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The sun. (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916, March 24, 1895, Part 3, Image 27

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I V i f j q JV I f P NM I 4o J Hl
H S Maxim Tells of Industries
Driven From England
Causes of Englands Decline as a
Manufacturing Nation
LIn of flM te IhM HHTO Ben Tukenr
yy hjr Kier NntlonBStrlke Foment
d by LMbOr AgltMor nnd Attempt ta
Itmlt Prodactlon nnri lon or Inbor
IJrenler rrodnellvence of AVorUmen OB
tlc Continent Than In Or cut Hrltnlv
Heller Workt Too New Eaclander Hi
O ftneftt sleehnnlelnn In I the World Com
nrlflDft vvlth Other NntlOH
loMMiN I I MArch in I No man has had A wider
rxperlenco w tti the modern rceotirccs of the na
tions In mechanical skill no man linn Invest
KttM l moro carefully and more practically the
ccralltlons tiniler which mAimfacturlng Is l car
ried ni i In l the various countries no man knows
Vtttr tho relative capacity of the English the
AiiiTltan Hie 1renrli the Gorman skilled
workman tlmn Hlrnm S Maxim the American
Imcitw alI experimenter whom most Eng
IMinirn rani as the greatest mechanical export
ot tie Jay The conclusions which Sir Maxim
I s lrnIn rrom hit vldo experience In contact
with the bust mechanical skill of all nation are
1t anI mighty Interesting but thoy will lot
jTesntoiit students of Industrial problem ns
leinc if vastly greater Importance than a great
BinMnt tlio retorts and ttsnya from socalled
tr rts on these subject Mr Maxim has some
Hunt prat tied tn say and he says it without re
lerve In the following Intervlow which he has
dlriftcil tII an American newspaperman of his
11 hero 1 can bo no iincstlon that England Is
tot only tho richest nation In tho world today
bit 1 also tlio richest that tho world has ever
tern Xivcr before In tho history of the world
tat thero been so much accumulated capital
an1 ivsilth as wo find Itt tho city of London to
ot hilt wealth Is the accumulation of many
huJrecls of yen and represents the profits on
nuafarturiuc and commerce which havo been
cirrfil on In these Islands No matter In what
ecvntry we travclvvo find that wherever there
I 1 nn o ortunlty ot employing capital
jrrltibly there is on Englishman looking
out for an opportunity of placing I I
55 Co In Spain we find English capital
limte I in tramways gas works and water
Vi rib aid to some extent in the mines of the
cojntr The same Is true In Turkey Italy and
AiitrU We also find that English capital is
Invested 111 Kusslu while In the United
largely l hlted Inl8 11 yhlo Cnled
rutea the quantity of Drltish capital invested is
normou Many large manufacturing concerns
In the states nt the present time have recently
lifen bought out by English l capitalists and are
LOW being ran us limited liability companion i
1 theo foreign Investments of lirlthh
cipts of course give employment to 0 great
number of men and the reason why these in
vestments are nought abroad is that the English
that his him better
ciptalUt llmls money brings beter
returns li zlrlit employment to foreign work
men than to his countrymen Moreover capi
talists dn not like to bo bullied by low politicians
set vulgar labor agitators Forty years ago
England was by far the greatest manufacturing
Dillon In the world In America If any one
named a cowl lair a good plane a reliable file
or s chisil that could be depended upon ho In
KedibitH should be made In England noth
Insticcptot English make would bring fair
price At the present moment the Americans
not only make their own tools but are export
Inj largely to England At thu time when
H I ITS necessary to pay forty per cent
chty on English steel to get It Into
the Lnllcd States the Americans purchased It
tool It to the State paid thu 40 per cent duty
manufactured It Into twist drills and other
small articles paid about ono and n half times
the dally wage demanded In England and sold
at a price considerably below what the same
work could be produced for In England a much
better article than ever had been made here
Tike the Morse twit drills for Instance I have
DO doubt that these are largely manufactured
from English steel on which a duly has been
Mid Mill they are very largely sold In Eng
land today In fact if anybody wants n reo
1able one they nlvrnjn demand the American
drill mlle h > the Morse Tirlrt Drill Company
A few years ago while in at Petersburg I
Tlslted a Urge dealer In hardware I asked him
hero hl8 tools camp fro in Ho said
Originally we got nearly everything from
tc land At tle present time the very cheap I
> c > t > or tools are made In Uuasla the common I
tryls tint we sell to everybody are made In
lerminy we get a few articles from France
Irnm Digland wo only buy a few Stubbs lies
mem aid engraving tools while our very
bthpriceil instruments of precision such for
fltele asmlcrometer calipers siiuares scales
rufj AC inme from the Lnlttd Staffs
Ho told me that the tale of English goods
IM l fallen oT lately bo much that ho was only
sUn n small fraction nf what he originally
iiW SOle few jenri ago If any one In Europe
waaed a drill press a turning lathe a planeror
Ibjpmi machine he was sure t get It from
Lflhnel When the German Government
clJnl in irnko their rifles nn the American In
tihtnecAlile plan they purchased from Messrs
Ifutl 1 Vhltiioy of Hartford Conn about
XV > 3030 worth of American tools These
era brousht to Germany and a very enter
Hlri mnnufaoturer In I Berlin seeing the great
luntazoof the American style of tools over
time of Kuropean make established a factory
a il rnaimcnied to build them on a very large
Ial Inday this enterprising manufacturer
ha not only practically driven I the English tools
trom Ibe market cm the Continent of Europe
but he li I also tending tools to England and sell
Kthem at prices considerably below those of
toclUh tools and moreover as they are close
cMes nf American designs they are found In be
I eh handler and butter adapted to the work
tl1 i tool of Kngllah design
In regard to the eupposed superiority of Eng
lUhmade tools I would say that when I frt
CXe to England wishing to buy Homo lathes I
ttthsi4 mined a large number made by different
manufacturers and I was surprised to
hd how uMfaMiloned they worn Upon asking
Jy tbi jr did no1 make better lathes they con
> r II l 1 1 good and sufficient answer to cay
Ioo uOclent llwr 8
En Oh everynody knows that everything of
tlia mike urery much bettor than anything
IIr rurh betor tlm
tt du abroad
H nly K manufacturer Knew of the eilst
= ceor the name American tools Ho when I had
1t1uID lome very large factories I found It
1 etb to the
r bUlb 1 advantage of my company to pur
U the greater part of thu tools from Amen
tat makr
IU i Only a few years ago that there was a
rwat deal ot shipbuilding on the Thames ana
early erery flrstrlajn ship whethir for the
rmns the or the French came from England
re IbIreaent bttlltlfng llme the French and Hermans
bUllili their own boat I peak of this
Y 10 how that England Is losing her rolatlre
p II a A I nanufatturing nation I do not
Y that I Ilere
fiM rel Is not M largo amount of manu
rttllli dOle 11 England at the present time
that tme
il 5 ha I du say U I that England J has not been l
le nmlMuIn her relative position as a greut
am m IIlton I Iret
1lrllrlll nation I
kae ht i 10 thl i Uestlol > why 10 want Industries
Iy IIII1 for other countries I would
fceihn I 1 w Ilalance the manufacture of
H I ner an industry In hlch England 1 was
thn r tuno ahead ot all olh nations Ma
il 4uery lMeelr nadenf Iron and the do
aii Iuitl i isy I aim tl liye a ennui of the work
14 i ti ne cur a let up iifl lat l t be may then
a l nl flhidCrsi tics lurImuelluti tool emmupoyetl 1 ln the
itC t r or rachlntr > In the original I
Ureing lath5 111
t Iltbul Was necesSary for the m
son to hold the tool In his band and of course
one man could work only one lathe The turn
Ing lathe was soon Improved so that today It Is I
quite automatic Buppote now that n piece ot
metal has to b turned It Is mounted In a lutlie
tie tool Is set and tho lathe Isatartcd The tool Is
automatically fed up and cuts off a uniform
chip At tho laths of necessity has to turn very
slowly It requires a very long time for the laths
to make one cut In porno cases the person does
not have to sharpen or adjust a tool more than
once A day and this only requires Vi will say
About five minutes All the rest ot the time he
has nothing to do but watch tho lathe nnd In
many eMU he ham nil ho can do to keep from
going to sleep The trades unions will not allow
the British workman to run more lion one
lathe while In Dcrmnny and France a man runs
from four to six according to the class ot work
on which ho Is employed And the same Is truo
A great deal of the work In the Maxim
Xordenfclt factories I done on milling ma I
chines Before we had 1 strike many of the
union mel not only objected to work more than
ono milling machine but wanted the company
to agree not to allow any nununion man to
work moro than one SOle of the leaders In
our strike insisted that none but what they
called skilled mechanics ihonld work a milling
maihlnc Since the strike wo are employing
unskilled labor on these mucblnoa and one man
runs as many an four This Is I of course n de
cided advantage on tho state of affairs before
time ctllke but docs not compai very favorably
with what they are doing In France A few
clays ago I was at Barlquand Marreit fac
tory In 1arK where 1 found a very
goodlooking young woman running no fewer
than fifteen milling machines I remem
ber tome years ago I had a leading trades
union man In France with mo I took him to
Itarlquands place and showed him a woman
working six machine I called his attention to
tho fact that each machine was running about
twlcnns fast and taking about twice as much cut
as we tuere able to do In England that Is that
each machine was doing four times as much as
the trades union men allowed a machine to do
In England and that the woman Instead of
working one machine was working six that In
stead of receiving HUj penco or 1 shilling an
hour as we were paying in England the woman
only rcoeUed 0 pence an hour and I asked him
how ho thought we could compete with
French manufacturers unless an English trades
union mal could bo Induced to do at least
half as much as a French woman On our
return to England he attended a meeting of
trades unionist who at that time were seeking
some question on which they might strike Ho
made a speech In which he pointed out that
one of our smaller factories which was then
employing about 1100 men would only be able to
employ about sixty provided that each man did
a much work as tho French woman ho had
seen In Paris Ho said It would be complete
suicide for the workmen to think of such a
thing n working more than one tool
England I not a selfcontained country It
would bo quite Impossible to produce In England
on hat of the food required for the people It
la I therefore necessary to make something In
England which can be Kohl abroad to enable
ns to purchase thcsoocl which wo cannot raise
hare In order t have 1 sure market for our
manufactures abroad It Is necessary that we
Ihould either make them cheaper or better than
other nations are able to do and I would like to
tusk how I will be possible for us to do so In the
of machinery If German French
matter I a or a Jrench
man will work from four t six tools cloven
hours a day and an Englishman will only work
one tool nbout eight or nine hours a
day I would like to ask Mr Tom Mann
or Mr Ben Tlllett what would hap
pen In an English shop I a Frenchman
should como to England and do half a days
work Suppose that I should go to France find
a Frenchman who was working six lathes that
should purchase e three of the lathes nnd hire
tho Frenchman and bring hint to England nnd
sot him to work among English workmen that
the Frenchman should do half as much work
per hour In England as ho had been doing In
France namely run three lathe what would
happen 1 Would there not bo a riot or a strike
Would tha English trades unions allow any man
to do half a days work
When we first commenced to make Maxim
Bun and before the strike occurred the union
ists used to take parts of the gun to a neighbor
ing grog shop whore thy held nightly meetings
for the purpose of what they called rating the
work that Is deciding how much time should
be consumed doing a certain amount of work
on 1 certain part of the gun I will only speak
of one part which I called tho gib which
weighs about half an ounce When the Maxim
guns were made by ones and twos for experi
mental purposes these pieces were first forged
then roughed out on a shaping machine and
finally filed Into shape This piece was rated to
require a day and a half to make It When the
guns camo to be made by tho hundred these
pieces were milled Into shape so that very little
had to be done on them Nevertheless trades
unlonUtdared to smooth ono up with a file after
It had been milled in less time than a day and
a quarter I ono man was taken off and an
other put on it would always require a day and
a quarter to do the work One day a skilful i
German mechanic who did not speak English I
npplled for a situation and was put onto this
job He did eleven the frt day and twelve
every day afterward Instead of doing one In a
day and a quarter A good many other parts of
tho gun woro rated In about the same propor
tion While firing a Maxim gun In the Mutes
one of these clbs was broken and I went Into a
local machine shop to have one wad From the
time the bar of steel wan cut off until the gib
was finished and In the gun was exactly two
and a half hours This was making It from a
bar of steel
In regard to the question of boards of con
dilation and boards of arbitration and so forth
1 would say that nothing of this kind hrof the
least value to the manufacturer I think this
can be seen by any one who will give It a moments
and tho
ments thought Worklngmeii even
trades unions are not responsible while the
manufacturer U I a manufacturer agrees to
anything In writing he has to live up t I I Is
binding and means something to him but no
agreement amounts to anything with an Irre
sponsible party like a workingman or a trades
union and moreover tho trades unions have
no the least regard for the truth I suppose
that a trades unions go the Amalgamated So
ciety of Engineers might be considered the aris
tocracy iimons them I do not believe any
other stands higher Nevertheless when tho
strike at our works was on the point of col
lapsing and we had hired a lot of Frnch Her i
man and Italian workmen a circular was Issued
by tho Amalgamated Society of Engineers and
signed by a considerable number of the mem
bers and secretaries which set forth that the
strike a the MaxlmNordenfeldt works was
caused by the tyranny of Mr Maxim In greatly
increasing the hours of labor and reducing the
salaries This trades union did not scruple to
sign n circular which was an absolute falsehood
They perceived that the foreigner could not
understand tho nice technical point that they
were striking on so they had to Invent 0 reason
In our case there was no real grievance The
lon were paid time highest salaries In Europe
the hours of labor wero the samo as at all other
places Wo had employed a large number of
men and a few professional agitators came
among them with a view of getting them to
strike In order to give notoriety to the profes
sional agitators Many things were brought up
ns an excuse for striking When one thing
failed another cause was InvcnleJ and finally
thu reason why they struck a that we would
not promise never to allow plico work to ho
done In our factories
In regard to the Industries that have left
England I would fay that It viouUl require a
considerable time to RO anything like a full
account of them I can only refnr to a few from
memory For Instance machlncuiad lace used
to unmanufactured almost exclusively In Eng
land Factories wero established In Franco
where I think theo never has boon a strike In
the lac a trade there was a great number of
strikes among the lace Lands In England and
at piesent the French are making more lace than
the English
At ono tlmu England made crape practically
for the world but the number ot strikes was so
m4 j J
great that the Germans are now mokln crape
not only for the ret of the world but for Eng
land as well
At CrayforJ where we hAVo a factory a
certain concern used to havo a specialty In a kind
of printed llnon goods which very closely resem
bled woven woollens This was very largely Bold
to Mexico Cuba nnd South America They
practically had a monopoly of this business
Tho men were constantly striking No sooner
would a large order be obtained than all would
strike for higher pay Tho Chairman of this
company told mo that ho had taken 1 large con
tract at a very small margin of profit but that
no sooner had the men learned that ho had re i
ceived this order than they all struck for higher
pay and ho found that If he acceded to their
demands he would lose money on tho contract
Ho therefore ucnt to France and found a firm
there who did the work for him Upon deliver
ing the goods to his customers they n rota him I
that tho work was beautifully done being much
neuter and cleaner than anything they had over
seen before and they hoped that nil future
orders that they might glvo him would bu
Dual well done When his mel came to their
senses and were willing to go to work again ho
found It was quite Impossible to produce any
thing that would be at all equal to that which
had been done In France Finally the Flench
printer found out lImo English process amid nt
the present time have cot the work and tho
Kngllsh factory at Ornyfonl has been closed and
the men aro out of employment Tho English
man told me In a very mournful strain that ho
had noticed that whenever tInt Frenchmen or I
Germans got a job they kent I that It was no
use to try to compote with them with Ilrltlih
workmen and there for him but
nrlmon r was nothing to
shut up hIs shop
I know of a very largo firm which purchased
Immense quantities of wire Some of the lend
ing ofllclals being members of Iniltamont
sought to place their orders In England but
found that the British workman was very stiff
Ho not only demanded a high price for his
labor but also sought to limit the output Meet
ings wero held nnd tho question was discussed
TIme unionists neio told just how much the
company could afford to pay for wire and as an
argument they said At the present time you
are unemployed wo can give you so much In
case jou do tIme work you will certainly bo
making enough to live on But the BrItish
workman was unyielding He would not
orklan yt unrlellnl Ie accept
a penny less antI consequently tho work wont
to Germany Tho German employer called
his men together and told them that I
they could produce wlro at a certain rate they
would receive very largo orders from England
and that they would run tho Englishmen com
pletely out of tho business The German work
men not only expressed themselves as willing to
accept the terms but also In the future to make
terms which would bo sure to beat the British
workman and keep the work In dm many
I may be Interesting to tho British workman
t know that the rosyfaced French girl who
was working fifteen milling machines at tho
lame time was engaged on a very largo order
for sheep shearing and clipping machines for
the British colonies
The Merchandise Marks act which was ex
pected to do so much fur tho British workman
turned out u I expected it would an act to ills
illusionize the British public Everybody was
saylug that British goods were much better
than any others Everything that was mean
and bad was called German Nevertheless now
that the goods are marked and the buyers are
able to ascertain definitely in what country they
arc made they cannot fail to eeu that gloves
made In France Austria and Helglum are bet
tor than those made In England while the prices
are considerably lower I hey cannot fall to see
that a great many articles made In Germany
are equal I not superior t thoso mode In Eng
land I a mechanic wants A Square that is
square ho has no choice In the matter but must
of necessity buy ono which Is made in the
United States because there are no squares that
are square made for sale in England
A great many English manufacturers have
been In tho habit of getting their work done ou
tIme Continent each distributing It to their custom
ers from England the purchasers in the colo
nies and in foreign countries supposing that it
was English make but since the goods have
been marked Made In Germany Made In
Franco and so forth tho foreign and colonial
bujero have been disillusioned and they are
now ordering their goods directly from the real
makers Instead of from thoso that were sup
posed to make them In England So the Eng
lishmen has not only lost the making of the
goods but has now lost the handling of them
The Merchandise Marks act has taken away
his profession He Is not able to make any proti
by buying goods In Germany and distributing
them from England
Regarding comparative of mechani
cians American French British Spanish Ger
man It would b Impossible for me to mention
one nation that excels In everything Each
nation has Its own peculiarities and Its own spe
cialties So far rs my experience goes and I
han had a great deal of It I should nay that the
New EuKlandors are thu finest mechanics In the
world I think any one who has Investigated
the subject will have to admit this limo 1 tools
which are designed and made In New England
are Incomparably ahead of those made in any
other country There is nothing In Europe that
can at all compare for Instance with the tools
made by Drown < V Sharpeof Providence H I
Pratt < ft Whitney of Hartford Coin and the
American Tool Compauy of Boston The
Americans also excel In tho manufacture
of revolvers and sporting rifles while for
woodworking tools and machinery they aro far
ahead of all other nations They are also abend
In automatic machinery for working metals and
also In boot and shoe machinery 1 There rrc
perhaps about a many great Inventions made
In the United States as In all the rest of tho
world The English may be considered the most
skilful manufacturers of hlch class woollen
goods They are quite equal to any In the
manufacture of velv ets and plushes Tho hand
made doublebarrelled guns used for sporting
purposes have reached a higher deuree of ex
cellence In England than In any other country
The English also have a leading I position ns
builders of shins and marine engines Miiro
coplo and photographic apparatus Is also very
well done In England
As the brightest met hanicj In tho world are
the New Englnnders nnd nsaNow Englandcr
Is I only a modltlud Englishman 1 I do not ten why
the English tlieniwlvcn should not ban con
tinued to bo thu best mechanics in thu world as
they were the llrct In thu full and they might
have ccntinucul to lead 1 other nations If I the
English employer had taken interest in their
business and the workmen had attended to
their work Instead of organizing strikes
I find that the Germans are very good me
chanics they are quick to appreciate the ml
vantages Anew system and to adopt It Time
German tool makers have profited very largely l
by the Introduction of American tools Only a
very tan such took a for instance milling
machines Ac are Imitated In England but tho
Germans imltato every mortal thing of any
value mado in the Status and their work It only
slightly Inferior to that of tho Americans I
have purchased And compared genuine Ameri
can tools with German Imitations end have
found that the castlngsof the former pro sound
er and stronger and that time deviation from
truth though very small In tho German tools
II three or four times as great HS In wcllmado
American machines Tho Germans excel In all
sorts of cheap brorse articles colored printing
Ac Whllo time Austrian are very backward
tool making they excel In leather work
The Frenchmen aru allround good mechan
ics The Imitation of American tools mad In
France are nearly as accurate as the genuine
articles themselves while their Instruments of
precision are quite as accurate ns those muncIe In
the States but they nro not mado In quantities
as Ie done there and so the price of the French
Instruments I four or five times as great as tbo
American rims French are a nation of worker
they seem to like I and I believe everything
considered the Frenchman Is the but t mechanic
In Europe
In regard to Spanish mechanics the number I
of manufactured articles which the Spaniard I
ecol In Is I exceedingly small Heel work In
laid with gold and silver and Damascus steel I
are their p clalltles Home of this Is very Beau j
tlfully executed and perhaps superior t taul J
I thine rife that Is done In the world but as all
round mechanics the Spaniards cannot b con
sidered In time lam category as Americans
EnRllih and French My company purchased
tho old arms factory of Don Carlos At 1lacencla
In Spain anti wo have equipped 1 It with now
tools anti are making there 1 considerable num
ber of quick tring guns for the Spanish ser
vice Ilnconcla Is a little village In the Pyren
ees AH the workmen wo employ are
Basques In fact I do not think them
Is anything except Basques living In tho
vicinity Thcso are A peculiar people and I
have lever seen rn high a erode of morality
among any people AH the Basques at 1lacencla
There Is absolutely noOhhonesty or Immorality
In the town If any ole should purchase a loaf
of bread and not py I for it It would be the talk
of the town Time factory which we purchased
was open s that any ono whollked might enter
for years before we purchased It and not a scrap
of steel or brass was stolen Had this factory
been at Crayforil or Erlth It would have been
completely unlocked gutted the first night that It was left
I was very much amused to find such a largo
number of very small gun shopp little shops
about eght by tel feet employing about two
men and everybody was working on Hemlngton
rifles They iiolil 1 complete rlllo for about Si
wlth 1 lOt rounds nf ammunition I asked how
this WI dour and found that the barrels of the
guns were rejects from Belgium that all tho
nirclmnltin of the gun was made of malleable
Iron nnd cae hardened Upon examining ono
of these guns I found mailed on the barrel
Manufactured by tho Itemlnuton Arms Co
Illon New York 1atentcd BO antI so I asked
them why they stampsd this on time barrel and
they Informed mo that tho nuns they mado
were sent to Africa and nobody In Africa would
liny I rlllo that was not mado In ths States
Each factory had a genuine Hemlngton rifle as
A model and these were used ns jigs and gauges
for Imitation guns which they were making
On my return to England I was waited upon
by 1 lady who said she came to collect money
for th9 Spanish mission I told her I never had
given a cent to missionaries because I had nl
nyi understood that as n rule missionaries
were tho greatest humbugs under the nun In
fuel I believe that missionaries get us Into n lot
of troublo everywhere and It would be 1 good
thins If there wero no such thing as a missionary
In the world However 1 had just returned
from Spain where we had 0 factory and I must
say I fell somo Interest in a SpanKh mission I
fult that at last tho time had come when I could
conscientiously do something for I mission She
was very quick to whip out her book and pencil
and said
How much shall I put you down lor
That depends I said How many Spanish
missionaries do you propose to bring over and
will any of them bo located at Crayford l
Site hesitated for a moment seemed to be
very much amazed and sala
Oh we do not propose to bring Spanish
missionaries hero we are going to send English
missionaries to Spain
I then told her of the high morality of tho
Spaniards and aid
Now madam you know what class of peo
ple we intro at Crayford Would It not be moro
In order to bring some Spanish prlrsts out hero
10 try and convert tho barbarians that we have
about us hero than It would bo to send jour
priests out there in order to Induce a highly
moral people to change from ono kind of Chris
tianity to another t
Oil she all but I think you must admit
that the Spaniards are priest ridden
Perhaps so I replcd l and asked her If she
could tell rue how much It would cost to get half
1 minion Spanish priests to come to Crnyford and
Erlth as it might pay tho company to employ
rome provided that it did not cost too much
She went away without the subscription
orr AI wATrn FROM OE rUL
Aa Arteatnn Freak In Proceto of Develop
incut In Texuv
fom the Gatifxton noire ftrg
ConstCANA Tex March 11One of the first
matters considered by the Corslcann Commer
cial Club after Its organization In lanuary of
last year was time question of an inexhaustible
water supply It being consldoird absolutely
essential to the futuro of the city Under Its
auspices a water development company was
soon organized and at once contracts were let
for putting clown three artesian wells
iiienrbioi ins wens non nearing completion
Is for icanas wonder Tho plant consisting of a
derrick or towor eightyfix fiet high a twents
horsepower engine anti oilier heavy machinery
necessary to accomplish the work was put In
place ou a lot near the centre of the city haut
April but active work did not commence until
May 1aislng through the surface foil the pot
denmx marls wero first encountered
deroo fr elcounterl Through
this stratum time well was continued to a depth
of 1T50 feet At 1050 feet a vein of oil was
struck which proved to ho petroleum of very
line quality so flue Indeed that lan barrels
or It liMo been sold for
0 Eoll lubricating purposes
This striko naturally caused Emu comment
but water was the object and the work proceed
ed In the mean time tho premises became sat
urated with the oil which covered the water
drawn from tho well In the process of digging
rime drill pulverizes the rock and water I pour
cd In from tho top and forming u thin solution
of the pulverl7cd stone makes It possible to
clean out tho hole One day a boy with a hoys
natural cuiloMty Applied a lighted rnntch
cUII031 IIplelnllhle < to
the oil on the wimato pile 330 janls from the
well to eee If It ould burn Il did and In an
hour time entire plant was destroyed by fire
Thla was In October last
A new plant was however erected and the
work proceeded Very little was thought of oil
the impcrliitrndrnt thinking its flow had been
stopped by tho caving sides of tin well The
vork continued pasting out of the marls At
lrJO feet tho AustinDallas chalk n struck
and continued In for 410 fee Eaglcford tlule
was at this depth rncountcied Geologists plnco
the thickness of this stratum at 100 feet Thu
drill pounded Its way yOO feet through thin
Ono day In lanuary when the mum Imd cone
to dinner the plant was discovered to be
for a second tlmo In llaniei and was again
dentroyrd limo cause of this firm was I
iinsterv until It was discovered that time
oil had risen from a depth of 1050 feet
below and completely saturated thom promd
beneath the floor of time well tower and a
cinder falling from time former throuuh the
IliHii hud caused thu I trouble Ilcforu rehulldlm I i
time timer n pipe uvas laid from the tmutsimht < ot > >
Iliu I well I pipe ton I tank set > titylle feet cllntilit
to curry off time oil Tills proves to h anatte lnn
llor running about two barrels ot oil perdnv
The ttrauco condition In that the oil forces Itself
up the cmumu side of tho I well pipe through t the earl Im
fliim BO great 1 depth It must Ilrit have nit
rated tho marls antI roll for n c ufiiilUernble ills
tnncci out In all direction from the pipe before
leaching the surfnvi ThN strange How hns
01 11 led for several weeks Itranfo filiowc no
sign fit abating Thu
lt Ihatng Jho contractor are using
tiiu oil foi fuel In thrlr boiler and thus
have about 7no per day that would otherwise
bn spent for coal The oil II f blown from u pine
connected with time talk by a steam jet Into the
tire box of the holler and criatfa nn Intcnko
iicnt I the work continues long enough thu
conlractors will doulitles In this manner bo
rrrumpcntrd by the oil for the loss It lois 1 d
Ilium 1 Tlio contractor t who IN I ox ptrkticed in
oil wells SUVA that while there are a number of
wells from whlrh time I oil is I forced by gas o
I time I only one lit the world that ha a natural
artesian Mow f therrbelnzpiactlcally no gail lull
AH c to the water part of the well Ills being put
climn ut tlO t i rim to cut about 40 fuel pOI day anil
IIHH reacbtil itclopth I ot > aul fei tt I has gono
through the following strata Ioncleron minutia
1331 frt tj AustinDallas chalk 4511 fret
Eagleford shale 300 feet After passing through
100 feet moro n time hitter It Is non thought
tho arron Hand artesian water formation w 111 be
reached Here the tulle will Mop and the drill
will proceed through the green fand whlch Is
fifty feet thick The first Irel of water which
will bo Mrurk at tho top of the above
stratum will not rise out of the well but
when It Is I bored 1 through the stiatum
tho water will rise out nf time well
with a pressure of about sixty pounds to
tho square Inch rUIng in a Bland Pipe to the
height of I Ja feet and yielding lOOoOo gallons
per day These fMlniaten are bled ou the ex
perience at time orphiint hoinn well one and a
Jmaif miles distant fhll well Ins more ulna In
It than any other well In the world t lie re fVIII
been used 70 feet of 13Inch pipe HttO feet of
Hlnch pip too feet of IIInch pipe and L400
feetof mlnch pip In all over ono and a half
miles aggregating In weight over eighty tons
Much of this however will bo drawn w hen tho
well Is I completed Its leo having been necessi
tated by frequent caves
Within lime lea week this the first of the i > > s
tern of three wvlls will b completed and Coral I
calms lu addition to having on unlimited water
fciipply the same will time havo a well flowing OIl water at I
In one of tho latest described designs for a
cotton mill tlmt hnvo met our eye two engines
are provided working Independently of each
other one which I Is of relatively small olzc
being emploed In driving tie looms or the
whole of the weaving department while the
other or main encluc carries the balance of
the load The lArge engine Is A compound ar
ranged for generating power with tIme utmost
economy whllo tIme tmnller engine his two cl
Inders and cither ono of theso or both can bs
run condensing or noncondensing Tho prac
tice In warm weather Is to run only ono of
these cylinders condensing and us tho exhaust
steam from tho other for heating the slashers
anti warming the feed water In cold weather
both cylinders arc run noncondensing and all
the steam exhausted Is I Used for heating
this case one condentcr Is used for both nglm3
being of the Jet typo with an Independent nlr
pump driven by steam rime feed water passes
through A tubular heater located In tho exhaust
pipeof the large unglue when It In latetl to a
temperature of nbout IM then into an open
heater which rccslvts water of condensation c
from time various drips of the plant and mont tho
Iln hers and hero Ills further hentcd by means
of tho exhaust from the small engine to A tem
perature of nomolO lime nlr pump exhausts
Into the condenser
An Itnprov ctnctit In machines for chain making
10 set forth at much length In the Providence
Joiiimif Time mania feature Is I In the device fur
forming the links from a wire of which any
necessary Amount Is carried on A wheel rotating
on an adjustable mandrel having n cressBcc
lanaI shape klmlbr to that of the proposed link
and R tho wire I collud around tIme mandrel
advances alone It passing under A taw which
separates the cole of wire Into links A tee do
vice now grasps tho foremost link and moves It
along the mandrel to tho exact position lo bo
taken up by the jaws of the link carriage tho
base of which Is trovoreably mounted on a track
In line with tho link mandrel tho crtrrlago
proper Is furnished withoppositely rmutatabho anti
reciprocal jaws which are held In the open post
tons by springswhllo tImer are < closed 1 olen lever
having a slot with Inclined slden In which pins
on tho jaw frames movetho drawing of tho
lever thus tending to close thu jaws together
while tho releasing allows tho springs to act so
ns tooen thu jaws mimi rclttisu tlo Ilk Tho
r of the carriage is I effected bv a
ecrlun of novel onuis nnd IP en Interworklnp
nnt Intcrlorklli
with one another the rotation uf time carriage
anti Its jaws tl exert A torrlonal opening rarllofe
movement link being accomplished by a lack and pinion
Announcement I made that the HienerSchu
niachcr process of hjdraulic forging so fully
dev eloped In Germany has been Introduced in
England by a Leeds conccin who have made a
press that exerts a pressure of 700 tons and can
make long and slow strokes or short nnd quick
ones as desired a large sletim cylinder Is 1 used
Instead of n pumping l engine tho piston of which
Is prolonged and arts ns a ram lor rxrrtlng hy
draulic Pressure on the foraing tOll through
the medium of A second hydraulic clmdcr
Hrlelly theio are two steam cylinders
Brlel tlelo cUndel placed
over the press lo lift the forging crosshend by
which tho uppor forging tool Is carried and
when It Is I doirvd to work in limo ordinary way
with heavy pressure tie admission amid cxhaua
of steam in thusu lifting cvllmlirs is con
trolled by the santo lever which lecu
hates the admission and the exhausting of the
steam In the hrn driving cylinder hut for
quick working direct and
quik worklnl all uninterrupted com
munication is established by means of 1 sep
nrnlo cock between these lifting clliidcr3 and
tho boiler In this tray there is t then ahma time
full boiler pressure beneath the cylinder tend
log to keep the trosshtiil and upper tool at tin
lOp of the stroke but thu t main htrnin cylinder
which puts on the forging pressure through the
hydraulic ineclisnlsm Is of so much greater
area tlmn time combined area of tIme two small
O Undent that the crosshend Is pressed down
with considerable force although of course
with less force titan if I the two lifting ollndcrs
wcio exhausting in the usual wa
It Is stated that M 1 Faure an Austrian manu
facturer of plush and velvet power looms has
the whole of his rutting apparatus Indo of
aluminum and finds that various advantages
are to b gained III this way especially in refer
ence to lightness ned etrorgth In older meth
ods il is I remarked tho eight is I disagreeably
perceptible time speed of the apparatus being
thus considerably interfered with as well as Its
tabilltyjlravvbrtck which IBo repeatedly let
to unsatisfactory rcult Again the apparatus
previously in uso worked backward with tho
help of 1 ciidlejs catgut string and vviis thus
posed to serious shocks nnd It was therefore
found Hdvisable to abandon steel I anil iron nnd
resort to hard vvoud I but vvhll Ic thu I weight was
undoubtedly diminished In this way it still re
mained too great time tarts easily nlterlnc their
po itioi anti shape and soon wearing away On
the other hand aluminum It I Is claimed is liable I
lo numb of these delects being Unlit and stable
One of tho most Interetlng mechanical pro
nse a now practised Is I that resorted to for
tho drawing of wire lime rod is received by tho
wire drawer In the form of n coil time rod I being
of varying section ali the coil of a weight du
pending upon the purpose for which it is I in
tended Ouo end of tho lod is pointed nnd
somewhat reduced by machinery and time cut
receives H hath In mild acid to Ielon all ox
idation then I washed In lime water to the a
draw Ing tiirfacc and finally dried Innsultnblt
oen When ready for diaulni thu pointed
rod is Inserted in ole of the holes of ndrauing
plate tho latter being general of steel though
cast Iron is in somu CASCH lined thu draw ing
holes are conli al and tho IOII li Innortcd from tin
larger end while ou time other sideof the plate
the pointed end Is I seized by power pincers and
pulled until enough has been drawn through
to allow of 1th being passed around I
and fastened to a drum or reel 1 wimich Is driven
by power ofcouro tIme rod is reduced in area
and much elongated and tills without any per
reptlbln I lota of metal Whllo pasrlng through
tin plate It Is kepi lubricated with what Hcalled
wire drawers soap or gieaae and after being
drawn throuuh thU flrst hole it I is i put t thronLh t n
series of smaller holes until It hax been brought
down to tim reqmmlsitt sire Hnt the compression
and disturbance of the structure of thu moth con
sequent upon these reductions have hardened It
so much that at certain stages it is necessary to
Mop the process and eoflen tin metal by anneal
lug It Is then again washed In acIO Ac1 and
tIme drawing rusuuiccl
Accoidlng to a communication in one of the
German journals relative to the new paper in
vented by John Schult of Lautenbcrc West
Prussia the inanufnctura of which has
been prohibited by Government authority t the
paper U ciimiosrd of glue asliestu anti time
ordinary Ingredient I used In the piodiictlon of
such material Tho moist sheets Immediately
after leaving the toIlers for the first time are
pi iced In I A bath of concentrated sulphuric I acid
to I which tome tell or llflwn per cent of ells
tilled water hits bemi added unit which
miiHt be Kept nt a temperilnrc of 21 0 ° It Ac
cording to their thlckiirrs the m bhf cts are left In
tho t I liquid llvH to thirtylhii t second After
havlni been pre scd itt ccitt gluts rollers
they uru put Into pure water noxt Into a solo
tlon uf nimnnnlu nnd Dually Into water again
Mich punes being i followed b > hard pressing
passing thinuuh felt rollcis anil dnlni bt tecn
polished and heated intal i llndnrn The paper
resulting from this process has the nppearancx
uncl prnnertleiof ordinary note piper but It is
stated that even the most acdjerous Ink can
easily ho wnnliod off with water lifter any length
of time and ou account of this t I m quality I Its I tuiinu
facturols under Gmirmiientui Inleidkt
At one of the recent meetings of the Iron and
Steel Institute In the city of lirustela tome Inter
esting facts and statements were considered
concernlnt time deep mine shafts which have
been sunk in that country An long ugo ns 1H41
the late Prof Dcnlllc of the Muns School of
Mines declared that shafts to a depth of at leant
1000 metres could bo succesifiillyventilated
nod vioiked arid hid insertions aro now
home nut by cm rent practice At Vlvlers
tho t depth In stated to be i7UO feet and at Vler
lloy iillO feet thouull both of thesu Imvu for
tome time been abnndoiird for luck of ciml In
pajjni quantities the shaft nt Ilodlcts col
llery linn a depth of ilSOO feet with an incline
renchlne to itUAO cot sail to bo tIme gicatuit
depth let leached In tlm con I llelilnof Belgium
lime pump required fur cinmciimmmge are itvcesarlhy
lion erf til tliouvh I small I I to come within time hum
its of restricted space In some cases founda
tions are omitted thu pumps being bolted direct
to Iron beams built Inlo the masonry At ht
Catherines shaft of time llnfcoud collleiy the
pump forces time water to A height of 1180 feet
while at Ea louvlere the heail ol over 187fi
feet Is handled by ono pump
Conditions OM Mhtcli n MHII if Modrrnte
Menu Could Ho Without One
In a Broadway window time other day said
a man of moderate means I saw nomo pocket
bonks and other things of one tort and another
that steno mode of aseinaty pigskin ele
phants hide and water snakes skin they wuro
leautlfiil evety one
No m doubt there Is a reasonable dvllitlit In the
pojsesslon of iueatiiful l things I would llku to
havo A uockctbook for example cir a card case
of any ono nf these materials and yet I feel
that I could get alontf very comfortably for
quite u spull jet without a cassowary pocket
book If 1 haul a little moro money
Their Hniciceallon In Hranrd lo Thicker
oflMnte end Rise of ace
WAHIIIXOTOS March iMIn the neverend
Inir contest between gun And target the latter Is
for the moment taking Its turn at winning the
chief laurel thanks to certain remarkable per
formances of Ilarveybed plates at Indian Head
These tests are timely In view of the approach
Ing construction of new battle ships for our
navy and tho results will no doubt receive
careful study
Several years ago a reaction set In against the
big 10Inch guns emplojcd In the BrllUh and
other navies Tills was due to several causes
One was that some of them had shown great de
fects and their mo was dhcredlied for naval
purposos hint n 8fcond objection not depend
ing cm faults of design or msnufncturr wns llmt
thrv firel of ncceRilty so slowly that It wns PUt
practicable to secure the penetrative or smnfh
lug pITcct without lots of rapidity of discharge
Still another consideration was that It was
deemed highly desirable In case of accidents to
machinery not to depend exclusively on by
drnullcor other apparatus for manipulating
nnn amid that only such calibres should be em
ployed as could uno hand power if l need be
For theso reasons the BrllHi Aclmlratty de
termined that hereafter no guns larger than the
llnch ehould bo mounted nnd n Icadluc con
sideration was tlio ntmricd full that thU
calibre could cosily penetrate nud make In
effectual any armor tarried on any war ship In
tho u 01 Ul Stimu British uivnl otllccri were
oven for reducing the maximum callhro to time
10Inch It Is In relation to this question of
what should bo time maximum calibre of guns
and also In relation to limo thickness of armor
needed for existing guns that a review of time
recent trials may bo useful
The first of theso tests was made by time Car
nrglo Compauy as an experiment A 17Inch
plate having received the harvey treatment
previous to being forged Instead of afterward
an Is now customary was then forged down to
fourteen Inches by reheating and rolling The
texture having thus been toughened its emit
face was sprayed w Ith Icewater to secure the
advantage of chilled hardening Then it was
attiuked by a 10Inch gun with a striking ve
locity of lSiH feet per second Time point of the
piojectlln penetrated just nbout half way
through thu plate and then as was recorded at
the time It went to pieces while no crack what
ever was dev cloned m the plate It will bo ob
served that this was a oOOpound Carpenter
projectile and that the striking energy us
close upon ILOUU foottons A charge of 217
pounds of brown prismatic powder having been
used limo velocity was equal to the maximum
required for accenting Harvcycd plates
Thi 1 > next shot was tired with U25 pound anti
A velocity of 11140 feet per second jleldinir a
striking energy of 11400 tons Although In time
same vertical line with its predecessor the sec
ond holo showed nn crack around It whllo the
shell which Imd penetrated only about two
Inches deeper was alto broken into fragments
Then came the third shot from a Ilnc gun
with Its fOOpound projectile driven bv 4UO
IHiunds of ponder at a striking velocity of
lH > 8 feet per second and a striking energy of
L0i70 foot tons l ills went through the plain
and jet instead of plunging throueh time oak
backing into the bank as had been expected it
scarcely more than entered tIme butt w iille what
Is more Important the pinto oven under this
third shot was wholly free from cracking
the kf on of that trial seemed to be that by
this method of forging should subsequent tests
confirm It armor can bo unmewhat reduced
in thick ness and jet retain all Its resisting pow
ers Such u result would be equivalent in A
battleship to saving man tons of weight which
could then le devoted to securing more power
ful machinery heavier batteries and greater
coal capacity The process was not n new one
lm Ing It is said been tried in 1MU and 18112 >
yet with complications at that tlmo which
caused it to full No doubt was expressed as to
its micccss in the recent revival
Tho second bet of tests that which was last
week furnished to the IHlncli plates of the
Oreton adds strength to the belief that with
the adancn In armor its thickness may bu
safely diminished In that trial Vita pinto was
made in the ordinary method being cnrbon
lieu after forging to the required thickness
Ihu gun used HS time eommtract required nan tIme
llmh iiie 1 proiectile win nn soopnund ai
neuter shell I which was propelled hv ii1 pounds
of ponder nt the first shot limo plate mumma pene
trated only about 4 inchen or less than cine
fourth of its thickness And there was no frac
ture mound the hole BO that the plato was
nearly as iood as ever
The velocity in that first shot was only 1405
feet this being thu contract velocity for limo
cracking test which was successfully passed
For tho second or penetration test in which
cracking was expected antI did not count the
powder chnrgo was 1115 pounds and yielded
111511 feet of initial velocity Even with this
chirpu the projectile striking at the right nf
the mtit Impact did not get quite half through
the plate so that the pinto wus pasted without
question and with U the whole lot which It
represented Ono vertical crack was developed
from the top to the bottom of the plate but It
was very narrow
It Is true that by the use nf smokeless powder
n somewhat higher velocity can br given to
licny cuus but the maximum velocity de
veloped In thotests Is considered to be well up
to current service requirements On the other
hand the target in this last trial was only SMIO
feet from tlm gun whereas thu actual distance
of an ordlnaiy nnval combat whether between
ships or between forts nnd ships notilJ bnmnc li
greater It will lie recalled at what distances
the battle of the Yalu was foight
Mill more noteworthy is I tho fact that what
with tlu rolling of battle shmips anti time anglo
presented by tho opposing ships tide the gun
can onlv by chnnce secmmme time exact normal Im
pact of time pioxlnc ground Thus It becomes a
teilous question whether the Harvey process
does not require1 wither that In sonic tray greater
uoncrahall lit given tcu time 10Inch and IMnch
guns or that larger alibiesshall c be allowed
Certainly the arKUmcnt fnr using IllInch
guns In our IndianaMassachusettsand Oregon
and aim In thu two now buttle ships of thu
KcniMircc mimmem i Is greatly strengthened by times
cleclopmsnti Conversely in view of the de
cision rraehisl by foreign powers ns to the limit
of cAllhros to time l2immcim our bureaus may feel
justified j I In reducing the t maximum armor of Ito
hoW battle shlpn to A thickness ot perhaps 10 or
HI inches feeling that adequate protection is
given against time ordnance now In vogue
THIS irvrzrrt jv MEXICO
HnflerliiK and Death from < old ne Fur
South mm Che Capital City
Ft om fie Helton HrruM
CITV op Muxiro March lilhls rigorous
winter which 1ms come along to disprove tho
theory put forth In recent warm winters that
the globes climate Is radically changing has
been severely felt here With snow actually
fulling at liimplco i and along the A I vii ratIo
coast by time Gulf anti with tho people ut Vern
Cruz huddling around braseros with charcoal
to keep their timmmzmrs warm wit have had all the
proof needed that the winter WHHan unusual
one It I has been very cold up in I the northern
Mates nlon tint frontier when cattle have
perished and Ihu t t lm itt i yelmiui herdsmen too
In I this central I item L of thu t republic the cold
hasbein felt and made evident by tho i Immense
html Ii I it > of snow cm Ihu t volcanoes of Popocate I
hell and iMactihuall I which ertuim today i make
mm very wintrj ltictmmre against tho ttmruttmnlst sky
of this hiiih altitude Old Ajuno which niruly
puts on a snow cap has been whitened and cm
thu I lofty itimm Ins of Ajusco j where wheat and
potatoes me grown at nn elevation of 0000 foil
thu frott has l > uen n severe our
ioclonii into the hot country and you do not
escape the chill In seaons MI remarkably cold
IIH thiscuif A wind comes rushing down from
the I i high mimuuultmt cults tounrd nlclit t hrinulni g with
It a sensation of an invasion of Korean and all
ii is crams limo jmipo In i I Ito hot country do not
tree tv rnd no frot c omen but nnuK blood U
thin I i down there anti a full of five degrees Is
net em ely felt
1u hero In tInt capital nn have not seen mow
except on Ihii I tups of t lie etmti rh I I tig rmmotu mm tim imis
hut timer has been snow feolliig1In the air
niul the deaths from chill of many poor people
huvo been iccouled Under the cades around
the PluirB Mayor at night huddln mnnyhomclesj
cojilo who In their thin I rays wornro that even
Ihu paper milkers refuse them aru as nensltlvo
lo t2 us n Boston bejKar to iro or below
In I time I llko these one would ilvcngi > inl slice
of the tropics for a coney bedroom with an
openhearth tin There Is no fun In I cold if j ou
arc not prepared for it and In time thin air of
t his lofty regUm time chill U I i unetratliip even to
tIm boneBiiiid imme riots Immure I nuvei been able
to comprehend why open fires nro not needed
hereIn I cold winter nines nnd nlvhts The
Mexican people like the Spaniards Imvu mud I
to bay of the I dangers of pneumonia arising from
getting comfortably warm and then going nut
into the air of the street Hut up In lea1 del
Monte the English miner iu tire anti nnei
would find It cold cum fort inmnnynhlghphiccd
Mexican town without a wood lime at nightfall
In laminry
lime prcjudlco against tires nmigimt loglrnlly bo
rnnlrd io far as to prohibit the vvninth of a
lamp In A chamber or niraliut thicker rlothlm
or n warm bed In I lcadv Illc which is I a pmd
Heal higher up tlmn t time City uf Mcxliu mid
whore time air ii thin enonuli tints nbotind and
BO also in Santa 16 In S w Mexico where In
ApiII 1 hao men it motv and bloii nnd Imve
found n cheerful I woo 1 tire nilghty imutmu dirt immg
Onet Uglns tu think i thul thu southern rules
acciifitomed the miln part of the year to it wieriii
llmate omn lo entertnlM it ham Itis prejudice
aculnst artlllilal immal i limiting the greater part
nf Ihu I winter t m the 1 people hr do not reall ly fiel
the old except ut ilihlfnll touch in the early
moriilnir litu 1 poor fdil ir ill their otlon cat
raucous anti siinlly have lo eniluio heir I suffer
IIIUH m cm vill nc them In thi thy b > hundreds
lit u M i liilluu Iniitatmn intTeu around time
itt cut u teal 5 I for oven In I a culfeegriinliiK I
coililly it It not ever one whii may enjoy a
uenuino i up in fragrant Cordova or aromatic
Itimpani Hut on long ns the beverage la hot
It comfort time cuor roan and aende him ui 1mb
work a hub better prepared for a day of toil
UK ft Hill Aitr runesiosT f 1111
S7tiUGidI run
arimeens Cobonlzattse Helimefr mket n 1
a rinhermanMnrde reflect Inbor t
Jove In Orn nUlait the Patriotic Cillma
Tho first time I aw len I Mncco the daunllcrt
Antonio Macco y Ornjaleis for whose coming thai
Cuban Insurgents hiding In the hill ranges from
HantlaRO all the way up to Puerto Prlnclpo and
beyond are waiting and pens lag was about four
Jertr1 ago In Costn llca 1 was breakfasting In
a hdlcl nt San Jose that vvliltn JasmineIlk
city that lies In aimS of thu most beautiful val
leys of time world llloSstrri paradise extending
from time Indigo shadow of time volcano Irazti to
the exquisite sapphire Cnndelarlau hills A tall
men tutored In ordinary citizens clothes A omit
lath nt the first glance but clearly a person of
distinction As 1 know almost every one In the c
city And almost every ono knew me ns an Amer
ican and a correspondent It was not long until I
ninde the lencrals acquaintance
Exquisitely neat In appearance and perfect In
breeding with a certain reserve and modesty ot
bearing ho could not fall to Interest ono who
had heard of him as a brave young leader In i
strugclo for his countrys freedom twenty yean
tie fore Gao Macro was In Costa Rica looking
for A coh ny cite aid n ticvjrnmenl concession
Jin wns not exiled there or In any way under
Spanish surveillance as ono might believe front
rrmlinitn recent Tampa despatch to the effect
that the Spanish eoii9iil had been removed for
allowing Marco to esnipc Ho was there to see
about locating a colony of his countrymen He
wanted a site on the Atlantic side that const
being the moro accessible but hu had to tnkd
tuitmit hum could get up In time peninsula of
iHcoya on limo Pad lie Time Costa Illcaii
Government gave him as Its reasons that
too many other enterprises had first choice
on time Atlantic const But tho General let ma
Into the secret ot his suspicion that the Spanish
Government Imd requested Costa Blca not to
give tInt proposed Cuban Immigrants who
would naturally be revolutionists A too advnn
tngeous site for thu embarkation of an expedl
tin at shot t notice Macco finally accepted tIme
remote lauds anti entered Into a very Interest
ing agreement with tIme Minister of Fomento
Public WurLsl by tint terms of which ho prom
ised to bring Into the count T some five hun
dred and ultimately a thousand Cuban families
no negroes to bo admitted lntt how much
regret Costa Rica rtmny fuel at the loss of this
c ilon v which would have been an undoubted
benefit to the country and which In time event
of alongcontinued war In Cuba will bo post
poned anti In the event of a successful revolu
tion Ic abandoned It Is hard to say
I believe Maceo was In earnest In trying to
get the contract He bach given up hope of an
other struggle for years to como Pacific and
tuavo he went about the streets of San Jos6 at
tending to his business like a man who had
never been wounded or driven to bide In
mountain fastnesses nnd starve there for days
or to escape In a small boat by night and drift
out to sea to lie festering and delirious under
the burning tropical sun Cubas freedom was
only a question of time he said calmly rime m
only time he showed any excitement was when
news came of Finn Croiubels escape from Cuba
and that confiscation of his property Then Oen
Maceo got himself ready In short order and went
clown to hot Port llraon to moet his brother
warrior They came up to the capital together I
and I had the pleasure uf receiving the two big
fellows at my home
lion from bet Is a man one couldnt help lik
ing Frank an n boy lie admitted he didnt care
to go into Gen Mnceos colony scheme but he
thought he would stop a w Idle und sri the coun
try Ills complexion showed nothlnK of the
African hut suggested Indian blood He had a
direct honest glance and the pleasantest sway In
the world lime scar on his litre seemed to WHIII
to apologize for being there ahead of time that
is bvfoii Cuba Is country To amuse himself
and maken little money he bought a fishing
smack und set to work catching html along the
coast by Union Now the sea along the const
Is the nastiest bit of water for makuitc one re
pent that one could imagine There is a horrid
chopplness all thewaydown toward Rocasdel
Toro but tint fish are certain flume Crombet
told nil he could catch and nobody appeared to
tlink hn Mould turn his bout to expedi
tionary purposes He was unmolested and
cheerful as a school child Occasionally
he came up to San Jose and Maceo and ho cci
tainly made a tinelooking pair Nobody ever
saw them engaged In Any mysterious conference
or plotting Marco was very friendly with a
family that had lately come from Cuba a Span
ish family or at least loyal to the Bpinlsh rule
for the Spanish Minister was also A great friend
of their and lien Maceo and he must have met
very often at time house The meetings were
without the slightest annojniico or feeling on
either side I am confident for Sefior Arellano
time Minister who Is I now In Guatemala I think
Is n most delightful maim anti Maceo was also
delightful In A social wny Only It seemed a
little odd that they 11011111 meet thus
Jen Maceo was a little older tlmn len Crorn
bet but the turn oilered a strong combination
Macco reervcd astute farsighted of im
gueuable thoughts Crombet outspoken ear
nest enthusiastic daring From a personal
knowledge of the pair 1 should fay that If they
are really on Calnn toll It simply means that
the astounding slice ess of thu ulntlonlMs may
bu looked for I nay astounding success be
tails buch a victory against such terrible Odd
should astound the world Maceo would never
waste his life or Crombet If they arc In Cuba
It means the beginning of the end
Corrlllo anti Sane he I met at a steamer on
my return to New Vork not long after wher
with the patriot Marti they wero seeing off
some Cuban friends bound for Costa Hica
Carrlllo atlable full of hope anti pod snlrlla
in appearance moro saxon than Latin frnnchez
pale serene contemplative with these words on
ills lips
I can assert without boasting that our war
first with nil lie miseries and dangers nnd our
defeat afterward with nil Its sorrows and
losses hau only succeeded In making nut
stronger lu my first belief lime task to which I
have consecrated myself for twentylive ears I
shall not desert todiiy at fortyseven What I
cannot do is to leave my country in slavery
through my Indifference and lack of patriotism
Snncher was pale nnd etlll suffering from the
wound In Ills leg from the bullet that killed the
horse lie icicle when fighting i under Gen i Itoloff
In 1871 I hove before men little book he has
written Humble henrIes 1 hesimple tales of
Cuban patriots told with pathos and modesty
are part of limo revolntlonar propaganda which
has attained to plmidld proportions here In I
New Yolk nnd whurcvcr cite th Cubans await
the day of hint dellvernnc e The network of
chums mid leagues stretching from New Vork
down to IlimpH and I Key West Is perfect It hns
been woven patiently anti trill totitdmmmntmmatc art
There Is mutt a wenk spot In it lose Marti has
taught his followers lion to weave it
In Marti with Maximo dome in Cuba li I
asked I hardly I think no Minis sword Is his
pen a weapon that will do moro for time cause
tlmn man snordt pel haps Once five or six
years ago It nan my privilege to be u pupil of
this icmaikiihlq man At tlmt time net bad just
resigned several important and lucrative > outh
American Consulships lather than desert the
I uuiin < cmtme and mvmus quietly pursuing life as
patriot and teacher The ciisey ciflc e now occn
iiled br the revolutionary paper Iill i In at KO
Iroimt street wn then his headquarters and time
trite ctf liuny exciting patriotic inrvtlngi I Ill h
nils like I I I rut ysel t who itndleil I lhr with the
limit Ct rut us hu was ulfnUloimtrly called
can never forget time place I neer saw
mother room no full of books Them
weru shelves to the ceiling and movable
hookra nnd tabled and chairs loaded
cluTrii w Illi books and mngazlnrs and paper All
lsngiimmgc pi WITH repreiented in that precious
collection I trim icim had mil n simrlo worthless
voliiuin In It I t Thu maestro tics still mon not
lull or strung looking Pale with refined fea
tures and slightly slmondshapeid eyes ho
fcemed tho I tpkol toetexllu from sunnier
lands Mn ItUe i and easily in o veil as a woman
alfectlonntii with filendt ciunions to Iran
gems audi nlwnvs leudy to gird Information
whcthcM It was time ulmestimmn of time bent pnit of
Ninth A merle t mm I flu immig rate to or where to find
n pipe lo drink mate tea through Important and
t rm u let people weiu nil kindly t Ireutc
Marl was nn easy write hut n lnf taking
one Ho used tnwuil feverishly uwuy for hours
over a rluulu i article u w bother Intended for uum ib
llcatlon I or dUcomrc Ills 1 I client s would take on I
a brilliant Hush hl eyes wuuld fleam and his
entire fume tremble with eicilimcnt Hubert
after sheet slipped I nut from under hio hand
No onn who omen heard II art I ns orator before
tlu wild crowd of his ttttm itt rytmm mm and smpa
thlpcrs Imp mmeiim Idled In i llnnlmni I I cm ilnll i I on a mem
ornbln JOth of October I mmmm Iii tier forget the
eloquent fl w of thonulit < hu fire the poolo
hunger the I ln I lMi emit dry for 1 Hberiv m
Mart was a tmimay m in besides earning tils
bre d ns a teacher I ne mu i um laud teal I h others as
mm lubor of line I reincmbi i a class of Him
> cdtt mug fellowK tint I USHI I to inert in I Fourth I
Mi eel Al I heir litad mu aim Kafnel smraii young
Cuban I ncpni ifHe blac n fellow of great
talent t I Ii i u tuc cia > ii ivcreinbHn Puerto I m leans
and others limmi I muesli look mure ill light In
I must nm tiiif t thrse I eager ditch artiest vomif men
than In nil thu ndulutnm of thu fiiMilnnn
ntile clubs tint t nought him as it nulabn
speaker nnd lliliker Mnrtl literaiy work
lift been ccmimlirnhle itis inflation
into r > tnlsh of Ililei Ilunr liuktonn
llaninnn luis tumult ilimmiur Iniisrllllo and
ersiu Snrllo plni linn In it hlgli rank
Marti I hm hut cii Hvi rum of IIH iu us iltf h Ireldint I
of lint u i u1 mi reiiuullf II1 mu tumid hum l > no trt
wcirtliy figiM t tlir u hr id cit ii irw imtion lint
It t p eiient where l > Mnrll mid AH m r < < In I her
doubtable tlif I faithful the Invincible m ulax i mao
ionit7 i I if i t imey too baiu linded in Cuba time
I lid of the struggle flutist bo ut hand 14

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