OCR Interpretation

The sun. (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916, August 28, 1892, Section B, Image 14

Image and text provided by The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundation

Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030272/1892-08-28/ed-1/seq-14/

What is OCR?

Thumbnail for 2

SOME NElr aooica
The flyziuitIie Kmptr
Ot tho many volumes included In the Sto
ries ot the Nations series Putnams the
res SOrOI
moit Important Is I the lost entitled Tin JII
unUnt Empire by C W C OIIAK This U the
first attempt to popularize tho right
lut attmpt rlh concep
tion of the cart played by Constantinople in
the history European clvlllrstlona concep
tion which materially differs from thu picture
of unbroken corruption and decay presented
In the Decline and Fall With tho facts and
with the true deductions from them students
have been indo familiar by Flnlays history
published nearly forty years ago and by tho
moro recent work of Mr Dury which appeared
tn 18 Hitherto however all tho handbooks
on the subject have continued to circulate a
commodity which Mr Oman aptly describes as
ft Gibbon and water His ou tho contrary
the matter and the spirit of 1lnlny and of
Dun which are reproduced In the present vol
ume Its readers will bo enabled to under
i I stand how It came to pats that the eastern Ro
I man empire survived by nell a thousand
years the disruption of tho empire In tho West
a phenomenon Inexplicable upon tho theory
countenanced by Gibbon that Die rulers ot
Constantinople were a succession of weak
c lings and that Its subjoctpeoplus wore desti
i tute of all the virile virtues and had sunk to
the lowest depths of social and moral deca
dence The truth I that tho Ooths Huns
Avars Slavs and Northmen who wrought I
such havoo in central western Europe mado I
no fatal Impression on tha Byzantine realm
r which also repulsed from the Bosporus tho
t I tame Saracens who conquered Spain and pono
trated to Poitiers in Francowhich moreover
blooked the westward advance of the Soljuk
t Turks and would have kopt the Ottoman
Turks out of Europe had not the Latin Chris
tians committed the blunder of shattering
their strongest bulwark against Islam b
seising Constantinople and dealing n blow to
cM the Greek empire from which It was unable
to recover
Mr Oman begins his narrative with an ac
count of tho foundation ot Byzantium by a
p colony from Megara in tho seventh century
n C and outlines the history of tho Greek
t city during the ensuing thousand years up to
A D 328 when tho Emperor Constantino be
j gan t erect a Nor Home on UIO Incomparable
I site We need not dwelt upon the wellknown
acts recited in this Introduction nor on tho
r four cuccoedlng chapters which sot forth the
y fortunes of the Now Homo In tho two cen
turies which elapsod botwuon its foundation
and tho accession of Justinian A D 327 So
far as regards this part of Mr Omans book
we shall only note his explanation of the fact
that while the Western Hainan Empire came
t an end with tho deposition of Au
gustulus A D 470 the Eastern realm
of which Justinian became the ruler
half a century later had withstood ex
ternal assault and Internal disintegration and
was actually stronor than It bad been a hun
dred years before Mr Oman shows that tho
main secret of tho success of the Eastern em
I oerors of tho tutu century in holding their
own IB In tho fact that they had dispensed
with foreign auxiliaries to u largo extent had
reorganized their armies and filled them up
with native troops Loo I who ascended the
throne A D 457 was tho llrst ruler who
turned to account the military virtues of the
Isaurlans or mountain populations of south
ern Asia Minor Ue added several 1 regiments
t of them t tho army of tho East but it was hid
soninlaw and successor Zeno 474401
himself an Isaurlan born who developed the
M Bchemo Zeno raised an imperial guard from
It his countrymen and enlUted as many
corps ot them as could be raised more
over ho formed regiments of Armenians and
other Inhabitants of tho highland frontier of
tho East and handed over to his successor
1 Anostasius an army in which tho barbarian
auxiliaries now composed of Teutons and
v Huns about equal numbers woro decidedly
dominated by tbo native elements It was due
i t these salutary reforms which restored the
< Unions to something llko their old trustwor
thiness that tho Eastern empire in spite of
t rebellions was never in serious danger of
sinking Into disorder or breaking up as the
Western realm had done into now unIioman
t kingdoms Bo far was it from encountering
this fate that Anastoslus whon ho died In A
t J 518 left his successor Justin the uncle of
Justinian a loyal army of IfiOOOO men u
treasure of 320000 pounds of gold and an un
broken frontier to east and west
In the history of the Byzantine empire
Which covers upward of a thousand years
there are certain epochs which should be dis
tinguished even in the most cursory review
c Theso are associated with tho names ot Jus
tinian of Ileracllus of Lou tho Isaurlan of
the Macedonian djrnrntr and of Alexius Com
nenus Then one must glance at tho abortive
k attempt of the Latin nations to found an em
pire at Constantinople and at the restoration
of a Greek dynasty which although It man
aged t maintain tho semblance of dominion
wan during nearly half of that period > only a
a4 vassal of the Ottoman Turks So far as its de
fensive services to Christendom were con
V cerned Constantinople might as well havo
fallen in I3G1 as In 15 It Is true however
i that western Europe was less prepared for the
renaissance at tho former period than at the
t latter
I At the present time Justinian Is remembered
tor the Institutes and Pandects that codifica
tion of the human law which boars his name
and was executed at his order But there had
been revisions of time law before and his
i contemporaries were justified by the event
In supposing thoro would bo others In
1 the future In his own day Justinian was
most widely and honorably known as a
builder and 1 conqueror Tho Mosque of
r Ht Hophla at Constantinople und the church
of San Yltalo atltavenna are only two of tint
many hundred specimens of his nchlavouioiua
In ecclesiastical architecture 1rocoplus > do
voted n considerable treatise to tho descrip
tion Juctlnlano building and numbers of
them survive to tobtlfy to the accuracy of tho
bUtorlan Not merely great centres like Con
stantinople or Jerusalem are full of edifices
t erected by this Emperor but oven in tho moro
secluded outlying portions of his dominions
any lino building extant Is In two cases out
of threo referable to his reign It Is I also to
4 be noted that the era of Justinian forms I
landmark in the style of Oriental church Irchl
tecturo Up to hit thou Christian nichltucts
had been following two patterns I copied from
old Iloman models to wit time round dome
church whoso origin can be traced to the
Temple of Vesta and tho rectangular church
tF with apses which was simply an adaptation to
4 t ecclesiastical purposes of the ijaslllcaor 1 Old
1 Human lawcourt Justinian brought Into uu
for the Unit time on a large scale the combina
tion of a cruciform ground plan and n very
large dome A typo of this stylo Is the famoiM
hureh now Mosque of ht hophla which Is a
sk cross JiO feet long und J24 broad hay
4 hg in IU midst a vabt dome pierced by no less
i than forty windows nod soaring IbO feet f
above tho flour
It was however the outcome of Justinians
foreign policy which excltod tim attoultli
macat of hit contemporaries When ho came
t the throne the eabtorn lloman empire poi
seisud no remnant of laud or of authority
west of the Adriatic Itwat his dream to ro
unite under his scoptro the German kingdoms
In the western Mediterranean which had been
formed out of tha urokon fiagmonu of ho
j1 realm of llonorius and to put an und to tho
jc pretence by which while he tvs nominally
1 acknowledged us Kmpeior by tho Herman I
rulorsln the west all power was roll lodged
In the hands of the foreigners who posed as
his vicegerents lie aimed at reconquering
ti Italy North Africa and Spiln I not alo the
other provinces of the Old Umpire Ho never
renounced his purpose until ho had brought
nnd r Ids sway all the Islands and all the
border lands of the Mediterranean with the
i ucep lon of the seacoast of Gaul and of uorth
< i T i
astern Spain When he died It could be said
with as much truth as In the days ot Augustus
that so far as the absolute security of com
merce was concerned the Mediterranean was
a Homsn lake
It U the custom ot school histories to under
rate the magnitude and permanence of these
achievements Yet tho enemies with whom
tho Generals of Justinian had to cope were the
same Vandals Ostrogoths and Visigoth who
had experienced but little difficulty in parti
tioning tho West Tho populous and opulent
provinces which stretched along the soacoast
of north Africa had boon In the possession of
tho Vandals for more than 1 hundred years
when In G33 Bcllsarlus restored them to the
Roman empire They remained Roman until
the Saracens overran them in 097 In C34 the
Iloman Governor Llborlus taking advantage
of a civil war among the Visigoths In Spain
landed In Andalusia and soon captured the
groat towns In the south 01 the peninsula Cor
dova Cartagona Malaga and Cadiz I was
about seventy years before tho Ylslirothlo
Kings ot Toledo recovered their lost territory
Down to A D 023 Justinian and his success
ors reigned over tho greater part of tho sea
coast of southern Spain Consider also tho
case of Sicily conquered by Bellsarlua In 530
tt dM not entirely succumb to the Haracons of
Africa until 178 Italy was definitely recov
ered for Justinian by Karsss In 63 It is
true that by 584 the Lombards established a
kingdom In tho valley of the Io and two indo
pondont duchies In central and southern Italy
But tho rulers of Constantinople retained the
exarchate of Ravonna and other possessions
In central Italy until 700 and they kept cer
tain territories In the south or the peninsula
until 1055 when the Normans transformed
them Into the duchy of Apulia In view ot
these facts it Is preposterous to speak of the
conquesta of Justinian fugitive
The Worst enemies of the regenerated
Roman empire a this epoch were the
Sassanlan Kings of Persia But although
and I
one of them Chosroes captured
sacked Antloch the second city of
the Iloman East Justinian succeeded in re
storing tho previous stern boundaries and
transmitted thorn intact to his successor I
vas during the reign ot Horaolius who was
crowned in A U 010 that tho decisive trial of
strength tool place between the East Romans
and the Persians trial which resulted In an
overwhelming victory for the former but
which loft both combatants exhausted and at
the mercy of tho Impending Invasion of the
Saracens Thoro Is no doubt that as a soldier
and a General Ileracllus whose namo is al
most forgotten deserves to figure among
the greatest military heroes of Roman
history For the Persians when ha
conquered them were stronger than
they or their Parthian prodeeossors
had over boon in seven centuries The expe
dition of IleraclluA against the Bassantan
monarch who like the opponent of Justinian
was called Chosrocs was In spirit the first of
the Crusades I was the first war that the
Hainan empire had over undertaken under the
promptings of religious enthusiasm In 014 a
Persian army had stormed tho CIT of Jerusa
lem had put 00000 Christians to tho sword
and had carried into captivity not only the
patriarch Zacoharias but what all Christians
regarded as the most precious relic In the
world tho wood of tho True Cross I was to
recover this relic to reconquerthe holy places
and In a word to rescue Christendom that
the army UoracIIus went forth At this junc
ture 022 not only Mesopotamia Armenia
Syria and Egypt the granary of the
empire had been lost but the Per
sians had overrun tho whole of Asia
Minor and were posted at Chalcedon
opposite Constantinople I required six cam
paigns to save the Eastern Roman world and
ruin tho Sassanian monarchy The first cam
paign of Horacllus cleared Asia Minor of the
Persian hosts not bv a direct attack but by
skilful strategy In the three following years
lie carried the war Into Media correctly judg I
ing that this move would compel Chosroes to
recall his garrisons from Syria and Egypt
The crisis of the war came In 026 for while
Persian watched tho Emperor
the main army I
In Armenia a great body slipped south of him
and marched to the Bosporus At the same
moment 30000 Avars and 8lavs burst over tho
Balkans and besot Constantinople on the
European side Haracllus showed a confidence
dence which the oventjustifiod In the strength
of Constantinople and tho courage of its de
fenders lending only a few veteran troops to
aid the garrison of his capital he continued I
to attack tho Persians at homo and I
laid waste Mesopotamia and Media The
Fiassanian King was now despeiate and
In 627 put his lust levies In the hold They
wore defeated by Uorncllus who seized the
palace Chosroes at Uastagerd and divided
among his troops such plunder as had never
been seen since Alexander tho Great captured
Husa Flying t Ctoslphon but hunted even
from his capital by the Ilomans Chosroos was
ultimately seized by his own son and thrown
Into prison where ho died of despair or of
starvation Heracllus had accomplished what
no other Roman Emperor or General had
achieved ho had succeeded where Crassus
and Valerian had mot with overwhelming dis
aster ho had surpassed tho exploits of Traian
and Hoverus his troops had boen led further
eastward than any Roman soldiers had yet
penetrated In accordance with tho terms
of peace which followed every Inch of
Iloman territory was evacuated all Roman
captives worn freed a war Indemnity was
paid and the spoils of Jerusalem including
time True Cross were restored If we have
dwelt at length upon this war it is not only
because It demonstrates the stun ot which
some of tho rulers and the soldiers of tho ast
er lloninu realm were mado butal because
It hid momentous consequences which neither
of combatants could have foreseen lour
years niter the conclusion of a struggle which
had drained Loth parties of their resources
the Caliph Abu Ilokr the successor of Mnhom
mod launched two armies of Moslem the
ono against Palestine and time other against
Persia Time rcBiiltwnfi tho annihilation of the
Persian kingdom and tlm lost of Syria and
Egypt by the Byzantine empire
The next striking figure in Byzantlna his
tory is Leo the Isaurlin who accepted the
croun in 717 on tho very live of I great Sara
cello Invasion of Asia Minor which was to
culminate In a siege of Constantinople They
who accept at second or third hand Gibbons
view of thu Inferiority of the Bvrantlncato
the Teutonic conquerors of time West must be
puzzled to account fur the failure of time Onl
eyad Caliph to take Constantinople though
ho taxed all his resources to that end while
ono of his lieutenants at tho further end ot
Europe and with only 1 handful of Arabs
wrenched bpaln from the Vlalgoths aol reach
ed ilia heart of France where It required time
whole power of tho Franks undor Charles
Mattel to arm est isle progress But Constanti
nople It may bo said was fortlllod so wore
Meridn Toledo Taragonu Narborne yet tIme
Haracrns took those fortresses The truth is
that even tIme rabbis of Constantinople could
fight us was repeatedly demonstrated and
theru were no llcbiew traitors among thor
such as infested the Vislgothlo strongholds
Time Mohammedan power which fruitlessly
asfallod Constantinople In A D I 717 was In
comparably mightier than that to which the
city succumbed In 1453 and It Is Interesting
to consider what would have been the conse
quences to Europu had tho earlier attack suc
ceeded The Caliph once planted on tho
western side ot time Bosporus would have
found before him In thu confines of the old
Itoman emplio only three considerable ene
mies vli time Aware In Hungary tho Lom
bards In tho volley of the Io and the du
crcplt Merovingian monarchy which Ipln of
HorUlal and I > descendants had not > et
mnimgCdto regenerate Under fcuch clroura
stancrt vru cannot doubt that the whole Medi
terranean world would have become Moslem
and that Christianity would have ceased to
exist except t like Judaism as the tolerated
heresy of a vanquished people That such
was not the fate ot Europe we owe t the
Bytnntlnes whom Gibbon taught us to despise
spise and our debt t Leo tho Isaurlan Is
Incalculably greater than that whIch wo owe
to Charles Mattel Europe could never have
been conquered by way of the Pyrenees Inas
much as the Saracen assailants had to receive
orders and draw supplies from the seat of
Moslem powor In Asia by the Immensely loni
and circuitous route through Spain north
western Africa and Egypt On tho other hand
what tho Turks accomplished after 1403
shows that Europe could easily have boen con
quered by way of Constantinople In the first
quarter of tho eighth century
At this tlmo IA D717I tho reigning Caliph
was Sulolman the seventh ot tho house of tho
Ommeyades lie had strained as we havo
said all tho resources of his empire to provide I
a fleet and army adequate t tho enterprise
which ho had undertaken Tho chief com
mand of tho expedition was given to his i
brother Mosleraah who led 80000 men from
Tarsus through Asia Minor to the Hellespont
Meanwhile a fleet of 1800 sail under the
Victor Bulelmnn namesake of tho Caliph
sailed from Syria to the iEccan carrying a
force equal t that which had marched by
land In tho month of August Leo the Isau
ran beheld tho vessels ot the Saracens sail
ing up the PropontU while their land army
had crossed into Thrace and was approach
ing the city from tho western side Moslamah
caused his troops to build a line ot
clroumvalatlon from the sea to the Gold
en Horn cutting Constantinople off from
1 communication with Thrace while Sulei
man blocked the southern exit of the floe
oorus and tried though Ineffectually to close
Its northern entrance also so as to prevent
any suppllosoomlngby watorfrom tho Uuxlno
Throughout tho ensuing autumn and winter
tho city was boleagurod and with time spring
all hope of successful resistance seemed to ho
cut off by the arrival of a supplemental fool
from Egypt and of I second largo army which
came up by land from Tarsus and occupied
the Asiatic shores of tho Bosporus Yet oven
now Leo did not despair and In tho summer
he took tho offensive Ills fire ships stolo out
and burnt the Egyptian squadron n It lay at
anchor A body of his troops lying in filthy
nla surprised and cut to pieces the Saracen
army whIch watched tho Asiatic side ot tho
strait Ho prevailed upon time Bulgarians to
pour down over the Balkans and rout the
covering army which observed Adrlanoplo
and protected tho slogo on tho west The
result of thoso operations was tho retreat of
Moslemah who got back to Tarsus with only
30000 out of the 100000 men who had started
with him or rejoined him as reinforcements
The foot fared worse for having bean caught
In the Egean it fearfully
by a tempest ean was so fearfuly
shattered that out of the whole armada only
five vessels got bock to Syria unharmed
Thus ended the last groat endeavor of the
Saracens to destroy Constantinople By thorn
tho task was never again essayed although
for 350 years longer wars incessantly broke
out betwoen tho Emperor and tho Caliph Yot
eo little have we boon taught by tho purveyors
of Glbbonandvvator to appreciate the tre
mendous exploit of Leo tho Isaurlan that ho
Is remembered rather as the Iconoclast or
breaker ot Images than as the deliverer of
The Macedonian dynasty began with Basil
I who became Emperor In A 807 Basil
himself is chiefly distinguished for his codifi
cation of tho laws ot the empire known as the
Basllika which superseded the Ecloga ot Leo
tho Isaurian juet as Leos compilation had
superseded the work ot Justinian The Basil
tka of Basil with the additions made by his
son Leo VL formed the code of the Byzantine
empire down to Its last days no further rear
rangement being over made The eighty years I
which followed the death ot Basil tho Macedo
nian wero entirely taken up by the two long
reigns of his son and grandson Leo tho Wiso
and Constantine Porphyrogcnltus tho latter
being so called because ho was born in the
Purple Chamber tho room in tho palace set
aside for tho Empress So far as foreign wars
and dangers t the empire from without wore
concernodthoso eighty years woro the most un
eventful and monotonous In Byzantine his
tory Thoy witnessed however I remarkable
intellectual revival the two rulers themselves
being professional men of letters to whom wo
are Indebted for some of tho most useful and
interesting works in Byzantine literature In
their reigns took place the culmination of tha
Byzantine renaissance which had begun un
der the quickening influencoof time political
and social reforms of Leo the Isaurlan Tho
darkest age in Byzantine literary history was
from 000 t 750 a period from which wo have
hardly any contompoiary annalists no poetry
save the lost Heracllad of George of Pisidia
and very little even of theology On tho other i
hand by tho end of tho eighth century writers I
became far moro numerous and in the ninth
century wo can trace tho existence of a large
literary class including a few really first
rate authors among whom should bo
particularly mentioned the patriarch Pho
tlus whoso breadth of culture was
astonishing and whoso library catalogue I
is tho envy of modern historians A curious
feature of tho Byzantine literature of this I
epoch was the epics or romances of chivalry
as thoy may properly bo called These wore
written toward the close of tho times of tha
Macedonian dynasty and a type of tho class
Is tho epic ol Dlgencs Akrltas which cele
brates the adventures of a hero who lived in
the latter I half of tho tenth century Ulgones
was a mighty hunter both of bears and Sar
aceus who eloped with tho fair Eudocla
Ducal daughter of theGenoral of tho Cappa
docian hone whom he carried off In spite of
her father and seven brethren lureuod by
tho irate family he rode thorn down ono by
one at vantage points In tho pusses but spared
their liven and was reconciled to thorn at tho
Intercession of his bride The story Is evident
ly in Ibo same vein us the tales of chivalry In
western Europe most of which however be
long to a considerably later period
Between A D 000 and two art followed much
the same course as lltoiatura in tho Byzantine
empire It was in a state of decay for the first
century and a half and tIme surviving works ot
that Umo are ofen rotesuelr rud For sheor I
bad drawing and had execution nothing can
be worse than the coins of tho seventh and
eighth centuries Franklsh or Vinlgothlo
piece could scarcely be moro unsightly The
few manuscripts which survive from that
period display 1 corresponding though not an
equal decline In art Mosaic work perhaps
showed less decadence than other branches of
decoration but even lu this field seventh and
eighth century productions mime very rare
In the ninth century everything under
went a wonderful improvement The
old classical traditions of painting I > live
again in the best manuscript Illumi
nation of the period Many of these
illuminated manuscripts might have boon ex
ecuted In time fifth or even In limo fourth cen
tury > o closely do they reproduce the old Ito
man style I seams that tho iconoclastic
controversy stimulated painting Persecuted
by the Isaurlan Emperors the art of sacred
portraiture became supremely rv i > eotcd by
tho multitude As early also as limo middle of
the ninth century the minor arts of mosaic
silver works and jewelry weio observed to bo
in a nourishing condition Thero is one other
point In the history of the Byzantines In the
ninth century to which attention Is directed by
our author This is the unique commer
cial importance of Coixstuntlnoplo ut the
epoch All other commorco except that of
tho empire had been swept off thu seas
by thu Saracen pirates In tho preceding
hundred years the only communications
between eastern and western Christendom
being kept up under the protection of the By
zantine navy The Oriental products which
found tlielr way to Europe all passed through
the warehouses of hum Bosijorus It was Eat
Itoman ships which transacted all the trade
Except the few Italian ports such a Amalfl
and the new city of Venice no Christian town
la tbo western MedlUrrsotan seims to have
t J
possessed evan merchant vessels In Mr
Omans opinion this monopoly ot European
commerce was ono of the greatest elements In
the strength nf the Byzantine empire Ho
thinks that tho subsequent concession of free
trade to thu Venetians dealt an Irreparable
blow to Its financial resources
I Is beyond question that the notion ot
Alexius Comncnus entertained by most people
who deem themselves well educated Is de
rived from tho portrait of that Emperor In
Scotts Count Robert of Paris Curiously
too although that novel on tho whole tho
feeblest and least trustworthy of tho authors
productions tho particular figure of Aloxlus
Is In tho main outlines correctly drawn Hero
U tho picture of him by Mr Oman based on
time studies of Ilnlay and Bury who as wo
have said approached time Investigation ot
Byzantine annals In a spirit very different
from Gibbons Alexius was a man of cour
ago and ability but ha displayed ono of tho
worst types of Byzantine character Indeed
he was the first Emperor to whom tho epithet
Byzantine its common nnd opprobrious
sense could bo applied He was the most ac
complished liar of his ago and while
winning and defending tho thrctoo committed
enough acts of mcau treachery nnd sworn
enough faUo oaths to startle oven tho cour
tiers of Constantinople Ho could fight when
necessary but ha preferred to win by treason
and perjury Yet as a ruler ho had many vir
tues and it will always bo romomborod to his
credit that ho dragged tho empire out of the
deepest slough of r degradation and ruin that It
had ever sunk Into Though false he was not
cruel and seven oxEmperors and usurpers
living unharmed In Constantinople under his
sceptre boro witness to time mildness of his
rulo Tho tale of his reign sufficiently bears
witness to tho strange mixture of moral rb
llquity and practical ability in his character
Time tmpoitanca of tho role of Aloxlus In his
tory Is I recognized when wo compare the situa
tion In which ho found time Byzantine cmplro
with thatln which ho loft It When ho usurped >
tho throne In 10S1 his position was as difficult
and perilous as that In which Leo tho Isaurian
was placed in 717 lie had to taco at ono and
tho same time tho i > i aults nf tho Soljuks in
Asia Minor and those of n now and formidable
foe the Norman whoso Invasion of his west
ern provinces was contemporaneous with their
conquest England Time dominions of tho
Soluk Sultan nt this time extended as far us
tho Propontls and Included tho city of Nlcaa
closo to tho Blthynlau shore andonly seventy
miles from Constantinople As for the Nor
mans alter wresting Sicily from tho Saracons
they had stripped the Greek empire Calabria
and Apulia and in June 10S1 fifteen years
after tho victory of William tho Conqueror
at Hastlngsthoy crossed thu Straits of
Otrnnto thirty thousand strong and laid siege
to Durazzo on the Kplroto coast In tho first
twelvemonth they Inflicted a crushing dafoat
on Alexius took Durazo and descended Into
Thossaly but by thu close of 1083 the skilful
strategy of tho Emperor resulted in the dis
persion of tho invading army and when
Robert Guiscard died in 1085 time danger from
the Normans passed away It was through
the extraordinary sagacity evinced In his
dealings with the Crusaders that Alexius was
ablo uot only to avert tho fate which overlook
Constantinople at the hands of the western
nations a century later but also to recover a
largo part > of Asia Minor from time Beljuks 1
ever diplomacy has won a triumph over brute
force it was in tho long and tedious negotia
tions by which the Byzantine emperor
prevailed upon all the leaders of the
Crusade from Godfrey of Bouillon down
to time smallest baron to swear him al
legiance Characteristic also was tha course
which ho pursued in the bucceedlli campaign
Whllo tho Crusaders were plunging through
Asia Minor dealing shattering blows at the
Turks Aloxlus followed In their rear at 1
tufa distance picking up tho spoil which they
had left By the time tho Franks had entered
Syria the Byzantines had recovered so much
territory that tho Turkish frontier In Asia was
rolled back O miles Instead of the Seljuk
lying at Kiciua ho was now chased behind the
Bithjnlan hills and tho empire had regained
all Lydia and aria with much of tho Phrygian
highlands So hard hit were thu Beljuks that
for well nigh a hundred years they woro re
duced to light on tho defensive Thus it came
to pass that tho end of limo reign of Alnxim
was delivered from the dangers which had
overshadowed its beginning So much
strengthened was his postlon I that when In
1107 the Normans under Bohomund of
Tarentum tried to repeat time feats
which Robert Guiscard had accom
plished in 1082 they were beaten off with aso
Tho renewed vitality which ho had Imparted
to the empire survived Alexius for at least I a
generation Under Ills eon John the Good
tho only Byzantina ruler of whom no detractor
has over said an evil word tho Greok frontier
in Asia continued to advance ut tho expense of
tho Turks Johns son Manuel was also suc
cessful defending the frontiers and main
taining tho prestige of tho Easter empire
Ho overran Ben la invaded Hungary to
whoso king ho dictated terms of pence and ho
beat off an Invasion of Greece by the Sicilian
Normans In a naval engagement with tho
Venetian ho was victorious and drove tIme gal
leys of thoUoge out of the Jgoan Time one
isevere defeat which lu experienced through t
carelessness at the hands of the Noljuks docs
not seem to have resulted In army loss of terri
tory When ho died however in 1180 time
good fortune of tint house of Comncnus and
ot tho Dmntlno empiro pasted away
Historians have agreed that tho greatest
crime over porpotrated against civilization was
the sacking of onttantlnoplo In 1204 by Iho
loaders of thu 1ouith Out ado and Limo par
titioning of Iho Eastern empiro among time
representatives of Jatln nations I is true
that In 1tJ Michael Palcologuf who had
inndo himself ruler of limo small Greek Stale
In Blthynla grandiloquently culled tho Em
pire of Nlcica recovered possession of Con
stantinople Hero Ids descendants reigned
until 145i and to an unobservant reader time
record of tho Paleologl looks like limo natural
continuation of older llvruntlno history But
Interval limo Hyrnntlno
the truth Is that In the Illcrul 1711100
realm had undergone n fatal transfoimatlon
As regards tho external signs of ilmnco it U I
obvious that the lands subject to Michael
limited In extent
Pnleologus were much moro Ihliod II
than thoso which had obe > ud tho Greek predo
cumorsof the Latin usurpers In Europe four
great blocks of territory hud been loft for
mer First was u slip along tho southern
slope of time Balkans In northern Thrace ana
Macedonia which had fallen Into I thu I hands
of tho Bulgarians and become completely
Hlavonled This U I time district now known to
us us astern 1 lUnimelia Time second piece of
dismembered territory Is represented by Al
bania Thlid In the list oC old lluiutlnu lands
which Michael never rocovoro I must ho placed
Greece proper now divided between the 1iank
princes of Achala mind time Frank flukes of
Athens HIl l true that thu Paleologl retained
a considerable sllroof Peloponnesus iind vvuro
debt 1mm ed to eventually encroach upon their
Frnuklblt neighbors Lastly must bo men
tioned limo Islands of tho Egoan of which I
largo majority woro held olthor by time Vene
tian Government or by time Venetian n <
vontuiors The great difference In respect t of
territory however between time umpire ul 1204
and time empire of IOl was only ono of
tho causes whelm crippled tho realm of the
Paloologl The whola fUoil and udminMra
live machine of government bad been thrown
Irreparably out of gear Than again the com
mercial decline of the empire had become Irre
trievable The Ialeologl wore never able to
reassert the old dominion over time SOlS whloh
had mado their predecessois the arbiters of
the trade of Christendom Time Latin con
quests threw the control of the trade of the
Bosporus Into time hand of tho Venetians who
hud bo desIre to make Constantinople their
one central mart but were juet a ready to
trade through the Syrian and Egyptian ports
Ircm 1204 onward Italy rather then Conituu
= 4 f t n
tlnople became the centre and stalling place 1
for all European commerce and tho groat
Italian republics employed all their energies
to prevent tho Greek fleet from recovering Its
old strength I should bo added that tliu
emperors who succeeded each other on
the restored tlirono of Constantinople woro I
without exception men more lilted to loie than
to hold together an Impoverished and ox I
haunted empire Aftor tho decisive battle
gained by tho Ottoman Sultan Murml I In I
front of Adrlanoplo In 1302 the Byzantine em
pire became a mere head without a body and
hero Is no doubt that tho death stroke might
then have boon dealt which was to bo dufonod
for ninety years As we havo said tho last I
1nlcolocl sank Into tho humble vassals 01 the
Ottoman ruler whoso realm encircled them
and tho duty of defending Christendom devolved
volved on the Servians and Hungarians who bo
twoon them sturdily discharged It for IGOyoura
The solo service rendered to civilization by
the Byzantine omplro during Its last ninety
years of nominal existence and no ono of
course would underrate tho servicewait timid
I acted as time custodian of ancient literature
and alt until Italy was ripe for tho inheritance
1 W II
HtavenBtma New Novel
In Tlif Wrecker by Mr R IA STKVKXRON
Scrilmeif lY Imvo not only the latest but
the sti 1 oncostof limo writers performances In
thu fold of prdso fiction I Is true that on tho
title page there fIgures tho uaino of an Anton
I cnn collaborator Mr lloyd Osbourno and it
I Is I possible tint tho artist may have boon In
debted to him for some of the raw material
I notably the account of an astonishing Ameri
can commercial college and tho transcilpt of
San Francisco life In the speculative era In tIme
workmanship however wu dutoct no traces
of any other Imiid than Mr Stevensons and
even as regards tho substance of the nnr
rntlvo It Is plain that tho chapters deal
Ing with Edinburgh and student life In
Paris with divers modes of existence in Now
Houth Wiles and with tho Islands of the 1u
elite are drawn from his personal observa
tion Ho remarkable indeed are the range
and varlct y of the scones and incidents t lint our
credulity Is somewhat htraluod by tho assump
tion that wo are rending tho record of ono
mans experience The hero of the narrative
U scarcely old enough to have seen fro much
nnd studied it BO thoroughly though It may
bo that more than ono middleneed hut much
traveiled Ulj ssos may bo met with among tho
anomalous characters encountered amid tho
strange adventurous sensuous existence that
mon lead in tho South Soap
As records doss this novel Is n story of
crlmo and its detection in rospoct of struc
ture it Is an autobiography prefaced with n
prologue and capped with an epilogue About
tho choice of subject and form tho author tels
us something In tho concluding paragraphs
Tho genesis and growth of Tho Wrecker
Is wo are Informed that once on board
tho schooner Equator the authorsit Is
not Mr Stuvonsons fault that wo do not
credit the alleged plurality of author
ship heard toveral stories about tho
salo of wrecks Tho subject tempted them
and they ant down to discuss Its possi
bilities What a tnnglo it would make
suggested one If the wrong crow woro
aboard Hut how to get tho wrong crow
there I have III cried tho other
tho soandso affair It seems that not
many months before and not many hundred
miles from where the schooner Equator was
then sailing a proposition almost tantamount
to that which forms the pivot of this narrative
had been made by a Ilritlsh sklnpor to some
British castaways Tho central situation hav
ing been found the plot wo aro informed was
outlined before tho authors turned in The
question of treatment required longer dis
cussion for the aim was to avoid tho Impres
sion of elaborate unllfeliko mechanism made
by the ordinary form of police novel
or mystery stony Tho conclusion was
reached that tIme end might bo attained
if the tale wero gradually approached
6c > l < of tho characters Introduced beforehand
and tho hook started in tho tone of a novel of
manners and experience In this way tho
m tury might seem the outgrowth of real
life With this purpose in view time two prin
cipal typos that of tho American handyman
of business and that of tho Yankee merchant
sailor are dwelt upon at Rome length and the
same effect of I reallMii is I contemplated > in the
introduction of somo secondary figures and
incidents not directly connected with tho plot
With delightfut candor Jlr Stevenson acknowl
edges that after this method of approaching
and fortifying the oleo novel had been labo
riously planned it occurredto limo authors
that It had been invented previously by somo
ono el < o and was intact tho process adopted
by Charles Dickons in his later work There
is however a marked difference between
the mystery story of Dickens or for that
matter of Oalioriiiu and that cxcm
plillod lu The Wrecker In time majority
Dickenss novels nnd In all of Guboriaun
love plays a considerable rlo whereas what
has been palled the master pasclou I of the
modern world might as well bo nonexistent
us regards time part asdgnod to It In time book
before us or Indeed in tiny of Mr Stevensons
production Either Jlr Stevenson feels no
impulo to depict tho complex and romantic
passion which is to limo sexual instinct what
the flower is to tho root or ho wishes to
demonstrate that tho power of making a story
interesting without nn Infusion of hove mak
ing did notl > ersh with Defoe timid Godwin
It is surprising in how many places Mr
Stevenson scorns to bo equally at hOle Wo
ran vouch for time accuracy and vividness of
the nccnes In thu Latin Quarter as wall as
titmice in Frisco Bret liarto has not inora
fHithfully delineated time ono norllenrl MQrccr
the other When wo timid ourselves In tho
South HtI or in New South Wales or In
Edinburghthn narratIve still bears time marks
of thorough t knowledge and It eon Insight I
The whole boo I I iionneatuil with t lie humor
whleh Is not only the most diverting but time
deepest of mtorpioters and which is fir
Htovontons most ehnrictorlstlo Rift It is in
deed by hUllO that he Is separated by tho
whole diameter of aitlsllc nature from fo In
stance Mr Henry James Tho highest ama
lon which the latter can elicit In the reader Is
that of aim satisfaction seldom If over does
he provoke I > I smile As you read Mr htuvcn
lon on tho other h ind when you aro not held
breathless by cm losity or alarm you are al
most always smiling and at times burst into a
loud laugh Tlieie iuo few things of Mark
Twains funnier than tho description In this
novel of Munkegons Commercial College
where bor > were mined to become stock
brokers and piojuco brokers by gambling
with counters in a mlmlo stock exchange
Then again them Is nothing moro side split >
ting ntiawnnilrfa Vietle llniitnie than time
uxporlonces of f Mr rUovensonit hero In tho
Latin Qimiter I zmflor his supplies were cutoff
through tlm allure of his father Two of thoso
Inc I < unt a ru so delicious Hint I 10 must his 1 al I
lowed II t iipiciduco I them oed the hero
had been sent tim Iiris to learn I to I bo n sculp I
tor and ire IL I 0 told I Iliut I aller being tin t i j own
upon > his own resources ho was still utile for a
time to get 1 credit for a midday meal at u rab
minis eating house 1 lime outr boulevard
Dodd explains hal I Supper I wan supposed
nollo I toroiulre sit I ting down nightly I to t tho I dull
eat m talil a of 10110 rich acquaintances I I This ar
rangement was extremely III considered My
fable credible enough at Ilibt and no long
us tuy clothe were in gooj oidur
must have seemed WOIHO than doubt
ful after my ejit became frayed about time
eiges and my boon began to squeak and
plpa along limo ruMauiant llooif Tim allow
ance of one meal u day besides though hultn
ble inouih to time stale of my llnuncnt agreed
poorly with my stomach limo restaurant was
u place I hud ohiO visited experimentally to
taste tIme lift of btudunts thun morn unfor
tunate than m > > elf nnd 1 had never In this
days entered It without disgust or lull It
without nausea It was stiaiiire to llnd my
self Bitting down with avidity rising up with
satisfaction and counting time hours that
divided mo from my return to such a table
f 4
But hunger l great magician and so soon
nIhad spent my ready rath uud could no
longer fill up on bowls ot choooluto or hunks
of broad I must depend entirely on that cab
mans rating liou o antI upon certain rare
longexpected longremembered windfalls
In time shape ot Latin Quarter loans not meant
to bo repaid
Of course however mimitIenco and trustful
ness havo their limits even In the keepers of u
cabmans eating house Mr Dodd record
that eventually a shade of change in imlmi rim
coitlon nt this ordinary marked the begin
ning ot a now phase in my dlstiess The Hist
day I told myself It was but fancy time next
I made quite sure It was u fact the third In
mere panlu I stayed away and went for forty
eight bums fasting This was an act of great
unreason for time debtor who stays nvvay Is
but time more remarkoJ and the boarder who
mls cs n meal Is sure to be accused of Inll
dellty On the fouith day therefore I 10
turned Inwardly quaking The proprietor
looked askance upon my ontinnco the wait
resses who woro his daughters neglected my
wants and bnlffcU at the affected joviality of
my salutations last and mott plain when 1
called for sufssMsuoh as was lolng seived to
all limo other diners I was bluntly told thero
woro no more It was obvious I wis near time
end of my tether one plank divided mo from
want and now I felt It tremble
It was now evident that as n sculptor Dodd
Would starve In Paris and he ramu to the mno m
conclusion that swallowing his pride ho must
become a sculptors workman lie proceeded
therefore to tho atelier of his old master n
certain distinguished I I wloldur of tho cli lad
by whoso exit iii iIo and Instruction I ho
had been supHQsed to I profit and who
had onco dono him the honor In time
days of his opulence to partake of a
dejeuner Toward the end of this repast
which had boon bountiful I tho I master had I let
drop sumo goodnutured words of ram inunda
tion touching his young hosts masterpiece a
stutua of the lentils of Muskegon which
through his fathers Intluence hal been or
dered ion time Stale House ot u Western com
monwealth It was consequently without any
misgivings as to his qualillcatlons that Dodd
reluctantly proceeded to miolTi lie frock coat of a
gentleman and approach mint in tlm woikmans
tunic Ills reception In the masters mile
Her is calculated to enlighten not only
amateur artists but also amateur men of
letters who conceive that because FOIIIO of
their unpaid contributions have found their
way Into print they can easily earn a living
with the pen Tien this little Uodd cried
the master nail then as his eye fell on my di
lapidated clothing 1 thought 1 could porculvo
his countenance to darken I made itt y plea
In I English for I knew It I I ho wern vain of any
thing it was of his achievement of time Island
tongue Master said I will you take mo
in your studio again but this time as a work
man I sought your faziir was Immensely
leech said he I explained to him that I was
nov an orphan and penniless He shooc his
head I have better workmen waiting at my
door said he fir bettor worknon You
used to think something of my work sir I
pleaded Homeslng snmeslng he
cried enough fur it son of a roech man not
enough for an orphan Ilcsidos I sought you
might learn to bo an artist I did not sink you
might lenin to bo a workman
A favorable turn In time tide having drifted
Dodd to Kan rranciscohu beramo an oini
mental s gn partner for his friend Jittkem ton
the type of 111 allround man of business
Among the lattois countless devices for limo
abstraction of dollars was a scheme described
In the advcrtiboment us Iinkortons Ilubdomc
duty rlcnlcs soon shortened by popular con
sent to the Dromedary Of those unique steam
boat excursions Mr H Loudon DodH late
of the Kcolo doe Beaux Arts was made
manager and honorary steward The follow
ing paragraphs give but a glimpse of hrs ex
perience In this capacity HyH oclock any
Sunday morning I was to bo observed bran
admiring public en the wharf The garb and
attributes of sacrifice consisted of a black
fiock coat rosettod its pockets bulging with
sweetmeats and inferior cigars trousers
of a light blue a silk hat like u reflector
and n varnished wand A goodly steamer
guarded my one flank panting and throb
bing flags fluttering fore and aft ot
her illustrative of time Dromedary and
patriotism My other flank was covered
by the ticket ulHce strongly held by trusty
character of the Scots persuasion resetted
hike his superior and smoking a cigar to mark
time occasion festive At halfpast having as
cured myself that ill was welt with the trots
luncheons I lit a cigar myself ana awaited
the strains of the Pioneer Band I had
never to wait long They wore Gorman and
punctual and by a few minutes after time half
hour I would hoar them booming down street
with a long military roll of drums some score
of gratuitous asses prancing at time head In
bearskin hats and buckskin aprons and con
spicuous with resplendent axes Time band of
course wo paid for but so strong in the
San Iranclscan passion forpubllc masquerade
that the asses as I say were all gratu
itous pranced for time lovo of It
and cost us nothing but heir luncheon
Time musicians formed up in lie bows of my
steamer and struck into u skittish polka limo
asses mounted guard upon tim gangway mid
limo ticket office and presently after in family
parties of father mother and children in the
form of duplicate lovers or in that of solitary
youth the public began to descend upon us by
time earful at a time four ii mmix hundred nor
haps with a strong Gorman flavor and all
merry as children When thc o had Lion
shepherded on board and lime Inevitable be
lated two or throo hid gained the deck amid
the encoring of the public the hawser was
cast off nnd we plunged into time bay And
now behold time honoraiy stevvaid In thu hour
of duty and glory see mo circulate amid time
crowd radiating affability and laughter lib
eral with my sweetmeats and eigars I
say unblushing things to hobbledehoy
girls tell but young parsons this N the mar
ried peoples boat roguishly nM the abstract
ed If hwy are thinking of their bwctlmaits
offer paterfamilias a el gar am stiuek with tho
beauty and grow curious about the ace of
mammas youngest who 11 assume her gayly
will I be a mini before his mother < ir i perhaps i it
may occur to me from tIme acmmehhio expression
of her face that she U a person of goud coun
sel ind I ask her earnestly If die Knows mummy
particularly pleasant place on tilt Siuoolltu or
Still llufael coast for time scone of our picnli li
always supposed to bo uncertain Tho next
moment 1 am back at my giddy badinage I with
the jouug ladles wakening laughter us I go
and leaving In I my wake npplauiv i comments
of Isnt Mr Dodd a funnv gentleman I and
Oh I think hes just too mutt
Although the narrative stall m t in imo I heart of
the 1acltlc and although vu a tvvlen return
I lilt imu r in time coursocif I n m I vui find very litilo I m
about the I scenery nnd tho I eliiraclerlstics of
native life In 1olyiionin I hin N I n lilt Ic dKip
pointing h because having hmip4iim fur ii I intitmi f a
dw lling place In Samoa limo author i peeul
Inrly qualified to toil us what wo want In hear
But for die application to Oceanica of tho
faculty for landscape I ill m awing and for the
Mudy if I chaiacler and manner whleh was so
signally I I ilcmuiiuliulod in I the authors ear
liest writings no shall have to wait for other
books which dcnibtlus will bo presently
tom I Imeonming In tho I procut volume tim ore Is
only th mm following brief deoerlptlon I I of lime out 1
wud aspect on n winters 5 afternoon of
Jmdoimao time Ilenli cat llulof IheManiuosax
nrehlpilngo Thu I lnuls vva are told
blow rtrong anti equally tho surf roared loud
on limo shlntlo Ijuch amid the fiftyIon
Frliooneriifvuirthat carries time Hug and Inllu
euro of Ilnnce about limo islands of tho I rannl
bid groui lolled at her in > orings under Triton
Mill I The clouds hung low and Mad I k on the I
surrounding amphitheatre of mountains ruin
had fallen earlier in the I day teal Itoplu I m ruin
a waterspout for violence and tho green and
gloomy brovr of the mountain was still suamed
with many silver threads of torrent lu thoie
hot and healthy islands winter U but a name
The rain had not refreshed nor could llmo
wind Invigorate the dwellers of Talolme
away nt ono end Indeed the commandant wM
directing some changes In time residency J
garden booud Prison llllllaml the gardeners
being nil convicts had no choice but to P
continue to obey All other oiks slumbered
und took their lest Vnekoliu the native
queon In her dim I I house under the rustling
palms thn I I rmmim Ills n Colt Imi imsmmry In his b < v
flagged ofllcliit residence the merchants la
their t deserted stoics and even lie I club ser
vant In time club his head fallen forward OB
time bottlu counter iindei tile mmiaimof the world
and limo cards of navy ollleers In the whola
letiath of tho shorcsldu street with Its scat
tered boa id houses looking to limo sea its
grateful shade of palms and green junglo ot
purnos no moving lUiiro could bn ueon Only
at the end of a rickety pier that onco In time
prosperous days of the Ameileati rebellion
was used to gioan under thu cotton ot John
Hart there might havn been spied upon a p1k
of lumber tho famous tattooed white man time
living curiosity of Talohae His eyes wora
open staring down the buy Ho saw the moun
tains droop as they approached time entianoe
and breakdown I In I cliffs I tlm 1 surf boll white
round tint two sentinel Ittots ami between
on limo narrow bight of blue horlron Unpu up
raise the ghost ot oar pinnacled mountain
tops But his mind would tdUo no u < ountot
these familiar fonturor as ho dodged In and
out along limo rentier line of bleep und wak
ing memory would serve him with bioken
fragments of time past brown faces and white
of sllpjor and shipmate king and uhlcfwoulii
nrlsii before his mind and vanish hn would
recall i I old voyage old landfalls In I time hour
of dawn ho would hear again limo drums
beat for n maneating festival I perlinp ha
would summon up lie 1 form of that I island
princess for the love of whom ho had submit
ted t his body to thu cruel Imndsof the tattooar
and now sal on tim a lumber ut the pier end of
Tnlohae bo strange a figure ot a European
Ono glimpso now of u Scotchman manifestly
drawn from life the heros maternal grand
father a stonemason who made a fortune by
erect I mm g build I limn I whloh combined a minimum
of outlay I with a maximum I of uliow Ho had s >
notion IhirUiM I grandsons experience at this
livtvilf Itinur Ail I would qualify him to be
come an architect I I a tei t m suionymous In his
vocabulary with hotisehulldor ot time typo with
which ho was himself familiar It never oc r
curred to thIn hero being an American to ba
nshanied of his grandfather although the lat
ter as we have said had been a working mason
and had risen from thu ranks rather by shrewd
ness than by merit Wu arm told that la
Ills appearance spneeh and manners ha
bore broad inn i ks of his origin which were gall
and wormwood to my tnelo Adam I His nails
In spite of anxious Hiipotvlnlou vvero olton la
conspicuous mourning his clothes hung
iibuut him In lings ant wrinkles hIke a plough
mans Sunday coat Ills accent was rude
broad and drugging lako him at his best and
ovim when lie I could ho Induced I to hold his
tongue his mere presence inn corner ot tha
drawing room with his openair wrinkles hip
scanty hair I his battered hands and the cheer
ful craftiness of his expression advertised the s
whole gang for a solimade family My aunt
might mince und my cousins bridle but there
was no getting over the solid physical fact ot
time stonemason in time chimney corner
This worthy Hoot took n great fancy to his
American grandson and liked to havo time
young man nccom puny him In his walks Tha
purpose of thoso excursions was not to seek
antiquities or to enjoy famous prospects but
to vsit on niter another u series ot doleful
suburbs for which it was the old gentlemans
chief claim to renown that ho had been the
sole contractor and too often the architect
besides I have rarely seen a moro shocking
exhibition Limo bricks seemed to bo blushing
In the walls and time slates on the roof to have
turned pale with shame but I was careful
not to communicate them impressions to tha
ngodartltlcerat my side and when ho would
direct my attention to some fresh monstrosity
perhaps with the comment Theres an Ides ol
mines its cheap und tasty and had a graand
run the idee was soon stole and there
whole doestricts near Cileeglo with the goothio
adeotion and that plunth 1 would elvlllr
mako husto to admire and what I found par
tlcularly delighted him to inquire into the
cost of each adornment It was after our
heros evacuation of Paris which as wo hava
soon he found untenable that these excur
sions took place and It was on one of these
occasions that his grandfather made him a
present of 2000 and urged him with this
capital to settle down in Hcotland and pursue
the business of n builder und contractor
Hero is I his bit of lowland Scotch la
which tIme proposal is unfolded Sea
here then Jeannius yin Ana going
to give yo n setoff Your mlthor was always
my favrito for A flavor could agree wilts
Aaduiii Alike yo fine yoursel theres nao
noansenio about ye yovoa flno naytoral idea
ol builders work yevo boon to Franco where
they toll mo theyre grand nt the stuccy A
splendid thing for coillns limo stuccy and Its
n vallyublo disguise too A dont believe
theres a builder In Scotland has used more
htuccy than mu But as A was Eayln If yelL
follie that trade with the capital that Am
gout to give ye yo may live yet to bo as rich
as mi sol Ve see yo would have always had
1 share of It when A was gone it appears
yoro nocdln It now well yoll get thu loss M
is only just and proper
None of Poos stories has n moro skilfully
constructed plot than that which Is evolved ia
the book before us It is ijuebtlonaulo whether
any reader will guess thu secret of The
Wreck before limo author Is ready to oxplaia
it Wo have carefully avoided casting any
light upon limo mystory beyond time hint given
in time passage quoted at tho outset from the
epilogue When tho veil is lifted It will un
cover horrors enough to satiate the most
bloodthirsty dovouiers of the polieo novel
But although wo are far from underrating
time faculty of arousing and sustaining cu
riosity this as our extracts will demonstrate
is time least of the authors merit which hava
novor beon exhibited on so largo u seal of
so effectively ns In the proiont novel
lime Mfint Hlnnc Obvertalory
I ion fir tontin Than
It may bo rememboiod that M Jansen the
vvellkn wn director the iloudon Observa
tory mid mum mmmmu Ito ot tho Trench I I Institute who
last year made the ascent of Mont Blanc In
older to examine I tlm I ii nmmet lets ii I ft y of lbs
siimni for obtaldlshlng an nhsurvutory there
flnillng that lit forty feet below thu surface ot
thu snow thero was no solid Led of rock for
Inundations of u building conceived tho Idea
of constructing onu which conid ho kept la
Its plaeu by time snow Itself lie accord
ingly formed an association to which
Prince Roland Bonaparte M Ion bay
M llaphael Blsehortshulm Count da
Orcflulhu und Baron Mo HothsililM wera
liberal subscriber and the funds thus ob
lulntid were silent in tho construction of un op
borvutory wliiehnitor having been put up fa
tin grounds of lie I Muuion establishment
lias been taken to plenos again and sent oil
to I Cliaiiioiinlv i from which place it will h
taken up tn lliu suiuinlt of lime mountain aw
put together under time supervision of M
anus time wellknown explorer who accom
panied M liuiivalot In his journuy through
Central Asia and over tIme Pamir Into India
Tho new observatory is of timber und Is
aboutTi foot lu height being divided into two
coiupnrtn > < nls or stories surmounted by a
squaiH platform with nn Iron bulu trailu and
a woodun sealloldlng for limo roeoptlou nftha
Mirioiirt iniiteorologieal Instruments timer S
aro hivioal i looms In I each compartment or
slury foi tno I use ilium I him OUt side of time
director I iiid hlh stuff and upon the other ot
tourist i m and their guidits Thesci rooms will
bo I provid d i I with barrack I I fim rum I u uris and with
small slot ijt fur imetitlimsuind cooking umiirpo S
tlm t fuel Hied nl Ii rt heist Hiitliritrlto Tha 1
iwo stones communieatu with each other by
means of t I a spiral sialrcam I whllo I thorn S Is
a straight ludder wit Ii a trapdoor I giv
ing I access to I him t room for tho guides I
i < ntlliti m m Is provided for In inwins of tubes
wlillo I I iliu I wuidowHof f HIH I upper story with
itt mm iaiO framework und i doubt I h liii floe of Hlnsu
allord MOWS In vuiloun di nvllons among
olhuiHtoivnril Iliaiiiounlx with which it is l In
tundnd II t coriiiniinlealii by iinuns of boina
pliorlcil Igimls when hit atmoiiihern Is siilfl
cliitlyiiear All the timber h is u thick coat
I I llruproof piilnt and each nieco of wool I is
numbered m MI as 1 o faelltalo I tlin I observatory a
bolntiuillv I put loelliiir I a work vviilch wilt
tie completed hy the end of hiplombur
It rMinnins of courpe to be sunn wliuther Ilia
building I wiii I I nk M Jmssen anticipate rim
maln In Its placo by lie klmpln nroforb uf 1st l i
tlng thu planks which are to form time waits
down some diitaucu into time hardened snow
i Oa r

xml | txt