persons, most of whom wers under twenty-one. It is also to be ob? served from the history of the riol that this same clement of young thugs and hoodlums, particularly on tht white side, kept throwing fuel on the flame by the disorders and crimes the*, perpetrated. Another thing that evi? dently aggravated conditions was thai the whole situation was badly mishan? dled by the police. Lengthy consideration of the riots bj the commission led to the submissior of fifty-nine specific recommendation! on race relations and race rioting fo; ExJvaiser Fails to Tell Put Upon Bismarck of Indignities Before His Dismissal By Stephane Lauzanne ! Editor in Chief of "Le Matin" Paris, October 7. ONE might very well ask whether the cx-Kaiser is a good story? teller. A good atoryteller must never fail to tell a good story; but it seems that the ex-Ka'ser always fails to strike the point in a story, digressing from the facts and ccmmenting upon them without eluci I???"*' Everybody was sure, for exasnple, that in the first chapter of his memoirs, i which is consecrated to Bismarck, the ex-Kaiser would take all the glory in telling how he, while still a young emperor, had dismissed the old Chan? cellor. That was a good story. The | dramatic scene attending the break is, j however, told in two lines: "The con? flict between the views of the Emperor and the Chancellor relative to the so? ldai question was the real cause of the break between us; and caused a hos? tility toward me that lasted for years on the part of Bismarck." That it all. Dr. Moritz Busch, Bismarck's confi? dent, was a much better storyteller, for the account he gave of the dis? missal was infinitely more detailed anc vivid. Accoont of Dismissal As Giren By Dr. Bosch Dr. Busch visited Wilhelmstrasse th? morning of March 18, 1880, and wa immediately received by Prince voi Bismarck. He found him kneeling be fore his desk, removing his papers an' piscina* them in a trunk. fi "Good morning, Buschlein," the Chan? cellor exclaimed, calling the Herr Dok? tor by a name he affected toward his intimates. "I'm packing up, you see. I am sending these papers off to-day. They aren't safe here. Certain inter? ested persons may endeavor to obtain them." Dr. Busch was stupifted. "Is your Highness serious?" he exclaimed. "Are you really leaving?" "It's a matter of about three days,' Bismarck replied. "In about three day* I shall no longer be Chancellor. . . I cannot continue as at present. Th( Kaiser has gone so far as to questiot me regarding my visitors, and spic. have been placed all about me to scru tinize all who. como and go. It's 01 that account that I don't for the mo ment see how you can possibly ge these papers out of here unnoticed" "I will take the most important," Di Busch suggested, "and your Highnes can send me the others." While they were making packets ( the papers to be taken by Dr. Busc they discussed the circular that tl Kciser had issued with regard to tt working classes. "?he circular is foolish" Bisman exclaimed, "Just like everything el that he mes. it can only do harm. told him as much, but he wouldn't ? ten. He is too vainglorious. He thin he knows it all." . . . Two days later, March 18, Dr. Bus returned to Wilhelmstrasse. He fou the Chancellor nfc lunch in his dini room, talking of various things, 1 nothing touching the political. situa? tion. But, no sooner had the coffee been served, than Bismarck rose and gave Dr. Busch the signal to follow him to his private office. There ho gavo way to his pent up rage. Chancellor Denounced Kaiser As Insolent and Ingrate VWellJ" he exclaimed, "It's done. ] gave the youngster my resignation thii morning. He has accepted it, and J am no longer Chancellor of tho Reich . . . Ahl Things have moved faste than I thought they would. . . . '. thought at first that he would be grate ful tc have me with hirn for ?severa months yet; but I see now that he ha but one idea?one desire?that of got ting rid of me as soon as possible s that he might govern alone?to his ow glory! He wants nobody about hi] but domestics. But I?I cannot cot tent myself with serving on bend? knees. I will not be sent under table like a ?og. He wants to bres with Russia, hz* hftsn't tha courage I ask the Reichstag for the funds nece sary for a larger army. "I have succeeded in gaining tl confidence of St. Petersburg. What w they think of me now if we break wi them? . . . And that isn't ail. The aro other things to consider. I've h enough of court intrigues! I've h enough of their insolence! I've h enough of their spies! Enough a moro than enoughI" / "So they spied on you?" Dr. Busch exclaimed. "Yes," Bismarck replied. "The Kaiser put his secret police on my trail to spy on me and my visitors, as I've al? ready told you. It is that which has docided me. I want you to tell the world that my resignation was entire? ly involuntary. We must not be afraid to divulge the truth. That youngster (the Kaiser), would like to hide the fact, but it shall be known anynow." Some minutes later the* visit was announced of the Count von Munster, then German Ambassador to France Bismarck had him enter at once, and spoke to him with the samo ardor re? garding his resignation, being in turr sarcastic and vehement in his refer? ence to the Kaiser. "Do you know what that youngste! had the audacity to send me and no wife?" ho added, his voice rising i* anger. "No," the Count replied. "Well, he has just sent me a parch ment creating me Duke of Lauenbourg and the Princess a full-size oil portrai of himself." "Whet did you do?" the Coun asked. "I threw the parchment into th waste basket," Bismarck continue, "and the Princess sent the portrait t Friedrichsruhe, ordering that it d placed in our stable." It is thus that Dr. Busch and th Count von Munster tell the story. W must admit that they can tell" a stor better than the Kaiser. the consideration of the authorities. They are an extremely valuable por? tion of this document, and a summary of those of them that do not refer tc strictly local conditions is as follows: To the Police, Militia, State's At torney and Courts i The police and militia should worl out a plan for the joint control o: race rioting. In case of an outbreak, the militia white and negro, should be prompt': mobilized, and together with the polic and deputy sheriffs, should be so dis tributed as adequately to protect botl ?races in white and negro neighbor j hoods, thus avoiding the gross in ! equalities of protection which, in th | Chicago riot, permitted widesprea depredations, including murder, agains negroes in white neighborhoods, an attacks in negro sections by invadin white hoodlums. Also the police an militia should be stationed wit j special reference to main strectca I lines used by negroes in getting t and from work; substantial assuranc ; should be given of adequate and equs ; protection by all agencies of law er (forcement, thus removing the incentiv j to arm in self-defense; in the appoin' ! ment, of special peace officers thei I should be no discrimination again; negroes; all rioters of both rac< : should be arrested without discrimini tion; all reports of neglect of duty < participation in rioting against peai officials should be promptly invest gated, and all persons arrested in co nection with rioting be systematical booked on distinct charges showii such connection. Facetiousness in dealing with cas in which negroes aro involved shou be discountenanced by the courts. The negro residence areas should freed of vice resorts, whose prese ; exceptional prevalence in such areas due to official laxity. To the. City Council and Admin trative Boards: The most stringent means possil: should be applied to control the i; i portation, sale and possession of fii j arms and other deadly weapons. Sanitary regulations should be ? forced in negro residence areas, wh< they are usually shamefully neglect? Recreation centers should be est. lished for negroes, and discrimin?t! against them in extant centers abo? be dono away with. To the Board of Education t ?Schools in tho negro district shot he multiplied and brought up to l standard of those in other portions the city. More night schools and commua centers should be established, ? truant officers should givo more tention to negro children, especia those of migrants just arrived fr the South. Principals and teachers in ne: schools should be chosen for tii sympathetic attitude, and should courage children of both races top ticipato in school activities as a mo of promoting mutual good understa ing. To Social and Civic Organizado Being convinced that much of the tagoniam toward negroes is foun upon unjust tradition, it is rec mended that schools, social centers agencies, churches, labor unions public spirited citizens, white and gro, should endeavor to dispel fi notions and promote mutual friera ness. Social agencies should extend tl work to the negro community fe greater extent. To the Public: Being convinced that deportatior segregation is illegal and impract ble, the commission, feeling that m responsibility for race rioting does rest on hoodlums alone, but also ail citizens, white or black, who s tion force or violence in intern relations, and feeling that race 3 tion is largely due to the fact each race too readily misundersti the other, urges opposition to viol? dispassionate consideration of one other's needs and the disseminatio proved information about all phas? race relations. Since rumor, usually groundlesi a prolific source of racial bitter and strife, both races are wa against acceptance of vmtrustwo reports about each other. Race contact l;i cultural and c< No Short Cuts, fc Patience and To]? eranceAreCoim. ?eled orative effort tends strongly to understanding. ?1% The fostering of rae, ?ntagoa?,-.. organizations founded for parse,/ . patriotism or local improvement? ?!',; ike is to be condemned. tt* It is especially important that manent local body repr*!*,).??-. ?? races be char-frd with itTe-tL* situations likely to p-rodr-e? , ? and with pro/notii-g the -rain?'?f* ^ terracial tol-arr.nr?--. *??* To the Whiut Memfaa,. , Public, "^ *'+ Attention i* <*-an.-*d to ti? f,-. ( intensity of r*wi*J feri?** i,?** DfZ* sarily due to tha piraents, ^ jj** i n a neighbtwliooii, either ia s -Tr? or a majority. ?T,A tha* ttgt f !J is not the rrjle, but Uj? exajtj,^^ Testimony unit 'TJTtnrt?is?jpjj, .^ that dapTeciatiam of res??k-^, " r (generally riwirrreti e^d-j^^ ?i7 p.esence of bp-jtw^ ??, t 4-^ '' o/ten largely da*? to other J^ The prarti?** o? property n^^ arbitrarily adTanc** rent* mtni>?. cau?e negroe-? become tenants iiVtu condemned. White persons should seek infers?, tion from responsible negroes ab-r* the negro race, thereby counteracts the common disposition, arising ft* erroneous tradition and literatura, -, regard a!l ne?jroes as belonging toot, homogeneous group and as bein-j i?. ferior in mentality and morality, ?p-?-. to emotionalism, and having an iriaa^ tendency toward crime, especially M? crime. To the X'egro Member? of the Public: Sound racial doctrines should be pro mulgated amor.g the uneducated tiHB bers of the race ar.d agitators jhcmld be discouraged. Negroes are urged to contrit nte mon I freely to social agencies developed h j public-spirited members of their (*rw? ? and to undertake work among negnj ! boys and giri.3 along the lines of t?o i prevention of vice and crime. They are particularly urged to prat**:] ; vigorously against the presence in ?b?.-J ; residence areas of any vicious resort. The propriety and social value of nul ; pride among negToes are reeogdttcJ but they are warned that too aukl i thinking and talking in terms of nu i are calculated to pre note separat:? si j ? racial interests. To Employers and Labor Orgst-i-*.] tions i In labor troubles negroes are apt*-} be in a position dangerous to the*:? I selves and to peaceful relatiosi be? tween the races. Employers ?r**K.*> 'mended to deal with r.egroes ai ?'li? men on the same piare as whit?**?' ers, and labor unions are cr-ri til admit them to full membership wlsel they desire to join ar.d are e?ij?'ij otherwise. H_ Employers are urged to enlarge t'**8 field of negro employment ,at pif?^jB very limited, and to give them tfsfl opportunity for advancement wJj whites according to their capscities. The hiring of negroes as ?triit breakers is unjust and a c3T*ae of ?* ci?l antagonism, as is also the ?m*!*** ment of negro girls at a smaller ?P than white girls. | Since the common welfare depeads* the employment or non-employm-**?*?* negro workers, employers should a?* discrimination in hiring, paying ori* missing them, applying to them U same tests as to white employai* To fiegro IFor fcprs : Qualifie?, negro workers who d??*B membership in labor ?rgtnltstkdT should join unions which admit **J races equally, instead of orgac??ing| separate negro unions. The practice of seeiinr P*?7 "& advances on wages anti ike pract!-? ?? laying off work without good cante should be abandonad To Places of FuWic ?ccommwi? \ tient ^^^ Attention is called to U* ??H quiring that negroes receive the m | treatment as white persons in P?* of public accommodation, and o*? are urged to govern their poll** cordingly. To the Press t ?, In view of the recognized ??"??? bility of the press in its influent*^* | public opinion concerning r.ejro^ ipecif.lly important as related ? suppression of race rioting"-*--**^ mend (a? that the newspsp?I?^j ally, including the foreign toWp | press, apply the same standards t curacy, fairness and sense of P tion, with avoi.Jance of exige*?-*'"^ in publishing news about ret*?-*** about whites. In this coi-neetio?? jcial attention is called to the i*#*Pjj ? emphasis, greatly out of pr?'P?-rt; ^ that given their creditable acts, W quentiy placed on the <?*???*-** ^".?i deeds of negroes, -who, un***c8 * . groups, are identified with **"? , ^ dent and thus constantly a"90^'? with discreditable conduct; f>) * the manner of news treatment i?, ; case of negroes shall be no diff? ; than in the case of whites; (c) *-*? ^. consideration of the great e**si ' which the public is influenced.?*** tho whole negro group by sen8il.^ articles ti.d headlines, the P?88*^-, exercise great caution in aea*ins^,? unverified reports of crimes oi: ^??? against white women, and sho?.d? ' the designation of trivial fights V , riots; and (d) that in wcogiutW-V the dangers of racial ?nta??oni8fflJ*vjt?' part of the ignorant, the U''1**18*^ and the prejudiced of both race* F lication be made, as opportun*-*?-.,. fer ,of such matters as shall t?8* dispel prejudice and promote ? resptc and good will. ? Wo further rocommend the c?F ization of the word "?>Tegro" i? **"? designation and the avoidance of 3 word "nigger" as contemptuou? needlessly pi?vocativc.