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The sun. (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916, June 01, 1872, Image 1

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f ClSAIl
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(Maguificcnt Speech of Sior
Ciiiirli". oimiKcr.
Tho Prosidoncy a Trust ; Not !
a Plaything.
Personal Govonnncnt and Presiden
tial Protonsious. I
RolVrm and Parity of Gororn
mont Domandod.
V mivoton, Mny nt. At tho oxplnillon
oftlir ivriilntf In (liu Sonno to-day, Mr. Stun
tier (Hep , M-iat.) moved that tho Apportionment
Mil bo Indefinitely postponed, nnd nnnoiiiu'cil
that upon this motion ho liitctulcil to make n
speech In vindication of himself. Tho Senato
' not having consented to glvo lilm a lirarlntr on a
mora convenient occasion, lie was obliged to
tike advantago of this opportunity.
lr.l'"iikilng(l!cp., N. Y.) called Mr. Sumner's
, atuiilhui to tho flirt that Mr. llninlln, the Chair
s' rnan 'he Committee on Trench Arms Sales,
i had been called away by a family adllctloti, and
that Air. Carpenter, also a member of the com
mittee, nus not In his teat.
Hr. Sumner said ho bad heard of Mr. Hamlin's
anilctlon, and regretted It. He observed, how
ever, that Mr. C.irpentcr, tho author of tho
Frew ii arms report, was now In his seat, and
therefore hu would proceed, which ho did.
Mil. SfMNKIl'SHl'KU'll.
Mil. 1'iiEsiliK.NT: I havo no hesitation In lo
daring nivsolf n member of tho Itepubllcan
party, and one of tho stralghteat of tho sect. I
i doulit If any Sei ator can point to earlier or moro
runsl.iiilsoivleo In Its behalf. I began at tho
beginning, and from that e.irly day havo ncer
filled lo sustain Its candidates anil to advance
Its principle", l'ur these 1 huo labored always,
)jy nvc I, ...id note, In the i!ouato and elsew here,
! it ar' wl'b lew only, but nt Inst, nt success bo
can to dan, tuen with mi.UlIu fi,.i kli,- I..r
want. In this cause 1 nevenu-ked wlnrvtcruniy
associates, or how many they would number. In
, tliu consciousness of right I was willing to bo
I alone. To mu.1i aparty, with which so much of
f ray life Is Intertwined, I havo no cnmmnn nt-
Itai hment. Not without recret can 1 eo It suf
fer; not without u pang can I sco it changed
frum IU original character, for such u change Is
death. Therefore do t ask with no common
feeling that the peril which menaces It may pass
sway. I stood by its cradle. Lot in not follow
lu tiearso.
aim iimruucAN pauty seized bv Tin rural
IIKNT. It Is not difficult to Indicate when thodlsas
" tro.ischunge. exalting the will of one maualxive
all else, became, not merely manifest, hut pain
fully conspicuous. Already It had begun to
' show Itself In personal pretensions, to which I
ihall refer soon, when suddenly, and without
any warning through tho public ires, or any cx-
)rcsslun Irom public opinion, tho President
elected by tho Itepubllcan party ttreclpltatod
upon tho country nn Ill-considered and ill-omened
scheme for the annexation or a portion of the
blind of Han Domingo, in pursuance of a treaty
f iieeotUtod liy a person of his own household,
I ihflinv himvy aUC-tle-camv of t?te I'rttUltnt of the
a Hiiilfd bUiti: Had this effort, however
I Injudicious in object, been confined to
R ordinary and constitutional proceedings, with a
I r,r .per regard for a coordinate branch of the
I I Uovcrnincnt, It would hate noon dropped out of
! tight and boeu rcmemliered only ns n blunder;
but It was not so strangely and unaccountably.
Unas pressed for months by every means and
applliin-o of power, whether at home or abroad,
now reaching Into tho Senate chamber and now
Into the waters obout the island, ltcluctant
rV-nators were subdued to Its support ; while,
treading under foot tho Constitution In olio of
Its in ist distinctive Itepubllcan principles, the
Pro-Went seized the war powers of tho nation,
Instituted foreign Intervention, ond capped the
climax of usuipation by menace of vlolcnco to
the black Itepublle of lfatl, where the colored
ive have commenced the experiment of self-iMVcrn-iii'tit.
thus adding mitnlfest outrage of
- lutcrnntlniial law to manifest outrage of the
Cor.vit :i.
I All those things, so utterly tndofenslblo and
' !J sjSEfin'Sflil-J.TIHti-rnwforCTnht -r-r7rrrr)trrrfi-s-1
owned, fmit.d defenders on this floor. The
l'retld'ht. who was the original utithor of those
wrongs, continued to maintain them, nnd ap
pealed to Itepubllcan Senators for help, thus
fulfUluig the eccentric stipulation with the Gov
ernment of llaoz, executed by his nidc-do-camp.
i At lost a Itepubllcan Scnatrir, who felt It his
duty to exhibit those plain violations of the
Ountltull in and of Inloriint tonal law, and
then In obedience to the Irresistible promptlnKs
of Ills nature, and in hitrmonv with hU whole
' life, pljudcil for tho equal rluhlsof the black
republ i', who declared that ho did this as a
Hrpubln- hi, and to sato the party from this
ren in'd conspiracy this Itepubllcan Senator,
tn.'iiiti'd In u patrlotln service, and anxious to
ttieilie colored peoplo from outrage, was do
an im ed on this floor us a traitor to the party,
ami this was dime by a Senator spenklnit for tho
party, and known to lie In intimate relations
wuli tliu President utility of these wronuM. lltl
dciitlj 'lie party was In proce' of chaiure front
th.it K'li' rolls u-iiocl.ttlon dedicated tolttinian
i rlt'lu- and to the KUardlanthlp of the Afrb-Hii
ra" 'lio plainly It was becomini; tho Instill
nv nt of oiiii man and his personal will, no mat
ter I) itv iiiin li he ml at ilr'itiiue Urn l'nltlt utlin
1 uii i ml rn. iiril liw, or mil1 intuh lie lii'iiUt'l Ihr
I eel m , u. Tho 1'resldont was to bo inaln-
J Ui.i 'ii .p. liiuards, iiutwlthstandlm; his nber-rati.'ti-,
mi l nil who culled thorn In Uei-tion
wi-ie to l,e "truck down. In exhlbltlm; this
' a iiiti,' iui'tciiinti, so revolutionary and tin-
! r'i Mi, -.in in i li,tratei, 1 mean to be moderate
I hi .mil to keeji within tliu strictest
I lii, i,-. fe (di'ts are indisputable, nntl wiliml
I mi .iiiii, ohms i .iiMffou of tn-1 Dillliillnil nnd
I iii ii (,,i, i,i ,iin mm the instill In lh' I Lick
J ft,, . . ifioU- oie btiuii i,or, (jihkii-IJ'Ic,
' i! iiiy inure uuoiiiMf"(i.ii il ,-ml won
t'i ( II, :n ,itiIiI'I! nllroril in.ni-t Aniirrw
Jl' , "I m II.' IIHMl'MII '.t.
, ,. vi ii, ir, 1 L'lad'.y b ,u tl.' mal-
il,.' ni i.-iiient iilrud) iii-orded, It 11 were
i .'in in IrMte iiKUn bv tho extiitordluiiry
- riii'i.tunuon every line of iitrti-e, to place
lt tii.h'T i,,r a sei-ond torui as Provident ; und
f lem e k-lves i-oiisiiiit, all thesu ellorts 111 0
I. . rt. 'liny beeoiiiti moro noteworthy
rii Hi" ilii red that tho name of the run-
! il "-th'H pteKed has Ihtiiiiih n sluil of U4
O' i't anil nut of ,,11,-ord dividing In-tead of
11111I111S the llopublli itn party so that tln xe ex
t it i,lui,ir ellorts tend dlicctly to thedlsiup
' b ""1 In liaill, all .1 which ho wltuesaes, and
a .111 l,y ih sllem-ii r.ttllles. " Lit Hit p,ilu
. '. ''i. Ihe I'ruMrnt, I n lll not rtiioimii;
I' 'lilll, loi 11 .UOIIlJ ititn."
"' "".lent of this ptiiHuU'il presnre, and the
'"' 10 11 m o p.irl to th" will of im Indl-
1 '. umpi-l - to consider his pretention.
Ili" loo, ale 111 issue.
I'lllMllUNTIAI. l'm:TKNfllO.S'S.
1,1, ..,,; meat doth this our Ca-b.-ir fco I that
l 1 assume an much. No honor forvlc
ii. . a 1 ,111 Justify dUobedlkiuo to the Con-
1 . .. .il to l.iv ; nor can It ulfurd the least
' any poisonul Imuiuult), piltiltv.' or
C 1 Hi.- Presidential olllco. A I'lt-ldent
T jiii t i'irn imiu a 1,1ns Wnforo It can be (.aid of
( iuiii that in doim nroiikT. llo I responsible
1 umd). A, I'M ..iicut lie is tho foremost ser
l taut of the law , li nind to obey Its sIlKhtest
luamuio. At the elect of tho peoplo he owes
i.i'toiil) tlio exiuiipie of willing obedience, but
Mviof IMclltyanil Industry In the discharge of
in-. . ohhpi, i.iiu oMu e, with 1111 abrogation of all
m km,-; nothing or self, but ull for the
""iiury , ami nUHl 00 lizard tho career of
if .1 '"'"" I 't' wiilindloour niuazuinent how
, , it .ii'eordi with tbh slnijilu leiiiilrenieiit,
lir hi; it 1 .j Hi,- tiitielistoiiu .mil ft fails. Not only
; 'iii-.tltui Ion anil law dl.regaided. but the
JiMliiii, ,i(c u, u (ir.ittd 11 UHli. .nie.
i.i hi 1 (.1 ilunvninl 11 vmpiUllt. When not the
'' lb" lat er. Hero tho detail! no urn.
Ii, 1 Ir"m t,,u beginning this ex-
"'"l ii'i-.i Inn dio,pi,d to be a personal in-
. p'l nt Iiiiim. run , 1-
i ("iiiinu, luu limn ilutln. How ptr-
' iim .'.',' '' ' "''i'''''" bao bfiii hioro pi., ml.
'" I ih ui lb,- piihiic Interiisls. 7iiie tin ,(.
. ''ii '"'it iiil lo ,iriiure IU mm
j 11 , 1, iff ni(,o(jn, iluviraiiu ri'it-ufMnn
"I ii. ,i, ,u ,(, In,,,, ,,, ,( mnM tquHliut in
" 1 "' ( ' U ail III',. U uhlll UlU ll'.IlM m.
' , ; ' ", 111 th'. flint tpull, nilne hub hi. 11
J" I'l'iii le mm vimm lie hail it.
, ' ' '' 'i'H"i', "iii iiinAdid Idi-ninnii;
11 1, 1,. .p .i ,., in,,.,,, Hon i(.i,nii do
' 1. Iriii-elf lather limn pulillu or iut
How tho vast appnlntlngpor;rr,Rnnforre() bv 1
J'on.tltiilloti for the. (5'j,Ar,v wolf
Iieen i.'litployed at hl wlli i. 1 tnl has
to lew aril his frloi..) ' . promote schomes,
nnd to Hiltunc" , to punish his opponents,
How li ' .ns election to a second term.
..iipo assumptions havo matured In a
,11'isonal government semi-military In charartcr,
and breathing the military spirit, being 11 species
of t"!i.nrlm or pcrsninllsm, nbhnncnt lu re
publican Institutions, wliero snbsenlenco to the
1'ieslilent is the supremo law. How. In main,
taliuiig this subservience, he hat operated bj n
sys'ent of coni'df itl 'ii, baring thr'r orbits
about him. so that, Wtr Ihrjiltnit S'ltum, lit I
sill nmniltil hu tinm. Nor does tho similitude
nnd hero; for his rings, llko thiwo of tho
planets, ore hrld In position by 9 tellltes. How
this utterly tinrcpuhllran Ca'sarism has mas
tero.1 the Itepubllrmi party nnd dictated tho I
l'rcsldcntlal will, stidklng Into tho Peuato chain- 1
lier llself. wli'le n vlndb'tlvo siilrlt visits good ,
Hopuhllcntis who cannot submit. How tho 1
I'tesldciit, himself, tincomcloiis that n I'ri'sld-nt 1
has no right to 11111r.nl with nil) body, Insists ,
upon ini-irrelllng, until he has become the great
I'lcldeiillal iiuarrellcr, with moro quarrels than 1
nil other Presidents together, anil all begun mid
continued by himself. How his personal fol
lowers hack him In quarrels. Insult thoo lie In
sults, and then, mil departing from lilt spirit,
cry out with Shakespeare," Wo will hate rings
and things and fine nnrav." A'id. finally, how
the chosen he id of the lepuhlh-1 known cblelly
for l'icsldentl.d pretensions, utterly Indefensible
In character, derogatory to the 'inntry, und of
ft II Influent e, making personal objects a prl
'it.trv pillsult, so Ibat, Instead of 11 li iiellceltl
presence, lie Is a bad example, through whom
lepiilillcan itisiltutlolis mirnr und the people
learn to tin wrong.
Would Hint these thlnijs eo'ild be forgotten,
but since through olTb loi.s filends the l'rel
dent Insists upon 11 second term, thi-y must ho
cnnldeied. Nobody will vindicate them. It Is
fitsy to see that Ciesarl'tn. even In Uuropo. Is at
it dlsroiint ; that personal government bus been
beaten In that iinclent lb-Id. and that Civsnr with
11 Senntu nt Ids heels Is not tho III model for
our Republic. Klii-jr (Jcorgo III. of I'lizlanil, so
peculiar lor obstinacy nnd narrowness, had re
tainers In i'nrllnini'iit who went tinder tho name
of the King's friends. Nothing can bp allowed
hero to Juslily the inquiry, " Ilato we 11 King
(leorgo among us" or that other question,
"Have wen party In tho Senate of the King'
friends "
rEitsoMti novr.itMtrNT fNiiErfin.iCAN.
rcrson.il government Is autocratic. It Is tho
one-man power elevated above all else, and Is
thereforo In direct conlllct with llepttbllcitu t'ov
ernment. whose cousumnntto form Is tripartite
executive legislative, and Judicial -each Inde
pendent and coequal, l'rom Mr. Madison In
the ' I'cdcnillst " vto learn that tho accumulation
of these pollers in tho s..me hands may Justly
bo pronounced (fie rety iltflnlttun of finitiiiu;
nnd so any attempt by cither to excrclrc the
powers of another U a tyrannical fnriifon. id
ways reprehensible In pmtinrtlon to its extent.
The Constitution of Massachusetts, dating
from IW, embodied n prlnclplo in theso memor
able words :
Ik- ipglsLtlre ilepsrlinent fliall never exercise the
rxn-iitlvi. ami Judicial 1 o-vers nr e'ttier of ttiein. The
executive iliallnt-vi r 1 Xc-rclsc tho lejzlslattt e sn 1 Jtt.lt
rial t'UHt-rs. or elih-r of t l.c.11. Iltr tuilittal th-ill n t. r
exirclse the Irgtslstlie nn, exceulive tioHers, er rioter
of Ihem.tii Ihnrnil thst It msy be gottruineat of la-ss
and not of men.
A government of laws nnd not of men Is the
cibjci t of republican cntcriimelit ; naymore.lt
Is tho distinctive essence, without which It bc
c imcs n tyranny. Therefore, personal govern
ment tit all Its forms, and especially when It
seeks to sway the action of nil) other branch, or
overturn Its cnstHMtioTtl te'vatlve. f ,.,.i,r
the 1r! f-r!u-!j" 0 rrjaiM'f t lnttlu'lnit, "iul
nil iiMf)uri'(foiiitM; otilmur. Tbnt our l'rolilcnt
has oflended In this way Is unliapplly too nppu
rent. The l're-ldont Is a civilian. Tocomiire
hend tho iwrsnnal govcrnmont that has been in
stalled over us, we must know its author. His
plcturo Is tho necessary frontispiece- not as a
soldier let It be borno In mind, but as a civilian.
The President is tho titular head of the army
and navy of the United States, but Ids offlco Is
nut military or naval. A If to exclude nil ques
tion ho Is classed by tho Constitution among
civil ofllccrs. 'J hercloro, as a civilian is lie to bv
soon. Then perhaps we may learn the secret of
tho policy so adverse to republicanism In which
he perseveres. To appreciate his peculiar char
acter as a civilian It Is Important to know Ids
triumphs as a soldier: for the one Is the natural
complement of the other. Tho successful sol
dier Is rarely changed to the successful civilian.
There seems on Incompltablllty between tho
two modified by the extent to which ono ha
been allontd to oxelitdo the otlier. One always
n soldlci I cannot lato Inllfo becomo n statesman.
Ono always u civilian cannot late In life become
n soldier, lolucatlun and oipeilenco arc needed
In each. Washington and Jackson wcrechllluns
at well as soldiers.
In tho largo training nnd cxpcrlcnco of anti
quity tho soldier and civilian were often united.
Jlutln modern times this has been rare. The
camp Is peculiar In the Influence It exercises. It
Is In lUclf an c Jucatlon, but it It not tho educa
tion of the statesman.
It would be hard to find anything In the native
endowments or In tho training of our chieftain
to make hi 111 an Illustrious exception At least
nothing of this kind Is recorded. Was nature
moro generous with him than with Mailh.irough
or Wellington, Uitbtavtis Adolplitts. or l't-dorick
tho Great Or was his experience of life n better
preparation than llioirsir And yet they failed,
except in war, It Is not known that our chieftain
had any experience as a civilian until lie became
President : nor does nny partisan attribute to him
that double culture which in antiquity made tho
same man soldier and statesman. It has been
often bald that ho took no unto of public affairs,
never voting but once In his life, and then for
James Iluchanan. After leaving Wet l'olnt ho
l.Ti.mo a Captain in ihe army, but 90111 aban
doned the service, to reappear ut a later day as
"irjiTC'T3oTirt"tJ-i.T.-t-'r-il. -TricTrrr noveajon ttr-b(--llevo
that ho employed the Intermediate perl id
In any way calculated to improve him as a states
nun. One of his unhesitating supporters my
colleague, Mr. Wilson -In u speech Intended to
commend htm for reflection, savs: "lleforotho
war wo know nothing of tlrant." Ho was oarn
lug u few hundred dollars a year hu tiintifnu
hides (11 Uufdiii. lly the war ho passed
to be I'rcsldciit. And such was Ids
preparation to govern tho Ureat Itepttbllc.
Something must bo attributed to Individual
character, and hero I expiess no opinion of my
own. 1 shall allow- another to speak lu solemn
words echoed from tho tomb. On reaching
Washington nt the opening of Congress lu De
cember, IM), I was pained to hear that Mr.
Stanton, lately Secretary of War, was In falling
health, l ull of gratlludo fur his unsurpassed
services, nnd with a sentiment of friendship
quickened liy common political sympathies, I
lust no timn lit socluj him, and repeat
ed my visits until his death. Toward
tho close of the satno month my
lait vi-lt was marked by a communication never
to be furgntten. As I entered his bedioom,
where I found hint reclining on a mfa propped
by pillows, he icached out his hand, already
clammy cold, und In reply to my Inquiry "tinw
are you V" he au.vvered, "Waiting for my fur
lough." 1 hen ut once, with singular solemnity,
he said: "I have something to say to you."
When I was sealed ho proceeded, without n
word of Introduction:"! know Oen. tlrant
better than any other person In the country can
know htm. It was my duty to study him, und I
illtl so nllit und day, when I saw him and when
1 did tu t suo him, und now 1 tell )ou what I
know. Ilo cannot govern this country."
'I he Intensity of his milliner and the positive
lies of Ids Judgment surprhed mo, for though I
was uw.ire thai the late ternary of It.ir did not
place the I'lesltleut very high lu ueneial capaci
ty. I was not prepared for a Judgment so strongly
couched. At lust, after mium delay, occu
I letl In meditating upon his remark
ablu statement, 1 olmerted: "What )ou
sav Is very broad." "It Is an true us
It Is broad, ho replied promptly. 1 added;
" Vi'U are t.uilv. Why did )ou wait till this lato
llmo y Why did ymi not say It befrre Ids iicuul
tuition t He aiiKWcied that ho was not consulted
ubuiit tliu nomination, and had no oppoittuilty
of exploring his opinion upon it ; hi Hides, hoing
much occupied nt the time with liln duties im
-sc rotal) of War and tils contest with tliu l'rcl
dent. I followed by i-a)liigi "Hut ou look
pait In tho i'lcsldcnlidl election, and m.i.le 11
succession of specclics fur lilm in Ohio und
roiius) Iv.iiiIii," "I spoke," raid lie, "but 1
never Introduced tho numu of lien, tlrant. I
spoke fur tho Republican party and the Iiupubll
can cause. "
'I Ins was the last lliiiu I saw Mr. Stanton. A
few- d.i)s later 1 followed hint to the grave wnero
he notv rots. As the vagaries of the 1'resldent
be, iimu more and inoie manliest, and the Presi
dential uRlce t-eemed more und more a play
thing nnd pcrqiiisito, this dying Judgment of
the great citizen who knew- lilm so well haunted
uie night and day, niid 1 now communicate It to
111) country, feeling that It Is it legaoy I have no
right to withhold.
lbi)ond th" intrinsic Interest from Its author
It Is not without value as testimony, lu consider
ing how the I'lesident could have been led Into
that (julxotlhtn ot personal pretension which It
U my duty to expose. I'nrdon mo If 1 ropeatthat
It Is my duty to make tho exposure, spreading be
foro you the proofs of that porson.il government
which will only pass without censure when It
passes without obioiv.illun, Insisting upon re
rlcctlun, the I'lesident challenges Inquiry and
puts him irlf upon tho country; but even It Ids
pressure for rel'lection did not menitco the tran
quility of tliu country, it is iiupuitanl that tliu
personal pretensions he hai set up should be ox.
posed, full 110 I'ritUUnt ImaijUr iwiy r. iimr
. piii si.i'i mil1 niid 110 .S iiillui- in i m me.
I'i'i'i. Th es I" ek-tir at noon.
Ill pi nbig Mils catalogue I select two tvplntl
in lines nepotism and glll-taklng olllclally
loin), 11 .Uii. 1 -ii ii ali-.viluti !y Inib fen-lbb' In
In- I, " id if 11 llepnlille mint pernicious In ex.
ample ni'l 'li'.vvuu ia-,iiii question that sur
p ,n : i-guiitm which i haiucs tho IVsldcutlid
"lltce lino a personal Insti iimiiutullty not uullllo
the trunk of an elephant, upt lor all things,
small as well as great, from provision for a lela
live topreiiiugtt trtaty uu a ruluuuul ticuate, I
or forcing a relation on a reluctant people. De I
tween these two typlenl Instances I hesitate
which to pls.ro foremost! btitslneotho nepotism
of the 1'rrslilciit Is it ruling passion, revealing
, tho pilmnry Instincts of his nature, slnco ltl
1 maintained by hint In nltei- iincoinclotnnes of
Its offensive character; since. Instead of blush
ing fr It ns nn unhappy mistake, ho continues
to uphold It ; slnco It has been imctily defended
bv Senators 011 this floor, and sim r 11. line pa
triot, anxious for republb 11.1 ui-tliutlnus, ciui
doulit that l niii'hl In hi iM u , ii hllmi und
scorn Imm HI pinioulm"" 0 irj-r'(fil, I begin
Willi this undoubted s'iu'C.
Thore has bnen no 1 "II of ( ongress for it return
of the relations holding ofuce, stipend or monoy
inaklng opportunity under tliu 1'rf .nth'tit. The
country Is left to tho press for information on
thli Important subject. If thcro Is nny exagger
ation, tho I'icsldcut Is In fault, since, kuoving
tho discreditable allegations, ho has not
hastened to furnish the precise facts;
or at least his pnrtlsans havo failed In
not calling for tho official information.
It Is evident that any resolution calling for It,
moved by n Senator not known tube for Ids re
election, would meet with opposition; nnd an
clfort to vindicate republican Institutions would
be denounced as itn n"snull on tliu 1'i-esldent.
Hut U10 newspapers havo placed enough beyond
quc-llnn for Jink-mi lit on this extraordinary
i.-i-o. ulthoiuli thus far there has been no at
tempt to appici late It In I Im light of hlsiory. Ono
llt makes the number of benellcl.trles as many
as fort 1 -two, being probably every person know 11
to be allied to the President by blood ormatrlagd.
Tursout seeming to speak for the President, or
ut least nfter careful Inquiries, have denied the
Hi-curacy of this list, reducing It to thbteen. It
will not bo questioned that thore Is at least u
baker's dozen lu the cutegorv. Thirteen tela
tlons of the President billeted on tho country,
not ono of whom but forthls rclatlonshlpwould
havo been brought forward, the whole consti
tuting a case of nepotism not unworthy
of the worst Governments, whoso ofllco Is n
fniully possession. Ileyond tho list of thirteen
lire other relations, showing that this strango
nliuso did not stop with the President's relatives,
but that these relations oblnlned appointments
for others In tho circle, so that rreiv nluf'oi br
niHo 11 triifu of Influence, while the Presidential
family extended Indefinitely. Only ono Presi
dent bos appointed relations, und that was John
Adams; but he found public opinion, Inspired
by the example of Washington, so stiong against
Il tbnt. after 11 slight experiment, lie teplled to
an applicant:
o'i know tt is ImpoMlhle for me to spnotnt my own
rcltilons to snttlilng without drawing forth s torrent
of olilonuy. -d.etti r to ileiijsuiln Ailsnit, April It, I'.twi
Johu Adams's w orki, vol, 9, page tUI.)
The Jtidemcnt of the country found voice In
Thomas Jefferson, who, In 11 letter written short
ly after he became President. ued these strong
Mr. AiUins degraded himself lannltcly by his conduct
on this subject.
Hut John Adams, besides transferring Ids ton,
John Oulnccy Adams, from ono diplomatic post
to another, appointed onlv two relations, l'ray,
sir, what words would Jefferson use If howcie
hcio to epcuk on the open nnd multifarious ne
potism of our President. In appointments to
office, merit and not blood Is the only Just re
commendation. Hero Mr. Sumner made many extracts from
letters of Ocorge Washington, Thomas Jeffer
ton, and John Adams, denouncing nepotism on
the part of a President, and holding It to bo
criminal. The letters have been repeatedly
printed In Tub Sr.".
pi.i1 iKEvriAi. ti'intvs von kcpoti'm
Without the n.valtnelio of tellin"tiy.agnlt.st
this Presidential pretension. It Is nil) no- es.iry
to glr.nrc at the defences sometimes set up. For
such Is the Insensibility bred by Presidential ex
nmple that even this Intolerable outrage Is not
without voices speaking for tho President.
Sometimes It Is said that his salary being far
from royal the peoplo will not scan closely an
attempt to help relations, which, being inter
preted, means that the President mny supple
ment the pettiness of his salary by the appoint
ing power. Let John Adams, who did not hesi
tate to bestow olllco upon a few relations of un
questioned merit, Juilgo these pretensions. I
quote his words :
Ev try ptiLllc man thonld ne honrstly paid for Ids tcr.
vices, but he ihouid be restrained from every pcrqul.
lite not bnon to the lam. snd he should n-ske no
i-lsiiutupoa the rrttltti'1 of thcpuhlle, nor errr con
fer u r-thce mthln his pstronsn upon s son. s trother,
friend, upon r-rctrnrc thst lie Is not paid tor lilsier
vlcci by the profits of h!f oltlce.
It Is Impossltilo to deny tho soundness of this
requirement, nnd Its completeness as nn answer
to one of the Presidential itiologists, Sometimes
the defender Is more audacious. Insisting openly
upon the Presidential prerogative without ques
tion, until we seem to hear In aggravated form
the obnoxious cry "To tho victor belong the
spoils." I did not suppose that this old cry
could bo rev Ived In any form, but slnco It Is heard
again, I chooso to expose It ; nnd here 1 ttso tho
language of Madison. In Ids Judgment tho pre
tention was odious that offices and emoluments
were the spoils of victory, tho personal property
of the successful candldato for tho Presidency;
and lie adds In words not to be forgotten nt this
moment :
the principle. If avowed III, out the practice or prac
ticed wtt'iout the avowal, could not fall to degrsde any
admtnlitraliou- both tovtlier completely ao.
These ore strong words. Tho rule In Its early
form could not fall to degrade nny Administra
tion; but now- this degrading rule Is extended,
and wo uro told that fu the I'rurklenl'i family he
lm V the rjsiUs.
Another apology vouchsafed even on
this lloor Is that If the President can
not appoint his relations, they alone,
of all citizens, are excluded from ofllec, which,
1: is said. -di-'uH not tie. Hut 1 It not for the
publle good that they should be excluded? Such
' t.-.trr.'.o tr!-e-i-flirri-nt-tf-ds?rerjiitt. Asiumlns
that In case of positive merit, designating a citi
zen for a particular post, the President might
appoint a relation. It would bo only where the
merit was so shining that his absenco would be
noticed. At least, It must bo such as to
make the citizen n candidate without regard to
family. Hut no such merit is attributed to tho
bcncllclarles of our President, somo of whom
have done llltlo hut litlng scandal upon
the public service. -If Im' one U MfiKril tcllh
mud. and another, with tho commission of ihe
Itepublle aliroad.lias been guilty of Indiscretions
inconsistent with Ids trust. Appointed origin
ally lu open definnco of republican principles,
they havo been retained In ofllco nfler their un
fitness becamo painfully conspicuous, lly the
testimony before a Coiigrcsslunal Commlltca,
ono of these, d Itinlln i-fn-i'lte, tins ImiiUenled fn
brOieru i m' rr.rnijiHini. It Is said that at least,
after considerable dei ty, the President has con
hontcd to ids removal. Hero I lenio for tho
present this enormous pretension of nepotism,
swollen to elephantiasis, which nobody ran de
fend, I pass to
ritrr tkin(1.
which, with our Presldi nt. oa nssmned nn un
precedented form. Sometimes pulillu men,
even In our country, hum taken gifts, lint it Is
not known that any President has hofore repaid
the patron with olliee. For 11 publlo mini to take
gifts is reprehensible. For n President to soleet
Cabinet councillors and other ofllcers among
thoso from whom he has tnUen gifts is an atia
tniily In republican annuls. Observe, sir, tint I
speuk of It gently, unwilling to exhibit the In
dignation which such 11 Presidential prolemdoti
is calculated to nrntiso. This country will
judge It nnd blot It out as an example. There
have beon throughout history corrupt rhitrae.
ten In official station, hut whether In ancient or
modern times, the testimony Is constant against
the taking of gifts: and nowhere with more
fi rce t! -n in our Scriptures, where it is nld.
"Thou slialt not wrest judgment : Thou nhult
not respect persons, neither tnko a gift, for a gift
doth blind tile eyes of the wise." Hero
Is the Inhibition und also the reason, which
a slight observation shows to lie true. Hoes nut
a gift blind the eyes of the wsu What Is done
under the Influence of gifts Is meicenary. Hut
whether from ruler to subject, or from subject
to ruler, tho gift Is equally pernicious. An an
cient patriarch feared tho Greeks bearing gilts,
nnd tliei-e words liave boe-mio a proverb, hut
there are Greeks bearing glfls elsewhere than at
Troy, A public man can traffic with such only
at ills peril. At their uppearnncu tho pra)er
should be said, " dead u not Into temptation."
lu our country Washington keeps Ids lofty
height, setting lilm-elf ngaln'-t gift-taking us
against nenotlsm. in KM, wlillo in private life,
two tears alter ho ceased to lie coinuiadcr-ln-chlef
of our armies, and four yours before ho
became President, ho could not be Induced to
ni-roiit a certain iimount of canal stock, offered
him by tho State of Virginia, as appears In an
olllclal communication. TI111.1 lie wrotoi
How would this t'lttter he viewed liy the eye o' 'he
ti orld, Slid w hat would lie its opinion win ti It comes 10
t,o leUtcil thst tleorge Wtshingtoii ncce-lnl 740,1101
under whatever pretiiu-e, and however coilounirily
Iheku g,fta aro mads In otiu-r cuuiitrh-si' if 1 ai.,ple-l
tliuulil 1 not hciictforwiitil he couildered at a dt'i'iud
u lit i 1 never lor a moiiieiit I'Uteita mil Ihe l,lcs nt se
cepllaglt. How udmliality he touches the pulut wlu-ii
he auks - "If I ocrepti d Mils nhould I uut lu.utTloinu,-d
tie couttdc red as a defendant
According to our Scripture, the gift blinds tliu
eyes, According to Washliigtou.it makes ll-.o
receiver a dependent. In harmony with this
sentiment was his mihscq'icnt refusal to be
President, us Is recorded by nn Ingenious writer.
Ho wits exceedingly careful about touiiulltlug
himself, would icteive no favors of ail) kind,
ami scrupulously paid for nvcrvlhlng. A large
house was sot apart for lilm on Ninth street, 011
Iim grounds now covered by the Penns)v,ilihi
I'nlrcrsliy, which ho refined to accept, lly
such Instances, brought to light recently nnd
shining lu contrast with our times, we learn t"
ndmlio anew the virtue ot Wnuhlugton, Itwotild
im euy to allow how lu nil ages the lefiiNid
of gifts has Iieen recognleil us Hie sign
of virtue. If nut tin tequircineiit of duty
'1 lie f.Yiiist'tuthiii testifies again' t the taking of
glfls byolllcuis of I'm United Slates, When It
provides Hint unpersons holding any olllco ot
profit or trust under tlicui shall, without Iho
consent of the Congress, nccepl of any prosiu.t
or emolument from any king, prince, nr foreign
State. Tlio uccoptniicn of iv prinont or omnlu.
inent front our own conslltuonts wus loft with
out coiutllutloual luhlbltluu, to he couslraluod
I by tho publle conscience, and tho lut aversion
to anvrottililattco of bargain and sale, or bribery
lit tho public service. Tito case of our President
: It excpllorud. Notoriously he has tnkon gilts
trl'll" In the public service, sumo nt least nfter
ho had been elected President, unfit th - (Inl'tia
tanner of a ftw hundred iW'trt ieur, (oboiiiuo
I tht, vvrJi of mi tot!it(7i", Jfr, Tt'll-.in. ont of Hi
Hlpnnricti, " Is rmic tieh In fioii.trs, lit.ioV, nil I
I sfucKnhoiWib nl'iy. h in t pii)'i.iW the i f. Ji.'-d
1 1'rcKhlcnl slurc d'cniii n'us'iiiiHfoii." Notoiiotis
ly ho has nppoiuied to hist sblnetsoternl nnioiig
those GicoRS liearlnir itlfts. without seeming to
see the bide, oriim. Il in t'ho In'Ieconcy, of the
triiiiMii iloii. At least two. If not three, of theso
(lieekt, billing nokn ,wiip isnioil l,i the Itepult
llcan parly or Inlluenco in Hie cnuniiy, havo
been selected ns bis oun-eilon lit tiatiiuial nf
falis and heads of limit ilcpaituieiiu of Gov
eriiutent. Not-does the case of the flrt Secretary of fltato
differ In characier fiom tho other thtee. Tho
Piesldont, fei ling under personal obligation to
-Mr. Washburne fur linnoitint support, gave him
II complimentary iioinlnatlin, with the under
standing that after confirmation ho should forth
with resign, I cannot forget tho Indignant com
ment of the late Mr. Fcs'endeii ns we passed out
of tho Somite chamber, Iniim dlately after the
conflnnatlnn. "Who," r al he, "ever beerd
before of 11 man nonilns'od .-crdnry of State
merely ns n complluieiil " Hut lb hi Is only nn
oilier easo of tho pulille serrlce subordlnaletl to
personal eonslucratlons,
Not only In tlio t'alilnct, but In other ofaccs,
thcro Is reason to believe tljtt the President has
been under the Influence nl pitrons. Why was
ho so blind to Thomas Murphy? The Custom
House of New York, With nil Us capacity as 11
political engine, was lisndel over to this agent,
whose want of recognltlor in the iteptihllciui
party wat outbalanced by Presidential favor,
nnd ichov f,lfs hare Income notation; and when
tho demand for his removal was Irresistible, tho
President accepted his reslsnatloii with 1111 ef
fusion of sentiment natttril toward a patron,
but without Jtistllleatloti Initio character of the
rotirlng officer. How truly tpoke tho lord who
sad of Tlinon,",ogirt t- '.im but breeds the
elver n return exceeding all uo of quttanee,"
nnd such were tho returns innd by tho Presi
dent. Thus ni'ich fur gift-taking reciprocated
by office The Incident is original, nnd without
precedent In our history. The Presidency Is a
perquisite. . . .
I nave now completed the survey of tho two
typical Instance", nepotism nnd gift-taking of
ficially eoinpcnssled, In which we are compelled
to see tho President. In these tilings he shows
himself. Hero Is no portrait drawn by critic
or enemy. His the original who stands forth,
saying! Ib'hold tho generosity 1 practise to
my relations at the expense of tho public ser
vice, also the gifts I take, and then my way of
rewarding tho patrons always nt the expense of
the public servlco." In this open exhibition wo
see how the Presidency, tnttend of n trust, has
become perquisite, llnd ns nre these two cap
ital Instances, nnd Important nsl their condem
nation, so that they may not become a prece
dent. I dwell nn them now ns illustrating the
A President ill -t can do such tlilucs nnd not
rerivlilzo nt mice tho error ho has committed,
shows that siiperemlnenco of egotism under
which the Constitution, International law, und
municipal law. to say nothing of republican gov
ernment, In Its primary principles, areullstibor
illnnte to tho Presidential v 111; and 1:, Is U per
sonal government. And an insensibility to tho
honest convictions of others, ond y hi havo a
characteristic Incident of tills pretension.
Lawyers cite what aro called " leading cae."
A few of these show tho Presidential will In
constant operation with little regard toprece-d'-nl
or reu-ion. so ns to lien caprice If It tvei-e
not .1 r-rctihfl. n. hnltatlnz the P-.p sliuic; t
tsin, the l"rrsldrnt ?in Imitated them lu Osten
tatious assumption of Infallibility.
Other Presidents have entered upon their
office with a certain modesty nnd distrust.
Washington, In hi Inaugural address, declared
his "anxletlos," also his senso of "the magni
tude and dlfilciilty of the trust." awakening a
distrustful scrutiny Into his qualifications,
Jefferson, In his famous Inaugural, so retdcle
with political wisdom, after declaring his "sin
cere consciousness that the tusk is above his
talents," sas:
I Approach It with thote anitoni and awfnl prrientl.
meat nttlch the grealurta of the charge and the weak
ness of mypowcra so Justly Inspire, sud I huruble my-ai-lf
before the ti-siltude of the undertaking.
Our soldier, absolutely untried In civil life, en
tirely a new man, entering upon the snhlimest
duties, before which Washington and Jefferson
had shrunk, said In his Inaugural 1
The responsibilities of the position I feel, but accept
them without f.-ar.
Great predecessors, with ample preparation
for the responsibilities, had shrunk back with
fear. He had none. Hither lie did not cc the.
rc-poiisibllltle, or fh' (Visor mu Nylin fnWir hi
us 'lovim. In either cute lie was dlsquallUcd.
Next nfter hit Inaugural address, his first ofil
oiuliut Wu the sclocllon of Ids Cabinet, r.nd
hero tho general disappointment was equalled
by the fceiiernl wonder, as the Presi
dent was little know 11 except from the
victories which had commended lilm. It
was nut then teen how completely charac
teristic was this Initial act. Looking back
upon It, wo recognize the pretension by which
all traditional tisngo and propriety wero discard
ed, by which tho Just expectations of the party
that had elected Film were set at naught, nnd tho
safeguards of conttltuttunal government were
subordinated to the personal pretentions of ono
man. In this Cabinet wero t-ersons having small
relations with tho Republican party and little
position In the country; mine absolutely with
out claims from public service, and some abso
lutely disqualified by the gifts they had made
to the President. Such was the political phe
nomenon, presented for tho first time In Ameri
can history. To it commit let U10 rrcT.rJeht de
scribed his Cabinet as his family, with which no
stranger could bo allowed to Interfere ; and to a
member of Congress ho announced that he se
lected his Cabinet to plcaso himself and nobody
else being good rules, iinquci.tlon.ibly, for tho
organization of a household, and the choice of
domestics to which the Cabinet seem to have
been likened.
This personal government, flowered In the
Navy Department, where a glft.bi itrlug Greek
was suddenly changed to a Secretary. No less a
personage than tho grand old admiral, the brave
vet modest l arragut, was reported as asking on
tlio 6th of March- the Very day when the Cab
inet was announced In uuairected Ignorance,
"Do you know anything of IlorloK" And yet
this unronsplcunus citizen, bearer of gilts to
tlio President, was constituted Farrngut's naval
superior. If others wero less obscure, the Cab
inet, as a unit, was none the less notable, as tho
rrcivturo of tlio Presidential will, where
chanoo vied with favorlt'Bm at arbiter.
All ihts Is so strange, when wo consider
the true Idea of n Cabinet, Though not
named lu tlio Constitution,)!)- virtue of unbroken
usage among us, and in harmony with constitu
tional government, everywhere, tho Cabinet has
became a constitutional body, hardly less than
It expressly established by tho Constitution
Itself. Its mtmbers beeldcs being tho heads of
cieut departments, nre tho counsellors of tho
President with the duty to advise him of all
matters within tliu sphere of Ids ofllco, being
nothing less than the meat catalogue 111 the pre
amble of tlio Constitution, licgluulug with duty
tu the I 11), 111 und ending with the dut) tosecuie
tho bio-sing of liberty to uuiselvus und our
Ilesldes conspicuous fitness for the exalted
rcHpori--!h!ilk!cs as head of a depiutim ut nnd at
cninsullor, it member should havo up Ii ao-Uu-v,h:ded,
'.'t'l'-jll In tl.i; cnup'ry IJij't Ids
picM'h'c in - c.'.ifidcnce and gtvos strength
to the Administration. Howllttlo tl, use things
Miio nvanled bv tho President need not bo
told, biiqueitlunal'ly tho President has a dis
cretion In the appointment of his Cabinet, but
tt Is 11 foiintltutumal ills -rstlon, regulated by
regard for the Interests of the country, and not
b) mere peisoiial will b) statesmanship, and
not by favoritism. A Cabinet Is a national insti
tution, and not .1 Presidential pcrqul . llo. unless
our President Is allowed to copy tho example
of Imperial I'mnoo. In nil constitutional gov
eminent 1 Ii, Cabinet Is si-li'. ied on nubile rea
sons, and Willi a single eve to the publle service.
It Is not lu any respect the family of tnc ov-i-iulgn.
Inn-Is it "to phase himself ond nobody
ej-e." it Is onlv b i-onio extraordinary halluci
nation that tho I'reslileiitoi alli'puhll'-ili'illi air, I
to coiutltiillonal liberty can Imagine himself in
vetted with n transforming prerogative above
Hint of any Kugllsh soveiclgii, by ivldcli his
counsellors 1110 changed fiom public 1 Ulcers to
personal ntteuilniits, and a great constitu
tional boil), in which all itlzcnshnvo a common
Interest, Is niitdo 11 pcrqtlbdtti of the President,
M ilked mining the spectacles which followed,
ami Mildred In chaincler with Iho iippioprl.illon
of the t ablnet at Individual property, was tho
appropriation of tlio olllecs of tlio country, Ob
sctue and iindcseivlng relation , marrlugu con.
nei thins, personal retainers, army usnuclatcs,
fileiidsof unknown fame, and nutablu only us
pcisniial frlondi or friends of hit relations, evi
dently itlii. uii, il the Presidential mind during
those mouth of reticence when u generous peo
plo supposed Ihe Cabinet to lio tholill-abs irhlitg
thought, .liid'tiui from tho fact, It wuul.1 seiiiu
us If Hie chief nnd most spontaneous, thought
was how to exploit tho appointing
power to Ids own personal behoof At
tills period tho New Vol It Ciit'0111
lloin-o piesi'iiled luolf to the Imagination, nntl .1
letter was wrlllcn consliiuliig 11 military depen
dent to tho gcniriislly of tlio Collect' r. toil
kmitr the rest Dr. Johnson, acting ns executor
III selling tliu distillery of Mr. Thriilo, said. " Wo
uro not rolling a pan-cl of tubs and oats, vvr arc
M'lllug the polenil.tllty of growing rich b yiuiil
tiiMilicanis of avarice." If tlio President did
nut use tho sounding plunsn of tho groat ling
llsh muiithst, II is v-vidcilt lluit his military de
yuideut felt In Hint l iter all the potent hdit) ad
trllcil In tho outlier cine, and ho ucled aeci,.
Iiigly, It Is not nectssury to say that In those
things thoio usaii ih'putiiiro from tho requite
nientM of law, whether in tho appolntuiunt of Ids
Cabinet or of personal favorites, nun In 11, I'll
f'ir porsoual beuoittOllous, alUiuuvu it su
plalnlv nnrcpubllonti, offensive, run Indefensible.
Ilia this samo utiirphii! iplrlt. horn of nn un
til toicd egotism, broukln:; no restraint, sliowcd
Itself In nnoiher elvi of trniactlon, wliero
law end Const Ittitlon were Ihtle regarded.
ritK9IPEMt.lt, ASVl-,T ON THE SAFEUt'AItt)
Or Till! TIIKASl-ltr.
11 rat In tlmo Hid very indigenous In character
a tlio Presidential attempt nvainst ono of the
M red ssfettunrds of Ihe Treasury tho original
workman hlp or Atex-mdcr Hatnllton-lieltig
nothing less IhrJi the net to cstnblldi Iho Trens
tuy I'epatlii. ut. Here was an limi.i4t.iiit pro-vl-i'i'i,
that no petson appointed to any oifl-e
nsllttited by the net, shnll dlieetly or Indirect
ly bo concerned or liitorcstcd In carry
In on tho business of trndo or com
merce, and nny person so orfendlng was
declined cullly of n high misdemeanor, nnd
was to forfeit to tho ('tilted States JII.KM, with
removal fro n oftice. and fnrover therenflcrto bo
Incapable of Imldhi't nny olllce under the
I'hl.cd Slntes. tstntutes nt large, vol. I, paw (17,
Soitembcr ", Kfii.) Front the beginning tills
statute Inbl never been questioned until It hud
acquired tho character of fundamental law.
And )ct the President, by n special message,
dated March 0, lMI, being the second day of Ida
first servlco ns n civilian, asked Congress to set
It aside, sons to ennble Mr. Slewnrt of New York,
already nominal oil and continued us Sccietnry of
the 'treasury, to enter tipoti Iho duties of this
pmcc. Thin gentleman was unquestionably the
lantest morehmt who had transacted business
In our country, and his Imports were of surh
liiazultudc as to clog the Custom Hotito. If tlio
statute was anything but one of thoso cobwebs
which catch the weak but yield to the rich, this
was tlio occasion fur It, nnd the President should
bavojlclded to no temptation against it. The
Indecorum of his efforts Hands out more pain
fully eminent when It Is considered that
tlio merchant for whom ho wished to
set aside a time-honored safeguard, u-is one
of IhoHf from irhom he hail nmreil ufro. Such
was tho nccomniodnllng dlposllon of tho
Semite that n bill exempting the Presidential
benefactor from tho operation of th. stntulo
was promptly Intrudtn ctl, and even read twice,
until, as It seemed about to pnss, I felt tt my
duty to object to Its consideration, saying, ac
cording to the fTIof'C: "I think It ought to bo
niod profoundly tonsldorcd before It Is net'-d
on by the Senate.'' This objection caused Its
postponement The country was startled, lly
telegraph the general anxiety was conimuiil
c ited to Washing! m. At tho noxt meeting of
the Senate, three days later, tho President sent
a iness.u-0 rcqt. cling permission to withdraw
tho Impression produced by such open disregard
of the law to promote his personal desire.
The military spirit which failed In the effort to
set a.tldu a fillidamentul law- ni If It wero n tran
sient otder was more successful ut the llxecu
tlve mnii-liiii, which nt once iisrtirurd (fir clmi
aeter of t,iUltiiry luaihiuailirt, to the dishonor
of tho civil servlco; and In total disregard of
precedent tho President surrounded him
self with ofllcers of the army and sub
stituted military forms for those of civil
life, detailing for this servlco members
of his lato stnJ. This Prcsld'ittlal pretension,
which Is continued to the present time. Is the
moro unnatural when It Is coii-ldered that thcro
aro three different statutes In w hich Congress
has shown Its purpose to limit the employment
of military ofllcers In the civil servlco. Ashing
ago as July 5, It wat explicitly provided
that no army officers should be sep.
srnted from their regiments and corps
for employment on civil works of Internal Im
provement, nr bo allowed to engage In the er
vliV'f In- rporated companies; nor any lino
officer to be acting pa) master or disbursing
agent for the Indian Department, If such extra
employment requlro that lie be separated frum
his regiment or company, or othcrwlso Inter
feres with tho performance of the military du
ties proiier. obviously tho will of Con
gress Is here declared that officers shnll
not be nllowed to leave the posts fur any service
which might interfere with the performance of
the military duties proper. This latuuago is ex
plicit. Then came tho act of March !l. 1M17,
which provides that any officer of tho army or
navy of the United States who shall, after the
passugo of this act, accept or hold any appoint
ment In the diplomatic or consular service of
the Government, shall bo considered us having
resigned Ids said office, and tho place hold by
til 111 In the military or naval service shall be
deemed and taken to bo vacant.
Ton considerate and clreumsiieot President
who recognized the law In its spirit ns well as
Its letter, this provision, especially when rein
forced by the curlier statute, would have been
a rule of urtlnn In analogous cases, end there
fore, nn Insurmountable nbstablo to a preten
sion which takes army officers nw-ay from their
proper duties, trml muf.rs Hum 1'rcntitential Vc
rr'urfe. A later statute adds to the obstacle,
ny act of Congress of July 18, ls;o. It Is provided
that tt shall not bo lawful fur nny officer of tho
nrmy of tho Cnlted States on the active lljt to
hold any civil office, whether by election or ap
pointment, and any such officer uci opting or
exercising the functions of civil office shall at
oncocciiso tobenn officer of the iirmy, nnd his
commission shall bo vacated thereby.
It Is difficult to Imagine nnytliing plainer than
there words. No army officer not on the rello d
list can hold any civil office, und thru to enforce
the Inhibition II is provided that lu accenting or
exerclsiiu' the functions of such office the com
mission Is vacated. Now, the Hlue Hook, which
Is our political almanac, hut under the head of
" Kxecutlvo Mansion" a list of bocreturlcs und
clerks, beginning ns follows :
Sriretarleiacu. F. T. D.'nt.Otn. Horace Pot tcr, Oea.
0. 11. Hshcock.
Whom In fact, ffirrr urr no such o.flrcrs mtfior
rfzid hy fine. 'I hen following, the private secre
tary, assl-tant private secntary, nnd cxecutlvo
dirk. until. irlzod bv l..w,t.ii 1 la J below thfMO
unauthorized. Nothing Is said of being detailed
tor tt.13 -pnrnnso. 'rnry nre--.ipr-!r rtlW
" secretaries," which it a title of offi-e: nnd,
since 't is ut the oxeculive mansion, it mint tie a
civil office. And yet. 111 itilunrf 11 I,nc, fu
nrmv 01'leeit ru.-illniir (11 rxiiehe 111 iiur
fi'ii, and snmo enter tho Senuto with
messages from tho President. The apology
that they aro "detailed " for this service vain.
No authority can bo shown for It. Hut how-absurd
to suppose that n rule against the exercise
of a civil office can be evaded by a detail. If it
may bp dono for threo army officers, why nut for
three dozen. Nnymore.lf the civil ofllco ofSeere
tary nt the lixectitlve Mansion may bo created
without law, w liy not somo other civil office?
And what Is to hinder tho President from sur
rounding himself not only with secretaries, tint
with messengers, stewards, and personal attend
ants, ull detailed frum the tlio amiy? Why may
ho not enlarge the military circle at tho llx
ccutlvo Mansion Indefinitely? If the President
can be Justified In Ids present course there is no
limit to his pretensions In open violation ot tlio
statute. Here the Hlue Hook testifies again, for
It records tho names of the secretaries In their
proper places ns iirmy officers, thus presenting
tlicui ns holding two Incompatible offices, I
dismiss this transaction as unnther Instance of
Presldeullal piutcnslon which, In tho Interest
of republican government, should ho arrested.
i..-i Mint-.
From th'-Ilxeeullvo Mansion piss now to the
TA at-1 icpartin-iii, ami there we witness tho samo
Pii rblenti .I pr. icn-buis by which law, us igo.uud
c ir.e. I p'liiolplo are lost In the will of ono man.
Tin-s ipreinacy of tho civil power over tho mili
tary It t) pilled In lh Secretary of War-a civil
ian from win, in army officers receive orders,
Hut this beautiful I'ulfl, with its lesson of subor
dination to tho military, was suddenly set asldo
h-our i'lesident. und Hie ecrtu.irr of War un
graded to ho u clerk. Tlio fit Ii of March wit
ncsscd n most Important older from tlio
President reconstituting the military depart
ment, covering the Southern Statet and placing
them tinder ollb crs of Ids choice, which pur
poitcd to bo signed by tlio Adutant-()eneral,
by command ot the General of the Army, but.
actually Ignoring Iho Secretary of War. Threo
d.ijs later vv II ncsscd another older professing to
proceed from the President, whereby. In ex
juoss terms, Ihe H'ur D- Milium! icus siiboiiff
tin'.d lu ,' (iiinrii(-(ii-7il,.r, being William T.
Sherman, who at that limn was promoted to
that command. Hire aro the winds:
ih" chiefs of sisir, cores, ) parliiientt, mill bureaus
vv III riV'irt lo, slid uet under llie iiuiiicdub-orders of
tlo (o at rul ('01 iiaaiidlng the Arm) .
'lint act of revolution, rjaltiny tlo- military
iic, ralmre llie cfeff, showed Instant I'ruits lu an
older of the General, who. upon assuming com
liiiviid, proceeded to place th" several buieaii
oil), ,-i's of the War Department upon Ids military
stiirf.so that for the time Inert u ,i u military mi
( -tos'ifi, 11 i"i the I'lmiilrnl at its fitutf, not nuiily
In i,,lii', hut liiitilHiilorni.
Hi-and-hy John A. Ilawilns, n civilian byodti
latum and iirespoiterof Iho Constitution, be-i-Hiiio
Secretary of War, and though bound to tliu
1'ieslileut by peisonul ties, ho said check to the
King, by a General Order Issued from tho War
Department, March -ti, and signed by tho
So, letary of War. The offensive oidorwus re
scinded, and It was enjoined that nil olllclal busl
ness which by law nr rei'idatloii requires Iho
action of tho President or Secretary of War will
bo subiulltod b) llio Chiefs of Slalf. Corps, De
partments and Hiiieaus Imho Set relary of War.
Public repoit said Ibat this ICsloratloii of Iho
civil power lo lis rlglilfiilsupicmacy was not ob
tained vilihnut an intimation of icslgmillon on
tlio part of the Scciutury.
'I UK HKlilHTAIlV OK 1111! NAVY IIV Hfl'llTV.
Kindred 111 diameter vv.it the iiup'oeeileiitcil
nlieiupl to dovolvo tlio duties of llie ;.av lie
bailment upon a deputy, so that inner, tveui to
he hicned ' A. 1'.. Hoilii Sucielary ol the Navy,
per . 1). Porter, Admiral. :is ap-'',r in 1)1.1
oni. iid jonrn-d ol May II, In,'); or according lo
another Instance, " David D. Potter, Vice-Ad-111I1.1I,
for Iim ,v 'cielitry of llm Nni)." Tho ob
vious object of Ibis lllcgul iirritngeinent vvun to
enable tho Incumbent, li'ei sfnod lihjh oil
the IM 11 itljt vialtm, to Ini Sis-ielary
without being liotibbid with tli" business
of the ollliwi. Noionoiiely ho was un invalid,
who, iitTnidilig lo Ms own 1 onlcsston, mod, hi ly
plo uleil h tl lie could not ,,ppiv himself 10 work
more than an hour .1 duy. If ul tliu I'mlUunt
soothed his nnxletles by promltlna n deputy
who would do tlio work. And thus wns this
great department niado a plaything. Hut publle
i lil'ilonnnd other counsels arrested the sport.
II -i". I mention, tint when this Incumbent left
ids linpo-tuivt i" st. It it understood that he vvaj
allowed to tiomlliiite his succes.tor,
At tho same lime iri-urrid the effort to absotl)
Hi" Indian Ib.ivaq li.to the War D pa. -iii -nt,
chnnglint It" chin- cterns part of the civil ser
vice. Congress h id nln ady icpiidlnted such an
attempt, but the President, not dlsli -aiiened by
legislative failure, sought to nreomtilisli It hy
manipulation nnd Indirection. Find elevating
n member of his late staff to tho head of tho
lliircau, hu then, by n military ordor dated
May 7, IM'l, proceeded to detail for tho Indian
servlco n long list of officers left out of their
regimental organization by the consolidation of
tho Infantry regiments assuming to do this by
tho authority of tho act of Congress of Junentl,
1KII. which, afler declaring tho number of In-d-au
agents, nnd how thoy shall lie appointed,
provides that It shall bo competent for the
Presblniit to requlro nny military officer of the
l ulled States 10 execute tho duties of Indian
agent. The Statutes nt I.atge, vol. Iv p. tlii,
show that obviously this provision had refer
ence to somo exceptional exigency, and
can bo nn authority for the general sub
stitution of military officers Instead of
civilians confirmed by the Senate und bound
with sureties for tho faithful discharge of their
duties, and yet upward of slxtr army officers
wero In this way foisted Into the Indian servlco.
Tho act of Congress of July JR. 1870, already
quoted, creating an Incompatibility between
tho military service and the civil, was aimed
especially nt this nbtue.nnd those officers ceased
to be Indian agents. Hut this attempt Is an
other Illustration ot Presidential pretension.
Then followed military Interference In elec
tions, nnd tho repented use of tlio military In
old of tho revenue law, under clrcum .l.-u.ccs of
doubtful legality, until at l ist Gru. H i'l. ,-. and
Gen. Sherman protested. So this military pre
tention, invading civil affairs, was arrested.
Meanwhile, this same Presidential usurpation,
subordinating all to himself, became palpable In
another form. It was said of Gustaviis Ad l
phus that he drilled Ids Diet to voto at the word
ot command. Such, at the outset, seemed to
bo tho Presidential policy with regard to Con
gress. IIV u'rrc fo rofr an he ttcntreil. He did not
like tho Tcnure-of-OIIlre act. and during tho
first ti 1 1 1st li of Ids udmlttrutloii Ids Influence
was felt In both branches of Congress to recti rn
Its) repeal; all of which seemed moro uiton
Ishlng when it was considered that he en
tered upon Ids hlidi trust with tho osten
tatious nvowal that ull laws would bo faithfully
executed, whether they met his iinprovul or not,
and tbnt he should havo no pulley to enforce
against the will of the people. That beneficent
statute, which ho hud upheld In tho Impeach
ment of President Johnson, was n limitation on
the Presidential power of appointment, and hu
could nut break It. Hero wat plain Inlet fcroneo
w ith Ids great perquisite of office, nnd Congrof s
must he coerced to repeal It. The House acted
promptly und ns-ed tin' ile-lred bill. In tho
Senate there wat del iv ami -i piolru-t"d debate,
during which tlio "facial Journal announced as
Tic Preflderu. in conversation with a iruuilu-i.t
r-e-ittor s f, w dun slue-, il'-eliir, d ilitl it was ills lu
trillion im- 10 s .1.1 in s-i 11, m.tiat, 1 bi.1,1 a 1 a u
setloa wit is'-eti hy 1 iiijr-st upurj t'i- Tenure of t.itlcc
Hero I ten' - to add that u member of tho
Cabinet pre-.d me to w-ttidruw my -ippi- if
to the repeal, saylnv that t'-e President felt
strongly upon It. I could not understand how n
Itepubllcan President could consent to weaken
the limitations upon tho Kxecutlve, nnd said
Hint In my Judgment he should rather Btrctch
forth Ids hands and nsk to have i-im tied.
Hotter always a government of law trC' of men.
In this technical stdrit and fn the inwuinpffoN of
liln central ImoeHaltrm, he has Interfered with
political questions and party movements In dis
tant States, reaching Into Missouri, nnd then In
to Now York, to dictate how the people should
vote. Then manipulating Louisiana through a
biothcr-ln-laiv appointed Collector. With lilm a
Custom House scents less a place for the collec
tion of reveutio than an engine for political
influence through which hit dictatorship
may be maintained. Authentic ttstlmony
places this tyrannical abuse beyond question.
New York Is the scene, and Thnm-ts Murphy,
Collector, tho Presidential lieutenant. Nobody
doubt the Intimacy between tlio President and
the Collector, who nro bound to each other by
other ties than those of seaside neighborhood.
The Collector wasdotermlned to obtain the con
trol of the Itepubllcan State Convention, ami ap
pealed to a patriot citizen for help, who replied
that lu his Judgment It would be a delicate mut
ter for ofllcoholders to undertake to dictate to
tlio associations In tho different districts who
should go from t hem tu the State Convention, nnd
still more delicate to attempt to control the
Judgment of men empb)ed In tliu different do
inrtuienls ns to Ihe best men to represent them.
The brave Collector, lieutenant of the President,
-mil that ne should nut hesitate to do It ; (hut ((
uvs (,i 11. (iiutit ir.Mh, und Gen. Grant was tho
head of tho Itcptlhllcnn party, and should bo
authority on this subject. New Yoik Custom
House Investigation, vol. I. p. Ml, testimony of
Gen. Palmer.) Plainly the Iteniibllcaii party wut
bis perquisite, and all ltepubllcans were lodo
his bidding.
From the same testimony It appears that the
President, according to the statement of his
lieutenant, wanted to bo represented lu the
Contention being the Itepubllcan State Con
vention of New York -wanted to have lilt
friondsM-fr-ln "1 f'"rT'rrl'u ai-d tb l'w.
(Initial lieutenant, being nolle other than the
fr-MHtus Cs-ilw-s r, uSi-red lis vrvpuluz. fuurxiwo.
In the Custom House If the wittiest would so.
cure the nomination of certain ncnons as dele
gates from his district, nnd ho prumltcd
that he would Immediately send their
names on to Washington nnd have them
unpointed (Ibid tut), testimony of William At
kinson), mid so the Vuli'rtifl itilf f.iforthfji mis
(idmlit'femt. Offices In the Custom House wero
openly bartered for votes In tho Statu Conven
tion. Here was Intolerable tyranny with de
moralization like Hint of the slave market. Hut
New- York Is not the only scone of tills outrage.
The Presidential pretension extends every
where, nor is It easy to measure tlio iirroL-auca
of corruption or the honest Indignation that it
qui, keut into life.
ritLSIDKNTI.ll, CONTntVt.NCES aoainst StN
These Presidential pretensions, in nil their
variety, personal and lullllaiv, wltli reikb-ss In
difference to law, naturally ripened In the con.
til vancc, nursed In the hot-house of secrecy,
ngalust t lie peace of Iho Island of San Domin.o.
I sav, deliberately, again-t Hie peace of that
Mind; for under the guise of nnucMiig a por
tion, thorn was menace to the black republic of
llavti. 'lids whole business was absolutely In
defenslblo from beginning to end. being wrong
nt ever) point. It is the special and most char
acteristic product of the Administration, Into
which It Infused and projected Itself
moro than Into anvtldiig else. In this
multiform dl-obedlence to law we
behold our President. I have referred
to this contrivance, as marking an epoch In Pie
sldeutlal pretensions. It I- ill) duly, now, to
hhovv Its true character, ns a warning ngalnst Its
author. A few weeks only niter beginning his
career as u civ lllun, niif itViffi ucci.pl. ,t with mil'
llaiy u-iirniflons 11ml tin jxrquf.lfis of office, he
IMS temmeil hy overturn of Domliitcuii plnffrm,
nctuM In thf L.Turpn' ll'iirv em-J (.v.i;vrnr.'r.T
("uniiiii, tlio fust all adventurer, conspi
rator, niid trickster, desulbed by one
who knows him well, "as the worst
man living of whom he has any personal know 1
edge, ' and the second one of our own country
men, lotu rcslden' on the island, known as dis
loyal throughout tin war, and entirely kindred
ill chill ,11'ter to lli'iz. Listening to these
prompters, und vvitlioiituue word in Congress or
In the press suggesting annexion of the Island or
any pait of It, tho President began his con
trivance, and hero no sec abuse in evi-i) foim
nnd lit over)' t-tep absolute Iv without pre iilent
III our history.
iheiigent 111 this trnnstiiiloii was Or- III,-1'. Ila'i
coci., a toiiug olll. er iimu ing ,11 Hie ,1, 1 II,, ,k
of Ibotltno ns mi, irn 1 tu -.nil. "10, 1 ,,s,,-i,.
Iiulm ul fie L'ricu'ii-i If ni-i-ni. 1111 I W-n us a
Mu el ul f.'iiojintiM, His published in-trnt lions,
under date of Jul) 17, lMio, v.uio simply to ni.iao
Inquiries, but the plot appears In a rounuunlcu
Hon of Ihe sumo date from the Secretary ol tho
Navy, directed lo tlio captain of tliu Scud
nob a war ship Willi an urmameiit ot ono
I I -I in-1 1 gun and four iL'-poundurs, lo ulre
hlni the nmral mipsirt of hi yum. And
this was followed by a telegraphic instruction
to Key West for another war ship to proceed
without a moment's del ly tu San Ilonilngo .dit
to Im placed at the disposal of Gen. Hiibcock
while on that coast. With such "moral support"
tliu emissary of tho President obtained from tlio
usurper ll.ioz that famous protocol stipulating
tho iinnoxiitiou of Dominica In consideration of
$ I, a ),!, which Ihe )oung officer, lich from
the 1'xceutlvo Mansion, prof, -s,-i to extu nte as
" Aldo-do-Camp of ids l.xcellcncc, Hen CI) me
S. Grant. President of tho I'nlb'd Slates.' I11-f'l-inl
of ( 7ifi ,U'ipi'i''i'i' ol (I jiiiMfi , lie i",,m
ifiif mis 11 mili'm y 1 id ffoiii villi hh fool In tin
idi 1 it)i, sun mill, '"I I y a mttlltaiu sfuT.
The samo Instruction 1 ouialii' d the uiiblush
b . '.ipuhitlun that " Ills lixi Muicy Gen. (ir.tui,
I 1. h i.t of tlio Culled States, proud os j 1 1 -va.'ii
to use all Ids influence lu order that the
Idea 1 1 atiiioxiug tliu Dominican Kupuhllc o the
C111..1I .it, lies mil) acquire suili ,1 digit-e of
(mi iL.i.ti nuiiihg the mt'inhcm of I'liiimi'-a us
will be invest. uy fur IU .lecoliipllshuicnt," 1. 'in h
1.. vliipi Ih it t'11 I'lmi'lint s'iii" 'i, 1,1111 nhilil.yut
to hi II. J (I'lilUf till 'IllliVillum hu ',ii.,;iiU.
Such wat tho atiungnhiulnning.lli' gal, uncon-Hli-,iilioi,.il,
and nllonslui in o.oi) pailicid.ii.bul
showing tliu I'liisldoiitl d iliniai b 1. On bU lu
lutli In Wiishlugloii, Hie .voiiiig ollli or iilio had
iiseiuiii d lo bo Abl-do-Camp of his Km elleni y,
Giincial UIvhhiis S. Hi, ml," bud luiuiul tliu I'n 11- I
dcnl lo i,ei iimu ulohliv isi fi r a iv n-ti'1,1 il "h 1., I
lliittad'if bini; diaaiulvud and Irpiniiaiiili.d, j
.. . j
wot sent back to the usurper with Instructions J
to negollalo two treallcs one for thoannoxn-
Hon of the half Island of Dominion, nnd llie XV
other for the lesso of tho Hay of Sam an a by tho !'
Constitution of the United Slates. Ainbasea-
dursand other public Minister) are appointed i il
by the President, by nnd with Iho ndvlco nnd l1,
ronseiit of tho Senate, lint our nld-de-enmp hnd .' II
no sqcli comnilssloii. fir -hi, nlltl prrroifffs ffl
tmpoiliri'I "ifm. - ifl
N-i-wot p. ival force wanting. "lth three war ' J
shl, i-at 1 1. dloirn.il, ho entered upon 11 'fjotla- It,
Hon with liar nnd t.htnined tho two treaties. U
Nutuially, fiirce Vt needed to keep the usurper . JE
In power wnllu he sold Ids country, nnd natural- ' w,
ly such n lrati-, lion required n Prrsldnitlal '.
Ald-do-Camp, tinkiiown to i-otilitntlnn or liw, ;R.
ratliortliiinnilvlllan duly appointed according , d
to both. ! tfj,
On other occnslons It lins Iieen mysolnmn duly f
to cxpoto the outrages which attend this hateful W: 1
business, where ut ouch step wo arc brjiiiht face LJ ,
to f-.cc M lib j'resldcntlul pretensions. First In it
i wis miiirr or" Ihr. uar iwunrs of Hi hil.
fi'ir iiiiernf. ciflfhe tcrir ntrraily Otmr : forcibly Jl '
lull rvciilng In Dominica and menacing war to t i
llnill.iill of which Is proved by the olllclal ro- '
ports of Hie Sltte Dcpaitment nnd Nnvy Depart- : 1
id out, being nothing less than lenrbjftinulipre- : k
nv.i'ft-c. In defiance of Hint distinctive principle
of republican government first embodied In our , h
Constitution which places the wnr powers utiilot il 1
the safeguard of tlio legislative branch, making '
any attempt by tho President "to do-
claro war" 1111 iiniloiiMrd twurixilloii. Hut Fp
our rrcsldent, like Oalllo, cored for none tl
or these thlhgt. Tho open violation of tho Con- JT i
et It ut Ion was naturally followed by a barefaced (t't ;
disregard of that equality of nations which la n't
the first principle of tho Declaration of hide- "i
pendenco, and this rule nat set asldo In order to IU
Insult mid mcliaco Haiti, doing unto the black (!''.
Kopubllc w hat we would not have that Itcpulilla tf t!"
do unto ut, nor what we would lutvo dune to I;
any u bile power. .1
To these eminent and most painful Prcsl. rli
dentlnl pretensions, the tlrvt ndverso to the Con. '1
slitiitlon, nnd the second ndverso to Interna- 'Jj
tloial law, add the tmprt naimcnt of an American i
ndt'ilfii llimilntca hy the VnMcnlhtl eonfette. flf.
vile fi,i, for fear othlfhmllllty In the treaty, II fW
he w ere allow ed to reach New York, all of whit h ,1V
Wi's kiMtrn to hit subordinates llalieock -il."
niidCiiznesu, nnd doubtless to himself. What V;
it-its (in Itheiiy of an Aotn lean etttzrn ronimml li'.
H ff'i (lo l'rrMenttal iimvyatlvc la one ulioh.nl 1
iMfi fh- CoiisffiiftVm, un irif.i d. inlt the Iff. f,
crtunfnll. ami then itrltcd iMfcriinfforiul Mir, on i'
lh'-'M' iiiinls (fn tinier of the unihl, A slnglo i I1
litl.cn liiimurcd fn a damp dungeon wns ol 'K' t
sinnll moment. Hut this Is only an Illustration, X.
Add now the lawless occupation of tho Hay of )
Sainaiiu for many inuntlis nfter the lapso ot the IU
treaty, keeping th national flag ll)lng thcro.
and nstimlng a tcrrlloilal sovereignty which did 2
not exist. Then mid the protracted support of i .Il
Hacz In his usurped power. In Ihe ej-fVn( of nfcie- ii
iii'jlhe national fay at fits iKi-jvw if, un f rnfiii im
the Mninl irlth our ylilpi of 11 li'. nil at linmoiiso ' If
cost nnd to the neglect of o'her servlio whore KM
the navy was needed. j
riii.sitii:.Ti.vi, urioiiTH ion the contuiv.vncb $5
This strange succession of acta, which, Ifles- 7
tibllshed for a precedent, would overturn Con- ' fi
et It it Ion and law was followed by nnother elics A
of Presldetitlal manifestations, being, Unit, nn i
unseemly Importuiilty of Senators uiirln tho '
t'endency of tlio treat), t-fsfffni; tie Cupful at a 4
lolit'ijlrt, ami rummontny them to lilt pirseiiri; (n -y,
Kjioiils, In ohrfoiM immiiinre of the sflpsibiffiti 'fvu
m ole hy his oMfifr-ciiziiji, anil mrcrillturouvd hu t&
htm. being Intervention In tho Senate, reinforced IM:
bv all the lnllunneo of the appointing power, sl'li
wiic iher by reward or menace, nil. of wTdcji was 'f
as unconstitutional In (iiaiactur us that ivarllkd le'i"
Inlcncutlon un the Island) and then, after do- spfy
bate In the Senate, when tho treaty was lust on T'i
solemn vote, we wore called to witness his self- W
willed ctlronti ry tu pro-ecutlng the fatal error, 'f'.'i
returning to the clinrgo In his annual message at '.Kl
tho ensuing session, Insisting upon his con- If is
trlvnnre ns nothing less than tho means I ;f,
by which "our largo debt abroad Is to bo tiltl- fcl i
matcly extltigitlshed," and gravely charging the 'fjA
Senate with " folly" In rejecting the treaty ; and lit'!
yet, while maklngthlsastounding chargo agalntt Jul
the cocirdlnato branch of the Government and i
claliiilug such astounding profits, he Wunifrred
unvmiinlmffi fn ilcrcnlilny the prlzr. y,i
All tills dheislUcd performance, with Its varl- stiA
oils eccentricity of effort, fulled. The report of JSf
able Commissioners transported to the Island In Ji
an expensive wnrsldp, ended In nothing. The 'h-
American people roso ugalint tho utidcrtnk. Jiff
lug, und Insisted upon Its abandonment, ttfC
Hy a niossugo charged with Parthian ;iJ!
shafts tlio President al length iinnnunced iKt!
that ho would proceed no further In 'IT
this business. Ills Senatorial partlrans, being bfj
a majority of the chamber, after denouncing iil
those who had oiiposed the business, arresled df?
tho discussion. In obedience to Irrepressible ic
sentiments, and according to the logic of my jn-S
life, I felt It my duty to speak, hut the i'rrs llftit Jl.3
ittiiifd not uiusrc me, and his peculiar rcpieson- iy,f
tat Ives found 1110 disloyal to tho party tvhh.h I 'jt,
had served so long and helped to found. Then ;h1
was devotion to the I'lesident iiiadu thonhlli- Xji
boletli of party. Where wat the grand Inquest fitt
of tliu nation I mi
Such Is a summary of Iho San Domingo busl. fM
ness In Its characteristic features, but hero are stfY
transgressions In every form -ujan ifo.'uifim of Vfi
ficCoiieti'iiflu'i fn M'u't' "him our 1 nil 'I inrud c. )YP
tueuf; open vlolstlon of International law In AeJt
more than ono ol Its most beautiful prlnclplea; V'S
flagrant Insult to the black Itepublle, with ii
menace of war; complicity with the wrongful ifrt
Itnprhonmciit of nil American citizen; Wit
lawle-s assumption of territorial sover- ' n.
eighty In n foreign Jurisdiction; employ. Mfti
meijl of the national navy to sustain rt'Vf
an urper, being all acts of substnnco maintained rM
by 11 mull calling himself aidu-do-eump of tllyt-
set X. Grssit. Pretlde-.it uX Hie UuUed Stotos.auel. . . vj;
stlpiilallng that Ids chief should play tho lobby. W
Jt' t help. Jhe ci-ntrhnnce through ('oiigre-, tfJi
then urged liy privnlo Tinpiiult 10 Penutbls, "iPii
mid the IuHuciich of tho appointing povv- 'airs
er tyriuinlcully emploved by the Preslden. iIri
tlul lobliylst, and llnally urged auow In an Vr1
sutui'vl message, 0 '.ere iiu.risjiiucil Intuli tu the Srwnt tilj
itn ufinht ideiinliiy la ilninOig IA 1110,, e (ne in KIL
jit', ant 1 I'll v""' "rlitent t'jnorn, e. hUch In brief It ISJl
this inultifor.u dltodidliuce where every ptrtieilUi oftV
It of tuili sgnruvstlon u to merit tho uul WrV
toletnn Judgment. II h'j I tht araiot liituril uftlie 101. Sir'
(101 uAiii looug'il Imtreic Jutaintm Vithe laruttiit vkL
Senate t.oi,, Ame- stej.t tin V,tt conytomtiate tutsttf invT
oil naor,ereiy part nfvlilch wat oJTeHilct beyond an W7
ttclintLiil vtTente chni ttft ofjaina lot .ceilre. oors. srAii l-s-V
flsiMii kiiclgioiiiu' i.nuni, oin-lullny, omdalli !fS
coniieiiMireit, n,l ruln,. i'.e- ti.iiluil ;i,iri,.aot bl w,jt
litiinaatliic'-e'tent. All litis will lie one of the riddles mil
of American liUtury to l,e etolsiii'-d oalr hy the extrbl ?vJ
to uiui-ti Pie one-msu power had succeeded In aiihtucss. tyVt
law tin liov cruiiu ut. 'I',
l.tllle rimless, sir, lluit while st l .nil stage I tint! 7 P.
felt this t)ral.ti) 1111 si kcelily, -iiul ie,er i"ii',oiM,iit (1 ,us
imi'i ro tie 1111. .ret Ini Oiyeai timet, mv feeling hsvt tl 1
hicti most stirred by the ouiragr to lis) tl, whlrli, bu- fli"'
tides hi lug a wruuglu the eljek oepu' lie. waaan Insult
10 the colored rate, not only abroad, hut here at homo, s,rT,
How a chief iii.glslr.ilc, with tour millions of colored m'i
fe'.his ciuzi'iis, could hove done this thing, paaati
coiiirehinlon. ihl uutrago w.ia folloed by its'
un uuldcut III which lh mine seulililenia wire nv IJlvi
tio'i-d treiirrlclt Douglass, rennrkahle (or his Intel i.'J
IL.' uee os for his eloquence, nud ulva)s ugn cable lo IWZ
pi rsmiiil ni.illoiis, w hose onlv oirensc fsn skiu nut en. ir
llrely Caucasian, was tilecled I.) the President as out Urjl
of the ( oininlssloiiera lo visit h.m Doinliigo, nud yit, (1
on hit return ami almost within sight ot the Kiecuflrs isuj.
Maiitlon, he was repilled from Ihe eoniinon luhio ol !v
th" null aleainer 011 the putoiutc, where thu other Uff
1 iiiiiiul.sloiiers were already stated, and throuiili ii l'
hl'a wut the Afrlcsu rare hisiiHcl unil thelreiiiul rbihis il-S
dinled. Hut the l'risliliLt, iil.o.e coiiuiilsshui he had li'fl
In r 1, iii'lilor did nor said antlhtug to rUht Ihla 'im.
wr ing, aim u few dt)a Inler, when nit, rlaluing Iho uu
( on, ui loners at f.tecuilve mansion. , luuHy junnl tym
,,,'. . ,0 , Ii, r 1 'oe s. ih.e. lu ,,it n, ,,7,i. Pm fHi
thlt inulKiilt) Is In tiiilton Willi tho reel. Alter Insult. !I,'
!sUuJ'Ui-l(.lt.-j;dtc ti l i;iis) tujs-itviw eilural It fi.
w.s temml wiri iiisiiunoiiiy Ihe teprtisuiu Jve ul U11 J3V
All ICJU rate. fflTV
ai.i, ninsr Tiiiisns in mi v. tow. f
llele I sit) Ihls p.ilulul ,ie.i uuili'iil under lit various tltx,
l.ia ls. li k'.inilii.- sua n.pi.l sin iiinl t fl laklug ott el q- iltr
I) ci.uqicasateii, una , udmg lu the cuiitrivuuco uN'aiust Zim
I. ih, iiliio, tv .in lo lik-iilly to the Afrle 'i nee, uol ho. ),ul
iiiiish II Is cuaiil-'ic, lint bccausi) It Is elioagli. Willi
sorrow iii.aiu'nkaiile havo I laudu llila oipoaurs (V'jH
ut preteiiaioiit which, for tho sake of repiih- I
llctu liisllttilioiis, every st'iod cllUen should MH
wish ettiuuK"! from lilttor). Hut I lm, n, 7111
uliriliiitlie. ihe I'restdetit hllnsell Insists In idK
pi.. 1. u 1 llieui in 1 sue. He will nut all,, tliLin tit lie h i
ti feu. As s eainili' He fur re, I, rjlon he In) in 1 ffiltf
.ud-niii at. vvhl.e puriisaiis, hciIiisi In his bi half, inuks Vnn1,
.1 disunite! lu-cess iry b) Ih hrutallly of their assault Htt
011 l.llllifUl Hi lilltlltl illis, 11IIH ll.llIZ lu See tllilr ILIItt fsjitc
IP.,-Hi" Pichldnit al "lllu-.aperi.iii d pernulslte. tf hi lt!fE
iirl"ina lire evicting, tliiillctive and llnjuat they ml fjl;
,,iil'. uih-riiioii) wuli hlsowii nature loo truly represi nt- tViL
In II. 1. 11. liu n is not 11 ilng wlu-lher uiiltsry or anna- WW,
to 1 tl ttuit do s uol detlvt dlsttlui'tltc (.haraciur fium fffl,
lilcl-elf. then fore what Hoy llo 1,1, il n hall hey aai ft'ft
louti bt-coiitldi re ins done and sild hy the chl'fialii mm
thi) sine. And hen-Is .1 new r.iaiilicstail"i of (hit iVfi
sovereign egotism w 1, lets no taeiturnil) can cover ui 10
and a new inoilvt- fa 111 pory lutu it p. iii.lIous Hi (,M,
tluence. l,fT
'11IK (ihEVT Pill 'llikM t! gl Vllllt.l l.l.. '
Any preseuiii 1 1,1 1 1 ti 1 1 1 ' - u- ' o ,cifrel nn
ivhlci Cat r I ! ,t,,,i i,'"ii 1 is ,,'uhiy lllr
lirciiks forth In iii,ir'l. '.1. ti 1 I 1 1 1 1 .t 1 I'rcsl Kl
ihiital iiutrriinr of uai in ir. As In neiml ilia
inn. gilt l.iMiiu ou.iiily 10,1 a, 1. -a 1 1-, nu4 s.iji
Pri-sl'leiultl pi -iisl'in g-uei itlv lien- again hs 3'
Is loreiniisi, tisvlug uuurreilod not only 111 re than any 'H!
other I'n siilenl, bill moro liiau nil other toiictiicr, Iku
Irom lieorg" W.islilngloii 10 lilmn'lf. Ilia nun Culilnet, mmt
I to Si ii.vte, ihe lloiisi. ol Ih iri-a, 11 'Allies, the illphaiul- KIT
Ir si-rvue iii'd tin-civil si-rvlve g.uerally, all hive then 'fl'J
v 11 thus, nearly every one ot who. 11, he, 1 e, serving Hit itim
Kepiihileiin purl) , had helped to make lilm i'lesiileut. rrrn
N,,r havo onuy otlliers, hi coiuia,iiout tu Iho Held, or Vllm
en 11 Ida gi-in 1 out patrons, bieii eiciuiit to htm, A !ir
ipiariel is not only a constant iie.essty, but
1 eniisite ul stilts t. To nurse a uuarril. like JfJlv
tiadhiL' u horse, la In his list of Presidential duties, IttiL
l,,iv Idle inusl hir be li iuld Iho siords of bhake- ma
,, en re lie lulnlnl, "ihls day ull quarrels ilie." (MM
10 him lit ay bo aplu-d thosu ulhur vvurdi ISu'
I si, ii , spenre, "A quai rehnnie as thu weasel-" law
Hviilcnily our Pri-tldi-nt hut never read the Flctenlh (Lt!
( iHiliii.ilhlii.elil, "A lieaaleit uf tut- Hull, , I Hi lies shall mm
in ver uinrrel," 01 loisl he lives iupeiiiilunl riol.illua ftlff
01 11, 11 wiwytii "n let lioiu l,tnt 1, 1 s, itiilutliili (As s7'n-
t,n mi nl a inilitni 1 tin,, ids.-oui nii u Imnunutrt rlltf
I , oiiii hoi .ni) As mijiia 11, tijtr. la w
i he olci t of foil) mill, 1, n of pi iiple I, si no right lo IW
liuurel Willi any luiil), Ills Puslli a Is too eaaltul. lis tfejl
I tot hot du il ullliuul oltulisu lo llo ri (iiillelilenla of Kill'
piuiintlnii, Willi, M, a think tu iho .lei meat ul life, till!
ivill, out ajar to the harmony ol Ihe uiiik rc fVK
nl IV 0 me ami. 111 una nun JJSf
IP ru I (top. An I now the uiicsiioii of uuii 11 iqn. tnlsl
icul .1 1,, l',e lu 1 'le.npaily 1 l.I 11,11 ,. 1 Is lUDJ
i.uiiUiiliiif ull 'I'hl'il 1 iiji jJ.J
i t

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