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The sun. (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916, July 17, 1892, 2, Image 20

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f ' 8 . THIi SU1S, SUNDAY, JULY 17, 1BI2. ,
I THIS PER OLD WORM.'
V Strange Things that Travcl
$ ler8 Havo Found in It,
f - UNHEARD-OF NATURAL WONDERS.
?,
Interesting Features Continually
&. Coming to Light
if ,
!f NEW FIELDS FOR EXPLORATION,
1 QneerTrlhrslhnt IsUnMI lhalteiclen AVhcrs
the Orlmxi) has lis HnitTTot.lnT 1'lah
V with Jtiivv nnd Arrow-I'.ffecllTf tNe oT
i- lllovvgnn I.nnird with ao1houi.mI Hurt.
I' Frnmtlr M''hln itt f.'rf'itnj vn.
C "Twnlvo hundred miles from tlio mouth of
ft' tho Orinoco River was as far ns I oxtciiltoil my
f. explorations townrd tho sources of that (treat
(t stream." snl I Ensign linger Wolle. who has
jC just returned from 'In ro.;lr.n mentioned. Ho
f Is tlio only whlto man that has penetrated
1" tlie.o vrllils. nt nil events slnco tlio dayii of tlio
t" early Spaniards.
f . " Tlio Orinoco In ono of thn biggest rlvors In
tho world. i.s ron may fc.i by glancing nt a
f, map ot South Amorlia It is dotted nil along
It course with numerous sntnll Islands, and
A Its upper waters aru obstructed lv many
fs catnraet. During my long jourtieT Imv.ir I Its
sources nivention had niten been curried over
i i land around Impassable fa. Is. lly tlio time ono
k ' reaches tho Wo Motu, which is tho Iniuvst
;, C tributary of the Orlnno.i. navigation Is further
i f Interfered with bv the w.litnndivu, Indians
'. 5, who use poisoned arrows, so that trudois who
i S buy nml foil gDt-ds along tho .stream anchor
' fr tho sailing scows nut In tho middle of tt at
j" night keeping guard with Ulle.s ngalust poa-
f Bihlr) surprise.
; "In that part of tlio country nnd beyond to.
(r Ward th" iuti'rlur. whither 1 ncm trato.l.
ii "' na'slns It tho nil. i muring tho natives.
". ' neither men nor wnmen waring unv thing
' besides a loll, cloth of tho most restricted
J " dimensions. Here Is one of th" loin cloth.
h which represents tho height of fashion no Ui
Say dross anmni: those people. Von see It l I lit n
IT t roctmigular scrap of boadwnrk fastened hy u
' ' string. Tno liiMihvork. lioivir, I vory iM-aii-
tlful. being tloriH in ainixiiuislio pattorn. Two
' tiundri'd mllos bcond thomnithof tho lilo
F Hola tho Infrliln lllvor cntcis tlio Orinoco. I
taitO'l up that Mr. 'am with my rnnuo h'tulnd
with IrlnKets for oK.'hatico c.tli tlicnntlw,
' who live in a condition of c'ltro-nn niivnuorr,
althotmli thor aro umlably diMi.i-oil nml
usually harmlos". Thpyeo entirely niido. savi
,. lor tho loin cloth, ns 7 havo dt'scilboil. and
ttct tholr snhslstcnco by huntlai: und lUhiiiz.
ohlclly tli" lattor.
" I was much intcrostotl in tliolrmothol of
tnkins It'll by tlin u,o of tho bow and arrow.
For this imrposo thcyomplcr nrrown plx fcot
in lonitth. maiio of remts tippoil with iron.
, While a canoe is paddled ccntly alonu In tho
' shallows a niarksmnu stamls roady with his
i arrow mi the -triuR of tho bow. As Boon ns a
l i larco Ilsh I" micii. If tho approach can bo mado
within raiiEc, the arrow Is lot Uy. and r.irolv
failn to stnko tho proy. Thosu Indluns hunt
I With blowcpns nindc out f the ;nuiic RtaU's
t of a certain kind of palm, from which tho pith
In removed. Thcaiiowa omployoil as proit-c-I
V tiles aro nlmply splinters of reed, sharpened
i t at ono end. thoothor end belnir wrapped with
-.- enouch Bilk cotton nbtninod from another kind
; of palm to (111 up tho txiro of tho blowcun.
i Tho arrows arc nuout ten ln"ho loos and very
i liuht. They are tlnvdwith the famoiixand
T,; deadly 'woorari' poison. 1'i-eil by ono of thoso
- naked savns's, tli lilnwsun a wosponsif
r groat accuracy and cfroctiveness. even a small
Will on a tree boini; Drniiiiht down by tho
' pkillcd sharpshoo or with reasonable cortnlnty
I at tho first try.
( "These primitlvo aborigines dwell In huts
ii bulltnf palm leaves niostl. Eah family b. is
' y Its little earrten patcli. which Is chiolly ilev ito I
? i to raUIni: the root from which cassava Is
J made. Tiioy depond ii(on tills root almost
i entlrnlr for food, apart Irom wliitttluy net by
J - liuntiniriind llshlnu. It Is prcpansl by uratlns
1 " to besln with. The cratsr oniplnvoil Is nt tho
,' " most primitive! possihlo ilescrlptlon l.elnu
. simply a plank with pcrforatiun.-, r-tnall. sharp
liioccs of Hint liclni; lcertcil in the holes.
;' ileitis rcduciid ton sort of mcnl lit rubhlns on
tills crater, thu c issava Is pressed to yet tho
'; . water out of It, becamo tho pit is as waters
as tho potato. Then It l lfted anil formed
1 , fercooklnK hit i what looks like an enormous
eriddlo cake, two or thr -o feet in diameter.
The enke Is baked on a flat piece of earthen-
Waro of correspoollniT size.
" An Indian will no off for n work's hunting
With nmvtlier foinl than a "liiantltyof cassava
fir.Mar.d in this f.ililon. I myself was obliged
ollvouimnit almost wholly for month's. At
; llret I dlil no flndlt palntat.lc. bntnftoni while
1 I acquired tin taste, and tecani qiiito fond of
It. The chief trouble was tlmt it was cooked
i fn tho baro croind. and always contained a
i considerable periontiii;e of dirt. However,
one must not be too partietilarn'siut one's diet
i When tniTolllna In trio wilds. These MiriiKos
f s are iiuito clo.iniy. mi far as butlilnu Is en-
i terned, but their habits of llviiii;. otherwise.
are not s-ich as to promote the vlrtuo which Is
B , hext to iroilllnoss. Sn far no the virtue of tho
'i Women Is concerned. I should t-ay tlmt it was
of a hlun order. Homo f tluin arc fairly iod
I looklni; and have eccllent. flsuros. but their
comeliness Is nearly always spoiled by.badly
, decayod t(eth.
i' "f as-latrd unlntentlo'ially In quite n ro-
mnncoonnno' asi.oi. When iny c.inoo was
' on the point of lavin : a untivo village, whero
i" i we had hen HOjoiirniiis.it iiin 'ndian irl
I hejmeil to be considerably nsltatud. and maul-
fj festodnn evident desire tono'cHiipuny me. .My
L' pilot, ajalnst my wi-ih. p-nnitted her ti cet
nhoaril.anil she eann-with us down tho st,ic.im
to our noxt baltlni: i bice, hligrlly after w
made our not l.indmi: l.io mother of tli,) Irl
raade lier appearance In ncanoH. h.tvinit fol
lowed us to Bet Pact hordniutht t, whom t.ho
took away with hor. Th pilot was -crv mel
ancholy after this occurrence, ami bubic
' uucntly confessed to me that ho bad brought
tho young lady away for tlio purpose of mak-
lng hor his wit.
"Matrimonial methods nroextromolyslmplo
among these nativos. When n young man ami
( young woman with to marry they go to house-
, Keeping t igether, and that ii nil there Is of It.
uilonn youth or one village will woo and -.Vina
, maiden of a village hundreds of miles distant
along the river. As i rulo they seem to onjoy
as uninterrupted a domestic, felicity as civll-
lzod couples obtain. The Indians are gradu-
' ally retiring toward tho higher sources of tho
Orinoco because of the harsh anil dishonest.
; troutninnt wiilcli they receive ut the hands of
i thn wliito men and halt-castes of Yon zuela.
i They cun nover get fair prices for tlio
cassava which thoy produeo mid soil to the
vonozuolans. (JasRava Is an Important
; fool of tho poorer classes all through Ycuo-
tuela, bolng ground by inaohlnes In factories.
.' ' Among tho curiosities which 1 outainod from
, tbesp savages aro a number of Interesting
e juusIcbI Instruni'ints. such as reed llutes and
A drums mado out of a kind of corkwood. 1 ln-
WL'j. tondqd to speak of tlio remarkable pattern In
ft which theboadworkof the iolnclothslHiilwayR
. made. This pattern, as ton will observe. Is ill
Hfe"; a geometric form peculiarly (ircok, nnd tho
' 2t mystory Is whore theho po.iplo got It from,
ISlA hotlotst strange U the fact that tho enssavn
;? f . arrators aro always mado with the sharp plocea
v)-, of llintarringnd In pruclsuly thosanpi design,
: i Whloli iloubtlnsH had some original slcnlii-
'., f, ftBC9long Jo even to traditio.i."
0
' 4 Ttfhern Women Dross In it Itannna I.rnt V
ij. K1S' 'l'tn C'rotvu with VoOl i Orminiriila.
" M. Millar, a whop.ilo morchant of Le-
S ' vujio. F Ii Ikl.tniU, Is at tho I.eland wit.i his
. j. wllo. Mr. Millar is on a leisurely journey to
Jit old honiu In Scotlaml, making stops ir.iin
J i twoto throo weeks at points along the way
: Hint iileaiio his fauci. For twenty years ho
i has lived In tho I'd! Islands, so far down In
- the southern hontlsphere that dally papers
p grow yellow with uge bo. oro they roach him,
i and whero tho sight of a strango white face Is
' an epoch In tho year.
' The Mil Islands are becoming civilized ai
) rapidly as churuli missions and Uiglish nilo
; can do the work. The Inhabitants area good-
iiatured lot of pooplo who are iiulcK to learn
j and who tako kindly to certain of the Ktirn-
1 pean customs. Twenty years ago cauulhalism
, still existed upon the islands, while now 75
i licrcentof the peoplonro professod Chilstlatu
living nt pooco and harmony with their fellow
v ninn. It Is not a poor while inan'N country, our
, Island, and a l.uropoau or an Ainerle.i'.i wlth
.. nut money, looking for a now country In wliich
,; t, . to locate, had bettur chuose a land that rusts
, ' less to got to and from which tho wnlking Is
i, ft bettor, Bugurls tho principal industry nt tlio
i Islands, out tho cnue plantatioui nnd the
' p.. tiug.ir milts aro In the bauds o men liv.iig in
'! v Australia, and whatever pmtlt there is in the
X l busiiioss leaves the country, Cocnauuts or
t) ' copra", bnii'iua-i and piiieapplcs i.iui; in tlu
: ,. unlor tiaiuud so fur as tnelr linpjitanco Is con
; . crrtied, but the dlstuiicn Iro.n our pirts to
', Auckland and other Australian ports m ikoi
the growing of tho produ"t rather hazard
i ' ous from it ilriauclal iiindpniiit,
J i "When I llrst wont to the Mil Islands tho
' ui..,..jorH were not so far advanced In their
yof civilization ns at present. 'I here was
Itteil laiiguago there, though the spoken
luge wasboth expressive and poctie.il in
muds. The Wcslojau mlsslens estab
1 thore ruoii made man)' e.nivcrts, and
ch them (hero wis made n written
iage. nnd now Itl per ccn..nf the yniing
and worieii bot.i lo.rl and write tnis
lago. Of ''oiirso thmo are man v who
; a little Uugllsli, but It seems lilTlemt
Hem In nuibler It. Twenty eais ngn
was little cloth except toe ioiuIi untivo
nado f i oin the lllne oi a pi mt whie.i glows
he. Island', reiemblln.' Iiorsolialr. It
Ull purpose however, and had Hit)
ndded ndvnnface of I nlng prac Icnlly In-le.
sliiictll.le. 'i lit. fottiimite femalo who was
p)si;Filfir ft strip of calico was considered
f.i the holght of fashion when iibcMrol ed out
with It wrapped about her. Hut tho cost of it
W.is so grcnt to them that ther were iioceR
utrllr vrrvfrucnlln tliowcnrlnirol it. It was
nothing uncommon to ee n girl nrwimim
employed as n Meld band go totnencldweurlni:
hor precious Piece of psllcn, and when thero
get behind the friendly shade of a Imtmiin
plant nnd exchange It for nn Improvised nno
niinloiititDf a liroad nnd amplfl batinnn leaf,
which Is some two foct jildo nnd six loot long,
wrapped about her wnlst. The banana leaf
makes a cool and comfortable working oos
tunic, ono which costs neither money nor
lalMi'lnlts preparation, and which Rtrwisltx
purpose admirably. 'Jhero Is seen atllsposi.
tlonnn the part of Rome of tlio Islanders to
adopt drosses and Kuropenn coats and traus
crs. hut It Is by tin mi ans gor.ernl.
"The riilans are a pencealdo. honest class
of pooplo with morals In every wav bettor than
the Inhabitants or uiot Islands In tlic so-ith-crnseas.
Theynts ory cleanly In their por
ninnl habits, and one need never be afraid of
eating tho food they set boron) their visitors.
They are not partlculaily thrifty, but It Is not
to be expected when a man can earn enough
In two months to ko.-plilm In comfort. If not
In luxury, for Hie remaining ton months of tho
yenr. lly this 1 do not Intend to convey thn
idea that the popular theory ipcardlng trop
ical countries l true -that all one need do
is to open his mouth lor ripe fruit Jo drop In.
While fruit grows In tolornolo atiundance. they
need n certain nmountnf eifltlvntJon. Iho na
tives hivo their yntns and plantains, their en
coinuts end pineapples. and tlure Is not much
ole needed. Wages there are very low. A
Held hand will reeelvo on an nrurnco six
pence i day. an I alanorerln a sugar mill pos
sibly double that hihii. . ...
"Tho Mil Islands aro under the control of
rngland. and a Governor Is stationed at tho
Islands. When I was there tho firnt tlin. In
l.MCMho nlmrlglnts were In control (if tbolr
own lands, with chiefs over tho several trlbos.
likaliau. the greatest of the chiefs In point or
following, was ruler over tho Island of ltl
I.evu. which means lllg Mjl. and about the
venr IMiittwo Vuropnnseainolo th" country.
'I'll y saw III i pnssi,llltes of ii kingdom, n'lil
thriiiigh riiiiio scheme Induced Cskabau to
ciin-etii to be the ruler. A crown was made, a
hand note nllalr mado or Rh-ct tin envored
with cnniti ornaments, which. I was told re
cently by the man who mado It. cost SU. and
C'nkniiau was duly liitestcd with tlio gaudy
tov and clothed In tho em-inn' of a king,
which, bv the way, was cut from a holt of
calico, hlngi'a'.nbaii kept his job fnr about
set on years, though his throne became a little
slinky at times i.ocau-e of the discontent of an
aim .st eiiuulU powerful chief. In lSSi), or
thereabnuts. tho islands vere lornially ceded
t'ld'eiit liilmin, and linve flnce been under
I'n.llsli coiitin!. lly soil id cidtiehUncB
John Thurston, ono of tho men who originated
the tchemo for.; kingdom w.th v'akabau at its
head, .vinieame tn the islands us soeoiid mat.)
of n sailing vesol. nml nt nnco hecatnn a
photogaphiT. has now boennm Kit John
Thurston, (lovornor of the Islands. The SU
lnvcstmioit f-.- the tin crown with tho coflln
ornaments provod a payins invostmout.
ladl.ins In Honlh Jsmerlrn Who Wcnr Srlod
Ilrltds nt Tlirlr l!-lt its Trophies.
Fiotnth' Pl's-j )ro''..
"A rotnnrknlila trlbo of Indinn'." Raid Mr.
Child?, who was recently In rumth America,
"are the Napo. who live In tho northern pait
ot Chill. Instead of wearing scalps nt tnelr
bolts as trophies. Ilko tho Amerieiin savages,
the ho:tds of their enemies dangle at their
girdles. I5y a mysterious procens known only
to themselves they rum vn all toe facl.il and
cranium hones without cutting the skin or
destroying the Interior. Tho head Is then re
duced, without maiming any of the foaturcs.
to the size of n man's list."
Mr. C'hiliU brought one of these heads with
hlni. and holntends to put It in the museum
of the t'arne'.'io Horary here. In Han I'runelsco
he showed it to tho County Medleul Society,
and tho doctors offered him SLINK) for It. Ho
said no sum of money would buy it. He thinks
there Is one In the Hinlthsnnian institution,
and r.ntflldoof his own hedoefn't believe there
Is another In tho United Mates. Tho Indians
discovered thy could sell the heads to the
whites at a good price, and to prevent them
from luring people into the mountains and
killing them, or murdering the aged of their
triho and preparing their heads, n law was
Passed forbidding their sale. Through the
kindness of (ien. Cannmno and Gen. hnrsby.
the American Consul-Ooneral to tctiador. Mr.
Chllds sec.ired the head, lie says lien. Nirsby
has eight orders for heads from museums and
colleges In tho United Mntos. and he is afraid
lie will not ho able to get them.
The head and fnco thut Mr. Chllds has (s not
ns largo as a baseball, llv the secret pn.cess
tho bones were removed and the features re
duced. All the hair on the original head Is
still thore. It is long and black, and probably
reached to the shoulders. The Indian put a
string through tho lip for every enemy they
had slain. This head has four string In tho
Hp. and tho mouth isdruwn out of hape. Tho
microscope reveals tho pores of the fakin.
greatly crowded togethor.
The had was cut urt wen with the shotil
do:s,and thee is a hole In the windpipe, dl
reetl under the chin, where the victim was
evidently stabliod. A number of people havo
looked at the head, ar.il all ale puzzled how it
was prepare'1. Gen. t'namano thinks thnt im
mediately after tho bones are taken nut red
hot crsvcl Is put Into the head. Tho heat ic-iluc-s
the i-l, tuns the skin, nnd makes It
hard and tough. Then tho gravel Is removed.
Trinidad's I.a'r nf noising IMtcb, Which Is
tTsetl In Muttln: Amtbnl .
J'iDM thr H'oMitM Vj-I.
Tho asphalt barks from the West Indlos aro
about tlio only esscls outside thn coasting
schooners that ever tuvor Washington with a
visit Two of them are now lying oil thn wharf
ut the font of .Vew Hampshire avenue, and are
well worth n visit.
Down In tho hold the cargo looks like tho
odne ui a dead lava Held, black and seamed,
nnd apparently as hard ns rock: but tho-burd-ness
Is dcceptito. llrcak up a bushel nt the
"pitch." as it Is known to the trade, and illo
the fiasments on top nf the big asphalt Held
which tills tho whole of tho lower dock, and by
to-morrow morning they would disappear,
sunken slowly back into thu parent muss.
This Hinw-runntnc; nihility makes the cargo
one of tlio most detested among the Captains
in the island trade, for when tho ship has been
i jsted over to port or starboard for a couple of
days, while running before a strong wind, tho
whole c.ti go will quietly shift over and have to
he luokvn up and trimmed back to its propor
position to keep tho ship on even keol.
Trinidad, tho Island from which practlcnlly
nil the asphalt of tho world is how drawn. Is a
llrltlsh poscsslon lii the West Indies. It was
one of tho l.ttlo spots of terra llrinn ngaliut
which Columbus run when. In 1-lli.H. he pushed
his explnintlons lurther westward in scare i
of that niirlnors phantasm, the northwest
passage. The island was then Inhabited solely
by Caribs. a wild and warlike but withal intel
ligent race, not unlike tho North American
I no inns, peculiar in their language, which,
like the Choctaw of our own Western tribe,
hits been mastered hyb'Wlf any whlto men.
l'ur iii.iuy years the island remained a n -glected
dependencyof .Spain, with ncons'antly
dwindling population, mostly natives mid Im
ported n.'groos. In 17117 It passed Into the
minds n lite llrltlsh Government, and has re
mained mi liiuglish colony since.
There nro Lut two towns nf impjrtnnco on
tho inland, I'ort of Spain and Sun Fernando.
These llv,) mostly by their Impirts the chief
productions of the Island I eyond Its own
necessities being asphalt and encoauuty. The
sugar crop is largo nut ut the present pricos It
does not pny to export It. Tho population of
the towns is mixed. Knglish Is the couit lan
guage, but tho majority of the people are
negroc. descendant of the i.ld s.io stock,
who talk a patois ot mingled French, branlsb,
and hligllni that Is described ns tho "limit
bHCk-huiidedct lingo" any heiithon uvor In
vented. The negroes are, like those nf tho
United States, beginning to feel tlwlr freedom,
nml on the strength nf it Lfettinix the hie hend
in thu second and third generation. The resi
dent whites designate them as "sassy" nnd .is
it class uip onrab'e hentli"y have lisen ai ovn
the stage of picking utplialt. Th: Is true of
all but tho Mench invroes from Martinique
and the ndiacout tricolor provinces, who oy
lung association have acquired the suave man
ner ot Iholr former owners, and are all of them
lit instructors for mi ordinary dancing master.
Among them linpol b neh Is unknown.
bomoof tho original Carlos are still, In bo
found among the island inople, but tney aro
rapidly disappearing, uu i lu their phico Is how
seen tho Ihiporto.l coolie. Tiio coolie trade,
wnkli was originally instituted tn furnish
cheap labor fnr the piantiit.ons, was in former
times a terrible illsgiacu to tho islands and
Partook of moio than ah the horiMihof tho
African slave trade. Thousands nt tho mis
erable Asiatics were sacriilccd in thn business
hvthcgiocil and Inhumanity nf the uiaMcrn
who brought them over, and, although im
ported under tlio gulsoof a labor contract,
nut ono in IfundrodHof them own Hied to re.
turn home. Milngunt laws goiernlng tho
tralllo mo now enacted, however, unit, what Is
more to tho imrpo.se, are well enforced, nnd
many of the coolies ny tho time they havo
served their eight vears' contract nut urn well-to-do
citizens, i.e.ng paid for their work by tho
piece and saving nearly all they earn.
'J he gient Pitch lake, winch is the cblot won
doraiil attraction of the island, is Minuted in
a low. sandy stretch or tun snutbwest coast,
heart ai u ( orbaray. Tho surrounding noun
try Is low and malarial. In Milking contrail to
the high hills and lich woodbinds of thu coast
further luck. The lake is owned by the llrlt
lsh Government and lunsod bv It to the Har
bor Asphalt Company, uu Arauiican Dim of
Immense cupltal. which conliols the trade for
the Liiheu Mates. Tbidr picscnt lonso has
forty-two ycar yet to run. Tho laborers aio
nil negioes. even the enn es shrinking from
t le heat unit low fevers of Hie place. The lake
itself is about u mile in diameter, hard at tho
edges, and ultoiilng t. w.iid thu middle,
Tli.' t.111. nee is caiiiinu.ill, changing, ithpiir
rntlr Iro.n s.nno sill tcrruncau nciou, ami
little iu'i'- nf dry laud, and even trees and
shrubs, will illt,ipnr in a inle id.tht. i.ml
fresii islands o--id ee routed in ntni r places.
The I. ik. i s in ml ii-nla llliy ia rely mi ii
Ufc.nil i largo dp i-lt ot id i.lncn or M'lt coil
that has under, nno its triititioiiiintion Irmi
Uecajln,- Ycsclalle luutlur in contact with
water, and loo near the r.nrfnce for theearth
pressure above to harden It tnorou thly. Hun.
divdsof negroes the year round toll ntthe
lake's edge, tnklnc out cargo alter cargo Irom
the supply tlmt seems never to diminish.
They work under overseers of their own color,
nnd aro paid at tho rato of 7J! cents u day. 1 ha
asphalt ernst Is brokon up with ploksntid crow
bars, nnd Is loaded nn dump carts, drawn by
n single sun-dried mule. In whom tho constant
bolllngtemperaturo sterns to havoeoncontrut
ed all tho native meanness of his spoclcs. 'i ho
ertn crunch throitgh a long sandy road down
to tho whii rf nt the water's edge. Where the loud
Is dumped and carried bv wheelbarrows on
bom d the lighters, which In turn carry It out
to the ships, lying n, half mllo out In the
shnnl water. The rough lumps of pickings aro
hoisted on boiitil In baskets nnd piled In the
hold, whero thoy sink down Into a compact
innss. requiring a fresh lllllng tho noxt day.
and so on till the solid cargo Is completed.
When the vo-sol reaches its portnfdlschargo
the asphalt has to bo broken up again belore It
can bo removed from the hold, owing to the
vlcus quality of the native "pitch" It has. In
thocoursoolnges. filtered through the sandy
soil around tho lakes, nnd of Into the Harder
Company has been threatened by a rival com
pany, which has begun tiiluliii: oporiitlo.ns on
(lie island not farfrnnitheconllnosnf the older
cnmpnnv's ten itory, uncovering great llvlds
oftheasplinltthat Is, If nnythlng, better after
its tutoring process than the original deposit.
Vast Areas In Vhleb There Are No Wild
Antninls of Considerable Hla.
Vort thr .Cut fnr1rr Chrrwirlr.
A nnsslan naturalist. Frof. Mtclay. who
passed several years In thn Interior of ritiun.
describes the highland district of the great
Island as a region as romarkahle for Its
scenery and productiveness as for its salub
rious cllmato-a perpetual May In the terrace
lends, with March and April plateaus here
and there In the highest mountain. The area
of the whole Island exceeds that of Texas, but
Its population hardly aggregates a mil
lion, nlr.o-tonths of the ahorlglnes being
lowland sottlers, black Idlers gorged with
the yani rnot-t and wild-hoc steaks of
the const plain. Thn uplands, too. abound
with snmo and ilsh. nud tho only con
ceivable reason why the natives should
limit their hunting grounds to the swelter
ing coast jungles is their pro'erenco for a
climate that enables them to dispense
with drv goods thn year round. In tho
Terr- ranne'there are summits louorlnc to a
height ot ll.tKnl feet, hut tho closo proximity
ot the equator has covered tho highlands with
n luxuriint vegetation. Snow Is hardly ever
seen, but chill nights light frostsoven occur
now r.nd then, end tin Irlzzle-halrod coast
dw.llcra avoid the mountains as the Indlos
Mnnsos ot tho Mexican lowlands avoid tho
tlcrra trlii. I'ai.unlsapaindisoof birds, but tho
kingdom of mum nil. Is represented only by
n few marsupials (ground kangaroos, tree
knngnrons and opossunisl. besides tho wild
hogs of the river jungles. ,
A much 3trnnger country in regard to tho
absence of wild animals is found in tho near
neigh liorhood of our own continent. The west
Indian archipelago, with Its four mngnillccnt
Islands nnd counties Islets, has been lustlr
termed the gnmeiess country.- a region ni
more than a hundred thousand squnre miles,
monopolized almost entirely bv hints and in
sects (even reptiles being scarcol. as If the
nrclilKdago had been somehow overlooked on
the last two days of creation, aud loft to be
settled by such c.-catnres as could reach Its
coastR swimming or Hying. There aro forests
'teeming with fp mtaiieous fruit, but no mon
keys, nn wild hogs, no bears or racoons. 'J he
larger carnlvora are not represented bv n sin
gle srecles. No pumns or jaguars (though
hoth are found on tho coasts of tho
neighboring inoinlnnd). no panthers, lynx,
or wildcat. Foxes, wolvos. and jack
als, too. are conspicuous by their absence.
The caves of the limestone Sierra would seem
to be admirably adapted to marmots and
woodchucks. but the' are tonanted only by
bats. On the fine highland pastures there are
no bisons, no rieer. tin antelopes, and. stranga
to say. not oven rabbits. Sheop. coats, horses,
donkeys, cows. ho:s. and even dogs, were In
troduced after the .Spanish conquest, nnd thn
only domestic mammal kept by the nitlves nt
the time of tho discovery was a small kind of
wolf (prairie wolf) Imported from Mexico nnd
n few species of squirrels which tho Cubans
fnttoned for culinary purposes without know
ing nnythlng about a classic procedont-tho
gllrarlnlrat-kennels) of tho nn'dent Itomans,
who preferred dormoiiso on toast to the best
Syrian pheasant pies. ......
Dogs and cats were unknown, nnd that lack
of household pets seems tn hale driven the
aborigines to strango expedient?, for in "Ogil
vy's Voyages" thero is nn nccount of n San
Domingo cacique who kept n tame mnnatco
that tnitdo its head. iiiarteis In annrtlfkdal pond
nnd wns so well ti allied that "when called by
Its name. Miitoom. it would como out of the
walorand go directly to tho cacique's house,
whore. I elng fed, It returned tothopond.no
cmnpanled ny men and Isiys. who seemed to
charm the iviinatee by their singing, and it
ottou curtifd two cliildien at a tlmo on its
back, ltelii ; once, howoviv. struck by a pike
In the hands of a Spaniard It would nevcrnfter
come nut of the water if thero was it clothed
mn near."
Manatees havo become cither searco on tho
coast of t-'an Domingo, but lire oftn seen near
tho lland or l'inos, northwest of Cuba, whom
shoals of tho strange creatures may be seen
sporting n'out tho reef like tho sea lions below
the Cliff House. Of all aquatic, mammals
the manatee, however, can claim thn cham
pionship in iho ntt of dodging a sudden at
tack: a levelled harpoon Is enough to make
them plunge under with a "no you don't"
snort, and then jop up again at unexpected
times and places, waving their nippers In de
ns Ion. nud lendy to disappear for good at
the first suspicions' motion. The luxury
nf the Dominican cacique was thorn
foro lint apt tn bo shared by many
or his siinjects. Fupples and klt-to-iRworo
nover seen In tlielr cnblns. and thn
l.ir;et land animal nf the Island was nn over
grown rat known as the hutla and measuring
about eight-'en inchoi without tho tall. Its
eaud il appendage is a compromise between
that of the true nit and the Caliiornia gopher,
whom It resembles In Its fondness for grain
and In its burrowing man's, one pair owning
olteii as ninny as lour dlffeietitdens, ninro or
li.ua connected by subterranean tunnels.
With thoexccptlon of that shy rodent. Cuba.
San Domingo. Jamaica, and Costa lib'it have
no land creatures deserving the name of a
game animal. Tor even the omnivorous appe
tite of the Hnytlan darkles draws the lino at
tho musk-bcentcd clant ratsof the coast forests.
Some YVondrrrul Jllrnce KIT. eta on the
Jlmrrtein lleserls.
'mm thr Sun ymnitrm Ctrii''.
California's niirases are second to none. Go
down to the Colorado desert. ou will And
there a mirage that Is .t mirage, inu may
find more than ono. l'erhaps two. three, four,
five, eiiih duferlng In kind from the other.
Take the ono that tlxesitseir over the tied nf
the Dry I.iko and counterfeits water. There Is
a curious enineldenceiibnut that. Jlverybudy
remember how a y-ar ago tlio Colorado Ibver
broke Its bunks mid wiped the Dry Lake from
tlininnp. Itwasailryhikoinilonger.lt will lie
roiiiuinnere.l. The overllow from thn Colorado
came into it and it became known as tho
Sulton Sea. It wis a nine days' wonder
whonthe infin n' this lake, fully 2.10 feet
below e.i level, hcgai Idling with water. Thn.
tho enurco of the supply becoming known,
popul tr intere-t became satisfied, nnd the
poetical newspaper men who had boon glow
ingly speculating on thn future, whon tho new
suit sea would temper the w.'nds. when gnr
dens and Hewers and cities would spring up
thereabout, when tn.it whole area of shifting
sands would bun scene of agriculturil tin Iff -these
prognosticates bung their pens in tho
ulrand withdrew from tho arena
The Salton sen la gone nniv. evaporated Into
thin air. Dry 1-iikc. however. Is nil rlullt on
the n.ap. The hod of the hike Is about twenty
eight miles long nnd about one-half to ono
mile wide. Tlio Salton Sea eovored those di
mension: so apparently does the great
nilinge. Therein is the coincidence.
Tlio bed ot Dry Lake comes within a half
mile of th Southern I'licllln tracks at Salton
station. It trends nft Irom thero In asouthurly
and e.istcily direction. Ono travelling south
on the rallro.nl during tint period that Drv
Luke contulnod water would have unserved
the water tn tho West ut distances nf onodinlf
mile In two, three anil Ilvo miles away. Tho
Biune thing may hoobscrTod now. thoujh tho
basin be dry as n bono.
1 met an old miner nn the train when the
fialtun tea sensation was llrst start od. A num
ber of us were viewing the water with Held
glasses and coiiimenting thereon. Tho old
miner droppod Into tlu convois'ilfnn. He
o.i'e very Knowing ns he winked and blinked
nt other. outside of our group, until our Igim
rmiconf the situation made lilm tired. Then
henroko lu on us, saying, " You'su fellers don't
Hunk that's water, do o?"
"J.cvond tho possible shadow of doubt,
so'ne one leplied.
''Well, ier nil uwny off." snld the old miner.
" I have hoofed over every foot of ground frnm
hero to the r-anJiiclntn mountains. os and
over the San .Jacinto mountains, too. for tout
matter, and I nover got my shoes wet, either.
I've been prospecting down hero ten year or
inoie. 1'vo a.'cil that water from hero tho
tame ns ynii do a thousand times. Hut. that
uln't no water; that's a my-iago."
Wo protested In vain. The old prospector
brought up a half dozen other old prospectors
who stooil by his statements. The briikoiumi
was called In. Ito told the old nrnspectcr that
he, tuo. had seen the mirage there off and on
tor Ilvo years, but this time he wasenck-suro
there was no deception, Thoro was water
there now for n dead certainty, for ho hud
been to the vdguof It at Salton and dipped his
lingers in it.
Wo showed tho hnnost old fellow tho news
pipers, but that did not alter his position,
Whon ho dipped his lingers In the water us
thohrakoniuii did ho would believe there was
water there, and pot until then.
This Illusion and reality are not so remarka
ble, alter nil. The clrciini"tances are easily ex
pl.llind. Thn presence nf the water has hecu
explained all cud y. .Sow ubout that which re
I rumbles vviit ir:
J.nw lands under thn simo degree of heat
, end climatic cnndltlons will become hotter
than ngli lands, Air Irom the ground up is
. biundto no In layers, hot and eolJ. lint air
rls s, c dd lr descends, rio'iitlils desert b.i-
! c;u, under the hot aud cloudless kyo euiu-
mer. thero is a strong rising nf ornrhenfed nlr.
Tills, mingled with tlioiniiish of colder nlr, as
sumes thn colnrnf water hy rollortlng thn rnvs
of the sun. The vibratory motion of th" at
mosphoro corrosponls to Iho motion of thn
waves. Thus, water or no water, this simt
nway bolnw sea level Is a sure-onouch looking
lake when viewed from it distance.
About twenty-llvo miles southeast of Salton.
from a point near the borders of (Jnrrlzo Creek,
one of the grainiest tniravros In California,
perhaps In the world, can bo witnessed. The
ground of vantage being remoto fiom the
railroad, and the nilrago not Isdng ns distinct
is that which hnveis iihnut Dry Lake, nnt
many outside of old desert travollerswlllclalm
to have seen It. Hesldes. there is nothing to
encourage the most intrepid lovor of adven
ture In untorlng this tectum. It Is the most
desolato of any In the country where desola
tion abounds. There Is nothing but sand,
sand, overy whero: sand packed and hard In
soots, sand in liugu drifts, sand hot as
fire bufTeted In the nlr hy shrieking
winds, sund that bents In the face
tnlckerlhnn hall and sharper than needles;
mountain i of sand belonging to the Hun Her
nnrdlnn rungonii the cast, morn nf tho same
kind from the San Jacinto on thewet:ho
tweon them tho wind plays, blows, howls, Di
verts In this direction. In that direction. In
evory dlroctlon. forralugn whirlwind here, tin
other and nnothor thure, piling the sand In
loose pyramids in places, and sweeping the
soil Into it lint, hard surface between thodrlfts.
Notavery Inviting pluoeto pltoh aenmp and
stsv for several days, as oils must. It one Is to
get a glimpse oi the mirage of all mlrngea.
It Is seen only In the grnv or the morning,
when tho golden hue Is llnlnrr the cost. Look
ing townrd Fort Yuma, which may he located
but not seen, a ptodlgious hlnck column i
flist observed. It lightens until it seems to
toich thoennnpy nbiive, It oxpiinds.il breaks
Into myriads or shapes. It becomes cloarer and
clearer, until nt last you B"o church steeple",
towers, arches overhanging precipices, it city,
and tho mi.utitnlu fastnesses bunging In mid
nlr. As the sun rlos tho shadows fade: with
the diet rays ni the luminary they it'e gone.
This spectacle was witnessed hy William r.
Hlako and his party a good many yisus ago.
It has been seen by n good many others since
then. Mr. Hlako was down there as geologist
for the party of "Exploration and Surveys for
the l'acltlc llallrnad.'' Dr. J. G. Co 'Per of the
Academy of Sciences In this city was onepf his
number. Mr. lilakels ut prosont.a professor
lu the sclcntino depnrtmrnt of alo College.
He explained tlo mlrngo In this way:
"After reaching Fort Yuma, ninety miles
distant from CnrrlzoCreek.nnd witnessing tho
strangely preclpltoim and pinnacled outline of
the mountains peyond. It was at onoa apparent
the mirneo consisted of their distorted images.
When in the northern part of the desort we of
ten saw thn peak of Signal Mountnln. distorted
and raised nti ivo the horizon. Points of itls.
tunt ranges so.-med to ho elevated above tho
surface precisely na hcadhindsof a coast somu
tlines app.-.ir tn rise above I ho water nt sea.
"Many of the phenomena culled mirage
are not duu to lolractioti. but nre bellevod to
be the result of rellcction from smooth sur
faces of clay or sand. , ... , ,
"Tho beautirul surface of a pebbly plain
may bo regarded ns n combination of myrlai s
of reflectors, for each highly polished pebtilo
retlocts light ulmoit like a looking-glass. Tho
rellectlon from su-n a tirllllnnt surmce. wuoii
seen at a favorable angle, looks like a sheet of
water, the slmllailty bolng heightened bytbu
motion of the stratum nf heated air.
The la't clause may be taken as an explana
tion of the distorted mountain mirage which
Mr. Hlako desTiiod, but did not dissect.
The motion of the stratum of heated nir
has tho elToot of cnglnrlns distant obiects.
bringing those beyond the focus of the ojro
into clear vision. That kind ot nir. taken in
connection with rays of light, may assumo
fantastical shapes and colors. , ,
On tho Mojave desert and through the Fan
Joaquin Valley from Frosno to Ihikerslleld. a
mlrngo showing a drpressod or olevatcd ap
pearance of tho ground la common. It mny bo
seen nt most any placoalong the line on either
side of tho railroad. Tho distortion of objects
at this time Is noticeable. You can seefarm
li iuse plainly that aro usually not visible,
streets nf a town that is In tho dim distance)
nre In plain sight, iiverything comes to you
as if vou were looking through n field glass
and enlarged as If under n microscope. ,
The ground becomes very heated in this
valley during the day. Itcools oil considerably
during tho night There is a vibratory motion
(.fair caused by radiation whon the sun ngaln
strikes the earth. That is tho explanation.
Now. in tho evening in the Sun Joaquin the
picture Is turned. Instead of depression you
notice an elevation of the ground. It goes up
from you Instead or going down. Otliorvvlso
the jdeture Is about the same. The difference
Is duo to the condition of the ground. Iho
surfaco Is heating In tho morning and cooling
in the evening. These same conditions nre
sometimes found In tho Sacramento Valley.
A mirage answering this description that is
quit ) persistent there. Is at a point about forty
miles s'vith of Sacramento, looking east from
the Central l'acltlc ltallroad.
Last, but not lenst. Is one at Pnnta Barbara,
Tim best view or It Is from tho hill at tho old
in isslon. looking toward tho town, which seems
to bo In tho air. Looking over the town and
out to sea. you will see well-trimmed vessels
inovui't Ilko airships far abovo your head, and
theclllTsor the Santa Cruz Island, thirty miles
nway, aro from you a stono's throw.
A l.a'sc of nine's Ink In the Velennla Re
gion orArlionn,
".ti.il l' r rtitl c.V; hi I l.li'i Errntty r-7rp
Nearly all of the H.fiOO Coeopnh v ileanooR In
Arlzoii'i are situated near the east end of the
voieaul.) area which thoy occupy, several
larg .nounds. once living vnlean .es. are now
inlet, llctween tho hills of lava, rock, and
ilebiis nro a large number of living, active
volcanoes. From the sides of the hill, fioto
'JIM feet above the surrounding waiors. como
forth most beautiful tqirlngsof clear, warm
water, some so sour, others so sweet, so bitter,
and so strongly alkalinj that no living being
nr animal can drink It. These waters course
down the hillsides, luring n cn.it nf white,
ph. I:, purple, blue, nr green, made by the min
eral salts they contain, upon everything with
which they come In contact.
In the midst of those h lis is tho Lake of Ink.
Theie run into It scoips of streams of clear
inlii -rill hot water, others that aro warm, and
two that are cold. The lake, oiiu-foiirtlinf a
uiilelu length und one-eighth in width, lies
like u gem set In these hilts or those ancient
volcanoes. The black, ink-llko water which
tills tlio Inko comes up to within three nr tour
Inches of the level of its shoros The temper
ature pear the edge Is about 110'. gradually
growing warmer as vou get down in It. and ns
you approach the centre of the bike, on tho
surface. It Is about 15.1, nnd nt adopth of 'JflO
feet it Is lilli". Near the shoro nn tho east,
south, and west sides tho wator Is only four
to six feet In depth tor twenty feet or moro
into the lake, whore tlio nhelt breaks oil per
pendicularly, and there no boltum has ever
been found. To the touch Iho water feela
smooth and oily. Thn ashes and oil which
cover the lake when Its waters aro quiet are
frnm niie-hair an Inch In an inch thick. Tho
water nf the Inko Is jet black, though it does
not color the skin of those who l.iithe in it,
I'nderii glass the c during matter seems to
le a minute black sutistano held In suspen
sion by tho water, which adhere to white
cl ith IminiirsHil In tlio lake. To tho tato
the water Is warm. salt, and bittor. To tho
bather the sensation on entering the water
Is grand, exhilarating ton wonderful degree,
so much so that a bath of 10 or Jo minutes
makes nn feel as If In were under the Influ
ence of the very best brandv. Millions of
bubbles, formed byoenplng gases, koep the
surface of thn lake agitated nt alt times, till it
rolls, bolls, and foams as If ready In break over
Its banks and escape, nnd again only In
myriads of sparkling globulos. glittering In
the sunlight. Whenuvor the volcanoes rage
with auger the hike follows, and the sight of
Its maddened waters Is well worth seeing.
Fioiutlmo Immemorial theso waters have
bcou used oy the d liferent tribes of Indians,
far ami wide, at war and In peace, as the great
nll-lunllng lemody, full iwfnif n bath In tho
hot mud of tho peaceaiilo volcanoes, for all
fevers, rheumatism, scrofula, and venereal
disease i. They take the Invalid nnd bury him,
all but his inrs, eyes, nnd month, In the hot
v..lennlo mud for frein twenty to thirty
minutes, then carry li'in eovored with mini
on a blanket tho llfrv nr likl feet tn the
odgenl the hike nnd put him Into the wnto
holding his head above it. lor frnm llftoon-0
twenty minutes. Tno'i. tolling him lnU"
blunket. they carry llinii few feot iivvayf'j n
shade which they have provided, and In ."iro
on tho hot, sulphiirriis sund or rock, npi tliero
let hliu sweut. Tiny repeat this In tM nf'er
noon. At night they remove him t',1 J' ,l,co
wheio the groiinds not so warm, o'd let mm
slcup, and If pint-Hilt', whero ho iitti breathe
tho gases or vniors of the nebfU'Oiing vol
canoes. Tho aires wrought perfectly
wonderful, and lould not boJ""Ve'I If not
seen. A few white men' hnva ooon there nnd
I rl d Iho remedies, nud thus without a Blii
clo failure.
Ironn-.se 7rrra" l'nrmimi,
y.i . thr .fnh )'.. "Hit ,Vnm
A rncnt morctfilllii exploration of tho In
terior of souther Formosa by l hinose traders,
described 111 thtjf'iK'i". dUclnses an interest
ing botiihlcnl fill, indicating that the beauti
ful Island pro5cos a tree that In size nnd
niaciililccnie os with tlio gigantic sequoias
of 1',-illfiirni.iy More than ten adventurous
Pioneers or ciWiiereo orgnnl.aod a mercantile
expedition tiM-n trade Willi savasos whoi.j
cniintrv haiV'"'vel' been vlslled by civilized
man. TholrfaMiiossoH were bidden in vast
liupenetralji forests which coveted lolty pre
cipitous mmtuin.
They stiiod from Lnmalin. which is prob
ably ChocA'day of the charts, and touched in
seven iln. by many stage", their objective
pilot. llMii stroam. Tho toll of ascending
accilvitiV und descending declivities was sur
passed r that of fording turrontial streams,
which tA-y could accomplish only by clasping
each lifer's hands -not u pnt.i, merely foot
prints wild beasts and birds : nn sign of na
tiwisjo Min.ke fro ii habitations -thoy kept
out of ight. not daring to show themselves.
Thrrnveilers lodged In "tone caverns; tho
rh.ilrlng of monkeys and thi sounds of in
sectweie appalling nnd Indescribable. Ills
a vvl region and reminded them nf legends
nf e Klligdi.m of Hnhgililhis. Whnt thoy lie
ropllshed In the way of hitler with thn wild
alfriglnos Is not recorded, nn omission that
ptpardoiiablc, n (hat tuo)' htve mado kaovvu
HHMIIMHWHiHi.
the exlstonoe of tress ot prodigious girth,
forming nvnst forest
These trees measured more limn ten out
stielchpil arms and were pro' ahly of corre
sponding height. Thore Is besides another
remsrknble free nourishing In the same forest
which hears flowers, red oc wh'te. which nro
turgor than a Move nnd of rxtranrdlnnry fra-Bi-nnco.
.Mr. Turlor. while scorching for or
chids, honul or these mniestlc trees and huge
rtowers. which ho Inforrisl. frpm whatnntlvo
said, werooplphj to orchids.
A Grant Natural Nimrillm UiBid.
From thr 5nn Frnrtrlvn Elmtrrr,
"Tho nu sorest country I ever raw," said
Simon Askins, for twenty-eight yearrt n soldier
on the American frontier, vesterdnv. at tho
Grand. "Is that Immediately about Dry Lnko
In Jissen county. 1 was a Sergeant thero un
der Gen. vtheaton during, the Modoc war. Dry
Lake usually Ims no ws er In it at all. It Is
almost an arid plain, with sonn alkull scat
tered burn nnd there over it. i.ud Its area Is
about two and a half 1 y four miles, on ono
sldoure the Fit flher Mountains and on an
other are big plno wood-, vvhilo to the west
arc the famous lava bods In which the Indians
blil during that lust grcnt California struggle
with the sitVHgns,
"Weil.awluditigrnailtends up from the valley
bolow Into the curious basin. If a horse wnlk
on this road anywhere even twoo.-tlire.) mlljs
outside thu bonier of the Dry Lake, ho can bo
heard for many and manv miles up In the In
terior. The ground nil about there sends forth
a hollow souud. lteverboratlonscnn bo heard
everywhere. Whether there are any caves or
lost rl vein there I cannot say. but though I
have been almost everywhere on tho frontier I
never found anything ilko It. A foot full may
bo heard like a sound In a great cavern.
Many it night when, as a soldier on duty,
we anticipated an attack from tho Indians or
the arrival of couriers or supplies. 1 have put
my oar to the ground. If a horse was moving
about atiywhoro within miles he could nt onco
easily bo detected. Till enaoled us to put
ourselves In nn attitude of defence. It Is a
crest gallery, a whispering gallery It maybe
called, where tho acoustic me ny perfect that
anything said is published to tho world. All
the country about thero has ears. Lven the
cuw of it crow or tho notes of a songster take
on a weird sound.
"In the Indlan-flghtlng days we wore very
cautious how we moved about thore, for the
sound of our movements was curried nil
through the lava bods, where bteambo.it
Charley.Oipt. Jack. Shacknasty Jim, nnd tbolr
bloody hordes were secreted. I know of only
ono thlnn that could hnvo mnvod nhout thoro.
barring n bird on the wing, without making a
noise, and that possibly would ho it blnrclo
with Its wheels rendered noiseless by thick
rubber bands. I havo never visited It since
tho end of tho struggle, but I am euro thut
eomo day it must attract great attention."
XEEDLEIVoniC IX CUT SCHOOLS.
Tancet Also la the Norrntl Cotlsie nnd lha
Cotlrge for (ha Trulntns nfTcaahera.
Thore are a sreat ra.ir.y "caroful" Individ
uals who shako their hoads in solemn disap
proval of nnythlng new. Of such ones Doug
las Jerrold said: "Thero uro some peoplo so
conservative that they will novor look with
furor on the new moon for four ot showing
disrespect to tho old ono." Nover did thoao
solemn owls lllnk moro wildly In nstonlsh
inont and dismay than they did at tho Intro
duction ot manual training into tho schools.
What! Shall tho clnsslu halls of learning ro
sound with tho noise ot the saw and tlio
chlsol and the hammer? Noverl Hutthnydld
so rotound. and tho malcontents swallowed
their remonstrances as host they could. Now
they are callod upon for nnothor gulp of tha
old projudlcos. for the thlmblo and tho neodle
havo followed the hammer into tho schools,
and they have all come to stay.
Sowing Is taught in a number ot the public
schools. It is also taught in tho Now York
College ror the Training of Teachers and in
tho Normal College. Mrs. Anna K. Jossup,
orstcv worked nr students.
whotonchos In the latter institution, is also
nn Instructor in tha public schools, nnd has in
troduced some new features In tho systom
At tho Normal College n nost-graduuto class
has been training for teachers, and they havo
jii't finished the eomploto course. When thoy
Logan somo of the girls woro entirely Igno
rant of the use of a needle. Tho first
lesson begins at tho very foundation
of tin nrt of sewing It teuchos tho
nroner method of tbreinlini; the needle.
Then follows the nrt of making a knot, tho
way to wear a thimble, and all the a. b. c. of
technical details. Next como overhandlng.
running, hcmmiug.und overy styloot patching
Nor lots Important Is a further step in the pro
gressive system, tho Instruction given In darl
ing. So much of tho sweetness of myriadrof
honoymoons has leaked out through the lules
in a wound-be dovoted hiisiiand's sock't soy
much of the harmony which goes to rink
married life blissful (ins been lost llrougl
the friction of knotty, weltod darns. tat tls
useful art must bo rockoned no Insli'ilhcf"1
factor In mntrimonlal happiness. .
Dut tho Introduction of sewing n-n brich
of popular education ha other iv.l,p(?!,'(!
the public schools, for instance, initrucimn in
It begins by inculcntlng nn idea'' Wt'n',,1?'
Hands must bo scrupulously ehjn. ,.'"""'
Ishcd specimens of worn. Indi'. otien setni
to have beon miulo by fairy llrn'r"- ,'?;,'?,
nro they. In thedlstrlcts whe ''Vr Le"
house chlldron swarm, tho w''-'llfr,P ' Lfw;
lng is a real mlssb.nnry v- AYifLo.m
knows tho saying that the- ',''f"cn'im
In bolng well dressed will". ;Vi. Jlnw
latlona nf religion canno' . '!'
girls recognize thet 'Vf ,A", i Ti , l
one of them presents he'elf at hool In it I
tho glory of it now npro- nf)"0 " '.' ,ay. ' ",
now dress which she lir,,' . ', f Vn Ii'rt in
of proper pride and scf-r e t ' ""?,' . '"
her demeanor. Tli'rW' there, to.', are de
llghted when, us otpulH pens, tbolr school-
AN-oTHT.n srn :mb,i.
tnught daughters surpass them In skill. Foor
Satan, who Is getting a gnml inntiy hard raps
nowadays, must have a positive chill nt tin;
prospector a generation of mothers who will
lioexpettintheusoof the need e.t bust hwait
ing his disposal ot the mischief which pro
verblally h.) assigns to Idle liandH.
The teaching of suwiiu lu ill" schools Im
plies inoro than u knoHbilitonf hnw to make
certain Btitchoa, At every lesson the teacher
(.'Ives a talk on thn miterl lis tisid, touch
ing on a wld rnngo of sunjects, nud giv
ing most valuable iiitiiictlon in geography,
uaturnl history. Industries, and political econ
omy. Mrs. Jessup has, furthermore, so added
to tho original system n lo iiiiike it a course
in drawing as well ns sewlpg. l'or Instance,
each lesson Is accompanied by n pen mid Ink
diagram exactly corresponding with the piece
of work. In the sewing, tun, the pupil Is inado
to do her drawing with the n lie and Ihrcnd.
Straight, nlillquu. curved. Hid parallel linen
aro thus "drawn" with tin red thread on
wh'to iiiusliu, und the ueeiir.icy with which it
isiloneiscortainlyiom.irka.de,
Tlie advanced classes are tntitht to iniiko
underclothing, and Dually tn draught patterns
and make dressos. The iiie.nPers nf the post
graduate class at the Normal College have tun
the entire gauntlet, and tin vh cumo out chid
in a seiles of us dnlntv summer gowns as
ever left tho shop ot an experienced dress,
maker. As for the youiige,' scholars in too
schools, tlielr work ohntl uiges examina
tion and admiration. They sew moro
neatly than nine out of ten women, mid
they have acquired other areniuphshnumts as
well, One class, for liirtanu... made the de
signs for a sot of doyllc wh.ch they then exe
cuted with tnelr little l.un I mid juesentcd to
Mrs. illbiins. Commissioner of 1 duciitloii
Al'ngether. sowing us she Is taught ' In the
pill. lie schools Is a great succeis, mid those
ultra-conservative fugles won are const Itut mil
ally opposed tn change may ns well admit that
suniu clianges are for the better, all that tho
Introiuotlon nf so wing inUi tlio curriculum ia
one of thut kind.
it
j
risiuya tiik stMi.ixs.
Prof, darner'a rrrpnrnllnns for Rreordtas
the t'peecH of Aptra.
Prof. It. I Garner sailed last week for Eng
land on hi way to Africa, wheio he will con
tinue his study of simian speech. Ho has
studied the subject soveral years, but he says
that ho has only started, nnd ho hcllovcs thut
before ho returns from Africa hn will have
mastered thu language of the simians.
"I go to Africa." ho suld a few dnys boforo
ho sailed, "because tho highest order ot Iho
nnthroiKild npos cannot bo found In captivity.
My special study will bo thu gorilla nnd chim
panzee. As thoy aro moro Ilko man than any
other animals, physically and mentnlly. It Is
natural to suppoto that their languago Is
nearer man's than any other."
"What part ot Africa do you expect to ex
ploroV" "I sail vin Liverpool for Capo Lopoz, which
Is about linlfudecroo south ot the oquulor.
Tho little peninsula, about eight miles lung
and two miles vld. nt which Lopez Is tho
western extremity, has n fow gorillas and
chimpanzees. Mynrst Investigations will be
In this peninsula nnd on tho main lund up to
the Gaboon Mission, which is sixty miles dis
tant. From tlio Gaboon Mission I will pro
ceed up tho Gaboon Itiver about ninety miles,
exploring both sides ns I go. Then 1 will cut
nerosH the country to the Ogowo itlvcr, about
thirty mile?, mid thence follow tho equator to
too Congo Itiver. about (tou miles Irom tho
onast. My object In milking this inland trip
is to find tho hut-bulldlng ape, which vuguo
reports loeato there. This is n species un
known to science. 1 will consider It n great
conquest If 1 ran got records of this unlinal.
which, judging Irom wh.it I have been told, Is
thn highest order of ti o known."
"What will you tako on the expedition?"
"I will carry it year's supply or food. For
experimental purposes I will take u phono
graph, photo camera, elcctrlo tiatterlos, tolo
phones, several miles nf wire. Ilssh lights. Ac
In Lhgland 1 will supply mvself with ATrlcan
currency beads, clnthlng, mid wire. Themost
Imputant feiitiire.'howovor. of my outllt Is a
steel cago, planned by me, without which
the uso of some ot my Implements would bo
Impossible Tho cage Weighs about fiUO
pounds. It Is made ot steel wlro woven Into
diamond-shaped lattice, with a two-Inch
mesh. There are twenty-four panels, eneh
panel being 11 loot it Inches square, nnd every
one Interchangeable with the rest, so that they
can bo easily united Into n soven-foot cube.
The floor Is composed of square boards, to
each of which Is attached short. Btrong ropos,
Mi urruuged that the panels can bo nlaoed
on the boards and securely bound and trans
ported. Tho cage Is provided with a canvas
top and sldos. tho sides arranged utter the
manlier of window curtains. On the llonr Is a
rubber mat, which will keepthu moisture from
entering the cage fiom below, nnd will actus
an insulator when the eugo is charged with
electricity. A couch and camp chair will com
plete tho furnishing ot the cngc.
"The cage will be my bouse as woll ns my
fortress when I am camping in tlio jungles.
Tho battery that I carry will develop three
volts of electricity for three hundred consecu
tive hours. With it I will bo able to Hash my
light nt night, snap my camera, and oporat'
my telephone nnd phonograph. Tho cago
bo arranged thnt by means of nn Indiictl"
coll it can be heavily climgod with eiectrh'
at a moment's notice. This will bo a more"':
fectlvo wav of keeping away prowlers na
meddlers from It In myabsencothan posiB
notice. 'Claws off." With the nld of th'1"8'1
light I Intend to got views nnd pleturoneVl,r
before seen by savugo or civilized mi'-noc:
turns! views of the great African juatl" and
forests nt evening, nt midnight, nnd a11"1"0-
"I will bo u nablo to Induce a greaiiny do
slrnblo specimens to come wlthlr speaking
distance of my phonograph, but I .' nppro
hendod this contingency, and haotroviseda
unique mode of preventing the rfsI these
sounds. I have tho phonograph soarranged
that the telophono can be coniec(M with its
diaphragm. The other end of thy 'telephone
enn be carried nt random thrrtiBl"ie forests
to tho hording place of the an-moy. J llof. 't
will be placed in tho undorbuih rtrees. This
end will be placed In a Inrgotln orn. both the
horn and telephone belnt pohted a foliage
grron. so an not to attract tie to,n,tl.nri ,r th"
animals. In front of this hot will bo placod
baits und decovs In orderto gA the animals to
uttor sounds In It. Thesoounds will, of
course, bo transmitted to tit phonograph.
" Another new device of irf construction Is a
silent gun. 1 will deslro of n.t "7uur?,. CTV
tain unimul from among aerd without fright
ening tho herd, which ordinary llroarm
would, or course, do. it, a a lent gun. Din
barrel consists or a "light rood bored
out smooth. Tho himuiiitlon for the
gun is a mlssito "fell Is driven by
the force Imparted L two rubber bands
nnd two steel Rprlnc'. Tho missile, which Is
made of steel. Is sha?-' ,UkIBn.lr".rrowi""1'1' '?
hollow, nnd is to be'-l"d with tlftoen drops of
prussic acid. It ifimriyt" u,Bt 0!1 ont.;r
inir Itsouiirrv It u' be forced o on and tho
contentli d"sychcd in the animal struck.
pi'oduclngiiistnr'"1'1 ratiless death. Another
contrlvnnco-a Rked battery. It might be
tVrinod-eonsW of a canteen to which Is nt-
taeheH I a hOse'V,t.two ,0't lonc' P," V'?nA
of which Is a dsllle nozzle, provided with a
rlnKtontthorelliignr. and a valve opening
and olnstngA he canteen will bo worn buckled
under the 5"1. while the nozzle will bo worn
on tho four" linger of the right baud, so that
it n,., i,o Aed lntnntly in enso of surprise.
This wllir.0 charged with enncontrated nm
iiinn,fi aXouolioof whlnh will stllle tin most
forrc oV '""st- w111 "1," '"' ,w tuxid
ernlstouttlt for preparing sklna and skole
toa cJ"nl'uols Ior mounting."
jrTI.K LILIES IX CHXlIt.1L r.lRK.
tjtt riiml- Ait Itapldly Fllllnl Ihe Pond
7 Nriir lOlsl Hncct, West.
wicked boys who haunt tho lotus pond In
antral Fark look enviously upon tho swelling
1. uds thnt promise presently to break Into splen
did blossoms. With that tine reserve which be
longs to most beautiful things, tho largest and
ilcliost blossoms spread themselves fnr out In
the pond snfo from thlovlsh approach by way
of tho bank. Tho lotus pitch extends about a
rooky promontory that juts out Into the pond,
near 101st stroet. All Its area Is thickly
pavod with lotus leaves. Some He flat
upon tho surfaco of the wator: others
rlso nn Inch or two abovo It. while
still others stoutly upborne upon thick stems
turn up Into rude cups neoilrtwo feet in dlnm
etornnd almost threo foct abovo the water.
Tho loaves that He flat upon the surfaco ot tho
water will benr consldeinblo woight. and a
stout stick Is upborne mid kept dry when laid
across half a dozen such pontoons. Still other
leaves rlso from six Inchos to a foot uhovo the
wator nnd are ourlml up until they look Ilko
great cigars. When tho wind blows ban the
enormous loaves sway hack and forth, and the
whole patch gives lorth u succession of crack
ling sounds as the loaves stilko togethor.
Hunches or whlto lilies live along with tho
lotuses in the pond, but the latter lutre gradu
ally elbowed most of the lilies out of thu way.
No otheruquatlnplatit.lt seems. can withstand
the lotus, which in less than five .years has
crowded frors the western end ot the pond all
vegetation save the white lilies, nnd they havo
drawn off Into little patches by themselves.
All tho while the lotus plants are sitcadlng
they thicken, so that In places It would be dif
ficult to force a boat through them. W Ithln a
few woeks leaves and blossoms will have com
pletely hidden thu water. From tlio pond a
brooks brawls Iti way through the park, and
Anally falls into llnilem Mere. 'Ihls brook
curries upon Its waters every autumn dozens
of the lotus seed vessels, which look exactly
like the perforated end of u waterpot spout.
Tho hole nf tho sprinkler are represented
by eoi responding holes in tho seed vessel. and
out of theso holes thu lotus seeds peep Ilko
eves. Tho seeds lni.hatio.md size are much
Ilko hnzel tints. They mo. beautifully ur
ranged In the seed vessel, und doubtless in the
native clime of tho lotus vessel and seeds uro
ued as rattles to nmitse llgyptino hables. As
, tho laden seed vossels lloat down the brook
from pond tn mere, they heconii.w.itcr.soaked.
nnd rotting lu time, lot fall llu'll seeds, which,
in still wator sprout, take root, nud grow.
Such a lotus enluiiy s gruwiu,: in tho brook
nhout hair iv ay between l h. 1 1 on. I and tin; mere,
end just at the head of the meie ltn,r there Is
a largo patch of lotuses, also an olTshoot from
the Imge patch In the pond. , , ,
Sovernl hundred lotus buds are already vis-
Ihlelnthoj I. Theylonk a areitt (leal llkn
Inverted bn'l clappers, mid vary Irnm tho sio
, ofiiha'liiiittotliatnrasiiiull;gis. 'ihubiids
seem to iirnrul-.i it dull: red (lower, out tho
loins of thn isjudltroully a blossom of n deli
cate pinkish t'nt. ut It largest nuito sx
inches In diameter, lleroio Ihe lb id week In
July Iho wind.' bitch will lie slurred with Mnr
Minis, and before the end nf III) reason thou
sands dowers will have ionic and gone,
i '1 he pond Is likely to be in full izlory nearly
three month hence, fir the lotus i cease tn
dower only at the touch nf frost. Ihls plant.
1 It lilmiild ho unserved. Is n( the "etiehanteil
I stem" of TennvMiii's" Lotus haters.'' which
Is believed In l.e the fruit "fthn Jlljilbu tl'en
thatgiows upon dryland and does not pin
seas the cliuructoristlca of thu Lgyptluu lotus.
Klnpril ivllh a Oovrraor'a Daughter,
Wl thr ,V. A..WI. aliA.r-tlrm'Vtat.
jAcitsny. Tenn., July I' -Mr. 1!. I- McKlo of
Holly Springs, Miss., and .Miss tinie J. Stone,
daughter nt Gov. Stone of Juekon. Miss,, worn
married it the Arnmur lintel early this morn
ing. Ml Hoiio but home with thn under
standing that she w.i to visit lilondsnt ji'ka,
and was joined hy her lover, and to!rtherthy
came hole, urrivinKitt '.'o'clock A. M. .The Itev.
H. W. Tribole nnieuiteil. Tlieblldo ln I e.u
tifulglilaboi.t Iti years ot age. Oujertlmiio't
tho pint of her parents caused tho elupenioiit
The groom tjlcgrnphed the fart of their mar
riage to Guv. Mono this nfteriiouu. They re
turn to .Ml3lfblppl lo-moriow.
QMBBnnajnBnBajajanjjjjjjjjtajaauaaaBSKnaiaBHananHaMMH
MOUNT ETNA IN ERIPTION. ' .
its EiaiiTT-riyiu uvtbbuk Trunin
ursToitic rW
A Mlrenn of I.nrn DetrnjB Tlllf an
Tlnrynrrfs on the Mnuthin Hlnpe-Thnn.
aanda of People Mrnnci tir the Mollaa
JlUrr Orent Ct-nnUnnsif th Past.
Mount Etna.tho great volAnoWhlch has ex
cited the wondor of tho naqoiri In all ages, is
nsnin In eruption. Its prcsctictiYlty repeats
tho history of tho elghty-fovy I'ruptlons which
hnvo occurred within lilsloc times. Now. as
heretofore, earthquakes jff" presaged and
accompanied tho outburst oliava. Loud ex
plosions havo boon lioird. J'lssuro hava
opened In tho sldool tbo motntaln. and lava,
Isbiilng from them, is flowlnf down tho gontla
slopo. following the lino o lei"t resistance.
Fussing bolow tho region if barren rook and
corln tlio molten stroatr la overwhelming
tho vlnoynrds and vlllacd1 In Its route. The
lava has already Invaded rie town of NlcolosL,
half way down the soutlorn slope. ThU la
tho plaio whore tourists who ascend Etna to
sne Its wonderful crahlr and to witness th
mngnlflcont sunriso thm Its summit usually
begin their climb. II l probable that th
prosont eruption hasjuoatrorod the favorlbs
path of tourists andlturlei or carried awar
thoCasndelUosco ar1 the Casalngleae. two
huts built on the ruto whore the animals
uod in the ascent oro Prtdored and toumta
rest a while.
Thore aro no motin'" Mopes In tho world
so covered with vlnoyi"18. farms, and vtllacM
MODMT ETNA.
a.thoso of Mount Etna. About 300,000 peopl
wo on Its sides. They hnvo become aeons
.omod to tho dangers that always threarsa.
The richness of tho sell, formed ot decom
posed lava nnd vegetable mold, has mado the
slopos of Ltnn ouo of thegardon snots ot tha
world: and so tho people cling to tnelr moun
tnln home, though they do not know how soon
thoy may bo driven nway. The brief cable
despatches report that a large area of tills
tillable laid has already beou overwhelmed. ,
and that thousnnds of pooplo have been driven,
from their cottages.
Mount Etna Is on tho eastern seaboard of
Sicily. It has been the tliemo of poets and
historians, and Is often referred to by classical
writers. Its height Is 10.K74 foot. From Its
summit tho sea and country around cun bo
soen a distance of lfsO miles, affording ono ot
the most inagnlHcent of prospects. Tho gently
flowing lavas which reared tho mighty moun
tain eovored a largo area, and tho road which i
runs around the lower slopes Is eighty-seven
miles long. Two cltlos, Catania and Act Ileale,
and sixty-three towns or villages ure built
around the base or on the slopes.
Tho picture of F.tna shows quite a number
nf little elevations on tho mountain side.
They uro nmong tho most characteristic fea
tures of tho volcano. These minor cones, once,
thu outlets ot lava, aro scattered nil over the
mountain und number about 000, many of
thorn being only Insignificant monticules.
The first eruption within historic times Is
believed to have occurred sevonconturles be
fore Christ Twolvo eruptions of Importance,
somo of which created great destruction, aro
recorded ns occurring hoforn tho Christian,
era. Ono of tho most disastrous outbursts oo
currcd In 11U0 A. I)., when Catania was
dostroyed in a few minutes and l!),00O
pooplo were burlod beneath the ruins.
It was tho day of tho feast of St
Agatha, and tho rathedrul of Catania was
crowded with people, all nf whom were buried
by the overwhelming stream ot Java. The.
victims Included several lllshops and forty
four Henedictino monks. A fairly complete)
record of the eruptions slnoe the Christian
eralsnccosslhle. One of tho most terrible of
them occurred In March, HWO. when a Assure)
nonrly twelve miles In length opened In tho
side of tho mountain n mile from Its summit
A crater opened nt tho lowor terminus of the
llssurn ejecting red hot stones and sendlnir
out vast quantities of sand and ashes that
covered tho country for a distance of sixty
miles. Thon the new crnter begun tn pour out
n torrent ot lava which soon presented a front
two miles wide and slowly rolled down tho
mountain. It speedily dostroyed Helpasso.
town of 8.000 Inhabitants. The torrent con
tinued to How, and a few days later do
stroyed thntown of Msscalucla. Then tho lava,
divided into three streams, destroying seven
teen villages as it mado Its way townrd Ca
tania. Whon thn lava reached tho wall of Ca
tania, which had been roared to a height ot
sixty feet to protect the city from lava Hows,
It accumulated against the obstruction until
it roso to the top of the wall. Then the Aery
cascade poured over tho wall, destroying a,
part of the city. Another portion of tho stroam
overthrow 120 feot of the wnll and pourodi
through tho city until it reached the sea.
which it entered in a stream UK) yards broad
and forty feet deep. At first the stroam had
movod at the rato of thirteen mllea in twenty
days, but its progress was less rapid as It lost
part of its heat, and In tho last twonty-throe
dayn It moved only two miles. As the lava.
river entered tho sea the waters began to boll
violently, and millions or Hah were killed. The
volume of Inva omitted during this eruption
umotintod to many millions of cubic foet. Fcr
rara estimated that the length of the stream
was at least Htteon miles, whllo its nvoragei
width was between two and throe miles. It
covered nearly forty squnro miles ot surface.
A still morn destructive outburst, though It
was not marked by so great a dischargo ot
lava, occurred In ltJfN. when n violent earth
quake shook Catania to the ground, burylnir
18,01)0 Inhabitants. Fifty towns of Sicily were
destroyod, and itls said that at least 00.000
people perished.
During tho eighteenth century quite a num
ber of eruptions occurred, somo of great vio
lenco. though most of thorn did littlo damage.
During uu eruption In 1832 a number ot peo
ple were watching tho progross of thn lava
whon tho front of tho stream was suddenly .
blown nut as by an explosion ot gunpowder.
Tho red hot muss was hurled in evory direc
tion, and a cloud of vapor enveloped every
thing. Thirty-six people woro killed on th
spot and twenty survived but a fow hours.
In 18T2 a party of six English tourists were
surprised by a very vlolont eruption as they
wore ascending tho mountain. This outburst
contlnuod fnrnlno months. The tourists wor
ascending frnm Nlcolosl to wltnoss tho sunrise
from the summit Ah they approached the
upper hut known as tho Cnsalnglose, the cra
ter commenced to glvo forth ashes and flames
of lire. Suddenly an oarthquako shook the
mountain und tho mules Hod In terror. The
tourists hastened down tho mountain and
rcachod Nlcolosl In safety, I
Out ot tho eighty-four eruptions on record, a I
comparatively small number have nonnofex- I
trema violence, whllo many have boen ot a
slight and harmless charnctor. Eruption oc- ii
curred Inl8"!.r, WW. IMHtl. 1874. 1871V 1883, f
and IRSiJ. the most Nlolontofwhlch were those I
of lBurnml lr-8J. The outburst of lHHOde- I
stroyed vineyards nud farm lands valued ut
11250,000. )V
Mr. Hiiro says that tho general appearance ' I
nf Etna is very little ohnngnd slnrethe time of
Htrabo. who described the lower sIopob as cot-
ered with forests nnd planted grounds. Strabo
told bowtbo destructive volcanic, ashes ulti
mately produced most fertile soil, admirably
adapted for tho culturo of vines, nnd also hnw
tho upper mountain Is bare and covered with
ashes, which oro buried undor snow In winter.
Comparatively fow tourists make tho ascent
of Etna, which is laborious. Thoso who do un
dergo ths labor, however, feel amply repaid by
the glorious view from tho top, The ascent Is
only possible In summer, mid June, July, and
Septomber aro tho months boat adapted for
the jourtic)-. The tourists, starting from Mno
losl, havo njoiirneyof about thirty miles be
fore thorn. The general desire is to be at the
summit to sue tho sun ilo. and tho climb Is
made during moonlit nights. The hardrst
part of the climb Is thu approach to the
groat crater, where the deep ashes are hard
to wade through. Tho weather Is al
ways very cold near the top, and tourists sre
sometimes sn benumbed when thoy reach the
crater that tho guides envor them with wurm
ashes for a while, At the summit the travel
lers nml themselves on tho narrow rim of the
eruter. which Is three miles round. The view
la unspeakably grand ns peak nfter peak
cutrhot, the light of tho ilslng nun. Ktnn being
the one great mountain of Sicily, there Is noth
ing tn Intercept the sight. Hut the most inter
esting fiirt nf the view Is the great mountain
itself, wllh Its multitude of losser cones s'prln
sleiliirouinl its sides, and tho zigzag paths or
the different Inva stieums plainly revealed I
through the znnesof snow and ashes; then I
fniests. and lastly luxuriant eultlvatlnn. lha 1
ley cold usually prevents u prolonged stay at I
the summit. , , I
Cntanii. the city nt tho foot of tho mountain I
from which this nietiirowu taken, has been I .
sovernl times in wlmlo or In part rebuilt from ij A
thr lava Unit had destroved It. The pavemonts '
of its streets und the walls of Its buildings are
nil nf the malm l.il tint was once ejected from
ono or another ot tho craters of Mount Ltnn.
I

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