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The sun. (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916, July 03, 1881, Image 2

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Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030272/1881-07-03/ed-1/seq-2/

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TIuts JI ItiItuN
r Prsti1nt Jarfiotti Is rcpnrtcd to
usthl thit hn hifltirio of JIffrMon Urnn th
e uIitIis i tht4 tHItFV riiiiiIly VlflhIi WIIII
ti at of I lfliLI I I ti I ns rat I y ncriiii t ii I In
r doiaII Iii th s riitrk tim siplift of
LIt own Larty iiiol thU t4 of Its hlIiir
eouiistls hut th3t wn 111 II III not i ° nk
4r tt ptiiI atsi rltiiii f1ttlI his vIitftI
ftuiItIn I cuRlil IUL If nuII NutIlII
CA II b inoro crttI n t ii n t Ii at th tliorIn of
II ItO UIHI II tk dI y rui wnti Id v itt
liii biii4ls itt thl uiIrilIrttnn of Iii onititrniin
i th inioo eoiiikinntton they rocolvoil from tlio
t u ritt o ii it li Iii iiriil uitI y ii jii ii th iiin
r Thu tIiiorle of on tIn other linud
I Srl I1Ii4I al LII whIch our fnrtiithts diilIt er
1 tdv oititbUiid tlinlr IiiqItuInuajiI thiy art
I fII us ilntr to thuir cIiIIlrnn as tIiuy wnro to
tItnni U po ii t tiosa t Ii non t Ii wti oo ad I flee of
I Atntrteiiu IlIwrty wati rinruil utou theni rest
the four eornr of tito grand but IhnutIfIIt
I structurn which not iirnIs sheItrs tlia gull
iflS of froerlieti linre but ijffr ii Buro iitsyluui
L o an gnirood lUlLlI to tiianklutl ovirywIiore
Birnnvn thom and thu whole fabrta must crum
p it t no marvel thnt Gon Garfield In tti
brime of Ilfo nnl apgroaclilig th err helutit
Cf n gubIIo career which had been cIicked by
1o sliigti roverM should form a conviction that
tb influeneAs which had ButahI1ad him and
hIA Darty were InvincIble lie enteriitl Con
TCA III thu tyar period In common with tho
3eadiir5 of his party he allied himself with
special intoresn corLicrato anti otherwise
k g which thou assumed an imitortatien and power
which ttey ccult not IIavt flctIIrot1 ut a time
when tim ublIc mind wits euptoyd with the
CrdinRry concerns of overnmeut and whiob
they cannot we belIeve hoiti aftsr the siittie
Inant of tiiii extraordinary tiostions arising
I of the war lie was accustomed to see and
admire thu Goornmont only in its most tro
F inendoue exhibItions of strnngth during anex
enttonni ieriod tts enormous drafts upon the
Hvs anti property of the potIe its vast fiscal
snd milItary operations Its iinoerIat endow
nonts of corporations and Its rutbisse dis
criniinations in fitvor of the few as against tue
raitny In Its tttx laws and ittetti in its whole
legislation niiii administration from tiio hour In
which lie ontered Coiirus totbo hour in whIch
be beanie President Ills inaugural attests his
bollef that a revolution has loogi accomnlishd
that thu Constitution of 187hasbcton construed
i and atlministratlonott away and that in
itend of ttis itniltod federal agency orduinod by
our forefathers we have a consolidated empire
t t Itut President GarlieliLanil the ctiliif5 of the so
called RepublIcan partr are wholly mistaken
The popIo are not rirpared to abdicate local
acltgovcrnment Tbsy do not bailey thu cx
DeriweIit a allure nor are they yet whluInto
icek rifuit In any form of government which
hiall bo etroncr than themselves
Porttvcnty yotrs tue ovormitstcrlng dread of
this li0Ph3 wos that which nros from the mad
I attempt to ditrov thin Union anti their atton
lion has boon fixid otto the oni point of dtn
r flut things ars sub there now and thiiay
aro bigiunln to Iok abut thm nudtnko no
count of whnt has hiitigenctl In tho interval
I The poured out blod nod mnoy without
itint to preserve tl Union but thaso wuro not
r the who1 nor perhats the greatebt of
their sacrIfices Thor tamely suiird this
Etntis to be robbud of powur at every
VOSsIiIO point of attrition betwoon thorn
and the Iedrul Governrnant and at some
t points wizoru thoro wits not even the excuse of
attrition They permitted the manufacturers
I vhio iuppiled our armks and those who fur
Isiiod tho rnunttion of artho fortunut
c osaossors of the furnacs forgs mills shops
V and looms who ware able to rsnIer a tlmoi
I service to the retiubilo at an infinite private
irofitto set tliernsilves up a class apart anti
iindertho war tariff to levy enormous trihute
t t 2poa the industry of the popIs ioni after the
I oace They allowed the capititlhits who took
I thifl national latnq at etiasa cacti more ruin
II ou than thii ia3t nt merely to roll tip groat
Ill fortunes aotl arutro exclusive erivileges but
i to erect thnmsolrni into a permatiunt vower
J t able to control the operations of the Trosury
to bind anti loose ths t > usIui of the country
and to exeriso a most dangerous power In
L political Cntui They bare aeon the railway
eorporitlon WliOsd inttluiible cervico to th
I ltU5 of th Union a4 loubly paid for tur2
hit > ltq cTrs rich strttus of subIt1y from
the pi ocnds of comnioi taxation tppropriat
the public domaIn which was neizulrod b the
t first I rnorttle thtflhiltraLiQn antI which
hr Tffjrson ftnily bIIeod wouhi rpxuatn itu
ample tals of public crdit forsiver lift Itself
Into an inperilnt in impiro ivvy tito extort
tribute iaa1i Couress buy LgIslaturs
corrupt the voltttl morals and vulI night
1 strangle ths hlbsrtles of thin nitlan Atid In
1S77 thsy saw all these classes and powers
I unite in the most hideous outragi over suf
bred bt any poI of our rauttiu tntpsl
tloii of a Cub Mjistrat not merigly Un
j chosen but overcheIminiy repuIitteI at a
reutttr arid orilerly eloetlon But Ii does not
follow that they intend to mako these men theIr
iastors for aU time They have submittod
thus far booauso they wore too much jreocu
f lilud to resist WIiIIt tue war lasted whillo the
fedoral relations of ties seceding States ro
1 nalued In ilebatt an aupesi to the
a4slon of Union was all that was nocesnry to
I divert attention front any iiiiestioa less grave
thauthatof national preurvatIon
Tbs same pSiIOn was played upon in the
same way by Ittrnllton and the monorats
vho undertook to retoiutlonlze the now Gow
ertitznt by titti assiiuiptlon of lmthlod powrs
at thio close of thu labt century It was evun
stronger then than now Thu Dresure of
DrItisli force was barfly withdrawn untIl the
contending nations of Europe began to rival
eachothur In lute dttstruetion of triierIcan corn
inerce and the young ropighio for years
trembod on the verge of a coulhict whioroin th
lirmost union of the 3tatrs would have beet as
t C hinportient as during thit Jiuvolutlon Secession
at that time meant sImple ruIn to the States
I whlch iauih go ci well as to the Sttt s which
IiouIil rigmetiti The very word was terriblu In
the oars of men who hal Just ahIuvl politIcal
and commereisi fndipenIcneo and knew that
both would be completely esterifleol by din
l zuembermeut In 18t the Lultod States and
the Coufelerato Status would ethi h3v6 btjen
constituted a great nation but in 1SUO no re
ppeetitble power could havu began formeil by any
± aubdlvialon of the whole Uoti tIii dread
ilatnllton and his politIcal associats laid hold
rc as tho lever with witich to pry one rib after nu
other front thu Constitution When the Font
mi bill was to be pased tinder cirettuistaneen
I whIch enriched a class of favored speculators
and formed a Tretisury party in Congress the
Union was said to be In danger Vhect tit State
debts were to be assumed it was Insisted that
the project of separatIon hoi already taken
Sortit and when thu national ban the parent
of the monster of Jacksoun time was
brought forward its papa ahun wore capable
of nursing a stroug confederacy sod coulont
fng Its several members in the stme famIly
11 But this could not continue the practice
1 ceased with the pretext and the people real
1 izod the mischief whirh ha been accomplished
t In tue mean time At the clot of the Adams
q ndthtnIbtratlon with Its extriungance and cor
ruptton its BrItish sympathIes lie ahie and
aeditlon laws itS judicial outrages its whip
Injjs of editors ItS pribons filled with the vic
I tIme of political prbocutIon ths rvulsion
cams ant the everInfazaoue atternpt so like
that of lb7G to beat a PresIdent against the wllb
of the people completed the good work Tue
PcderaIlt party and all Its belongIngs were
Swept away for the tIme and no man of that
I generation saw Its foul heart raised rnatn
Tb Constitution was saudutdJefrersn
t 4
atthoIatgasg Thu peoploand the States
reclaimed the rights which bit been fIlched
Iroin them thzedootrioteoftmptled lowers
1n the flamiltontan sense Ta5 deidediy UP
stivod SOt the process f consolitlaLuu was n I
1UZItJT AIOstQd but rovesoJ The ahip ci
state was pot on her htcpitbllcnn tnk again
arinamelite were rolucni simplicity agiel
oconoiny boini tbi riil the Foloral tax
gatherer elisagiponrel the 1111110 debt was ilia
cltnreii tie tirititry of th nation vne
litilihil tts ini It I cc I priso tin r eanifirtIi front
I lit ii ii tigott tim I I b rt y o f ptuJll an ii of pritse
vurn rostorl oni hit wblou age of thu ru
p tiIui lu uttsol I I ku a dote I loss sit iii in nr Ii eider
the lii tPLriotis I I ii o of Vi rg ii ii Prus lii tints
Itisrolly 1taiItTtO iiaety
flut to rntIiz tilt flro anti stitduorn spIrit
w It Ii whi leh olil FttIuu nil Isis res I stout I Ii H
e ran ii ruhtrii at In U of it liii lar i lint I s as gum
pnui ity tutu 1ttttghIIuatts unuirur Jfluruuoiu one
luIut tune over nicety a tieteaty piu which in
thu Ikht of evt01 I 44tItHIH littler bitt a painful
intiurest Tue nnbltaut ttiii that ever lived In
iii I t ii is I hut of t I inc wurn iluinon it ntl as tie ii
t000 enemies of religion nud of society Tim
tuuotuie utunennihleig only a faithful nbsprv
did Of the Ciunstitutluin wero the rabble
oruiitrltium In thieu Io2t1C7 of lice Democratic
eltibs all the horrors of thu French revolution
anti Jeiftirson MutuIiunn lallatin niitl tituir
eomotrlots vnruJioobIns antI dIsunionIst as
those who now propose to ittity tiio prosiross of
contralizitlon nro Coguteriintls atid Socuts
slonists lholr cootct was Iiortur perhaps
altnrI2r thntt this one they lotui far lose pow
orful material interests to contund while ties
moneyed ohigrtrciiy was less l1riv Intronch
ed end the patronago of the Government
was a bagttehlo In comparison but as
thee people won then so will they wIn
again Their sober judgment will ever ho
ties same Tltoy will keep the Union hut they
will not submIt to lien empIre 1IavIn corn
plutod thu dutfericon of the one they will make
iuicort work of tile other Fnwer has in
lOOt In the ianetiego of Presldoect Garihold
btun grutyitatlnec toward the general Govern
ment at an apruilIiuu rate uluering the last dcc
u1 and a hall and to thoesciguerflclal observer
It niny appear that hamIlton waxes whIle Jet
fomsoti wtiflcs But it Is not inuprusslblain
truth it Is extremely probablethat thee limit
has bmn roncitud and very nearly tieo same
condItions existing now as then thee cderahlst
catuistrophoof tfi Is agaIn at hand
A lrnplestateuuetet of the systems of Ifainli
ton and JulTuurcontiiue one the Ideal of tlto Ho
publieten party and the other the Iden of thee
fletnocratic pnttywiil suflleiently account for
thoaction oftitu people whenever their aobor
judgment unvexci hy any other issue hens
been called to decIde between them For a free
pooplo intending to remain free titer can be
but one choin Ttcut tuestlon is a perfectly
plain one botween a fixed written constItution
anthn constitution capable of IndefinIte expan
don In any direction considered deeirnblu by
its atlneinistrators bettvuuon a government of
limited tend a government of unlimIted powers
between tIes republic acid the eengulro Our fore
fathers rendered their decision htvecn the two
In the adoption of tim Constitution of 17S7 ire
tie ztlogutlon of lice amuendrngnt propnn d by
tile first Congress aceul Ire the total repteuliation
of the Feleralists In 18 uvlio liitul undertaken
to acaeteplIshe by forecti eoreegruigion wheel they
had tidIed to acumplLnb by Lundamontal enact
nAMtLroa PLAN OF A cotrcivr uNto
Hamiltons earliest dream respectIng the new
Onvurninoget was of a grand costly magnificent
Coercive tJnloua dream which he found time
to elaborate in the vary ltuuet of the revolution
rig BritIsh Constlttetlon was his Idual tin Its
worst features were those which hie dlstln
gulaleed by lila luarttest approbation lie made
no eeroi of his conviction that whiio It was as
It eitood the most porfact govrnmont ever do
vlsud by man tim extenslou of the sulriego or
tim curtaIlment of the power of lieu inieeistry to
procure corruot pariIanccutary majorities hr
thus patronage of the Crown would niftier it
abortive Upon this mouth with tell It detects
whIch in held eyes wuro but so many virtues ho
longed to feishloje the liestltutlons of the New
VoritI Ills futetanutital psiiato was not
that the people should govern but that they
sheouhi ho governtd and his next that thero
war but two nethods of governing them
well namely br foretu and by Inturoet When
thurtufuro hue ngpoarod in thee omevcntIou of
177 nobody was surprIei by ties extraordl
narrschemeof empire which he tmroved an
uerlr ocaceiore to uluvelopo hIr is tiee outline
ills first slap wati the exthtcctlou of the S ite
theuy couciti not coexist with a national gotern
itiunt For the rust hti pmnputt to follow its
nearly as mrgiglet be tli hJritih motel beulug
ppuuiieily careful to etvo coretIutlonaI sauctiome
to the worst abuses of thret eyst rn It is iaid
with uis said lie te tt unrtlaIeeatl It It
CVttS Ot13 fortuel it wouell ncteetain itsif All
ceeemuieitiee uhivitlo thu tetlvi into the few
anti liii mnaley Then flrt ecre cite rich anti wsll
born ties other the ma of the prpl The
vole of thee peot Ii tens hen situ to bo thee votcu
of led ateul however etuernily this maxim has
ben igleoted and believed it Is not trim lee teict
riee poogule are turbuleut tent ehanainir they
iuehloin jtedti or determIne right Clvi there
fore to tie flrt class a dittittet tereceanont
share lie thee Govuireinient Tlcy will check thee
unstaIins of the second and as they cannot
receive any advantage by a change tieny tteero
fore ydi over maintain good goernment Can
a dienocmntic tuasuunebly viio nnuuelly revolve
lie the mass ctttio people be etiposed steadily
to purtue thee public good 7 Nutelmeg but a icr
neanent holy can cieock lIce ineprudenc of do
neoeray Tlealr turhulotet aced uncoeetrolllng
dfspoltion requires cleceka It is ad
nclttd heat you cannot have a gool 1xeeutlvu
on lice democratIc ilnee See thee occellency of
thee BrItIsh ecutivei lie is placed above
teeceptatlon ice eon have no Interests distinct
from thee public welfar Nothing short of such
an Jceuetive can be fllriout Let one
holy of lice Logisheeure bo coneutItuted during
itol beieeevlor or life
Let one tXeutlVe ba appointed who darea
ecncuto lels powsrs
It teeny be asks Is this a republican system
It Is strictly so as ionc ice they renenln electIve
nit let tect ohuervui that an 1eutlve is less
tietmigerous to the iItrtls of thee peopho whuee In
oflicedurlug hlftieau foraoen years
Let uluctors ho appolntd In each of thee
Ictates to elect lice 1xeeitlvu rre fr 11 pro
tIcrei his 1ifl to consIst of turn brauctece tenth
I oud glee thorn thee uhIenitsd power of gas
lug nU Mers wtleout ectauggion 7ct seufture
stauid huts ii ihs iuijiiutti The smbly
to be eoeteul for three yars by tue tuuopie in
districts lieu Senato to bc uleted by electors
chosan for that teurpso by lice penle and to
ronnln Ire oflice durl lefo Thu Exeutiye to
have tiee power if unativlug all lawut to neaku
war or peace wltle lieu advico of the Senate to
make treaties chtha their utivien but to lvtve the
sole tiiroctioei of tell enelhtary operations and to
bent umbeeesadurs and appoint all milItary
ottlouro ant to pardon all otleuders treason
ocegtui unless Ley advle of thu Senate On
ills doamb i removal the Irosldcnt of tieo
Steetu to ofiiiatH with theo settee power until
another is einrtctt ruprecne judicial oftiesms to
It apgointei by thee lreatIcitt antI the Senate
Ttee LegIsitturu to appoInt courts In eacle State
so a to make the State aovemnments unnecen
sary to it
Ahl Stab laws to be absolutely void which
contravene the general laws Au offleacr to be
appointed Ire each State to have a negative on
all State laws All the mIlitia anti the appoint
scent of oflicors to be under the national Goy
1 nfesa that this plan and that from Vir
idols are very remote from the popie Ier
hap the Jersey plan Is nearest their expeot
tiou flut th people are gradually ripealng
In their opinions of government they begin
to be tired of an excess of dsmoeraoy anti
wieitt uven is the VIrginia plane but pork sUll
whit a little rali2eofftC sauce
These were Cal Hamiltons ideas of a suit
able plan of gaverntnat They were received
by thee Convention witle iileeou not to say cun
tempt aud wore Ieeardof no taoro Themeea of
tli ltrolutin had even iou taste for that sort
of govennxieot lhan the men of today and
C ii hamIlton and hi few advanced frIend
aieheee In their yuan of monarchy wore forced
to make reluctant choeobetweon lb oieral
guiana of thee rnpuhllcnns They atr the pork
beet they never so much a pretended tjent thor
liked it
hut the Constitution haul pned without a
bill of rI4hets uuiti without a tiecleirnil redo of
coecatriectioti g cenul lice nu1vuaatu of strong guy
or me igue ii I wit iii ieot w it teotet ii n pu Tic ore was
rltt tuna evIl ii uitttteetiutf interguretntloiiateeh
with favorable nuhiecltiistrntloeie hicemilton fore
itaw I it tutiss t Iii I et V itt lu I il I ti g U U pitt I flhitetflutt
a cc ttESt I ieet U re cc cc it runeitud of I y tic trainers
01011 thu Leiul of imullol cyors Jleero lead
cr tt intO tiio iruurtnituhuu through mere heat
tetitluin as Mieu1loi putt It to thee pleraseol
a few words coiuid fcmu the artIcles of
coeciudurntlonaud these woris to orovidu for
tee coeieteeon uieettineu neeui lice general wulfuro
lakete aloejo neil witliotet roforcecco to tico
etuuemnuratiou of speclfa vowers in tleu body of
lIce Instruenent tunoeeitl eoenguruhiunslve uuotithi
to tvecrreetit liii nuesileuptitup of ieconeoivccblonte
tienrity iItii Ilton tleoe uforo favored then adoption
Jr the Constitution lie saw in it buttlo germ of
tlec govtrieenelet f thu feeteiru It would grow it
would tuxpacel I a lixuel Coeestitutlonu was to helen
ate absurdity tuouver would gravitate to thee
cueetro tiete rich ated tin ve1l boric would
gradually nlort tleoensolves over the swinish
mccli y nut atht Ii I Ii Is el I ni I nation of wheat he
was tuloastl to call pork from tug working
ctictrtur thee lacy would ultimately assume
tue distinct and vrmaeioect steers of author
Ity which properly belonged to thence
Tita nrcLnAreo o1 zinanis
Tleo States hecaitated to ratIfy Ueo Constitution
in thl form it was clearly a most harrtrtioecs
extierlmueet but tIes great name of Washing
ton and the clear understanding that le would
become tlen hltt President overbore tha better
jtedgmont of tleo firmost JepubhIcans Hut Un
fortunately for Ilamllbres science of ravolu
lion byoonstrteetion ilce fIrst Congress sure
plied Lice declareetlon of rights and thu intlox
iblo rule of Interprotuttlon In thee ten amend
monte wheleh woro Immediately proposed and
ratified Indeed most of tim States had mali
fleet only iion the dqgInct understucndlng that
thoso ateceeeulenenta should be macis and In
neetrl every case tim allimportant tenth
atnenulment Tleo powers not delegated to
tleo Veelttitl States nor prohIbited by It to thea
StaleS are rtisorveul to tics Steitsa respectively
or to the pooplucva trenuouesly Insisted
upon lvuin Col Ilnueiitonsown NeuvYork put
title Iii her duuolecmatlonof rights which aceom
panleut thee ratification with peculiar alomnlty
need ueeeoeneuoea precIsion of words
Col HamIlton lead now nothing left to stand
uponbuttlee half dozen Inrulvorteut words of
tIe preanehule limIted and restrained as they
were by the apocihlo raeete in the operative
words of the Constltetlon But ho did not
despair lie was ouIitiuet that titlasmali pIece
of olastl material In tic fratueworkuf tice new
Government neiglet be stretcheed out wide
enough to supprt banks papermoney c3rpo
ratioees Internal ieeeturoveeuunts bouretici sub
iiutlcs armlci an eurLstoeriey of money patron
ngi to corrupt amid foroo to irettcnlilicte thee ptuo
ole No ooeeor wets lice CntItcethoei tint In op
oration thou ho npttiaroIln that itlentuctul pleco
whesro of till otleers an administration hiotile
ii its uvheole avlrlt nilght b rtctiily onglnoortul
estelneton heed attlihitil to Itoburt Morris for
teilvhee on thitu liniieces Great n yoro hi per
heus In thee flevoiutlon Morris wits a ttuaty old
aristocrat lie vae then just hresh froeee Iarls
wtecro ho had spent eeonties stint tip In his
house curaln Jeecohlns flu was heartily sick
or Dceuocrats pcrteecpa of Reptetlieaeis rent
rccorntteuoettsd hlecinlitort to the task for wteicle
Leo hid no stomach haiwenif
ruoorxes rowtnn umotncgn
Ve leave hitro neither space nor inclInatIon to
ceceepituhate the history of tli first administra
tlon teicte of it uecshileigton sincerely ro
gmotted much of it ho periecittetl to be suicide
wIth ovidcnt reluctance alit it is clear now
that if ho lead really provel thee figeertu of clay
wtetcte lee was extuetoI to 13 lea thee icands of
his lealhsig Mlnhtor the Govemneeceret would
leave boon revolutionized before It was faIrly
inaugureitud ileeceuhitons ruiaeliron yerI nil of
a pituo ttkn in ultie ste eesslon anti with a
single view Tleo teeedheeg bill wcs a grand
peelatoie It vti8 muiturol nec promutel
geetai Ia sue a manner etc to enable
the tevortoe cf thee Trutsury to realize
huirgu fortunes iii a twitekllne Mutethers of
Congress wecti tuereecittod to teurttelrust3 in
the pluudr and so cycs forseel tic Treasury
haul ire tim two iiOltS Iluirn nLo wis crc
cited I eec eon i ritoly tit ii teclti t the it en c
arltoerrioythe Ieoler of thee pueblie debt
suuleeeiy by tet art of nteulrng
itwheicle hamilton bouicre1 oulI utimeitely
tuecointe the grMt consorvagivuc force in thee iv
emnenunt Ta uusuenptioa of the Sttt debt
followed In tao sceee ulroetion atcotietr Specie
latlon lnjrj Inlisemec t lb Tretseery a Sum
titer inereese of the debt anti of the power of
the tlobthltiur Tecen entree the Lant VIth
that ZtiOfltt an t Its proJeny thu Iluireules
oflenrnerncy tiets boon cntentiing whit brief
itituurveuhu ever sines Tic Treatjrr Hoport on
Meenufecteeros was a lucre expansion of thu sys
tern It undurtD to oitcbiieile thie doctrine that
Cttgreen eulgiet teeku the money of one eletsi of
citztii anti give It IC inoticer under plea of
oneoumngleeg a lesirrible Inhutry It halt tto
fouttutcition of morerulioly tlep tint wlie hoec
to hi sure was a lint begircnItel ictronrte
corruption maniptel etlon of the debt banking
paper metier bountle monopoly When to
hem was aiiIeui suestory the circle was cow
pleted Jefteieson cheargeci heat hfaeeeliton do
liboratoly mystified the aooueute of the Trans
ury so that neither Congress nor thu people
could unravel them
But Hamilton untierstood also the valuo of
corosnonyeeo an accessory to power and leo pro
rIbod a eystjcn of aisurI foreiethltles to guy
em the Intercourse of thti PresIdent with his
fellow citizens lie weret In a coaie atsul six at
tended by cutelucre In livery and fuahloitod by
weesebers of the Atituiteitrathon In a coach and
four with ci nuneeerou3 ann stately retInue to
open Congress ccitt then delivered his cues
sags liku a kings uuiteoch Corcnrus heartn
itgrociti uteon an nlireus In reply to thee
speech intireded the Praaldot in a tccuey to pro
corel it All forms of ctiiuotto vore arranged
to thee mtnuttebt partleular tiftertho sunteteor of
Eurotcen teourte lhio greater part of It was
extrernuehy irksoent nec distasteful to Seiuhciug
ton tent tictre Is reason to beliuve heat of some
of It tee was uteebszueaatlr almost auebenmd but
he was persuajttltnu submit to it rs being eeec
eseary to teirtintutlec thee tilgielty of kivcrngueeit
liatnlltote ecun went so far ne to seiggtt that no
citIzen privte or eflicial sieouitl be permitted
a imitate itetirviuw with tii lrosIlent except
mecnebers of the htteato when lIke the tuetirs of
France ahioull cilona enjoy this leigh privilege
still lee wa ecot satIefloJ IIiu euxperincent bad
succeeded betiuee than ice expected but he said
It is my opinlou tieotegtu I do not itublish It let
Dan oyfleuraleuba that the etresout goverucnnnt
ic not that whIch will ciubwer thiec ends of so
chety by giving stability and protection to it
eights need that it w II probably be found expo
dlent to go into ileuliritlsh form
Tieis was ho sybteui of hamilton wldcie
we are inforncd is to lice system of
which the Union was foundtd
and upon which it iiourIshd in liberty peace
and security tar mere than half a centuryor
to be exact from the macneat a gcnuino regiub
lican admiuistrectioo sincerely cherishing the
principle of the ConstitutIon came Into power
In 1601 untIl the last 1ocxeoematia Adminitra
tiune went out of power in 1SGI Thu brief in
truslons of the WhIgs in 1810 aced in 18t8
scarcely amounted to Interruptions since their
measures were never sulTored to succeed and
the popular mind on each occasion reverted
promptly to tIcs triad ruiueof DemocratieAtl
ministration wieoau value thtee teowdeepartures
only aorvud to illustrate
JErYKasope ro IJItKitV
Jefferson was a born flenvjcmat lie not only
believed flrnahy in thee rlbt of tic people to
govern thtnselveec but In their ability to do it
better than it over hiatt been or ever could be
dono by powar deriyoi from any ether soured
Fortunately for wankiud and fortuuateii es
LeciliT for the country which in bin eyee
was blessed by God and flatfiro beyond every
otleer leo came ureon ttati stage of actIon at per
haps then oblv time in history and this only
place In the world wieore tile gospel of abso
lute human freedom cool be pot In steecesaful
competition with thee hoary abuses of kingshIp
of tntocraft of niletoeriter or ccii Lir Lisucilton
leach it ut the rIch and the withborn It
would tic ntureetinur wre it within lIce scopo of
tic Is pecir to folloW hI in tie roeigh ii Is extra
ordlhary cireer of radical roforuc In VIrinia
t ice act of miii lie huts s freedom t he u nt > oI ill on of lice
rIght of turiniogecelttro antI of tim law of en
tails lii codc which caine roetnul anti perfct
from liii hennuis ithi avery itectlent rlgiet of
Jngllshcniiri rectorial auth Llxuutl lie tim ulco cure
oilon of tiiu conifleuin Iawtrnis lel fierce oppo
slttoei to the slave trudo lcii noblo citorts for
4tlittletO emagecipatlon and his great labors in
thee atiso of tree pottnlnr education
Mr Jefferson held that lice trnericnei colonies
were acci ever icati boete free Stttt It wiis hot
a now thought rhen iso cmnbodioul it In the
Declamntlon of Treulciuceedoner Erteh distinct
society in tlio New World was as Inutepenilont
as Great BrItain herself VIth leer they owed
a common allegiance to tim Crowu beet her
iterhIament lead no potter to ieitko leiws for
tieem any more than for Iieennver Tteolr ccv
eretl LegIslatures ordaIned ihuir several laws
and withIn the limIts of mole theo King was as
llrmiy bound by those laws a lee was by thee
ats of rarhiamecet in the three kingdoms TItle
theory was boldly atlyoed by Mr JefTerson
long before tleo older statesmen of Virginia
were prepared to accept it But It was the only
tiesory upon tvielche the RevolutIon coulti pro
ceedeitleer locally or logIcally and when ho
came to draw the Declaration of Indepontienco
It lead become lee doctrine of thee patriot party
theeouch thee continent Tteat memorIal docu
uTnt hi an arralgijmnent of tho ICing for a series
of political crimes whereby leo had absolved
lila American subjects from their allegIance
precisely as ties Wheigs contoaded King Jatteo
hiati absolved ciii Eugilahemian In 1t23 It did not
make ties colonies free anti independent Slates
It tnrohy declared thio fact that they then were
free and independent States aced in the exor
else of a riglet belonging to thorn In that ca
pacity they severed tleeircoeenection with a hos
tIle King Thea result of ttee war was thee so
knowledgcnent of the Independence of cache
separate Commonwealth cmi upon this tutu
poetdouu truth rested Mr Juffersnuee wleoio
political sstom then and over aflorward
JayrnasoNs rune Ix TI rioNJ
Mr Jefferson was in France when tim Con
vontlon of 1787 finIshed its work From thent
goad hour when ho instituted tim Virginia
Committee of Corriuspondonee with a distinct
vIew to early confederation ho httel pursued the
Petiotne of closer unl n between thee Status with
eager assIduIty and tee hetd yatched tie course
of late events from his hlstueit standpoint with
hcetenso anxiety Whosi tue Constitution reached
helm ho was chenrineul at first glance with the
syieemntrccal fraeiiowbrk of tleo new Qovomn
snout with its ruower to go on of Itself pace
ably wlthiotet nouthlnec ontlnual recurrenos to
thee State Legislatures wIth its wise distrlbu
tion of pourers anti with its coenpromien of i
thee opposIte daunts of tue greet and llttii States
of the hatter to equal and of thee former to pro
portional lnlhttou Hut ice was struck wltle
nmazsniont by thee omissions This hack of a
bill of rights was a fatil defect 11 unshed
atecli a bill cocetitning all thee provisioces of tieo
hhrsttcn ncnentiitieuts anti seen others whIch
posterIty leas lead reasouani nitty yet heavo more
to regret that laui was cetuehle to secure lie
earnestly protestuti iegninst the perpetual ra
eligibility of thee Prucailont anti agahust stand
Inez cr01103 Iti tlseec of peacu and he wishicil
to guard agaleest eeconopohius tie ripe fruits
of which wore then visible lee lrine by the
most rigid constitutional renerietloecs fleLt he
strongly tergeti the adoption of the Instruenint
as It stood togetheug with Instructions to thee
repreenteetivosof each ratifying Stub to tiea
cure at once tico proposed to lie Igistatures of
thee neccsary uiiecnthrecuict Ills ultie in the
people of hem ilty wits unboeettod After all
hue said It Ii city jtrlnrigilo tiecut lice will of tlec
majority should prevail If they approve the
prOpi5OI Constetutlon ire all its pamni I shall
concur in It eteourfuehly ice leagues that tieuy will
ntnuand it wiiueeevo they sleuth find it works
wrong This roliamico cannot cloeivu us as long
at vt reiienhri virtuous auth I tleitek we sleahl be
50 05 long an eiiiculturt I cur LirineItual oljet
viheich will be tho case whihti there retecnin Va
cant isieds in nice part of tmrien Witome we
net plied uoon occe ateodeer in iero dues as in
w shall tooeeeo eerrutit as In Ieirope
anti go to c itltet one etnotleer a they do tIters
lie foreeaic it euppears ekarhy enough thto
Ijrocepa iy wteItie eeeoteeyetl iitut incnufacturing
iretsruts wouii llrut correept ant then pervert
lIce lovurneuretet to onate them to dvour tle
oecrnitices of Iic LOtPlul wlen itt itomo remote
period ppulation ieouhuI enantretu for work
an brecil In a few great contrs but oven huts
guropheuttlee iuuIe was Uneuiuai to this coneuptiotc
heat neonthy would over usurp uncounted
ieiIlihnn of aertS of thee vacant leuuds of ineer
lea anti fling tictyn abo Into thu bcalo agniust
liberty anti justice I
jyynnsog iN wtaitctToNs etntstr
WhicujotTorsoti took halo sent in tteo Cabinet of
Weshtlicgton lee fount a most extraordinary
state both of puithic ntTtlrs nntt of toeiety hiani
iltons platis were already well under var
Tiee Treasury tend insinuated its power Into
botie hiouuuetu of Congress Tue Funding bill
lea passed thee Assuneption bill was meetured
and ties bacek was about to be born Jufferon
and liancilton vero thee meugnizal leaders of
thee two pariu theon relmost as dhbtiUct as cit any
tines elaco Tieey were tLrocvn together at al
nicest every neosuting like cocks in lice pit
Ilanudolph sugeartodJeTerson with enhigliteteod
zeal Knox a groat iconet giant wets the men
cello of Ilargehitcun lie believed in ide little col
league nuil biggisna cited that Was Icici whote
confession of political faith Waiineton en
twayored to hold tite iueulanee oven between theta
Both his great Secretaries eujoyod his piruuonai
cotifitleucia bitt JeiTersrun niweirs contenietl
tlent lee 1 ii hot COfli prheetett thu d ml ft of
lietcuiltoee titOeSUrtun lb signol lieu Ihuetek 1111
with hesItation not beanube bei apgurovtul tteo
princIple but in defoeestee to lIeu will of lieu
Iaiolatuure lie was true to 11cc republIcan
eteargtc ciiiiied to helen cciii iet ecoleintely sited
nopeecteily protested to cueo says Joffursuee
in our couvcmoatioiis that liii wotehi sited tue
last drop of liii biot In support of It and leo
did thus tito ofluner tend witte the more earnest
etose b5c4u50 tel kieew ncr suesphteloics of Ileucnll
toa thuoigns against it and tihud to QuIet
hut it ttva tone of society and tleo talk of
the drenving rooms nnui dloer tniuhi which
most actonlcleeel thee Democratic Secretary of
hititto CIassea were arady formed itcid the
divisions officially eocngmeled cited amid lice
VOtfltC and coreteeony lnsltutued by ilaneihton
thu prevailing tuuusetimeutsauteded strangely Un
regiublienre let tico ccci of lieu nutieor of lieu
1oelaratioei of Initepondeaece The sympa
titles of this pseudo arLstoraey sycre unro
cutirviudhy l3ritIehe tetiel lice hrts Ambassador to
France wets not it little shokod by the corn
tuents leo was force to ieear on tico mill begin
nlnga of tite French reyolutlon to wheich every
friend of liberty was then a hearty wollwlsteor
lie soon ascertained ihat wieiio the Secretary of
State could not well b exeludoti rocu these so
hoot cIrcles he was not etumioclaliy walconea
HamIltons candor alone was ceetirehy unabash
od in his presence Me Adacns who was a con
vent to the pnincipleot tuonaroicy but wished
it elective anti honest said at table lureo
that the I3rlteehh ConatiLutlon of its corrup
lion and give to its popular branch equality of
representation and It would be the most per
feet Constitution over dvLod by the wit of
man To which hamilton altar a significant
pause rejoined lurge It of its corruption
sad give to its popular branch ocuethity of rep
roseutation antI it would bocomo an ilaprac4a
blegovornneenet as ii stands tit present with
altits supposed defecbait is lee must peruet
Government whIch over oxisto
riis sernucALtarec fl rowia
Upon Mr Jeffersons retironecat the Federal
ibIs assumed ueecheuckol control llaniiiton
was always tar improving every opportunliy
an ii
clv ii
he slit
tic a
to Is
at tic
was I
any I
prl m
and i
A me
nat tei
thco i
gu id
ties i
itist s
crc em
ltee Ii
Ic I ins
O ie
the t
that I
of re
lead t
to mu
leid t
to tan
theer i
dot cc
tue i
w es I
1w of
son it
It wa
tent I
increasing and displaying tio military
er of tiic Govnmnmont and ice longed for
lmcttio cane in which it striking ox
lion ottiiis sort mlejet iP3 mile The so
cl Whiskey lnquinrortion futnishcol helm a
ext cmii hut not only nearalinul nnanmv to
preeu no ln3urraction wiei ie heel tee exiqt
tuit iiuu I rant tile I n brutal tn cc ni ic II pun
oolTunl hn tjtluutuhO wten had gueieitldy sub
ci In evuiry reuelrcicnt of Govrnneiutet ij
asohtluar hecil crosaci tiec AiIurleetnits It
fact thoU Hamilton without any nuticority
or military ireantzul a mlxiii contents
if tile on it to inflict his will tepon tier In
tnnts of western I1tnnsyhvania aced most
liter It Is that history teas tuikin no hittha
I of ticcit tliu tiorst the Ijascat cured thee bold
crIme agaInst liberty and law since lleo
itlon of the Constitution
cc uiains Atitninistration has by common
iuntbccemothioohjuctof unhvcrscl sxecra
It It heath any rutioemIn features heyonul
vorsonal integrity of Lice lnfttuaia1 mere
comtuosel It history lens fatleui to moritlon
1 Ttee British craze hiarvnulctl it from first
at I aecil tico excesses of thee French rutolee
togetleer vnitie the celebrated N 7 Z affaIr
reby it was made to appear that Tauhoyrand
onuisityorcul to extort front lice American
uasstcdora a large eum as the rrico of a
y had sottho tide with morentary but Ito
dotes force In favor of the British party
Ileimilton mecesures were continued and
ra even more odious and In more flagrant
ethon of the Constitution were ntlouL The
ci law enabled Lice lresident to banish for
era at ploasuro anti was aimed especially
0 French republicans The Sedition law
nteadodtoaiionoooriticisrnanultt was rig
sly and brutally enforced iThto coulctry
puhod to the verge of war whIle France
totho edge of a most unnatural alliance
England and titlelotte after the deterncl
in of France to keep the peace with us at
trico lend boon knownwas made thee pro
of groat military and naval establish
ta involving an onorecious incroase of the
Ic debt Iotii of whilcie wore in themselves
sri objects of Federalist policy ltclpit
trosa teemed whIle maniacal ravings ro
hug tho Jacobins of Irutnce anti their cii
I friends and ahiie lice Iltipulihicans of
rica Every excess evory horror of theo
cii revolution were predicted its the
malconseitucaneos of teic trlteniple of Jcfiir
in Democracy among lice least cf wielele
ticodiesotution of tue Union and bloody
chy Wit say tiee Least deliberately far in
iroam of diabolism whiche haunted the
traIt Fetlorahint of that day wore things
ii may not overt Lo written
terson head been oltictod Vleclrosldont
Adanes lie remained at his post and
ad thee contust at the seat of govornmcnt
many of tie toptchhican lender gave tip
oulIlct In Congress and wont Into ties
Legislatures to rouse tue uioitl to a
tacu of their tiangiur Greliatin alone vu
oil In thee house where lies leIsraiist
buurs edeoutti hint eiown anti inhileted
IntIhgnijy Poetuihule In steele a body Thieve
tafk oven pf tleeoilatiau of obnoxious
ens suti the AttorneyGeneral was as
rrtanny AttnmneyGeneral of thena all from
retof Adamnito thco hact of Gant to lend
elf to rutty outrage that potnr docentuul ox
nt No man ivim dii not witness itcati
an idea of their unhiridloel intidness ant
errorisne with which they surrounded
var rxovLE AwUE
this Federalists had pushed their plan of
ahi7Jitiote too boldly Wieou thee people saw
hey head beeci duped Into tiee suenport of
urea eeilceeluttc1 tocaptico very foundations
pubhlcanism theag swept the oltanding
from thee councils of the natIon to reap
riaiee only after the lapse of more than
ceentury tvieen the armies of its ancestor
seen forgotten to run the sauce course nod
at it is to tu ieoped tic sauce fate
ueluetion of 1800 resicltel In the choice of
son and ttlctics Beet the party tvbich
mwer hikutiee tuarty wielehi iceid power in
cotel teat alToril to lucy it uiown eel lice bitt
of thee people and thney detnrenlnod if poe
to hold on lu frecud anti If necessary by
The people tif New York heaving chptett
gislattere Pledged to oboatei ltupecbhlcau
ira hlatechltoni wrote the Governor ice
ag hhen to asaunceble the exIslicg Feulerahisut
itituro tired uitiftact ue the tclene by
in the law beet the Governor quietiy
Ice letter scatty tyitle an enirsuneent Itidi
ieis tliop euscisu of lice infanty of thi Ira
anti that teets thee end of true time attomnut
itorwhtle iheocleetoruui voteof etState Then
uolotl to ulutI lhurr and trust for ttecir
etion reuaeteery anti his rstitcede
Cs In theal they coneslvsti tim project of
tlng ten election aitugstiuer amid icislshiheic
resident of ttt Secato a schccut wieihe
abandoned onir becauso Lice majority of
vas male of altimeter btult than the major
157G Vlcoce every other resource haul
exhausted titer resoreed to tied Ineiteble
C 5 of atlomeepting to hitirgain with JeiTer
bead but thuuir overtures were rejected
contempt Thee Federalist party was
hiIo all steele parties it wets rotten bo1or
dead and a least intermontweta lice only
it hung It could demand
bedienco to thee tyihl of thee people corn
while otchy after a long and perilous con
n lice house Mr JeiTersoct became Presi
n thee Ith of Munch lull As a inure lit
production thee inaugural wits sinepiy
1 wieiio as a ettatenient of fnnulaeceental
ici anti republican principles of conduct
it becarico at once und remains to thus day a
very Scripture of Joncoeratio faith And the
two icdmiceistratlons which followed came fully
UI to the proelaenation To theis hour it is un
certain wietutiuier thee first Ieseeoeratic President
rode on leorneback and almoatalonte to thee plaeo
of Ieisinauguratiote or tutchked up from ides
loiglng hotesa attotedeti by a tea gentlemon
At ccii ovoids lice ceremony was of the alnepleit
cited plainest ieon ice reselect tie VheItu
ilocese the whole of the old ilamlhtoselaei Systeele
tuf courtiyetlueeette was brusleud away thee hecend
of thee republican lresideset was freely given to
every citlacn anti 1cm tear to every uaomguiaiect
liii comreeunlcuted wcthe Contrress by written
iceessagoaud diepegesed with thee absurd pnrade
of lieu auliness to thee eccetivo
Ihut thue 3toeioretts dIed bard To thee last
ncoueoeitof us vclstttncta theo tthaens ndniinistra
hon cometletuol to struggle cegniecat fate Ilatee
iltoctcs plan of augmenting thin weight of the
Government by cutting thee States into core
soctlent debtriets and setting up a crow of
tidy Julgire icetil lition partly ittlnptoti antI John
Muirslectil was buesy until mttlntghit of the dl of
Mureb retuuning tlteso coceetuieiesiuus whoa
Levi Lieeeoin by onuier of JetTemnon summarily
relieved him so euurnmarly theat Marshall do
claroul hue wcts allowed to teke eeothcing away but
his list The commissions were witteleeld and
tiio midnight Judges tiover sat Tlei done
lIeu prisoces tyoro opened aced the languishing
victims of the unctsestitutlonsl SotlitIti law set
free Thea with his lilustrious CeUcinut Mall
sort Gahltutin Sneith Ioarborn antI Lincoln lee
hogan the great work of reducing the Govern
macit In every department to ii atato of reoubli
can irnphiaity
TUE aozonet ACIK 01 ruse euruauo
Mr Joffursono sovereign cure for all the
ills of the ate was lice introduction
of the most rigId 000momny a frugal
government Is aeiulqns corrupt and never ore
prosslye Ito cut down the great military and
naval estabhleshmoati bequeathed br the
Federalists its rapidly as the hew psrieitted
scsi finally with thee aid of Congress reduced
ha army to about three thousand menwhelcii
wore all heat net honast govornnaont had any
USe for lit reduced Itco diphoniatia force to
lIce three Ministers cit Tenthon leric and its
drid lie disenissod
unnecessary ofihelsija as
fast as investigation disclosed their existence
lie dlrooted Gechhatln to simplify thee Treasury
statements and aceounts so as to rondor thom
intelllgitilo to the plainest citizen anti Invited
every alt in tics work of reform Th whole
System of internal taxation including three
Lourtha of the whioiu civil list was abolish
ed at a blow an ties deficiency supplIed
by Jnfursoao Invariable expedleal oooaogr
When he hiul exhansteul his discretion heap
tutialecI to Cuinctrees for nulhority to inniko fur
then rouluetioces anti thin euriotis poeteicl was
iuresentnui of an Exiciitite petitioning the
Legislature for pernehesboei to siernereir gtownr
and to give cm pitronuegn Tieruuutiit wile the
rtiit ii lcran of then public bit which lice
Itiertllets heal reevtrthti I a a eitttloeenh bless
Ing no I tlt rk of a new uintuthnn nuuw in
titutiul In ovary tuart rut thee iecrtie icnt tuieotelut
hit docco withe lieu surplus Of theis gov
ernteeunt in mutt tlet people knew nieth
hutit thee huleeeings its burlun wors
imunrcctutlhh rids was tho system of
Jffrsnn it was fucitiefechly continuttl itutler
icicu lineal tleseeielecntg Iteitlison anul Monroe
and lens never for arc lnetnnt of tlmo cteisott to
uimirennui the ulehiltrurate neuturovnh of then tmerh
can pooplo If it ha been uiipphucooul by corrupt
ruhtiitcistratlonq ticey tievil never yet dareut to
go to lien country tcpon their Fouhtraiist pnincl
tule They leave uniformly disguiscI tlcoir
measteres deniel ticuir pierpoans acud ridulon
into power union ftilao prolencos When Oon
Oareloii said tim prlncltdes of Jefferson wore
wtnlieg he meant only to say that lice special
itnensstei opposed to popular liberty and do
pending for their existsnce upon Foioral con
sohidation correc ptlon and extravagance were
gaining Best titer geinoul in like propor
then from 170i to 1800 The power of
tue feet seemed titan as Improg
nable as now Ihmihton believed that the
election of Auiams in 17l bad sanciloned
tiiocivilrevolution improessel upon this Con
stitution the Quality of expansiveness settled
practically thea question between the British
model anti tho leybrid abortion of 1787 and
coaflrmedthn power of thee Federalists for all
tIme Gen Garfield Interprets recent elections
in ties same way anti ha just as much mistakou
Tlee interests of the peoplo remain the same
neIther their rights nor theeir determination to
ncaintain them lecivo changed Jeffersons den
tilt faitie in their ultinicite gctoi pens was utah
fled on lice first great occasion for th exercise
of tieir sober jutlgment and there can be no
reasonable doubt tleat It will be justified again
wleon as in 1800 the special causes of delusion
huavo passed nwcey
rita crirnso cLtin
iltet Mr Jefferson loved to see tleo people move
in their primary capacity lien less they trusted
to tiecir representatives and tho more tietty
trusted to thonesualves the greater was ties tif
ty Thirst governments wero tiecirs by the
people aced for ties pootulo they sleould man
eugo thetu antI eternal vigilance was tice
turic of liberty Accordingly in every hour of
peril ice adviseti theta to organize to daub
orate to agitato to comece togoticer In local so
ciotiep whIch being connected by the ties of
fealoenat interest nod correspondence might
pas the culgnahs of danger from one to
another like that shepleerds whistle whIch
sounutIn through thee lIstening stillness of this
eiigitt gives warning that the wolf is upon his
walk ngaiu It was then voluntary local russo
cinuions the vigilance committees Lice commit
tees of correspondence which lent lieu strong
ost iceetiulse to the revolution nteui It wet lice
voice of the peopla rhsing in thutentier tones
tieroughe tile ninny throats of the Democratic
Societies which strtcck terror to tita iecarts of
the Federalists in 1SOO The popular club Is
thee cieosou ueiileeo of liberty everywhere
etaul tue Jcitersontan Club planted in
every acigheberhood Is the one thing
needful to rouse the people as nforetime
they were roused by JelTnraon MadIson tint
laihatin 8ieahh we not take this leaf also from
tue lttesedbook of freedom seicicle comes down to
tcs frone this neelhior of thee Declaration of lode
tendancu tint the founder of thee Democratic
pac ty 1 As ice lay dying on tiee Pd of July
182t lets rnghly intellect half reiuased from its
enebamrasemeect of flesh roverted fondly to this
system of reooular machinery for the becunity of
tucupuhar rIghts Fancyb the struggle again in
rogrcss be cried out Warn thee committees
acid risln In tho hod he seeeunth to be tracing
with eager but shricnken hand a despatele to tteo
eteebeIied patriots Titeso were altuost hcis last
words Tue next lay being the Fourth and the
fllthutie anniversary of lice Declaration ho
passeti away at leigh noon need In the very hour
of its adoption When he utah leave wrened
vlittn his tuacicingi shall leave Iesl their inflce
once wlcen his mtmory sheithi icave ceased to be
titter tite free hiestitulions of America rIhl bu no
Tier tu8TEit 05 JEFTEFfl
Mr Jetereoec let a eciwntiflui mired of tho
icigheest order ztnui lec gave to heis thocirhiei p then
slcnpiwst anti clearest expositiocea of whicie they
tvere capable tuch expositIons precise anti
beautiful cit oceco exact antI etuenpreleseealve are
fuu ted tatte eJ ttt vi tee zlette t It is p ut I t tea I cv nt
big 1iie ucost Ictitelltor un thiosu in tic Iirt
Inaucarai ated Ire ties lettiur to Mr Gerry p h7
viii 4 of tiles works Iite following brtf Stab
nients ectnturiso the ulenic ystien
ihie to tel hi cute eeti iii del t a I liii Cocest It tel kin Is
ate irithtixIbl ruhti of ctcustrteaihoec lice saend
ulul comgreicenilve guetranten of tnicriea lub
1hu support of thco SCalA Guvnrninnnts in all
tieoir rights us lice IceotI ctrnotuitt nultnlnietlra
Uncut for our ihoiceuusthuj conuarcts antI ticut surtat
ttee I uva rks cugeci eec nit tI rut pu hi ltaet ttetctie ecci ee
lien turteserrtutioa 0 thee goucruth Gnvwreitcuuuet in
Its wicoto coustltutioccal vigor as lice chest arc
cicor of our ptutct cit lioctee anti snftv abrociti
An tionCeut aticeiitelstrtction of the Governoicat
whiibi implIes not rneniy a jcit auuluileation of
lieu gutittulo niomecys to lice tutibllc service Ituit a
fteittefui oiusrtitntu of tue Ilitiitctciocesof tice Con
ittituthule Of nppilceitcte for otliec three pee
liotes only need tue cuskeel Is he hcociust Ic leo
czetthle 1 Is lie faltiefiel to lieu Oonstiltetloee 1
A ntceecher of oflicint suflhcteect for then trans
cietlon Of the tuultiee lttieinos em selpernucuern
vies to eat out lice sigiustane of lice punpi
A itipeocicutlie ustabllstcietttit ilncitti lv tics
ttutiihti uuceslttcs uotiiiug or titrade nothing
for tucutroteage
Aslouuiuiesajealoiesy of standing nriuie3 a
mnreueectry luirco uiways dasigericus to liberty
lice nethlteery ewbotiiieint of lien gsottho lu the
i4tntes tim iUrt cafeguard of pubii peace cured
doinseelic rights
lbs money collected by taxatIon to be ox
pnuthtl cult cm lieu oiuet se it illsi lvi lieu Jon
St cetetioce I t itiec 1 ttnt Its ltstri ituciw I to favorites
Iii lien tarot of tinuicetlos or of ucbuiuii sear
eivtt away In chinrety lie urged lice htitte of
VIrtleel tt hi liiurcci icwtirtl Cli ban Docteinco
ceulTrers litet icc u1euItI thu right of Congress
to erecict titecie a dollar
liononei lee the tuiebila expnntiittirteu not only
liittt tico people may bo lightly ittirtionuil ttut
hut tluu purity uf tIm uttieJtiieutraliutn eieay hit
girtservo I ictrayatrareos e the parent of cur
riibtlon anti corrietutlulc is tics pnrnt of utcir
pat ore A guiel ii lii t ide I a gte Iii I ii cii a ste y
1nbng thee eIght ytetr of Ida ahicilcelstrectlon
there was not Vest Ott Iniltsn tcar sluieply hue
aiestc tietue WitS em swinullue ti trntoce one
Jvtny ortl at lirifliisO ty en kept aitI every
thohiar wits eaemnhiy tppilti It thco purpose for
tv Ii ide It itni litu cc tigup miciuritutti
No towir lee thee gntumnh Jsvnrnrneflt to lay
000 char of ehti7Lulcu uciler t rclttco to anotleer
ii te I is lsvitth fit r roytu cc is it ii ted th cstri in h iteitions
itrcnissibin oniyngeilnst licosi enutetriu4 wteihe
uiisrisutnsete ageitril Us iro ciHictecercu with
till ncttons entangling aiiateces with etcnu lie
heel I I heat ii t rest tItt itcie t utto n tic I rectum 0
Irtitin woro intl reinnarets of luarlitrjutei and a
stat of things in wielett tiny tttoplte witerevar
situate might frtioiy ixcicange its sicrphuus foe
tit stinthut it misty nlttr wouhui produce the
crAttest stem of liuitican hiptuints
ltio Iiowortcc gurosuicuto Iictemntil improvements
belongs It Itee Slatcs whethusr wisely or tent It
was certainly wclechhti front thee general Got
erietecent In artier to ntuplv even nu Inton
vsnlumct silegutils In lien Treasury to such objects
sun atceenilettcnt would tee eeecaonary
Cougrn4s has nc ttowttr tea oret a private or a
mlziect privet met ttichiio eonLerauion em do
hint by Indirection wiiiult the United States
fleecy not tin dirtietly
Eternal icotutihity to monrupcehlcs no power to
oreate theaut its geentail the whole StileIt of the
Constituetien itridilbins thecece But such was
Mr Jeffersos deeal of tteoo Pulull cured for
enittahius etientlos of Ircuuiujona that hes aarnisntly
reconciniundel a selteunate eietuo in the bill of
rights I guuuri nguelueb theune ftruvicr hut
tue dangor itt that tItan seeeuu4 so refleotu to all
hut lhciit farslrhtiid Buutiliniil ole lieu watch tower
that ida bohfufeen tucunceing itutesod unheeded and
posterity is pitying thu penisltr
Hteprsues coutitluince In tle virtue anti intoiht
gocicu of lice ptOttluated Implied obdiencu to
their whit whon igully Haturutosed
liel I Ccc system of JeITorson heat of 11am
litoti was in ciii yuilntus thu precIse opposite
ills triuttei ant admertr lotevernaur thornis
who dehiytreh ttte most notable of his funeraf
ornetionu tittett iei OtaitJ5 In a nutshell
Giuic lianclltont disliked the Contitutlun he
hieving itil reputjlttetn government ratucahir
defect Ivis hits hattid rentubhiean government
liotiustel that in lIen cicasegeun end cieiereces of
Iliac woehouh1 be luvolved in enrico war wblehu
tnlght otrengtbeen ourtjnlon aietl nerve thte 1x
ecutevo lie never failed on every oaasion to
udvoeeete thee oxcuiiegie of and avow his attach
want to Inocearchiceil govemntnunt
Itolwsen tteeeuu Systems of JeITrson and of
hamilton ltealtlent Ganileid and thee itoitub
ilcan party cccli Upon this generation of Amen
cads to deido anti tlcny ask tea to reverse the
judgmaatofournncotorg We heavo noiouht
whteutovur upon whittle idte the choice well fall
CliLur F flscer
Ujt Niclr IlrI1C
The lltiIj ne nmiuI Piiflra
Sui ii ave lotig tirot litl a Ti nuctbcen tie a uul e
hmaustivo aecouenet of liii en vitcent for lien en
frnnutilsnment of wommi en hi hii uttering tleo last
forty years has ntil ennelhnuhtle eunirePs iii
tide cotituiry flee tnntenIns for sitch a
lint sentturetl thcrauecabi ii uutceltltude of lecture
prceeituliets newtutcitutr nrtluIeq tutibhee tIote
cnenistinut the reconitu of uocvntloncs ant their
cenigulintlon has rntuiluul clue Immense atucuilmietof
liar work lten utietlmors of liii tnOk hura tit
The Iliftfory of liomuv Sfftae lnwier Wells
ore ILIZAnET1r A1v STANToN StYSi 11
TlltNY anti MATHn 1 Gtnes Then seop
of their design tuty be ieifmrod mulct Lie fact
theat while only a bowl of tieuir ueeduurlaking te
tectonenllshed lint first instnilmet of ticehe
nrcrruetivtc fills n large octitco volume of nearly
fi00 pages Prnperlyapnutkicigtlie book is aelso
meitecti in ttself a itistutry as a vast nueigjczino
of deuta coileetntl anti nrrnngetl for thee tso of
lice fietterelelstonian Not a fewof the ineeumnr
nbla detaILs here ruuglstreti tony appear at first
sight Insignificant but a one of ties utltors re
iimrks in the preface It is still tim early to do
lerenine the relative Irnoontanto of evecits anti
agents in a profuagatetla whose success is still by
no means asaveruuul With thee cxceptloie of two
eleaeatars in which thee status of wotnein In
ancIent and modern limes Is somowient cam
prelineisiveiy stervoycuti lice voiueno now tuub
lhsheetl is devoted to the agItation for woneans
rights in America wiclIe may he said to have
huogtin with the Convention hold in the iiate of
New York in 1818 antI which lea since teen
pressed with more or less persIstency antI effe
tivcncss in the Northeemn Smietas Thie contema
Poeany progress of thee movement in tito Old
World will bo traced in a second volume
In a chapter entltleul WomanChurebnntl State
Mrs Gage one of tue editors has done a useful
work by pointing out that womans Irniurovoti
position In recent times is by no mesne oiiliroly
due to Christianity It is an uncQeeostionablo
fact that lea many ancient civilizations thee fci
male sex secured a etotuihila degree of respect
and power as compnrtd even with that which
tuho now eajoys amid then moat enhigtetoned
Cieriglianeenemtmnitits While we cannot con
firma thee assertion mauls in the first chapter of
tide toheime that In ancient Egypt the mciii
cal profession was in thin iisnils of wonton ii
is true that lice po3itloel of women untliur the
lheamaohs wits more secure and honorable than
It was under the ltohtrceles or than It becamo
afterward under Moslem ruler In Chcieea as
Signor Saco has shown In his Hietorhet do let
Eschcivltud the sItuation of women has at all
henna boon bruietily distinguished from one
of servitude and lies been on the whole
deciuiedtr superIor to the position they heave
occupIed In Japan Even In India thee status
of tvontan was signally imturoved derhng lieo
prevalence of Ilccuitlhcism nd in fierlteerIndia
wicutre thee hiuiitihist tattle i still dominectet tieo
privileges enjoyed by women exhibit etn 1w
enense advance on time servile condition which
Is their luevitabie lot Ire 3loalsrn countries lea
Persia under Lice Aciesensuid monarcieytheo re
sped uaid to witmen of royal or noble biooul was
often recoudod whIle astonishment by Greek
observors who ltnui witnasd nothein
of the kind in hleiienIe civilization The
species ofreverenco In which thee female sax
was held among the Germanic nations in theIr
primitive ahodp head become known to Tncltug
ire lice first century of our era anti became
fancihlar to the hiomeen wtrh durIee tietu perIod
wiciele beheld tue Teutonic conquest of the
Wectcra Empire Touching LIce ieigie position
tvieicic woman lend itttnitced teeetler htomnn iaw
before thee Inlrnitcetlon of Clerlsliteseity a
weighty paragraph is cittai by Mrs Gage from
II S Maine At lids titue says Maine the
juriscosasults had evidently asautned the cccieal
Itv of tic sexes as a icrincipie of lieu code
of ouily The situation of the Human
somstn whetleor married or single became
000 of great personal anti property htedepeted
once Ito goes on to argue that CherIcthaeehty
tontied fenra the vary first to narrow thIs ro
meiztrknbi liberty Tics prevailing steito cef no
licious sentiment neny extilain why guttuiera
juinluprudenco has eithopted rules regardhtg the
position of woman whe1cii belonged tueeucieinly
to men imperfect civiiizatlon Ici isis jtcthgseeont
no sohcty wheich tursscrvee any tlceetuero of
Citrtutiren instituticins is lIkely to restore to
ntutrmitej wonton thin puraonah liberty coefsrred
Oct thom by suiddite Roneecn heew Meuiceu tcnks
tictit cation lawwhcilc bothe directly aced 1mB
recUr has beoti so lareulv eceoulehleul nec Ilebrevu
ortiimeenceshtas detettlr Iecjucrsi civhlfztticn
It is tenquanttoeenibltu that woteetei uveme al
nciltud to elite priesthiotail iii aluenet all peguu na
ttois and Mrs Cagte t warrautuul iu nfl clog
tite tieic proof of worn iss tskiicg hart iii tte
olTlees of tics prisnitivuc Cucniuseiccee Clcuerehcccot
vitiestanditeg the trojeetliee4 of Paul nod tuther
llebtaw convertsis to lute fittereti hue lieu very re
uttrlethonu wielcie at a letter period wemu to he
plaod upon leer Ties doctrine of wocetaeue
orgineil am lies at lIeu base of thee religious timed
political dhsthuiallflcatioltt under uviciotu slic ieas
haboroti in Cierentiucu coinicetenities To Au
guestlne we are Indebted for lIco full
detelopinent of tide dogma wheithe ties
greater part of lice fatictars of ties
Gricuik Church before luls time hiti re
jected Teughet honeoftrtii as one of thee most
siered eceysteriots of religion which to uteestion
wits to hazard eternal diumnatinic it at ocice ax
orted a most poccenfeil no1 repressIng lnhlecnemcce
upon woman faMeniug upon her it bondage
which lice cIvIlization at the nineteenth century
leas notbenabio wbohhytooaatofT Aceordingto
SI Chcryostom Woenen Is a necessary evil a
tioenestio peril a deadly fascination and
from the seventh to lice olevetethe century the
neoest pronouutlutt doctrine of the Chcurcit was
tiecuttierougle wotmcau else had becu introduced
Into tics world ticat her whole leniency
weed toyreurd cvii anti heat tend it ct
been for tico unfortunate overslghet of leer crea
tion titan would he dwuhhireer ite thee iunoecne
and leappiness of Eden Tico Church hooktng
upon wonean eta uniter a curse consitlured isean
no hids divinely atupteicetutj agent for Its un
forceunont eentl deenurd thee ntucinictioncc bbec suf
fereui uetuicr Christianity otehy luarts of a just
Vienlsitmnocmt or teeuvhutg cause lice fall of macto
Cicrislian theology tieu cut once struck a h
imt lieu old btihief in womans equality etch iced
In the custotuary haste of licu Teutnuic teal na
ated In the Itocuan civil law it I
woman stanil aside froece sacorttatal fuieti as
forbidiieic her to spioic let lice elcurcicts anI hr
various decreteilo taught ticeit slue wets dfliet
tierougic the physie3i tuoculictrities of hear iccut ire
It place lieu loitlmejaticau of seaarrieegt u Is
priestly control secured to ieunbanulo lieu rbtt
of divorce for caaee oat frouuleeg this wife ned
no far ot its ban upot Cite mmtrimonlal rcttoa
as tohoid single woeeieci far above thee ivufe cutd
mother in point of icollnuans We need cc et sat
that tico rofusM of lieu priestly ollice to wone
carrying witie it a dtunieil of ties benehit of ttrgh
was a grave disability lee uicdiceyal tlnets wieca
runny offences which ulijtcte4 an occoiatc tO
only modoratci penaltIe0 were visited wetle ceita
tunietemeat in the case of a lay tranagreus r
Mrs Gage points oUt leowever litett tht
exclusion of women from the iunieetheod
runnIng counter as it diul to the tat cad
anti sentiments not ooly of tics Ilcimnetu it mid
butofail Germanic peoplanwasaiougeeicut ifil
cult process As late to A I 824 thee Cotetceti
0 1ani comphaiucd bitterly that wowule
served at lIce altar acid ovoic crave to the pe pI
the body and blood of Christ Only elilet years
lurutyhously time Cuuncilof AixiaOLecepohheft un
it necessary to prohIbIt ubbssses trout tueklc
upon tieseuselven any priuelhy function IV
have of Course through those canons lice ner
citlve proof that for mccoy hundred years anmcer
Iursctcicthj baptized adnelniatered thus Caere
enontand fiUsel various otflos of tleu ieurctl
Tracing the gradual ceecrotuchnients of cnnn
law upon the clefl anti common law Mrs tiF
shows bow the fomniur became suuroeno in Itt
family relation tiarougbi Ito control over wJ
the guardiaahip of orphans marriage ant
tllyUree Wherever it bicanee lb bests ci Ie
ishatton thee rules of steccession and crcenrl
imtnee and lice laws la nuigard to chth Iron pacei j
heed lice Interests t sroes ntJ tujgteetd CC
those of husbands ansi 501cc Ibniereclelta3U

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