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; 14 s 1 BBK, JOACE JVIT BOOKS. Hhu BosUUsss. ML ' Tin soeond odlllon of Cbnfrmporari Socialiim, BBJ ,', by Jonit Rat-(Bcrlhnor'sUs In a largo measure BBj r, anew book. That is to bat. the chapters on BBN ,f"ThorProgrcss nnd Present Position of 8ootal- BB' ' Ism" and on "Russlnn Nihilism" retain onlr BB a few eentoncos from tlio first edition of tlio BB ' 'book, wbllb'tho chapters on "Anarchism" nnd BB o"n"HttoBociallsm"r entirely new. From BB T tho tacts brought forward it Moms n fnlr do BB i ductlon that soolnllsm propor. by. which, ot BBJj eourso. wo moan tlio revolutionary soelal do- BB ' tuocracr. has lost around In sovoral countries BB ' it compared with Stato socialism, by Which Is BB signified tlio application of the principles of BB ' paternal govornmont on an extensive Bcnle BBJj Moroovor. otcn In Gormany, whoro tho social BBJ democrats remain numerically strong, they BBJj havo. slnco tlio reponl of tho laws Intonded to BBJ ' suppress them, ovlncod n willingness to as BBJ sumo nn opportunist rather than an Irrecon- BBj ellablo attltudo. Thay arc, in fact, exempli- BR tying tho old fablo of tlio man with tho BBJI " elonk, who only drow it around him tho moro BB elosely under tho buffets of tho wind, but BB) flung Itoff when tho sun's rays fell on hi m. BB Naturally, bowovor. tho Increasing inclination BB of socialism propor to nrrivo at same under- BBJ standing wltli the Stato has onused rt splitting BBj off ot tho Intractablo and uncompromising BB elomont which, loft to Itself, has organized tho BBJ' so-callod party ot nnarehy. Itlssomofrnturos BBJ of tho new material collected by Mr. lino that J t may intcrobt tho roador to examine In somo BB detail HBWJ BBj B Itsoomstlm. In England (.oelallsm proper. BBJ by which, wo repeat, must bo undorstood rovo- BE lutlonnry social democracy, seems decidedly BBJ . weakor than it wts a few years ago. while, on BBJ tho othor hand. Stnto soclnlism has acquired BBJ ' amuohstrongorholdonthotrudouulons. Tho BBJ fact Is tho mnro notoworthy because it is only BBJ' about eight yours since socialism, considered BBJ as nnargantzod movomentmnybosaldtiJhavo BBJ started upon English soil England. In fact. BBJ was the last country to be reached bythofion- BBJ ' tompomry wnvo of revolutionary .soclatlsm. BBJ although tlio schomo of Socialist doctrine has BBJ been largely evolved by Karl Marx and others BBJ , , from a ktudy ol English circumstances, mid Is BBJ asscrtod to bo pooullnrly adapted to them. BBJ England still Is, as slio has ibusr boon, nl- BBJ f ornately tlio hopo nnd the dospalr of Contl- BBJ nontal Socialists. Every mulatto ot revolution BBJ is thoro. and yet tho people will not rUe. Tho BBJ yeomen aro gono; tho land has oome Into tho BBJ hands of a tow: industry it carried on by in- BfiU tensely centralized capital; tho system ot pro- BBJ ductlon on a largo scale has almost attained BBJ . tho utmostllmlts; tho mass of the peoplo has BBJ ' bocomu a crolotarlut: tho toilers aro crowdod BBJ in large towns :. overy tenth person Is a paupor. BBJ "Tho English." Mild Eugono Dupont a lending BBJ ' member of tho old International, "possoss BBJ all tho materials nocossary for the social BBI revolution, but they lack the generalizing BBJ spirit And tho revolutionary pusaion." BBS According to Karl Marx, any proletariat BBS , movement in whloh tho English proletariat BB should take no part, would bo "no hotter than BB a storm in a glass of wator." yet although Marx BB himself resided In England for mbst of his BB llfo.no organized attomptwas mado to gain BB over the Encllsh proletariat to socialism till BB 188a the year ho died. It is truo that after BB tho fall ot tho Paris Communo hopes were for a BB time entertained ot starting a serious Boclallst BB propacunda in tho larger English towns; but BB , " these hopos proved so delusive that Karl Marx BB .. said moro than onee to Mr. Hyndman, as wo BB , are told by tho latter, that he despaired "ot BB anv ereat movement fn Ensland dnlessln re- BB spnnse to somovlolont impetus from without" BB In 1883. however. Interest in soclnlism fioemed BB ' to break out spontaneously In England. , For a BB season tho air bummed with a multifarious BBJ " social asltatlon, and tlioro was soon a fairly BBJ ' eomplote array of Socialist organizations BBJ f - soolal-domoerotlc. anarchist, d'liletun'fo-which BBJ have oyor since attracted a cood deal ot atton- BBJ , tlonby moansof newspapers, looturee. debates, BBJ . , speeches, and demonstrations In the streets. BBJ , It was In the year just, raontlonod that the BBJ i Democratlo Federation, which ha(J bean estab- BBJ, llshed a little" whtlo' before to promote moas- BBJ.. uresof radical reform, includlne among othor BBf '' ' things the nationalization ot the land, aloptod BBS,' the' socialists principles ot Karl Marx, and BB '' chanced its name to the Social Democratic BBJ , Federation. Its principal foundors were Sir. BB William Morris, the poet and artist, who, as a BBJ' ,,' manufacturer of furnltute. hud lone been ox- BBJD. v ceptlonally enultnblo in his arrnnccments BBJ) with his woik pooplu: Mr. H. M. Hyndman. a BBJjj - journalist t btandlns nnd ability; Mr. J. BBJ - Stuart Glonnie, and. Mr. Bclfort Bax. both BBJ authors of considerable repute; Or. Avollnc, a BBJ , popular loctnror on scionce and son-in-law of BB ' Eft I Marx: Miss Holen Taylor, stepdaughter BBJ - of John Btuiirt Mill, nnd tho Kov. Stewart BBJ , Hsadlam In January. 1884, they started a BBJ ! weekly, newspaper, Ja$tlce. nnd n monthly BBJ i magazine. To'-dau. both of which, still BBJ nppotr, and they also began the nctivo work of BBJ lecturing and founding branches. Boforo tho BBJ year was out, however, that deadly cnomy ot BBJ' Hoelallsts.thaspIrltof division, entered among BBJjji ' them, and Jlr. Morris, with Dr. Avellng and BBJ i ". "Mr. Bax, secedod And sot up an independent BBJ I ., organization called tho Hoelalistlo League, BBJ ' - with a separata weekly organ." the Oimwii- BBJ ictal The HChisni seeing to have arisen out BH ot tho common dtftoroncuof opinion conccrn- BBJ ' ibg the proprioty of mixing In current politics. BBJ Tho snmo disruptive tendenoy has porslstnd BBJ i In the separative associations, and toward tho BBJ " eud of 1890 Mr. William Morris, with his local BBJ following abandoned tho boclallst League. BBJ Of those English revolutionary bodies, tho BBJ " Booial Democratlo Federation and tho Social- BBJ' 1st Loaguo, nolthor has n complete organlza- BBJv' tlon llko analogous socloties in Continental BBJ' countries They have nover hold a congress, BBJ eltlior national or provincial. They consist ot BBJ a rontral committee in London and ot do- BBJ tached local groups in tho provinces; thoex- BBJi tent of tholr mombor&hip is not accurately BBJ known, but It Is not extensive. In tlio case, BBJ also, of both associations tho number of muin- BBJ bors In docllnlng, and it has always been BBJ ..variable, young men joining for a year or BBJ' xi'two and then leaving. Tholr chief sue- BBJ ', cess has boon among tho minors of north- BBJt'' em Eugland, whero they have roturned threo BBlfe r- wombora to tho School Board ot Newcastle. BBJ1 Tliorelsono Socialist member in Parliament, BBJ' ' Mr. Cunningham Graham, but ho was not ro- BBJ, turned on a Boclallst platform or by Socialist BBJ ' Votes. It is probablo. however, that Mr. John BBJ' . Burns, who was oloetod not long ago to tho BBJ;, Xiondoii County Council, will suocetd in cntor- BBJi' ' lng the next House of Commons. Tho now BBJ labor moveinont of which he U the hoad, tho BBJ so-callod Nuw Unionism, Is undoubtedly for- BBJ1' mentod with no small ino.isuro of soclulistla BBJ' leavoni but upon tho wholo It has moro In com- BBJ', mon with State soclnlUm than with revolution- BBJt ary social domocracy. Tho Readers of this BBJ, abpr movo;ncnt have boon, ulnco thUbooic BBJ( wentto press, strong enough to carry through BBJ the Trado Union Congress a resolution in fa- BBJ if ' vor of a Parliamentary eight-hour day. H , - B BB 1 '"Aooordlug to a recent statement ot a well- BBJ' Informed German writer, the Continental An BBJ , archlsts have transferred their headiiuartors BBJ' 'to London and through cldbs and newspapers BBJ are formings relations with tho F.nsllrdi people. BBJ On this "alleged fact "Was based the prophooy BBJ.t "tfiatnglishmun -would soon have -to oxtln- BBJ4 Kutsh-'on tholr own hearth an Anarchist fire BBJ'" much mora serious than Germany or Austria BBJS -'b'aahad,to encounter. Mr. ltae bos been able to BBJ ' dtocovor but' llttlu ground for such a prodlo- BBT tion. Thoro arc. to bo suro. four small anaroh- BBJii 1st clubs In London-three of thorn German BBJ. coteries, whloh llvo at strife with ouo anothor, BBs, and the fourth a Hussion or Polish club, whoso BB;, . members have few or no, dealings with the BB '' 4 Gormads. Tho Gormnn Anarohlsts publish two BBV. wcokly newspapers In Gorman, principally for BB the purpose'of smuggling them into thofather BBh ''"Bind, arfd tlio Hussljinft PoHslr Anarchists BB " JpuMlsh 'o'rKi 'la ,VedlabV-the German-Hobrow BB',, ' Ziioii 4t, .! rolUh. Jowa-whiclv.- Is BB ' printed (or tlio edification of the Polish tailors BvBBT''' BBv of the East End. It ! true that some of tlio leading Anarchist live In England-for exam ple. Princo Krapotkln aud Victor Davo-and thatundcrthelrlnnuonce o group of English Anarchists-has of iato grown up. But this group hos already, after tho manner of mod ern revolutionists, split on i point ot doctrlno Into two opposed camps, tho ono upholding Socialist anarchism and tho other Individual ist anarchism: flo far ns his Information goes, Mr. Uao does not consldar tho conversion of Englishmen by Anarchist refugoos an IdenJ worthy of serlons consideration. Ho thinks it much more llkoly that tho present Anarchist exiles will. like their precursor, Alexander liorzen. bo converted In England to raoro ra tional views In politic-. Mr. Bao, howovor. is not ono of those who hold thnt the English peoplo oro shleldod liy their practical charac ter from tho Invasion of Anarchist doctrlno. ltathor does tholr safety lie In their habits ot frconnd opon discussion. Tho author seen clearly that what l" cnllod practicality Is no safeguard ngilnstdoluslvo Ideas outsldo ono's own Immedlato field of activity, nnd thoro Is por haps no country excopt tho still moro practical United States whero moro favnr Is shown than In England to fanaticism ot any kind If there seems to bo heart In It Ho reminds us, too. thattothonoodynnd unhappy tho practical tostofaschomolsnot. Will they bonny the hotter for tho chanco proposed ? but. Will thoybennytliRWorsnforit? Tho truo palla dium of English Institutions Isthatundorthcra grlovancos always got ventilated: vontila tlons lead tomoroorlossromwllal moasuros. nnd discontent Is romovod nltogothor. or nt any rato appeased for tho tlmo. Although, moroqver. under froo Institutions ill-considered schemes whloh Inflate discontent with doluslve hopes may rnlso for a season a boom of earnest discussion, tho discussion event ually kills thorn. Ho. nocordlng to Mr. Itno. It is with revolutionary socialism In England to day. It hns boon much discussed for six years, but in his opinion tho helghth of tho tldo has boon already roached. and the move ment is now soemlnaly on tho obb. We should add that In Scotland there nro a good many bronchos of the two regular So cialist organizations to which we havenbovo referred, but tho recent wavo of soclnlism hecma to have passed nvor discontented Ire land and to havn loft It llko Gideon's fleece, qultodry. Indood, ono might havo said thnt thero aro no raoro Socialists than thoro aro snakos In Ireland but for tho exlstenco of a, small branch of tho 8oc!allt Loaguo in Dub lin, called tho Dublin Socialist Club. IK. Mr. Henry Georgo cannot fairly be classlCod among Socialists, for ho himself repudiates 6uch a classification, and tho United Labor party, which ho founded In Now York in 1880 to promote his vlows by political action, expelled the Socialists from membership In the follow ing year. Nevortholess. no review of the roccnt reaction against Individualism in tho United Kingdom would bo oompleto without some ref erence to the reception ot his land nationaliza tion projoct. In the same year. 188L In which Mr. Georgo publlshod his "rrogross nnd Pover ty," tho Democratic Federation was organized In London with land nationalization for ouo of itsprinclplos.and contemporaneously Mr. A. B. Wallace, tho omlnont nnturallst. founded tho Land Naturalization Boclety. In 1882 Mr. Wallaco contributed etlll further to awaken discussion to tho question by publishing his work on " Land Naturalization." and the dis cussion was spread everywhere in 188.) by tho appearance In England of a sixpenny edition of Mr. George's remarknblo work. Mr. Wallace proposed to buy up the rights of the existing landowners; Mr. Georgo to practically con fiscate them by exceptional taxation. This dlfteronco broke up the Land Naturalization Socloty, and thet partisans of Mr. George's lows seceded and formed themsolves Into tho English Land Bostoratlon League, which has established, branohes In most ot the larger towns and has now probably a more numorous membership than the original association. In Scotland, especially. 'it has cvlncod considerable vigor. Having a:qulrod a Arm hold upon tho .Highland, orof tors, and being strong enough In Glasgow to run throo candi dates at the last general election. We scarcely need to say that in Iroland tlio land naturaliza tion doctrines of Mr. Goorgo have been spread widely through the influonco of Mr. Michael Davltt It is less known that during his recent lecturing tour through Australasia Mr. Goorgo made many converts to his Idea and gavo rise to n considerable agitation. In South Aus tralia three of hisdlsclplos wero returned to tho Legislature in 1887. and their views nro advocated by soveral nowspapors In Adelaide. In Sydney Mr. Georgo's followern publish a nowspaper callod tho Land Xaturaliier, and his doctrines aro supported by ono of tlio most In fluential journals in the colony, tho Sydney UuUrtin. In New Zealand a bill has actually been brought in for the purpose of naturaliz ing tho land. IV. Of the new paces added to this volume nearly a hundred are allottod to tho growth of State socialism in rocent years. Mr. Bao be gins by pointing out how much misconcep tion there Is regarding the attltudo of lending English political economists toward Stato In tervention. Ho insists that, with tho excep tion ot Mr. Herbert Sponcor. none ot tho great English thinkers on economlo subjects has been a bollovor In lalun-faire. The 'Tlanchos tor school." of whloh wo hear so much In Con tinental writings, has never existed except In tlio imagination ot ita assnllants. It is really nothing but a stago convention, a convenient polemical dovico for marking off an assumed extromo hypothesis respecting tho task ot tho State. Tho persons in actual life who havo presumed to compose tho school wero no more, all of them, adhoronts ot that theory than Scotohmen off the stage havo. all ot thorn, tdiortkllta aud rod hair. Tho Manohoater men propor Cobden. Bright, and tholr coadjutors, nevor constituted a school of political philoso phy: they wore simply a band of practical politicians leagued to promote pattloular re forms, especially two reforms in international polioy, viz.. freo trado with other countries and non-interforonoo with tholr Internal af fairs. They woro far from thinking, however, that becauso the State had no civilizing mis hlon toward tho peoplo of othor countries It had theroforo no civilizing mission toward its own. On the contrary. Cobden, to go no further, was a llfo-long advocate of a national system of education: ho was a friend of factory legislation for womou and ohlldren. and with respoot to the poor ho taught the soml-soclal-istlo doctrlno that they hnvo the first right ot maintenance from tho land; that they aro. so to spoak. first mortgagees. In fact, the theory of lalurt-faire has never In England been really anything else than It is now. tlio plea of nhtrmod vested interests, stealing an un warranted Bhelter undor the regis of economlo science English economists from Adam Smith to MoCulloch, and again from McCul loch to Sldgwlok. have adherod with remark able steadiness to a soclal-cconomio doctrine of a precisely contrary character, a doctrlno whloh instead of exhibiting any uncompro mising aversion to govornmrnt Interposition, expressly assigns to-gdvornment a consider able place in promoting the social and indus trial development of the community. Thus. In the department ot production they allow that just as there are many Industrial enter prises In the conduct of which' individual in itiative most for various' reasons yield to joint stock companies, so there are others for which Individuals and companies ullke must glvo plaeo to the State because the Stato is hotter fitted to con duct them satisfactorily. Again. In the department of distribution, almost all tho English economists, while rating the moral or personal Independence ot tho Individual as a supremo blessing aud fundamental right, have no scruplo In calling on tho Statu to Interf ore with tho natural liberty of contract botwoen man and roan, whorever such interference scorns requisite 'to, secure, just arid oqultablo dealing, to guard personal independence itself , fron being sappd,.or to better establish tho fi v. TILE SUN, SUNDAY. NOVEMBER 2 1BD1. -!:::: ' people In any of the elementary conditions ot humano living. . It Is woll tiiat tho current misconception of tho position token by most English eeon omlsta toward tho tnla-atr doctrlno should bo corrected, by 3Ir. Rao, for wo find it Inculcated In regard to McOuUooh. In particu lar. In tho latest odltlon ot the Ency clopedia Brltannlca. It Is. In truth. A mis taken although chivalrous Idea, which lies ot tho bottom of tho aentlmontal pnlronagoot socialism, tlio IdeA, namely, thatordlnary self interest has boon glorlflod by tho English economists Into a sacred nnd nll-sufriolng prlnolple. which It would bo interfering with tho designs otProvldonco to restrict. Theln foronoo drawn by sympaUiotlo persons from this mistaken notion Is thnt it Is only right for them to side with socialism as n protest ngalnst tho position occupied by tho upholders of tho present stntoot things, without being Understood to commit themselves to any par ticular sytcm which socialism may proposo to put in its place. But. ns Mr. Rao shown, tlio fact is that, although Eng lish economists think that solf-lntorost must nlways be rogardod ns tho ordinary guide of life, and that tho world cannot bo expected to bocomo bolter or bettor off If everybody wero to look alter other peo ple's interests (which ho knows nothing about), instoad of looking aftor his own (ot which ho at least knows something). Uioso same economfsts nro far from showing any Indlfferenco to tho danger of self-interest run ning into selfishness. On tho contrary, they havo continually Insisted that whero tho self interest of tho strong failed to subject Itself spontaneously to tho restraints of social jus tlconnd tho responsibilities of common hu mnnlty.lt was for socloty to stcpinnnd Imposo such restraints ns might bo just and requisite, nnd to do bo eltlior through public opinion orbypubllo authority In tho way most likely to bo elToctunl. Another thing overlooked by thoso who foci thomsolves sontlmontnlly at tracted toward socialism Is that the So cialists of tho present day havo no thought of substituting any other general economlo mctlvo In the room of self Intoroat. If tholr schemes could bo realized to-morrow a man would still bo paid according to the amount of his Individual work, nnd ho would to this ex tent bo working for his own hand. His dally raotlvo would still bo his individual intorost. though his scopo of achlovomont would bo so eroly limited by law with tho view of secur ing a higher gonernl level of happiness In tho community. Tho question. In fine, between tho English economists and tlio Socialists is not, as many sympathctlo persons Imagine, whether tho claims of 6odal justice aro en titled to bo rospectod. but whethor tho claima put forwnrd by ono or othor of thooppobod parties really aro claims of social justlco or not V. It Is. of course, understood that whon Mr. Rao speaks of tho vlows of 6tato Intervention held by Adam Smith, Ulcardo. MoCulloch. and tho great majority of English economists, ho ex pressly excepts Mr. Herbort Sponoer. Tho lattor's first work. "Social Status," was an ex position of tho theory that tho end of alt gov ernment was the realization for overy citizen of tho grentost amount of liberty It was pos sible for him to onjoy without interfering with tho corresponding claims of his follow citizens. Acoordlng to Mr. Spencer, tho individual has only oub right, tho right to equal freedom with everybody else, nnd tho 8tnto only ono duty, tho duty of protecting that right ngnlnst vio lence and fraud. Beyond thnt task tho Ktato cannot stir without trondlng on tho right ot somo one. and therefore It ought not to i-tlr at all. It has nothing to do with health, or roliglon, or morals, or education, or rellof of distress, or public convonlenco of any sort, oxcopt to loavo sUoh things stornly alone. It must, of course, renounco tho thought of bounties and protective duties, but it must also give up marking plate, minting coin, and stamping butter; it must tako no part In building harbors or lighthouses, or roads or canals; and even a town council cannot, without offence, undortako to pave or clqsn or light 'the strcots uridcr'its jurisdic tion. It is true that Mr. 8pencor now rofusas to bo bound by ovory dotal! of his youthful theory, but ho has ropeatcd tho substunoo of it In his recont work, "Tlio Man versus tho Stnto." which alms to provo that tho only thing that wo want from tho Stnto is protection, and that tho protection wo want most ot lato is protection against our protectors. This theory Is ovidently as oxtremo a develop ment ot individualism as could woll bo com passed, and though it was transcended at ono or two points in njuvonllo essay by Wilholm von Humboldt, who objected ovon to marrlago laws, no important English wrltor has deliber ately and systematically adopted it. No doubt the description of tho State's business, as bo lng tho task of protecting the citizens from force and fraud, has been familiar in English literature sinoe tho days of Locke, and isolated passages may bo citod from tho works ot various political thinkers which, it wrenched out of their context, soem to deny to the Stato ony right to net except for purposes of soil-protection. John btuart Mill himself would sometimes speak in that way, although It Is mado certain by the chapter ho devotes to tho subject ot govern ment Intorforenoo in his "Principles of Politi cal Economy "that ho really assfgnod to the Stato far wider functions. To Mr. Ilao. who has minutely reviewed the writings of English economists for tlio oxpross purposo ot dolln ing their preolso relation to tho laiisa-Salre doctrlno, it seems amazing how thoy ovor came to bo credited with any scruplo on ground of principle to invoke tho powor of tho Stato for tho solution of social and industrial questions, whon that powor seemed to them likely to prove ot effectual assistance. A Catholic Kite of Jesus. The Messrs. Appleton aro to bo congratu lated on tlio oxcollonce of tholr English version ot tho nlroady oolobratod Life afJtfui Clirist by tho distinguished Dominican, the Rev. Father DiDo.v. Evory ono who ha tried knows that to translate French tolerably is easy enough, but to translate It admirably Is truly a tour de Sorer. What De Qulncoy usod to call itho lit erature of knowlodgo obviously lends itsolf to the transfer of facts from ono tongua to an other with tho requisite exactitude. It isqulto othorwlss with tho literature of power orstyle. and especially Is this the case with a languago llko tlio Fronoh, which, although In the hands of a master, It Booms not locking In fluidity and grace, must really conform to artificial, not to say ucademlca!. stand ards. Huoh an author, tor Instance, as De Mussot. Gauthler. or Itenan, Is the despair of a translator. Now it la just the exqulslto fin ish and dollcooy of the diction that constitute one ot the main charms of the addition made by Father Dldon to tho innumerable lives ot Christ When we say, then, that wo do not miss this souroe of attractlvoness in tho version now issuod by the Messrs. Appleton. wo pay no stinted trlbuto of respect to the' English translators and to Mgr. Bernard O'Reilly, by whom their work has been carefully edited. It Is not morely on the score ot etyle that the work of Fatbor Dldon Is deemed A remarkable literary achievement He has brought to his task qualifications of the same order. If not ot tho same quality, us those which are conspicu ous in the attempt of M- Itenan to reconstruct , tho story of Chrliit The Dominican preacher also has recognized that only through the Illu mination afforded by local observation and historical study oan the Gospel narrative be Interpreted. Ono must travel eastward In space and sojourn In Palestine amid the scenes which Jesus looked upon, and one must travel backward In time and becomo a naturalized cltizon of the ora in which Christ was born. Thnt both of these prerequisites wero forth coming will bo ovldonton tho first Inspection of tho book beforo us.Tho exhibition of topograph ical and historical knowlodgo Is tho more striking, because In the collecting of data and the drawing ot conclusions from them Father Dldon could not mora with. tho. Ixeodom en joyed by some of his precursors in tho Hold, 11 ! fc 11I in Hiiil ! sm-ibi mini in ninr " -. ...i but had to keep continually' In view that both his statements of fnct nnd hs deductions would need tho sanotlon ot his Church beforo they could bo given totho world. That under such conditions he should hnvo producod a wort accbptablo nt oiico to students in respect ot breadth nnd ocouracy of scholarship, and to tho Imaginative reader by reason of It vivid local color, bear signal testimony to the ex tent of tho nuthor Acqiifrimonts and ability. 1. With nn ontlro absenco of pretention, and yot with tho fulness ncodod to justify his under taking, the author, himsoU lias in an Introduc tion Indicated tho pains whloh ho has taken to proparofor the composition ot this-history. Ho feels that his rooders havo a right to know that ho comprehends tho laws of historical portraiture, and nbovo nil tho fundamental prinelplo thnt n fact is nltored if takim awny from Its surrouudlngs: that however perfect a painting may be, it noods a Dt nnd harmonious frame that tho sealo ot color and tonp bo not falsified, nnd that it may gain In force! Ho has accordingly ondenvored to place tho ll.fo ot Je sus first In its propor pictorial nnd geographical framowork and then in its s6cl.il nnd Jewish environment. Two axtonslvo journeys en abled him to Btudy Palestine Vory closely: ho travollod through it slowDr in every direction, following the traces ot the Mnstor from, Bethle hem and nebron to tho boundnrios of Tyro nnd Bldon and tho sources ot Jordan. Ho stayed long In the very places whero Jesus lived the longost, whoro ho strove and suffered most ardently, taught the most nnd lovod tho most He endeavored to soo tho places as thoy woro eighteen hundred years Ago! ths was a hard t hlng to compass, for tholr piesont dosolatlon. their Iichps of ruins, and tho buildings rat sod by tho piety of Christiana havo loft scarcely nnythlng of their primitive stale To that end Father Dldon oxa'mlnwl ancient traditions In tho placoof tholr origin, questioned the most experienced travellers, and abovo nil studlod tho Gospels on tho spot: indood, ho deems himself warranted In saying thnt ho llvod tho story ot tho Evangels In tho land whero tho events recounted took' place. This sedu lous comparison of tho nnrratlvo with lis top ographical sotting plaotod In tho author's mind tlio conviction that they who hnvo as sailed tho roallly of tho history of Jesus can not havo Roen Palestine: had they roved over tho Holy Lund with tho Gospel In hand thoy would hnvo understood that the Scriptureal record wan not Invented. In tho view of tho au thor, enlightened as he became by a careful and sympathetic study ot eaoh momorablcJo callty. no llfo known to us presents a closer harmony with tho land in which it was spent than thnt ot Christ In a few sentences ho sums up the Improssion made upon his mind as follows: "Galileo, with tho town of Nnzaroth. tho Lako of Tibe rias, Tabor with its hills and its gruon valleys, make n fitting framo for Josus. living for thirty years unknown, for tho apostle, tho pop ular teacher, announcing tho Gospe) of tho kingdom, instructing tho crowd In parables, leading thorn into tho desert, and rovenllng in tho mountain to tho disciples Ills otornr.l glory. On tho othor hand. Judea, austoro and arid, with its rocky hills; Jerusalem, with its valley o! Cedron and gloomy tombs, harmontzo well with thq Prophet mls o nstrued and rejected, oondemned to an ignominious death. I seemed to havo gained, in contact with Palestine, with Its ruins and the sacrod memorlos ot which it is full, a profound fooling ot-tho Gospel facts and their truth, their roality nnd tholr beauty. The facts uro insoparablo from the land. It rony btromo sadder yet moro desoloto. And moro dead. It always frames them in its light. In Its valleys and undulating bills, in the roads whero Jesus passod. and whero ond less generations still pass and reaass ftftor Him." II. Hard as it is to reproduce the outer aspect of Palestine as it unfolded itself under th- eyes of Jeaus.und to describo lis they then were the localities associated with tho principal inci dents of His lifo. It is still moro difficult to re constitute His social surroundings, tho slightly Romaulzcd, largely Hellonlzod. and yot at bot tom ossentlally Jewish society with which Ho had to de-1. Such a resuscitation of social conditions is unquestionably the most com plex and arduous task of tho historian, and it is ono to which at best only approximations nro possible. A poet will sometimes seize with startling prccisiou the tomper and posture of men's minds nt an epoch far distant from his own, but If ho attempt to entor on a detailed dolinontlon his picture is nlinost cer tain to be marred with ludicrous anachronisms. Landor's Imaginary Conversations aro familiar examples of tho limits of a poet's achievements in this direction. Such books as Chariclostind Gullusaro oqually woll-known Instances ot tho elaborate mosaics pieced together by Gorman scholarship. In which ovory particular is ac curato, but In which tho appropriate atmos phere the spirit of the times. Is lacking. Hero, again. Father Dldon has shown himself nlivo to tho refractory nature of tho conditions which confront him. and ha has grappled with them with a remarkable measure ot sucoess. " Wo con attempt." ho says, "tho portrait ot a man. but not that ot nn age. a time, a civilization, nt a deflnito point in its ox istouce: yet it is impossible to under stand a man. abovo all n public man. if we do not study him In tho socloty to whloh ho bo longed. Now, u socloty is made up ot a thou sand elements, whloh, in splto of nil efforts, and with tho most varied and exaot informa tion. It Is impossiblo to reproduce in their complexity, tholr shifting choractor. and their activity; nnd all that tho stnooro historian can attempt Is to doscribo tho religious and polit ical organization of a poople, to enumerate and explain tho parties which moved within ita or ganization, to point out its philosophical doc trlnos and creeds, Its prejudices, way of llfo, morals, and traditional customs. Its national and political passions. However lmporfoct this restoration may bo, It throws much light upon tho llfo of a man. Many words of .Tosun. many facta In Ills life, explain thomsolves, without commont so soon as they aro placed In their truo'aocial surroundings." IK. Whon, hownvor, a historian has managed to replace tho facts of a human life in their truo soonlo and social framo. ho has only gained tho powor ot describing thorn jumbled to gether as If thoy had ocourrod simultane ously; It Is no loss indlspensablo to group them in the right chronological order, so that thoy may bo recounted In tholr consecutive evolution as thoy actually took plaCo. It Is tho fashion among certain men of letters to sneer at dates and thoBo who sot great storo by them, ns It a skeleton woro not as essen tial to a human body ns tho eyo-charmlng surfaoe of flesh and blood. Vet If one will but take tho trouble to retrace the course of his own life, ho will per ceive that for n biographer to muke a mistake of a year, a month, a wook, or ovon sometimos. of a day. would be fatally disruptive. Father Didon distinctly recognizes that history Is the record ot evonta In their proper sequence, and that the unity ot an individual existence Is not ronoeivable without sueq interdependence. Of tl)e life of Jesus, in partieular.lt la one ot the difficult problems to determine exactly the succession of facts which are registered for us In the extant documents and which constitute Ills public l.fe. Nevertheless, the Indications of time given by the third and fourth Gospels and by somo secular historians. Illumined, moreover, by as tronomy and numismatics attentively in vestigated and compared, enable tho studont 'to arrivo at doflnibo results, it Is ot course especially Importantto llx tho starting point. Wo scarcely need romlnd tho roador that modern critics aro strongly tending to ao oept i It C. as the probablo yoar of Christ's birth. Our present era. which was fixed In 525 A. D.. Is now generally admitted to bo erro neous by at least (our yeara.'In an appendix to tho work beloro 'wJ,r1ver Dldon. has set forth at length tho reasonerhlch havo led him 1 to place tho birth ot Jesus between the years of Rome 747-70 Instead of In the year ot Rome 753 with which tho ora In common use begins. As regards tho controverted length ot Christ's publlo life, the author points out thnt whllo It may be opon to discus sion whether accordlug to tho Uiipvls there wero three Passovers or four In tho ministry ot Jesus, wo certainly connot discover ono moro than four or one less than three. What ever chronological system bo ndopted with reference to Ills publlo ministrations, tho en tire llfo ot Jesus was confined botweon two fixed nnd Incontestable dates: He was born before tho death of Herod, which took plaoo In tho spring of tho year 750 or 751. and He in disputably died, boforo Pilate quitted Judea. thatls to say boforo tho ycarJJOof tho com mon era. In which. as wo havo seen, thoro Is nn error of nt lonst four yenn. Wo should add that from tho view -point ot a convlncod and forvent Christian tho nuts of Christ And His doctrines Are not to bo fully comprohonded becnuso 0110 can master nnd lnvoko tho wholo ciroloof auxiliary soloncos. On this point let us listen to thuHiilhornf this book. "At ovory moment" he says, "tho llfo of Josus puts to rout what wo aro pleased to call our psychology, ethics, philosophy, soci ology, and anthropology, as well ns our feeble and timid theodicy. Therefore, whon I appeal to thoso sclonco.s. so far as I am conversant with thorn. I havo never hosltatcd to lift thorn up to Jesus, and havo never attempted to confine Him by them: when Ho is greater than thoy. Ho doos not destroy but gives clearness to thorn. Tho greatest monumont raised by theology to thn glory ot Jesus Is St Thomas Aqulnas's treatise on tho Incarnation. No Intellect hos ovor oxplulnod in a moro pow erful synthesis, with strnngor reasoning, nnd moro exact payoholbey. tho mystory of Christ. Every life of Josus should contain the wholo of It, In order to bo in tho full light ot His doc trine. I owe to this master all that is good In my attempt to roach what may bo called the Christian philosophy ot this history." IV. To exemplify the quality and. perhaps wo might ndd. tho limitations of Father Dldon's scholarship, wo can hardly do bettor than nolo what he snys about tho education of Josus. a branch ot his subject which should lead him to inqulro how far Judea and Galileo had been Ucllcnlzed.and Incidentally to nnswor tho question whether Josus spoke Groek. In the chapter devoted to this topic wo aro rominded that nothing less resembled tho modern moth ods of Instruction for tho young thnn thoso followed in Pntostlno In tho tlmo of Horod. Publlo schools, play a largo part among us. taking children from the paternal homo to glvo thorn ovor to n master for a porlod usually extending from tho tenth to the twontloth year. Tho system did not yet exist among tho Jews. Jerusalem alone had n popular school which was called "Both-Hassepher." tho Houso ot tlio Book, founded beforo Christ by the Iliariseo Simon ben Sehctoh. It became tho modol of tho schools which about the year (M of our ora wero established in nil towns nnd villages by ordor of the High Priost, Josus ben Gnmnla. In tho time of Christ tho Jowlsh child was educated In his father's bouse. In tho workshop, and in tho synagogue. In tho houso ho recetvod tho pre cepts of his father and mother: In the work shop ho learned a tntdo: In tho synagogue ho learnod to read tho Tornh. Domestic educa tion among the Jews was exclusively roliglous and patriotic, being concentrated on the law, morals, and history. Its purpose was to form the consclenco nnd ongravo upon it tho com mands transmitted by God through Moses, Tho tuition of children was imposed on par ents as a sacred duty; tho Hebrew legislator never ceased to exhort a father to Instruct his son at home, at meals, nnd in family, in the pro mpts and blessings of God. At the same tlmo tho children aro Admonished to hear the Instructions of their father and not to reject tho teachings of their mother. Tho chnracteristlo featurn of Jowlsh domostio morality Is the inculcation of reciprocal duties and of reciprocal respect and tenderness. Wo mayhoro mention that Father Didon hns no doubt that tho dwelling in which Jesus grew up was llko that which Is still common among tho sedontnry Arabs in Palestine up to the presont date. Ho Is led to this conclusion be causo the typo of tho Oriental house has not changod for many centurion. It is Bquarc. ot brick or stone, and often only of concrete covor cd with etiff clay, sun-dried, and whitewashed. Tho roof Is a terrace surmounted by a balus trade, nnd Is reached by a movable ladder ora staircase fixed to tlio wall. On tho roof is the guest chamber and tho place of prayer, and thero during the hot season a little hut of leaves or roods is orected for sleep ing in at night. The house proper has but ono or two rooms. And ofton no other opening than the door: in front is n narrow court surrounded by a wall of looso stones. In ono of the angles ot tho court Is tho baking oven, a little round structure of clay closed by a movable cover. Tho furniture of the dwell ing is primltivo: a fow stools, a tnblo, cush ions strown along tho wall, mnttrcssos nnd mats, a chandelier, an nit lamp in a corner of , the wall, a largo coffor for linen and clothes, n meal tub. a few urns, and n basalt mortar for tho grain. The chimney, or. rather, tho hearth. Is sometimes placed in tho middle ot tho room : at tho door of each Jewish house Is a llttlo oblong box, tho " Mezuzzah," enclos ing a roll nt parchment on which aro written two portlom of tho law tnkon from Deu toronomy. V. Tho eni punter mIiop w.h the firtt and true f-chool ot Josus. Thoro Ho grew up beside His father and mother nnd hoard Irom their mouths tho precepts ot the law nnd the history ot tho people. If. as Father Dldon says. Ho learned of them to read tho Scriptures. It was douhtlcsii In nn Aruinaic vrrnlon. On this point tlio author is not so clear its wn could wish, lie points out. Indeed, (hat Aramaic or Hyro-Cliulduian was tho mother tongue of Josus, hut ho conveys tho impression that in tho synagogue, whero the young Israelite was wont to eoniploto Ills education. Josum was taught to road the Bcrlpturos in the original Hebrew. Thero Is no evidence In tho Gospels that tho Hnbrow languago wus known to Josus. Tho words which He is mado to oc casionally utter, and which aro mistaken by tho iinlonrned for Hobruw, Aro, as a matter of fact. Aramaic It Is certain, in deed, that Hebrew had long caused to bo thovornacularof Palestine and thoro Is 110 reason to beliovnthat with the exception of tho scribes, any ot tho contemporaries of Jesus eould rend It When ono of tlio readers In tlio synagogue had recited passages from tho law or the prophets In Hebrew, he always proceeded to Interpret them In tho Aram.iln tongue. It seems to us also that Father Didon passes too lightly over the controverted point whethor Jesus was acquainted with tho Hoi lenla languago, or rather with the dUloet of It spoken in tho numerous Uellonlzed cities ot tho Holy Land, and by tho wholo body of civil administrators. All that tho author has to say opon the subject is contained in these linos, vie: "It does not appear that Jesus spoke Greek. Hellenic culture had not penetrated the Jewish population In Palostlne. and In any case the people only felt Its influence fesbly." This Is certainly only a vague. Inadequate sUtsmsnt'of the fsot For nearly two cen turies before the birth of Christ Hellcnlo Influence had bsn invading the Holy Land, and tho revolt under the Maccabees did not avail to stem It for no sooner was tholr authority established than tho princes ot that house gavo way to It In all ways which did not threaten tho Integrity ot tholr religion. All overPttleBtlno.oxoept In tho Interior of Judea Itself, Jowlsh communities and Greek colonies stood sldo by side in incessant intercommuni cation, and it seems that somo knowledgo of tho two tongues, Greek and Aramaic, must have been needed for the ordinary business uf life. It baa even beon disputed whether soma quotations made by Jesus from the Old Testa mentare uotln factmadafromthoSoptuaglnt It the fact could bo established, tho proof that Jesus could read Greek Would be of eourso forthcoming. It Is true, of course, thai tho assimilation of Hellenic culture would be tho lonst noticeable on tho humblest lovel of Jowlsh society to which Jesus belonged, anil on this occount Father Dldon tuny be justlnod in minimizing the extent to which Jesus felt Hollenlo Influence ..... The author docs not fall to mark that tho Jewish schomo ot education did not negloct tho worldly nnd practical side. Every lsraollto of whntovor rank had to loam n trndo. "On the father lies tho task to circumcise his son. to Instruct him In th- bw, and to teach him a craft"-thus does the Talmud sum up the tradition of Jewish manners. They whu train up their children tonoeolllogneglocta great doty: It Is. as one of tho Tnrgums says, to teach them to steal Tho Jew hns novor known tho Indolence, the lazlnoss. nnd the kontlo resignation born of fatalism whloh astonishes tho European In tho Moslora fellahs of Pales tine. In the eyes of the Jew work Is sacred nnd trado nn honor, even among tho most il lustrious mbbts. Hlliel nnd Aqulbn, two of tbo most eminent, wore woodcutters: Rabid JohananwnsaMmomtikursRnbbl Isaao Nan Mchn a blacksmith. Josus Himself wus n enr tciiter. like Joseph. His father: Ho grew up In tho shop and at His WJrk. He made, as Justin says, woodon Implements, ploughs, yokes, and scales: Ho aided His father, and lived by tho work ot His hands as an artlsnn. Having brought out this fart with distinctness. Father Pldon does not fall to rebuko by Implication tho unreasonableness of tho nvorsion to Chris tianity professed by many Continental woik men, nnd especially by those who havo adopted Boclallst doctrines. We quoto some words whoso boarlng Is qulto evident: "The truo Master ot men was tit comn from a smnll work shop. Ho remained, whllo watting till Ills hour was come, the modol ot humblo men. of thoso whoso name Is unknown to history, who llvo obscure and undiscovered under tho oyo of God. Tho yenrsof thelrllfofticcpedeachother monotonously, nit Is silent in them : sorrow nnd joy. labor and virtue. The majority of men live thus; nnd It Is not one of tho lenst foreos of Christianity thnt It can present for tho Imitation of tho poople a workman drift. devoted in His childhood and youth t 1 dally labor llko the greater part of men." VI. To Illustrate the insight nn.l sympathy with which the narrative of the Evangelists has been studlod by Father Didon. wo may tako his account ot tho meeting ot Josus with Mury of Magdala, the preolso Incident which ot Into has beon beautifully treated by Btr Edwin Arnold in "The Light ot tho World." In tho story as recounted b; Luke, the name of tho fomlnlne transgressor is withheld, but she has been recognized by almost unanimous tradi tion as Mary Magdalene. The author ot this book sums up the traditional knowledgo or boilers supplementing the scanty Indications of tho Scriptural record. According to Father Dldon. tho Mary whom Jesus met In the houso of Simon the Pharisee, and by whom His feet wero anointed with precious ointment, was by birth a member ot a rich family, Hor brother Lazarns possessed groat wealth at Jerusa lem; hor sister Martha lived at Bethlehem, and sho herself had lands in Galilee and llvod on the westorn shore ot tho lako at Magdala: henco her surname Magdalene. We are not told whether at the time of tho In terview In Simon's house sho was married or n widow. Of her youth only tho memory of hor sins has been preserved. She was one of thoso who aro carried away by their heart and by passion, and who sacriflro everything to them, even honor. Her lifo of splendid shamo had been notorious. Father Didon deems it possible that sho may havo previously heard Jesus speak to tho crowd and that Ho may al ready havo acquired the friendship of her brothor Lazarus and received hospitality from Martha nt Bothlohem whllo Mary Magdalene was leading her lifo of ploasure. Of this, nt all events, tho au thor has no doubt, viz.. that tho words ot Jesus had "found an ocho in her hoarU they had powor to touch oven her wretched ness. The teaching ot the Mastor seemod to havo been made for hor. Somo ot His words would strike straight to her eonscionoe and to her heart. He said that He was sent not for tho just but for sinners. Ho spoke of tho lost sheep and of tho joy In finding it again." Was it not Ho. too. who said. "The publicans and tho harlots shall entor tho kingdom of God beforo tlio Phari sees." Sho know tho anguish and the tears lnsopsrablo trom it llfo of passion, and tho words of Jesus. " Illossed are thoso who weep, for they shall Lo comforted." seoracd ad dressed to hor. "Wo do not know." continues Father Dldon, "what passed in thoBoulof Mary Magdalone, nor thn nature of hor Inward conflict. Wo do not know how thedivino ray. which was to save her. penetrated her con science." But a day came whon hor eyes wore opened nnd sho recognized in Jesus tho 8.n lour who pnrdons and regenerate. "On that day sho hesitated no longer. Such naturos a.s burs do not Mop half way: their greatnoss is oxhlbltod in pressing onward to tho goal with all their strength whether for good or fur cviL Sho wished her repentance to be as open as her sin. Ho who loves doos not stay to reason: ho is obedient nun slave to tho feeling uhlcli rules him: nnd this woman who braved opinion to follow her earthly passions, nnco more iet it nt naught to throw herself at the foot of Jesus." Having heard that Ho was Invited to tho ho.ise of Simon tho Pharisee sho fwlt herself urged by nn Irresistible impulse Shu longed to confers to Him hereof row: sho burned to oxpresslierropentnin'o nnd remorse her lovo nnd her faith, und to hear vords of mercy and forgiveness. Noor.oknewof thedramo aboutto be emitted, ami which was tho very crisis of her life; she was still to nil a fallen, n lost woman. Volled and silent sho entered, not oven Booing tho disJalnful looks ot tho guests who in their sanctimonious prido were shocked at her presence. She weur, and stood behind Jei-us. holding In hor hand u box ot alabaster llllod with olntmont. Tho author of this book Is careful to romlnd us that tho greatest honor which could bo paid to a man In tho Enst was to break one ot theso fragile vessels and to pour tho preolous contents upon his head and feet. Father Didon then proceeds as follown: "Mary said nothing, for silence is the sign of an overflowing heart. But In hor attltudo of humiliation, herttars, her kisses, her stream ing hair, thero was nn vloquenoo beyond the reach of words. She has not corao bo foro Jrsus us the multitude had come to beg for earthly benefits: she comes to Implore Him who can henl and purify and transform tho soul. Nover did penitence shed such tears: nevor did repentant lovo ovlnce such longing nfter pardon; nover did toars and perfume gymbollzo such lively faith pr such Intense de votion. In Mary Magdalono may bo seen tho perfect typo uf the convert." A little later the author adds: " To forgivo sins is tho privilege of Grid only. It U faith In God alnnn thnt saves tho lost soul, and It Is beyond man's power to give pardon or to giro peace. Jesus only can say these things and bring thorn to pass. They alone can understand them who, like Mary Magdalone. havn beard and provod them In the depth ot tliotr consolenee. Tho rest who. like the Pharisees, neither believe nor love, are offended In their blindness and murmur at tbem. But Jesus is justified of His elect" We must still find room for some sontenees which bring to a close the chapter devoted to the memorable scone In the houso ot Hlmon: "Tens of thousands of souls have arisen from degradation In the foatsteps of the sinner of Magdala, Sho has thrown opon tho path, and loads on tho procession of the converted nnd restored among women. Sho personlfl a mankind, onoo lost in vices, which hits found at tho foct of Jesus that God whom sho should love, and whoso love transfigures hor and gives hor mercy and pence The scene of the feast In tho houtn ot Simon Is forovor being repestod, llko nil else In tho Gospel history. The Pharisee dollant even In good Intentions, has not changed; hols Always with us. unablo to understand the God who pardons, and the repentant soul which expiates and adores. But by the side of theso obotlnate ones, hard M'W of heart nnd stubborn of spirit, wo can see nnd I M admtro tho souls that lovo nnd fnlth hav Big saved. Tlio tears of tho Magdalene flow on lis unceasingly: tho perfumes nro ovor poured 'JJ upon tho Son of Mau: Ho is ndorod from cen- Wtlt turyto contury. and ceases not lo speak to K? men tho encouraging nnd consoling words; BO Many sins are forgiven to them who havn pHl loved mnch. Your faith hath saved you; je Bf who weep. J'tf who bellctc. yo who love go in m,i pcaco." B sj It Is, of courss. with peculiar ourlilly and I -t Interest that one turns tn tho final pages nf this book. In which tho author uyterbikes tu deal with tho problem of tho resiv, ectlon. H HR is. of course, nwaro that to tho nfflimalivo evidenco brought forwnrd the rationalists re- ?j ply by raising the question of the credibility v of mlrnclos Fnthor Dldon Admits that there i could be no grontormlrnclo than tho resurrec- tion. but on tho other hnnd he Insists that , thoro has been none moro thoroughly attested. Tho reality of It rests not upon the nssorll. n of one woman, nor of several women only, hut ot men. nnd men In hundreds. Theyeortify that thev havo Been ngnlu anri yet .-.;nln. In- credulous they woro nt first even to the point of obstinacy, and it was only by repeated appearances thnt their Master convinced them that Ho was In truth the crucified one The weight of such testimony could only bo destroyod by sacrificing the lion ostyorthointolllgonccof the wltnosMt.( Ac- " cordingly, in the eighteenth oontnry thoy woro called rogues and Impostor?, whllo nowa days rationalists fall bock upon tho the ory of hallucination. This, which IsM. Ronan hypothesis. Is discussed by tho author nt somi length. He deoms it Impossible to account l.y such u thoory for tho prodigious trunformo tlonof tho apostles, who nt llrst woro nolle nbly slow to believe, into mon of unnssallabU and horolo conviction. The eonduct of tl.. eleven, for example, presents rsd tho slightest traeo of nervous excitement or incolierenc-. In their enso tho essential condition, f hallu cination li lucking, for it is tho clistVtnr istlc of such cerebral dlsturbunco that r person subject to It ulwayn sees what he dreads or what ho desires. Now. the apoMlrn had not n thought of the resurroctlon of tlielr Mastor: thoy neither fenrod nor delreif ii. and, not comprehending the possibility .'f such a thing, refused to bolleve it. Sucli .; attitude of mind Is precK-ly tho oppoplle or that pertaining to UI0n.1rloH Iiithesciilf-iica which follows. M. llennn IsdlBtlnetiynlmed at: "To seek to explain tho possibility of such state (the state of Imagining what did not ex -istl by a burning love of Jobus. by the optical Illusions natural toan Eastern ntmosphOc. r tho dazzling sky of n Galilean springtime. Is to exposo ourselves to the derision of aT u who is familiar with tho East nnd experience! in the subtleties and tho transparent mtllices of incredulity. Tho Jew und tlio Arab art po visionaries. Inuoraco is tho feeling for n.' ture less dovolopod. and OOnsequont'y no men Is less accessible to refined ocstnaloa such ns tho modern Imagination can alone experience." Finally, wo aro invitod toromomber that as amntterof fact tho world hns been won over to a faith, which rationalists discard, by 1110a who have preached a crucified und risen God. Dsmissliig tho enso of Slohammed. Father Dlilon avers that wo have 110 txaniplo of Cu lonarles conquering tho world, but that on thd' contrary they nro destined onlv to recelvn compassion. In his judgment, therefore. ! deny tho mlracleof the resurrection of .lesvi is only to replace it by another miracle, to wit. tho foundation ot Christianity by the vic tims of hallucination. , M. W. H. ron adfrxt svyD.tr. Some or the Music that U to be OItck la Churches To-day. Many of tho leading churches hare prepared extra musloal servicos for to-day. It being lAd vont Sunday. At tho Church of tho Incarna tion John Ooss's " Vonlte " and " Gloria ratri." a To Doum LaudamUs, nnd a Bpnedlctu willbe rendered in tho morning."" Tlio" anthem, "The Night Is Far Spent." by Montont 'Smith; a magnificat y Fred Archer, the well known organist, and a Nunc Dimlttis from "Tonus Regius "will be given in tho at tomoon. At Graoo Church Stalner's To Dcumwill bo sung at the morning service. An offertory by Mendelssohn. "Sleepers. Awake a Tolco Is Calling." for tho morning scrvleo. nnd Dvorak's anthom, " Dies Ira:," for tho evening sorvlce. have been prepared at Trinity Church by Mr. Messlror. At St. Bartholomew's Church SiHiidolfsohn's offertory anthem. "O Come Let V Worshir." for chorus, with tenor eolo, will be given. This will form part of tho snoclat musical ser vice to bo sung at this church to-day. " S'.w tho Day la Over." a recessional l.v II. IV Ii. Itldor. will also bo sung. There will bo un interesting musical service to-day nt Trinity Chapel, Wost Twontv-illtli ftrcet. In the morning. "Prppnro Ye the Viny of tho Lord," by Mlohnel Wlt-e will bo rung for tho offertory. It is n nugiiillccnt nntlie.'ii. pregnant with the inoi-t bo.iut.ful harmony, and ivum written in li'.TO. Gilbert's "La He Comes with Clouds" will bo sung as thn Intioit. and the t'anctus llenedlctus nnd Agnus Del will bo from tho old Cathedral service. At evensong, at 4 P. M.. Mr.zaifs "Dies Irm" will be given. Tho choir of Trinity Chapol is n vested ono of thirty-two oiccfi. Dr. Walter Gilbert is the orgnnlst. At the Madison Avenue Baptlpt Church, cor ner Thlrty-flrst street, the trjo for remain voices. "Lift Thine Eyes" will lio fling thii evening by Miss Kelly and Miss Fleming, so prano and alto of the choir, assisted l.y Mrs, Baldwin, contralto of All Soulh' Church, mid I MIhh Liicilc D11 Pre. who will piny the violin I oliilgati.. George Martin Hues Is thn leader of the choir. A choir festival service nill be given ar Sr. John's Church. I,afnyrtt j place, Brooklyn, thin evening at 1:'.M. "Sleopors Wake" from Ht. Paul: "Comfort o My Peoplo" and "Lvnry Vathiv SI111II be r.tnltcd." from th Messiah, nnd Arthur Sullivan's llcirkcii Unto lltt" lire the principal features of tho programme. 1tt.sv1.1n of timoshits' jvi:sis. Momti queer Verdict Sliidr ill Sltllng naif n Outurjr Abo, ',., ii.. o.B1.1 ;jiV '. Soma of the oronorit' verdict In the iSHJit tryllfty or sixty yenrs ago are very curious The folli'Wlur me bouiu of tlio cuuu unsigned m tordeiith: " hhe i-onio to hor death by strangulation in testimony wit Iiumi nit our hands nnd seal th I day ubovn written." "Paul Dm on c.imoto his death by a mule . running nwny with a waggon nnd being thrown 1 therefrom." ... " From causes unknown to the jury and hav ing 110 medical attendance.'' 1 "Cninoto Ills (loath from national causes." ' An inquisition holden upon tho body of John Brown thorn lyliisr dead by the Jurors whom namcfi ore heiounto MiliKcrlbod, who uion their oath do suy tint he came to hfs death In tho following njunner. by falling off the plank hridgo nccMontal whllo trying to cross tin- stream and wiih drowned." "Thejoiiereaon thii-c oiiiitli dt say thnt he come lo Ills deth by old age, us tha could nt Bet-niitiythlng oIeii the mattor." "Come to Ida dcnlh Irom tho following cause, to wit: from conn. uddout cause to thn joiiercit unknown." , "The said ilcceimed being nn orphan, father nnd mother being boih dean." ... "From unoveruooo of giu administered by his own hand.'1 "Disability caused bv lunacy, ' .... "Being run over by two ooul trucks while detached from thft engine" . , '"Come to his death by tondor No 7 jumping the truck, nu which he was riding. eitliHr jump ing or falling off, and engine running over him, whloh was an acidant and no fault of the unglnoer of said engine" .... ''Sho eomo to her death by tho lighten ttnk Inglier." "From hart dese Ize." "Come to his death in thn following manner. to wit: Ho was born dead." ." From excessive drinking and laying out In tha sun." . . " From thn hands of some peri-on or persons to the Jury unknown nnd (ifterward placed on the track nnd got run over by Incoming train. ."Congestion ot tho bruin und applloolo fltze." ."The bodv was so manglcl and mutilated that llm could not tell enn) tiling about it. In. t th think It wus put In tho uLstfino bysouw unknown pernon or persons." L'J.'ljcusot the hare und api.loxlty fltze " "Cabled on tho loft sldu by kittle of hot water burning over on her sldo aud tmmeglUly ' causing hirdviktu."