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E On of England's TfaTkl XIsto.
Rf A notable contribution to tha " English Menlol
Hf' " Atflon" series Is ths volume enUUsd.Tundmal4.
K ty ths Hon. J. W. FosTucma (Mkomlllani).
DC. The subject of this narrative, better known br
El. his courtesy title of Lord Cochrane, was un-
HP,' doubtedly ono of the greatest seaman to whom
Wk- England over gave birth, although, largely
He owing to his own perversity, his own country
BNF profited less by his talents than did the nascent
WI1 republics of Booth Amorloa, Ills was. Indeed,
a personality too picturesque for ordinary life.
Hjffi and the story of his career reads mora llknn
m romance than like a veracious olograph). Ills
atf wonderful daring and Inoxhaustlblo resource,
re however, have undoubtedly Inspired many a
jS young uavnl officer with n doslrn of
B!f emulation : lie may bo deemed, Indeed, the
If chief exemplar of tho type to which such men
l& as Gushing and Hobson belong, With all his
IE faults and foibles he was a great man, a groat
Ifc commander, and a vorr great seaman. The
Ik fame of Kelson overshadows all others In Brit-
Ijj lsh naval history, but, considered as a naval
3 genius. Nelson himself stands hardly higher
H than Dundonald: and. had not tho letter's pug-
fitf naelous and undisciplined disposition rondo his
tiff own countrymen his worst enemies, his name
Nf: might Decoupled In tho hearts of Englishmen
llii with that of the victor of Trafalgar. As It was.
!F. no one disputes that ho deserved tho burial
H j , place which he received In Westminster Abbey.
r r
l , Thomas Cochrane was born nt Annsflold,
III Lanarkshire, on Deo. 14. 1775. Ho was the
I1 - oldest child of Archibald, ninth Eur) of Dun-
i ' donald, byAnni. daughter of Cnpt. Gilchrist.
j II. N., a distinguished officer who had been tho
V horo of ft remarkably brilliant frlgato action.
Tho household In which tho boy's earliest
years wcro passed was an Impoverished ono.
, . Through loans to ono generation of Btunrts
' M ' and flnos imposed by nnother. tho family es-
K tates had been greatly diminished. The ninth
j -i Earl, moreover, who whs a scientist of mark,
I ' had lavished nil tho menus at his disposal on
" factories In which tho results of his researches
A might lo practically applied. The extrac-
tlon of soda from common salt, tho Improved
i production of nhimlnn, tho preparation of
g1 British gum as n substitute for gum Hone-
Ii' gal, the manufacture of sul ammnntao and
j-. of whlto lead, anil the distillation of tnr
from coal were among the venturca which woro
simultaneously prosecuted on n ruinous scale.
Olthe onodlseoxory which might huvo retrieved
his fortunes, that, namely, of tho Illuminative
power of coal gas, I-onl Dundonald failed to
selro tho significance. Anothcrdlscoery which
was undoubtedly of practical value was rejected
by tho very persons who were expected to turn
' It to account. It seems that In London Lord
Dundonald visited various shipbuilding yards
( ? to demonstrate the merits of his coal tar as a
! f protection for ship bottoms against the rnvnges
1 k- of the boring worm known ns frfo iiarnlt'x.
; ft Great ns those merits were before tho days of
fe copper sheathing, nono of tho shipbuilders
would hoar of them. "My Lord." Bald ono, "wo
J, llvo by repairing ships us well ns building them;
the worm Is our host friend."
r Iteeognlzing that his eldest son would have to
enter a profession. Lord Dundonald procured
i forhlm.whllo very young, n commission in tho
Ono HundrednndFourthFoot, and a llttlo later.
,, having odded to his income by marrying a see
f end wlfo. managed to sond Thomas Cochrane
J to school. About the same time, although the
i, boy. now 13 years old. held tho commission of
' ensign In tho army, ho was nlso entered by his
S uncle, Cnpt. Alexander Cochrane of the navy,
h. In his ship's lrooks ns n common seaman. In
I order to give the Ind somo standing In the
L naval service, to which he nlready showed an
K inclination. During tho next five years young
I-c Cochrnno ovlnoed so much Industry, not only at
t school but In his father's lalxratory. where ho
disclosed a strong predilection for natural eel
s' enee. that Lord Dundonald at last consented
j that tho young man should join his uncle's
j ? ship nnd goto sea. Accordingly, at tho age of
j in, j. nomas uoenrane, commonly known, of
Iff course as Lord Cochrane, joined H. M. 8. Hind
H at Slioerness in June. 1703. the war letween
t 'England and the French republic having just
lis? begun. Tho oung man's rise in rank was nt
I iff - first rapid. After llttlo more than a year's ser
I vice he was appointed Acting First Lieutenant
$ of the frlgato Thetis; threo months Intor he
rg-' was promoted to be Acting Lieutenant of the
5 Africa, with n commission provisionally con
t firming his rank, and in 1711, thanks to tho
' falso rocord of service gained by his unclo's
, formnl entry of his name on a ship's book, ho
was able to ofrer himself for examination ns
' Lleutenantund to qualify for that grade after
jj little more than two ami a half years' sen-Ice.
;r. Of course, such a transaction can only be de
ll v Borlbednsn job. but It was tho only job which
s$ i Cochruno. In a life's crusade ngalnst jobbery,
ill ' Ver 8aw rcason ' ''cfend. After tho exam
ijt L lnatlon the young mnn wns appointed by Ad
jjF. r mlral Vnndoput to a Lieutenancy on board
'IE i lhl8 flB,:,,nip' tno Resolution, anil In this ship
jjt f he remained on the North Amorlcan station
jPf until 1708. Sofarnll had gone well with him.
jjL His really active service and his troubles woro
ji 'now to begin.
111 f Toward tho closoof 170HAdmlrnl Iyjrd Keith.
'II I who hn'' boc" "'rK)ln,oJ to the command of tho
j Wedltorranean fleet, offered to take Cochrane
II i with him on board tho flagship as a supor
, I -numerary. Coclirano accepted, and on lift ar
il ;S Tival at Gibraltar was nppointod Junior Lleu
U tnant. Presently, howoor, ho bocamo om-
S .brollod In a dlsiiuto with tho First Lleutonnnt,
i J which lie closed with n challenge. This ho re
it f fused to recnll nt tho demand of tho Captain,
l and. consequently, ho was subjected to a trial
if i by court-martial,
jlf Cochrane first obtalnod an Independent oom-
tili- mand when he was sent by Lord Keith as prize
it I' master on board the Genoroux, a Frenoh sev-
U ' nty-four, with orders to take her Into Port
jf Mahon. This was a difficult undertaking, as
II , l fho vessel's rigging was in a most defective
V state and her crow wasmadeupof sick and In-
t'j valldedraen. SliooncountoredaBovercBaloand
t . barely weathered It, The Admiral was so well
j ; iPleased with Coehrano's conduct In this mat
i 'i ter that he soon appointed him to tho com
51 mand of a prize brig, the Speedy, which.
l, " though having a capacity of no more than 168
'4 tona and carrying a orew of but nlnoty men,
J I f .prored, novortheloss, big enough for good
-j J service In Coehrano's hands. She was armed
, With fourteen 4-pounders, a species of gun lit
J I tie larger than a blunderbuss, and on onoocca-
i slon Cochrane walked tho quarterdeck with a
j f whole broadside of the vessel's shot In his
pobketa. Thus equlpiod, the Bpeedy sailed from
"j I Port Mahon to Sardinia, and within a day or
I two captured her first prize. Bhe was thon kopt
A i with Lord Keith's squadron before Genoa
j until the close of Massena's heroic defenoo
, (June 4. 1600), and, ten days later, was do
ll taohed with orders to cruise down tho Italian
II i coast. Within ten days Cochrane was at Leg.
V. 2 hom with two prizes; a week later found
' f him at Mahon with a third; and by Aug,
1 & ho was again at Leghorn with three
, T prizes more. To give even a summary of the
'i f Innumerable capturos made by the Speedy
f ' woujd be Udlous. On tho Spanish coast he
$, Wrought such havoo among the enemy's coast
l i log craft that when, after barely two months'
jt cralslng, be returned to Mahon he learned that
I ' (; the Speedy was a marked vessol and that sev
J ' ral ships of war wore on the lookout to
I ( taptuw her. Unable to strengthen tho aram.
V ment of the miserable little craft, Cochrnno
i .t painted her In Imitation of a Danish brig, and,
V having shipped a Danish quartermaster, put
f I forth once more for tho Spanish const und
i captured prizes, armed and unarmed. Ho twice
& t narrowly escaped capture by Siunlsh filgates,
F k, and finally when his crew was reduced to
, jf M souls, inoluding officers, he run Into the liar
4 h bor of Barcelona, put his vessM alongside of
I f the Gam o, a Spanish frigate of 32 heavy gims
II and 310 men. and after a ferocious fight uctu-
K ally captured her and bore Iter oft us a prize to
I K Portllahon. To this day the cuptuut of tho
gKfc Gamo remains unmatched In thu annals of
WJB. , nval warfare for skill, calculation, hud daring,
Rw Xb Speedy wm eyeLtuaUy overpowered by
thrMTrsnch llne-of-batUs-ships afUraernUs
of thlrUtn months, daring whleh psriod shs
had taken or retaken mors than 00 Ttasels, 133
guns, and more than 600 prisoners. Ooobrana
retained his liberty in July. 180L and returned
to London, whsre his relations began to press
ths Admiralty for promotion. In the ordi
nary course advanoemynt to the rank, of Cap
tain might have boen expected to follow directly
on such an action as the capture of the Gmo.
but In Cochratift'a ease it was withheld until
three months after the engagement, while
othern01cers.hu Juniors, were promoted over
his head. Lord St. Vincent, who was at the time
the First Lord of tho Admiralty, had reasons
for not liking Cochrane, tn tho first place, as n
martinet, ho would consider It an objection
that the young man should havo Imen tried by
court-martial for disrespect tonsupcrloroflleor.
Then, again. Cochrane' expressions of con
tempt for St, Vincent's failure to catch the
I'roueh floet under Drulx could hardly havo
failed to rcaoh tho Admiral's ears. Soon the
quarrel was still further embittered. Cochrane
had applied for the promotion of his First
IJeutenant, who had boon sovoroty wounded In
tho affair of tho tlamo. In answor to a third
letter on tho subject ho received nn intimation
" that it was unusual to promote twoofllcers for
such n servlco: besides which, the small num
ber of men killed on board tho Speedy did not
warrant tho application." It seems lucrcdlblo
that suoh a mastor of tho ort of wnr as
was 8t, Vincent should havo approved
the doctrine that tho merit of military
oporntlons should bo gnugod by tho
"butcher's bill." Naturally, Cochrane wns In
tensely Irritated by tho reply, nnd, as It hap
peuod, the material for a crushing retort was nt
hand. Ho wrote once more to St. Vlncont, say
ing that, by his Lordship's own showing, Ltout.
Parker had onrned promotion. Inasmuch ns tho
casualties on board tho Hnoody were greater
than those In tho flagship in tho great action
which had given his Lordship his title. Tho
shaft flow home, for the Victory had lost but
one man killed In the notion oft Capo Bt. Vln
cont; nnd thern woro not wanting critics in the
navy to exalt Nelson's sbaro in the battle at tho
expensooftho Commander-in-Chief. This let
tor, followed ns It was by a repetition of tho
importlnonco, made an enemy of the First Lord,
and put nn end to Coehrano's chance of present
employment. Finding nothing to do at sea. he
wont to tho University of Edinburgh, aud, un
der Dugald Stewart, strove to make good tho
deficiencies of his early education.
ill. '
When tho war with Franco was renewed in
1803 a ship could not well, bo withheld from
him. but Lord Bt. Vincent meanly revenged him
self by assigning to him tho Arab, a collier,
purchased for political ends. Ho recelvod orders
to convoy tho Greenland whaling fleet from
Shetland, and then to crulso in tho North Boa to
protect the flshories. tho commission being of
course a bittor jest, inasmuch as. In tho quarter
allotted to him, there wore no fisheries to pro
tect. Tho term of penal servltudo In tho Arab
lastod from October, 1803. to December. 1804,
by which tlmo Lord Bt. Vlnoent had resignod
the post of First Lord to Lord Melville.
Now Cochrane, through the good offices
of his kinsman, tho Duko of Hamilton, was
appointed to tho command of tho Pallas,
a frigate of thirty-four guns, and, as compen
sation for previous ill-treatment, he was or
dored to crulso for a month off tho Azores. Bo
fore the month had elapsed the Pallas had cap
tured four prizes nnd narrowly mlssod n fifth
which cnrrled 1.000,000. On hor way homo
the Pallas was almost surrounded by threo
French llne-of-hattlo ships, but she managed to
escape and sailed into Plymouth with a golden
candlestick, flvo feet high, at each masthead.
Tho Pallas put to sen again In May. 1805.
bound forQuobco, In charge of a convoy. Tho
voyago Is Interesting because the Captain's
painful experience of tho easo, with which con
voys lose sight of their protecting frigate nt
night through lack of a guiding light of suffi
cient powor. fed him to attempt tho construc
I tlon of a lamp which should sunnlv the want-
After some experiments ho succeeded, and tho
result was submitted to tho Admiralty. For
a tlmo no notice was taken of it. but.
on a prize of 50 being offered for
the host lamp for tho same purpose.
Cochrane onco more submitted his In
vention, but. this time, not In his own name.
The lamp was tested against many competi
tors, declared to bo tho best, and designated as
the winner of the prize. Coehrano's triumph,
however, was short-lived, for, when it became
known that ho wns tho invontor, not a lamp
was ordered. In January. 1800, the Pallas was
employed for a month In the Channel, nftor
which It started on an Independent crulso. In
April Cochrane performed a characteristic fent.
He had sent away In boats tho wholo of his
crew, with tho excoptlon of about forty men. In
order to cut off a corvette, which lay some way
up tho Garonne. The boats wore successful,
but senrcoly was tho nctlon over, when two
more French corvettes came down tho rlvor to
rescue the captured vessel; thoy wore beaten
off, however, by the ilro of tho guns on
tho prize. While this was going on the Pal
las, with but forty men on board, had ro
malnod at anchor by the rlvor's mouth, whero
It presently becamo aware of threo more French
corvettes muklngfortho Garonne. Shorthund
cd as ho was, Cochrane did not hesitnto to pur
sue them, nnd all of them ran ashore In des
peration. It Is one of tho curiosities of naval
war that threo corvettes, mounting between
them sixty-four guns, should lune deliberately
committed suicide before a defenceloss frigate
Subsequently, tho Pallas joined tho British
squndron before Basque Boads, and stood In to
reconnoitre tho French fleet that lay at nuchor
therein. Ono day. whllo Cochrane was en
gaged In a reconnolsance, n French frigate,
tho Mlnervo, supported by three brlira. enmn
otit to meet him. Tho Mlnorvo herself
mounted forty guns against the thirty
four of tho Pallas, and tho throe brigs
each sixteen more, but, after an hour's
fighting, Cochrnno beat them, and would havo
captured thorn had not two more French frig
ates borne down to their assistance, Tho
Pallas, herself a wreck, was then compelled to
mako what sail she could to savo herself. The
losses of the Pallas on this occasion were one
man killed, ono officer nnd threo men wounded ;
a sufficient proof of tho skilful hnndling of tho
ship and tho superb gunnery of tho men. For
theso two brilliant actions Cochrane received
noofflclnl commendation. Admiral Thorniior
ough wrote with enthusiasm of tho affair with
tho corvettes In tho Garonno. nnd Lord St. Vin
cent ndmltted that It called for tho highest ap
probation, but the Admiralty uttorodnot a word
of praise nor gave a penny of reward.
IV.
Shortly after the return of the Pallas, In 1800,
a general election took place, and Cochrane
was returned for tho borough of Honlton. Ho
declined to bribe his constituents, who there
upon begged that, at least, he would glvo thorn
a public supper. The fraudulent bill presented
for this entertainment amounted to 1,200.
For years Coclirano refused to pay It. until
finally compelled by legal proceedings. Having
gained his seat, ho used his Influence to obtain
promotion for his First Lieutenant In tho
Speedy nnd tho Pallas; but. being appointed in
August. 1600. to the command of the frlgato
Imperleuso. ho was compelled to go to sea with
her in an umnentful cruise which lasted until
February, 1807, In tho following April an
other general election took place, nnd Cochrane,
forsaking the too costly borough of Hor.lton,
betook himself to Westminster, whero he
offered himself to the doctors its a zealous
frjend of reform Though opposed ny Sheridan,
he was returned at the head of the noil, with
Sli Fruucls llunlott for his colleague.
Scarcely hud the new Parliament opened
when ho brought forward his ilrst motion for a
committee to Inquire into sinecures, plnees. and
nonslons hold by members nf the Houso of
Commons. Tho motion was accepted In n modi
fld form by the Government, but, threo days
later, ho was defeated without a division when
ho moved for pap-'ts to call attention to abuses
tn the navy. In the course of tho speech which
, hi tba deliraed he dlsolossd soma shameful
facta.' but, unluckily for his purpose,. be trtlrfd.
thsvloUnosofhls personal animosity against
Lord Bt Vincent ThsHmmedlats outcome ot
this demonstration against ths Admiralty was
an order to rejoin ths Imperlense, and to sail
with her to Lord Oolllngwood's fleet in tho Med
iterranean. Colllngwood qulokly recognized
Coehrano's merits and gava him an In
dependent command, assigning him to his
old work of harassing tho coasts of Franco
and Spain, The dofeucn of the castle of Itosas,
which ho undertook with men disembarked
from the Imperlense. elicited warm commenda
tions from Colllngwood. but tho Admiralty gave
neither praise nor reward. Townrd tho close
of December, 1803. tho Imicrlouso ontered
Caldagites Day. which wns protected by shore
batteries and a largo body of troops, sunk two
Frenoh war vessels and captured n convoy of
thirteen salt. Tho most notable fact In tho
record of these operations on the Spanish and
French coasts Is that, although Coclirano ac
complished an amazing amount ot mischief, he
suffered but trifling loss. He wns scrupulously
careful of his men, and his remsrkablo success
was mainly duo to the peculiar excellence ot
his gunnery.
On Jan. 30. 1800. Coclirano obtained leave to
return homo, nnd on his arrival at Plymouth
In March ho received a cordial lettor from Lord
Mulgrave, the First Lord of tho Admiralty,
summonlflg him to Whitehall. Tho explanation
ot tho unusual stir was this; Two French
squadrons wcro blockaded In Alx Roads by
Admiral Gambler, and tho Admiralty, remem
bering an assortlon ot Coehrano's, that, under
such circumstances, a fleet could bo dostroyod
by llreshlps. doslred him to carry out tho plan
With great reluctance, due to the foreknowl
edge that he would bo trammelled In tho exe
cution of his project. Cochrnno accepted tho
assignment, nnd did, as a matter of fact, cap
ture two French lino-of-bnttlo ships, the Aqul
lon and Vnrsovlo, whllo two other French ships,
tho Totmerro nnd Calcutta, woro burned. All
tho rest of tho French fleet, doubtless, would
hnvo been destroyed by Cochrane had ho pot
been peremptorily recalled by Gambler. The
author of this narrative expresses tho opinion
thnt If Gambler had had his deserts ho would
hnvo been dismissed from tho sorvlco. It was
ccitnlnly practlcnhlo to li:io annihilated the
French fleet, but he deliberately refused (o
pormlt Cochrnno to do so. Indeed, but for
Coehrano's dnrlng Initiative In tho Imperleuso,
the nttaek of tho flreshlps would not have been
followed up nt nil. According to tho testimony
of French nnxnl historinns. tho pnnlo that fol
lowed tho explosion ot Coehrano's floating
mines was Indescribable, and tho escapo of n
largo rnrt of their fleet Is attributed to Oam
blor, whoso conduct Is described in tho slnglo
contemptuous word. mohVjJf.
On his return to England from Alx Itoads,
Cochrane was received by tho public as n hero,
and ho was presently rewarded by tho Govern
ment with tho Ordorof tho Bath, a distinction
rarely conferred in thoso days upon a Captain.
Tho Government wns, of course, delighted, on
all grounds, with tho victory, which virtually
extinguished French resistance nt sea. It de
cided, consequently, to ask Parliament for a
voto of thanks to Gambler and his fleet. Then
Coclirano did a very unwise; thing. Ho went to
Lord Mulgrave, First Lord of tho Admiralty,
and told him thnt. as n member of Parliament,
ho felt it to bo his duty to opposo tho sug
gested voto on the ground thnt Lord Gamblor,
far from having earned thanks, had neglected
his duty in falling to destroy tho entire French
fleet. Lord Mulgrnvo warned him of tho
storm that ho would raise- about his own
head by such a proceeding, nnd added, fairly
enough: "Now. my lord, I will put under your
orders threo frigntes, with enrfeotoncietodo
what you pleaso on tho enemy's coasta In the
Mediterranean. I will further get you permis
sion to go to Sicily nnd ombnrk on board your
squadron my own regiment, which is stationed
there. You know how to mnko usoof them."
Then Cochrnno made the greatest mistake of
his life. He said that tho Government would
construe his acceptance ot tho offer as a bribe
to hold his peace, nnd there and thon declined
to do so, It wus such perversity as this that
If on publlo grounds ho disapproved of Lord
Gambler's conduct on service, tho straightfor
ward course. howoer Invidious, was to prose
cute him before a court-martial; not to attack
him before an Inexpert body like tho House of
Commons, where tho accused could havo no
opportunity of defending himself. Lord Gam
bler, on hearing of Coehrano's Intentions, nat
urally demanded a court-martial, and the Ad
miralty called upon Coclirano to state the
grounds of his objection to tho voto of thnnks.
This request he interpreted as an invitation to
become prosecutor, ami ho evaded tho Issue by
referring tho Admiralty to the log books of tho
fleet. Tho court-mnrtlal now resolved Itself
Into atrial of strength between Cochrnno nnd
tho Government, and, the tribunal having been
organized for tho purpose. Lord Gambler was
speedily and trlumphnntly acquitted.
V.
From thnt day forward, Coehrano's prospects
In the sorvlco woro ruined. Tho preparations
for tho Wnluheren expedition were thon going
on and Cochrane offered n plan for tho de
struction ot tho French fleet In the Scheldt.
Tho plan won rejected. Ho then asked leave to
rejoin tho Imperleuso. Permission was twice
refused. Turning to Parliamentary business,
he moved, in January. 1810. for tho minutes of
Lord Gnmblor's court-martial, undertaking to
provo partiality In tho court. The motion was
lost by 171 to 10, after which, In tho faco of
Cochrnnc's protest, n voto of thanks to Lord
Gambler wns carried by 101 to 30. Cochrane
now applied himself to political agitation out
side of the House, In nddltlon to nnnl criticisms
within, During tho first six months of 1810 lie
did good service by exposing the abusos of tho
Admiralty Courts and tho scandals of tho pen
sion lists. Tho reduction of sinecures In tho
years that Immediately followed wns cortalnly
hastened by tho boldness of this attack, Do
soon woaried of politics, howovor, nnd pined
for service at soa. In Juno of the year last
named ho forwarded to the Admiralty a de
tailed scheme for desultory attacks on tho
French coast, but was answered by a cold re
quest to name a day when he would be ready
to sail for tho Modltorranenn In tho Irapcri
euse. Ho procoedod to arguo tho point with
tho First Lord, who cut the discussion short by
sending tho ship to sea under another Captain.
Early In 1811 Cochrane paid n visit to Malta,
there to unearth tho Iniquities of tho Admiral
ty court. Tho result ot his proceedings was
that tho Judgo ordorod his arrest for contempt,
nnd he was Imprisoned, but ho managed to es
capo. and, on his arrival In England, told the
wholo story to tho nouso of Commons. Mean
while he never ceased to prophesy failure
for tho British nrmy In the Peninsula, and
matured secret plans of his own, whereby the
warwastobe ondod by a single stroke. Tho
plans ore generally supposed to havo had their
root In somo now and appalling explosive, as to
tho efflcacyof which thore Is said to lie no room
for doubt. In tho midst of his activity In the
domains of politics, science and strategy, Coch
rane found time to court Miss Katherlno Barnes,
tho orphan daughter of nn honorable family,
who wos residing with her guardian In Port
land place. Tho pair eloped, and were married
In August, J812. In tho autumn of the sama
year, Cochrane was reelected Member for West
minster, and resumed his attacks on naval
abuses In the House, one result of which was
a quarrel with the notorious Croker, then Sec
retary to the Admiralty.
The jear 1814 opened propitiously, with his
appointment as Flag Captain to his uncle.
Sir Alexander Cochrane, commanding the
North Amoricnn station, Ho was engaged In
flttlngnut his flagship when, on Feb, 21, 1814,
ho was implicated in the circulation of a falso
report of tho death of Bonaparte, which was
soon dlscoMred to lie an oluloratn hoax, de
signed lor tho purpose of raising prices on tho
Stock Exchange. There Is no doubt that Coch
rane was entirely Innocentof connivnncout this
fraud, hut he wns tried before Lord Ellen
borough, found guilty and sentenced to stand
tn tho pillory for an hour, to he Imprisoned for
ayearandtopayaflnoot a thousand pounds.
Appearances were against him at the time, but
his laaoctace has been loos accepted by puMio
-
h.i.iii,.l.i..ill.,.M-M.. ii ' '
opinion and'lndorsed by publlo authority, lie
alway asserted that his convlotlon was tho
work cf a political conspiracy, but It setSms to
have been mainly tho outcomo of bad luck. A
motion for 'his expulsion from tho House ot
Commons soon followed tho sentence, and
It was cnrrled by 144 votes to 44. That part of
tho sentence which condemned him to stand in
thoi pillory was remitted by tho Home Socro
tar'y. but the rost of it wasonforccd. Moreover,
his name was struck oft the navy list, and tho
banner which bolongod to him as n Knight ot
the Bath was taken down from Henry VII.'s
chapel and kicked with every degradation down
the steps, novor to bo replaced until tho day
boforo Coehrano's funeral. Meanwhile, how
ever, he was reelected a momber of Par
liament by his constituents ot Westminster, n
vindication which ho accepted as conclusive,
and. having escaped from prison, ho appeared
In tho Houso ot Commons, declaring that his
arrest (hero would bo a breach ot privilege Ho
was, nevertheless, arrested nnd compolled to
servo out his term, after which, having paid
his fine of 1,000, ho was onco more freo.
On the very evoning of his reloaso ho re
paired to tho Houso of Commons, and had
tho satisfaction ot turning a division against
tho Government by a majority ot ono. The ex
haustion and distress that followed tho
oloso of tho Napoloonlo wars gavo Cochrnno
amplo opportunities to harass tho Ministry,
butweneod not follow him through this part
of Jils career, which ho afterward admitted had
boon discredited by tho spirit of faction. More
serious matters soon engaged his attention.
In April, 1817, nn emissary arrived from Chill
to urgo Cochrnno to take command of tho pa
triot navy. It Is curious that Spain also made
an effort to secure his services against tho
patriots. Ho did not hesitate In his choice, but
glndly accepted tho Chilian proposal, and quick
ly prepared for llfo In a different hemisphere.
It was on Juno 2, 1818, that. In sentences
broken by painful agitation, ho took his lcavo
ot the Houso ot Commons, whloh probably was
never so sympathotlo toward him ns at that
moment. His superb audacity was a thing of
which Englishmen could not but bo proud,
and so they listened not unkindly to the lire
enter Who had callod thom tho sourco of all per
jury and fraud.
VI.
Cochrano reached Vnlparalsoon Nov. 28, 1818,
and. In the following January, sallod forCal
lao with the O'HIgglns, a captured Spanish
frigate, the San Martin nnd Lauturo, two armed
East Indlamcn, converted Into frigates, and a
twenty-gun'shlp, the Chncabuco. Tho Spanish
fleet at Callno consisted ot tho Esmomlda and
two more f rlgntos. a corvette, three brigs, ono
schooner and six heavily armed merchantmen,
fourteen ships In ull. of which ten were rcudy
forsea,'as woll as twenty-sovon gunboats. Tho
wholo mounted altogether 350 guns, and were
moored under butteries mounting 100 guns
more. Such was Coehrano's reputation thnt tho
Spaniards refused to fight the man whom they
had christened El Diablo; they dismantled their
ships nndbulltof the spars a double boom to
protoot.tho anchorage An attempt to destroy
tho boom by an Infernal machine having failed,
Cochrane returned In Juno to Valparaiso, tho
'principal result of his crulso having been to
lock tho Spanish fleet closoly into port. On
Oct. 2, 1810, he again attacked Collao. and
again failed, owing to the worthlessness of tho
ammunition furnished by tho Chilian Govern
ment. With a heavy heart Cochrano now
.cruised northward to Guayaquil, whore ho
captured two Spanish vessels, and then mado
UP Ills mind, to a desperate, venture Ho dis
persed tho squadron to various stations, and
himself sailed alone with tho flagship, without
giving any hint of his destination. His design
was to capture byarotp de main n stronghold
hitherto deemed Impregnable, tho centre of
Spanish power In Chill, tho port of Vnldlvln.
On Feb. 5, 1820, ho accomplished a fent. tho
conception of which had been regarded as
a proof of madness. Tho great military
depot of tho Spaniards in tho south, togothcr
with enormous quantities ot stores and ammu
nition, as well as a vessol of war. the .Dolores.
fell Into the vlotor's hands. The capture ot this
stronghold gavo tho deathblow to Spanish
authority in Chill, and enabled the Chilian
Government to float a loan ot a million sterling
in London.
On Aug. 21. 1820. a Chilian squadron was
despatched under Cochrano with Gen. 8an Mar
tin and 4,000 troops to drive the Spaniards from
Peru. A conflict of opinion soon arose between
the two oommandors. Cochrane was for land
ing the Army closo to Callao and marching
straight upon Limn, but San Martin insisted
upon disembarking nt Tisco, whore the
squadron wns kopt Inoctivo for fifty days.
Even when Callao was reached, San Martin
would not land, but Insisted upon moving
further north. Seeing that nothing could
bo done with him, Cochrano mado n show of
yielding, sent three of his ships to convoy the
nrmy to. Its destination, and hlmsolf remained
with threo other vessels as If to keep up tho
blockndo ot Callao. Having rid himself, how
evor, of Ban Martin, ho resolved on a different
lino of action, namely, to cut out the Esmeralda
and another frigate, which was said to have a
million dollars on board her, from under tho
batteries of Callao. Theso batteries now
mounted no fower tlfan 300 guns; moreovor,
tho Esmeralda was defended by a strong boom
nnd by armed blockshlps, and was surrounded
by a flotilla of twonty-seven gunboats. On tha
night of Nov. 5 he sent away two of his three
vessels In order that tho Spaniards might
feel assured of tho Impossibility of any
attack. After dark his attacking party,
which had been placed In boats, boarded
tho Esmeralda, und. after Inflicting on
tho Spaniards n loss of 100 killed or
wounded, cut her cable, mado sail on her, and
steered hor In triumph out of the anchorage.
Tho cutting out of this frlgnto Is generally ac
counted the most brilliant and daring of nil
Coehrano's feats of arms. Had he not been
thrice wounded himself, the probability is that
not only tho Esmeralda, but every Spanish ship
In tho harbor would have been taken or de
stroyed. As It happoned, Cochrane, who was
tho first man to board, was knocked down by
the butt end of a musket and fell -back Into his
iKiut upon a thole pin which ontered his back,
closo to tho spine. Inflicting a sevore wound.
Immediately jumping up again, he was shot
through tho thigh just as hosteppod on tho
deck, no tied up the wound with n handker
chief, nnd went on until disabled through
loss of blood. At a cost ot less than
n dozen lives, 240 men In fourteen boats
had cut out n powerful frigate manned by
300 defenders from within a circle of twenty,
soven gunboats, and from under battorles of
300 guns, and brought her off in triumph, with
the Admiral and 200 of tho crew prisoners on
board. Tho capture of the Esmeralda put an
end to the naval supremacy of the Spaniards In
the Pacific. Not long nftcrwnrd, Cochrano
made another bold attack upon Callao, In tho
eourso of which ho captured threo ships nnd
burned two more within musket shot nf tho
Spanish guns. When Cochrane returned to
Valparaiso ho wns naturally received with
every demonstration ot enthusiasm. In two
years and n half ho hail swept tho Spanish ves
sels off the sea, reduced the most Important
fortresses, cleared tho west const of pirates, and
given Chill n reasonably firm basis of Independ
ence. All this he had done nt little or no
cost. Ho had mode It a rule to force the Span
iards to pay tho expenses of the squadron. In
fluencod by Ban Martin, however, who was un
doubtedly a rogue nnd n traitor, tho Chil
ian Government subsequently treated Coch
rano with extreme Ingratitude but he
wns unwilling to support the foreign usurper,
Frelro, by whom It was temporarily over
thrown, ami refused to tako any part In a civil
war. From tho embarrassment In which he was
planed by the internal troubles of Chill ho was
relieved by a letter begging him totnknsor.
vlceundor tho Emperor of Brazil and to lib
orate thnt country from Portugal, ns ho had
already delivered Chill and Peru from the
thraldom of Spain. About tho same tlmo ho
received similar ovorturcs from Mexico and
from Greeoe, but, for the present, he deelded to
accept tho offers of Brazil, Accordingly, hav
ing Issued farewell addresses to the squadron,
to tho merchants, and to ths " OMUifot, my
fellow countrymen," tie sailed In January. 1633,
for Bio do Jatielro. and Chill know him no
ww' , -,
Vtt.
Wo havo seen wlini' Cochrano did for Chill
and Peru ! now lot us sen what they did for him.
In tho first placo, no portion of tho money
whlcli ho had deducted from tho emoluments
of nil ranks for tho pressing needs of his squad
ron was repaid olthor to him or to them;
nothing wns given to him for Valdlvla, nothing
for the. capture nf the Esmoraldn, For tho last
servleo. Chill, indeed, sont him a draft on Peru
for 5120,000, which Peru promptly dishonored.
Tho estate that had been grantod to him nnd
his family forever was forcibly resnmod by tho
Chlllnn Government. Whnt wns worse, he was
forced Into expensive litigation over vessels
captured In the sorvlco of nn unacknowledged
Btnto nnd was assessed In heavy damages by tho
British Admiralty Court. No penny of this
loss was mado good to him by Chill, In
1845, however, the republic did send
him 0.000. tho bnlanco which It considered
duo to htm after deduction of nil legitlmato
charges, nnd awarded him nlso nn Admiral's
pay for his llfo. Chill novor qulto forgot him
nor repudiated him uttorly. Tho Almlrnnto
Coehrftno figured lntoly, and It may bo figures
still among the list of Chilian Ironclads.
Wo will not pursue In detail Coehrano's ca
reer In Brazil, but limit ourselves to n suc
cinct statement of his principal nchlovomonts.
In July, 1823, whon ho had with him but four
vessels, threo ot which could notkoopupwlth
tho flagship, ho chased for fifteen days a hugo
Portuguoso fleet, comprising thirteen war ves
sels add nearly soventy transports and convoy
ing a largo military force. When Cochrano was
forced to abandon tho pursuit, halt of tho
nrmy had boon taken, only thirteen Portuguoso
ships remained, nnd theso were driven In com
pleto demoralization from tho South Atlnntlo
back to Portugal. With his flagship nlono ho
subsequently captured Maronham nnd Para,
both of which woro strongly gnrrlsoned," nnd
established n provisional administration in
both places and tho assoclntod provlncos.
In this expedition ho secured no fowor than
120 vessels, besidos an immenso amount of
military stores. This ho haddono with a sln
glo ship and without tho loss of a man. On
his return to Bio do Janeiro ho received fiom
tho General Assembly tho thanks of tho nntlon,
nnd from tho Emperor tho Imperial order of tho
Cruzeiro and tho titlo pf Marquis of Maranham,
together with nn estnto which. It Is scarcely
noccssnry to add, novor enmo into his posses
sion. Ho did not oven succeed In obtaining his
flagship's shnro, which amounted to mure thnn
$120,000, of tho prlzo property taken nt Maran
ham. The last servlco which Cochrane rendered
to Brazil was the recovery of Pornnmbuco,
which had revolted, and tho restoration ot
order In various northorn provinces. Wcnry of
working for a thankless nnd worthless Govern
ment, Cochrano severed his connection with
tho nnvy of Brazil In October, 1825. For many
years -afterward ho continued to urgo his claim
with llttlo or no success. Tho liberation of
Brazil had been committed to his charge and
ho had achieved It. Tho Brazilians remained
in his debt, not oven hhvlng reimbursed him
for a sum advanced out of hlsownpurso. For
his reward ho had to look to hlt-tory. in which
tho great campaign, wherein he drovo with a
slnglo ship a Portuguese fleet and nrmy from
tho Troplo of Capricorn and tho Tagus, will
outlive all tho revolutions In Brazil.
VIM.
Cochrnno now resolved to dovoto himself to
tho liberation of tho Greeks, and In April. 1827,
was sworn In as First Admiral of Greece. It
would bo tedious to follow him through his
wrestling with tho corruption of tho Greek
Government and tho worthlessness nnd law
lessness of tho Greek seamen. When ho sailed
for Malta In December, 1828, hlsllghting career
was ovur. " Thank God," ho wroto to a friend,
" wo are elenr of a country whero thore is no
hopo of amelioration for hulf a century to
como." It Is distressing to think that so great
a sailor as Cochrano should havo wasted nearly1
two years or ms I no in tno servlco or sucn a,
gang as the Greek leaders. He had dono much
with tho Chilians; ho had even mado some
thing of tho utipromlsiuir Brazilians. With tho
Greeks ho could do nbsolutoly nothing.
In Mny, 1832. thanks to tho unwearied dovo
tion of Ilia wifoand to tho sensoof equity evinced
by William IV., ho was restored to his rank
in tho Boynl Navy, and, a few days later, was
gnzetted a Bear Admiral of the Fleet. Ho now
threw tho wholo of his energy Into Invention,
and eventually persuaded tho Admiralty to
build n steam frigate In accordance with his
designs. Concurrently with his selentllle la
bors, he continued to press uiion the Admiralty
the secret wnr plain which he had devised
while a Captain, and carefullyconcealed during
his service undor foreign tings. In 184tl theso
plans wore submitted to n hoard of experts,
which decided that two out of three of them
were nt variance with tho principles of civilized
warfare, and should not, therefore, be adoptod
or divulged. Meanwhile tlm work of repara
tion wont on. In 1841 an ordinary good service
pension wns allotted to him. On the Queen's
birthday, 1847, tho Grand CrosH of the Bath,
the restitution of which he had longdeemed es
sential to his reinstatement, wns granted to
him by her Majesty, At the end of 1847 Coch
rane obtained, though only In tlmo of peace,
tho highest object of his ambition, tho com
mand of a British fleet nt sen, nnd hoisted his
ling as commander-in-chief on the North Amer
ican nnd West Indian station. There remains
llttlo more to be recorded. In his appointment
as Bear Ailmlrnl of tho United Kingdom, nnd ns
an Eldor Brother of the Trinity Houso, two
more graceful compllmonts woro offered to
him. Ills death In 1800,-at tho ago of 85, wns
tho result of nn operation from whUdi ho nover
rallied. Ho had iu his last momenta expressed
a wish that his body might rest in Westminster
Abbey, and on Nov. 14, J8tk, his desire was
gratified. On tho day before tho funeral his
banner, by tho personal Intervention of tho
Queen nnd Prlneo Albert, wns restored to its
placo In Henry VII.'s chapel, Onthoslnb which
records his oxploits are thoarms of Chill, Pom,
Brazil and Greece.
It Is not as n liberator, ns a reformer, lis an
Inventor, thnt Dundonnld will bo longest re
membered, hut as a great naval genius. It was
with true self-knowledge that he called tho
story of his life tho " Autobiography of a Sea
man." A sea warrior ho was, hut his extraor
dinary daring should not blind us to his tactical
and strategical excellence. He was a consum
mate master of navigation nnd recognized as
such by the first seamen of his tlmo. Ho was
no mere seeker after popularity, yot ho was al
ways worshipped by his men, becauso he
watchod ovor their comfort nnd, nliovo all,
treasured their lives. He had moral courage
as well as porsonal bravory. Ho was not n man
to risk half a dozen lives to save ono. Perhaps
his highest title to glory is the fact thnt his
greatest exploits were performed with nn ex
traordinary small loss of life to tho men under
his command. In this respect ho has had two
counterparts among tho Americnn naval com
manders during tho present war with Spain.
M. W. H.
Indlanni Its Early niatory.
Among tho historical works whloh have been
recently published wo should not overlook 77ie
Ilittorv of the Slate of Indiana, by William
Henht Smith (two volumes, the D. L. Blair
Company, Indianapolis), This narrative begins
with a description of the early explorations by
the French In tho territory comprohonded by the
Btato, and goes on to recount tho principal civil,
political, and military events which occurred In
Indiana up to 18117. Tho .nuthor proves that ho
Is qualified for his task by exhibiting not only a
minute acquaintance with the local annals, hut
olso n thorough knowledge of tho general his
tory of 1Ua country. Wo Ahnll probnbly recur to
this Interesting book hereafter, but, for the
moment, wo shall onlrdlroct the reader's atten
tion to that part of the first volumo which deals
with the history ot Indiana up to the organiza
tion of civil govornmont jn the Territory,
I,
Indiana was the second Btato carved out of
tho terrltor northwest of tho Ohio Blver
which was ceded by Virginia to tho General Gov
ornment. By tho ordlnanco of 1787 accepting
the cession from Virginia It was provided that
the territory should be eventually divided
Into not less than three nor more than five
States; 'JVlien Indiana wfis admitted Into the
Union, In 1810, Congress declared that It should
bolioutidcd onthooast by the meridian lino
which forms ths western lhindnry of tho Btato
ot Ohio, being a north lino, from the mouth of
the Miami, On the south It was tn ho lioumled
by (ho Ohio Itlvor from tho mouth of the Great
Miami to the mouth of the Blver Wabash; on
the west by a line drawn along the middle of
the Wabash from its mouth to a point where a
1
due north tine drawn'' from the .town ot Tin
oennos would lasttouch'tho, northwestern shore
of saldVtvor. nnd Uienco.br a due north Hue.
until the samo should Intorscctnn east and west
lino drown through a point ten miles north of
the southorn extreme of Lake Michigan ton tho
north by tho said cast and west line until tho
snmo should intersect tho first-mentioned meri
dian line, which forms tho western boundary
of the Btnto of Ohio. Tho extremo longth of
tho Btato from north to south is 270 miles', nnd
tho average width from oast to west Is 140
miles; the area of tho Btnto Is 30,350 square
mtles, of which 440 are water. Ono would sup
pose tho act of Congress fixing tho boundaries
of the State to bo clear enough, yet, nt ono tlmo
and another, both Ohio nnd Michigan havo set
up claims to a part of the tract declared to form
tho Htato of Indiana. Ohio has more than onco
assorted a right to a strip of land nlong In
diana's eastern boundary. This claim arose
from n difference, between tho lino described In
tho not ot 1810 and that ot May, 1800, whloh
divided tho territory northwest of tho Ohio
Into two districts. Tho claim of the State
of Michigan arose in n similar way. In
1805 It had been doomed best by Con
gress to dlvldo tho Indiana Territory Into
two districts, and accordingly tho Territory ot
Michigan was formed out ot all that part of tho
Indlnna Territory whloh lay north ot n lino
drawn oast from tho southerly bend of Lake
Michigan until It should Intersect Lako Erie,
nnd cast of allnndrawn from tho said southerly
bond throughtho mlddlo ot said Lako Michigan
to Its northorn extremity, and thence due
north to tho northern boundary ot tho "United
Btatos. Michigan assumed that tho United
States had no right, subsequently, to give any
part ot tho tract thus set off to tho State ot In
diana. No serious attention, however, has ever
been paid to eithor of theso claims. They havo
Interested tho peoplo of Michigan and Ohio, but
Indiana has gpno.on exercising jurisdiction
over tho disputed territory. Somo ot tho other
facts brought out In the chapter dealing with
tho topography of the State are worthy of no
tice For Instance, about two-thirds of Indiana
Is nearly level; thoro are no elevations rising
to tho dignity ot mountains, though somo
of thohlllsor "knobs" along tho Ohio Blver are
bold and picturesque. On the southeast shore
of Lako Michigan the winds havo drifted up
tho sand so as to form a mound or wall about
150 feet high. The Ohio Valley, embracing
thnt of Whlto Wntor. contains aliout 5.000
square miles. This Is a limestone region, orig
inally covered with dense forest. Hero tho soil
Is generally very fortllo, Tho Whlto Blvor Val
ley stretches across the centre of tho 8tate from
tho Wabash Blvor to tho Ohio lino. It was
onco heavily timbered, and hero, too, tho soil Is,
for tho most port, rich. Tho lnrgest valley is
that of tho Wabash: it covors about 11,000
square miles. Tho north part of tho Btato is
watered by the two St. Josephs and tho Kanka
kee Much of this region was at ono tlmo
swampy, but now has been drained, and forms
tho best agricultural district. It appears thnt
of tho flowering plants over 1,400 species
are found in Indiana. There are somo fifty
or sixty species of native grasses, many
of which nro of proved utility for for
age In a general wny, howovor. it may bo
said that tho great majority of herbaceous
plants indigenous to Indlnna havo no economlo
value though it Is possible that somo of tho
nntho fruits might bo signally Improved by
careful cultivation and judicious selection. Mr.
Smith thinks that tho persimmon would re
spond to such stimulative agencies. Somo
work In this direction has already been done,
with surprising resultfl. It seems, as regards
tho Inorenso of the fruit In size, tho decrease in
tho number of the seeds, nnd the diminution of
the puckery constituent which, hitherto, bos
restricted tho uso of tho persimmon. Another
of tho fruits natho to Indiana that might re
pay careful culture Is tho pawpaw. At present
It leaves much to bo deslrod'in tho way of firm
ness; it has too much odor, nnd is apt to cloy
becauso ot Its sweetness; but tho author be
lieves that the possibility of a fruit of as high
food valuo and universal demand as the banana
lies In tho despised and rejected pawpaw.
II.
When, for tho first tlmo. a whlto man trod the
soil of Indiana Is not definitely known. From
tho adventurous disposition, however, of the
Canadian coumVrsdu&ofs It Is highly probable
that It was not long after the settlement of
Quebec and Montreal boforo thoy found their
way across Lake Erie nnd through what Is now
northern Indiana. They were doubtloss soon
followed by missionaries, for whon the first
settlors camo thoy found that somo of tho rivers
were known to tho Indians by French names.
This was the case with the St. Mary and tho St.
Joseph. In 1057 Sanson, the royal geographer
of Franco, mado n map of Now Franco, on
which the Maumco Blvor Is correctly deline
ated; It follows that, previously to that time,
somo ono must hnvo visited and navi
gated that stream nnd mnpped It with tho
ndjaecnt country. Whether. In 1000, Hobert
Cavalier. Chevalier do La Ballo. crossed north
ern Indiana, In his quest of the " Great Blvor,"
Is uncertain, but ho undoubtedly returned by
way of tho Wabash, nnd aftorward set up n
claim to vast tracts of land In this region. It Is
fairly well settled that a trading post wns estab
lished on tho " St. Joseph of tho Lakes" as oarly
as 1072. but ft was not marked on any ot tho ear
lier ranps. Frnnquelln's map, 1084, and d'An
vlllo's map of Ln Salle's explorations give tho
courses of various streams In Indiana, such as
tho Wabash, tho Eel, the Tippecanoe, with
more or loss exactness, but neither of them
designates a single Indian or French settle
ment. Tho Indians, It should lie remombored,
had boforo this tlmo been driven nwny by tho
Iroquois, nnd had not yet returned.
The claim has been mado forFort Waynothat
It had become nn Important trading post for the
French ns early ns 1072. and for tho first occu
pation of Vlnccnnos several dates hnvo beon al
leged. According to ono tradition, French
traders visited tho stto of VIncennes rb early as
1000, and many of thom remained there. Inter
marrying with the Indians. Another tradition
puts tho first arrival of the traders In 1080.
Thoro Is still another to tho effect that a party
of French Canadians In 1702 descended the
Wabash Blver and established soveral posts,
VIncennes being ono of them. Inasmuch, how
ever, as the French Government attached great
tmportnnco to settlements, considered ns muni
ments of title, and Inasmuch as the maps cover
ing tho explorations up to 1084 show no signs
of them. Mr. 8mlth accepts the conclusion that
before that tlmo no such settlements existed.
There Is no doubt that ln 1702 tho French, to
mako good their claim upon tho Mis
slssippl Valloy, determined to establish
Borne posts along tho Ohio nnd Missis
sippi rivers, and that n fort was erect
ed near tho mouth of tho Ohio. Home
writers have maintained that VIncennes was
the site of this fort, but all tho records are
against them. In 1720 the Mississippi Com
pany urged the building of a fort on tho Wa
bash as a safeguard ngalnst tho English, Tho
necessity for some such protection was soon
confirmed. By 1725 English traders from Car
olina had put up two tiooths on the Wabash,
and othor Intruders, probably Fennsylvantans,
had stations further up the Ohio Valley,
Apparently, the first post founded in what
Is now Indiana by the French was that at
Oulntenon, tho date of which soems to have
been 1720. This was situated on the north
bank of the Wabash, about eighteen mllea be
low the mouth of the Tippecanoe, No effort
was ovor made to plant a colony there, but It
became, In time, a trading point of consider
able Importance. There Is no definite record
of tho establishment of tho post nt VIn
cennes. but this, apparently, took place
about 1727, for In thnt year M. de VIncennes
nnd his lieutenant. St. Ango, were at Kas.
kaskla. When Gen, Hnrmor Isltcd tho post,
In 1787. he was informed by tho Inhabitants
that It had been started just sixty years before.
A proof that It could not havo boen founded lii
anyof tho earlier years to which tho date hns
been assigned Is tho fact that Its founder Is ad
mitted to hnvo boen Francois Margane, whodld
not succeed to tho tltlo of Bleur de VIncennes
until late in the year 1710. The place wns not
known under the name of VIncennes until
1762. It remained the only settlement ot
-:bm 'tBIH
whites in Indiana until after the Revolutionary 11
War. although forts woro maintained both at wWBoi
thoheodoftheMaumooandntOulntonon. From Hii
IU settlement until Its final tmnsror to Great I 3!
Britain In 1703 VIncennes was under tho juris. I iff'
diction of Now Orleans. Its trade, however, was BroS"
mainly with Camilla, so long ns peltries consti- &''
tuted tho bulk of Its salable commodities. After l!sP?
tKo settlors had begun tho cultivation of the 6 ItW
soil their surplus products wurn floated down Iwt
tho Ohio, nnd thon down tho Mississippi to 1I5V
Now Orleans. Not long after thn post was II $v
established at Vlnconnos tho neighboring In- mm'
dlnnsgnvc a largo tract of land for the uso of - '
the settlers. Grants from this tract wcro made 3 R
br tho Govomor from tlmo to tlmo to Indl- I w
vldunl holders, hut most of It was hel in & W
common. Tho French denizens or tho place I
Mtnnlnod upon friendly terms with tho In- B
dlans. and pinny of them took Indian wlws ' '
Thoy raised wheat, outs, barley anil small I ,''
quantities of mnlze, nnd nlso cultivated or. I -
chnrds nnd vineyards, the, product of whteli I
they manufactured Into wlno und elder. But I
llttlo attention was paid to education, and H '
only a few could rend or write. In re- 1
liglon. thoy wore dovout Catholics, nnd their H
sp ritual wants woro attended to iir mission. H
nrlos. The colony. In a word, had been planted
hy Franco for tho solo purnoso ol making ,-ood B
hor tltlo to tho country, for which purposo a I
colony of a dozen famlllos wns as good as one H
ofBOvernl hundred; in fact, It wnshetter.be- H
cause so small n settlement would not alarm I
tho Indians. M. do Mncennes rcmnhied In H
command of tho post until his deatli In 1730 H
In that year trouble arose between tho Freneh
and tho Indians on tho Mississippi, nnd Vln- I
cennos wos callod upon to reinforce the French
nt tho mouth of the Ohio. There n battle I
was fought and VIncennes wns among the
slain. About 1747 new signs of trouble begnn 1
to multiply. Tho British colonists woro reach- 1
i?5-out .?.?! ".' ,u& ,rn,! 9' the Indians! I
thoy outbid tho French for skins. A
plot wan formed whereby nil tho French I
posts west of Pennsylvania were to be I
destroyed. The , conspiracy was dlscov- ?l
ered and foiled, but, tho disaffection eon- l
Untied. In 1754. nlno years before the A
claims of Franco had, been definitely ceded to 11
tho English. Benjamin, Franklin urged the if
establishment of English colonies north- I
west of tho Ohio lllvor. Ho proposed to 1
Plant n colony at or near tho mouth of the 1
Wabash nnd to capture all tho French posts
in the Northwest region. At the tlmo there I
were threo French posts within tho limits of
whnt Is now Indiana ono at VIncennes, ono nt fi
Oulatonon nnd ono nt tho Maumeo. At the I
closo of ,1705, two years after tho country had
been ceded by France, the French In the whole
Northwest territory. Including those at Detroit,
only numbered, bIx hundred famlllos. In H
17tJJ the conspiracy headed by Pontlno was H
formed. An account of this outbreak against
tho English is set forth In n chapter, of H
this volumo: It Is sufficient to state H
hero that tho British garrisons nt Oulatonon H
nnd Fort Minmis were surprised nnd cap-
tured. Vinconnes hnd not yot been nurron-
dcred, to tho. English, nnd therefore was not II
molested by Pontine. By September. 170S, II
however, the wholo of tho territory now com-
Prised In tho State of Indiana wns assumed to H
be tn possession of the British, nnd a civil gov- H
ernment was set up for tho region west oFtho
Alleghany. Tho only attempt, however, nt tho
exnrclso of government over tho Inhabitants of
vlncennes nnd Oulntenon was tho taking of a H
census in 1770. which was followed, two years H
aftorward, by an effort to foreo tho French In- ffl
habitants to quit tho Indian country.
Lleut.-Ooy. Abbott took possession of Vln- ffl
cennesln 1777. but the BritlHhdld not retain ti o 1
place, for It wns captured In August. 1778, b I
i ant. Helm, representing Gen. O. B. Cluik. I
Helm In turn was compelled. In tho fol- B
owing Hoptcmher, to surrender to tho Brit- B
lsh, who within three months woro ngnln B
driven out by Clark. Thenceforth VIncennes I
was lost to England. As yet no attempt I
at British or American settlements had been H
mndo within tho boundaries of Indlnna. Fol- ffl
lowing tho capture of VIncennes by Gen. Clark. B
however, a few Americans went to thnt point, M
The Indians still claimed the ownership of nil i
the lands except tho tract around VIncennes 1
which had been ceded by them forthousnof )l
tho post Inhabitants. Whllo Oen. Clark wns J
exercising authority ot VIncennes tho Indians R
ceded to him a tract of 150.000 ncresof land II
around tho falls of tho Ohio Blver. which grant II
was afterward confirmed by Virginia nnd by
Congress. The first American settlements n
within tho, limits of tho present State were
mado on this grant, fj
III. A
Tho years following tho close of tho war for H
Independence were very dark forsettlcrs on the H
Western frontier. Tho Indians had never been I
entirely satisfied with tho change from French 1
to British suzerainty, and the change to Ameri
can ovorlordshlp was far more distasteful.
They realized that a Inst rally must bo made,
or olso tho Ohio. Wabash and Maumeo valloys
would, liko tho hunting grounds of Kontucky,
fall to the American settler. Hence the Indian
outbreak. In consequenco of which Hnnmir
nnd St. Clnir suffered torriblo defeats, nnd Gen.
Anthony Wnyno hnd to inflict a severe punish
ment upon tho Indians before settlers dared to
open up clearings and erect cublns.
After Wayne had forced penco upon tho In
dians and somo of their InndB had beon coded
to us, colonists begnn to come In more rapidly.
At first thoy clung closoly to the Ohio Blver,
whence they could. In enso of alarm, fly quickly
to Kentucky, nnd whore thoy were In easy
reach of needed supplies. Aftor a few years,
however, thoy began to branch out along the
Whlto Water, but tho great Interior of the I
State was still left in tho bunds ot the rod men. 1
Tho pioneer settlors mainly camo from Vlr-
glnin. Tennessee, and tho Carolina, but soma
wcro from Pennsylvania and tho Now England
States, wlille a few "there were of Irish nnd
Scotch-Irish Mock. Tho whites woro not con
tented with the lands opened up for settle
ment, und were continually oncroachlng on
those reserved to the Indians. Successive
trcntles followed, each ono ceding more land,
notwithstanding vigorous protests on the part
of tho Indians. To theso cessions Tecumseh,
as tho rejirescntatlvo of tho Shnwnoes. stronu- J
ously objected, and endeavored to arouse the fc
Delnwares and Pottawattumlcs. In 1800 Gen. fj
William Henry Harrison. Governorof tho In- 1
dlana Territory, received information that of- H
forts were being made to stir up tho Indians to H
hostility, nnd it was not long before the wholo H
border was In n stato of unrest, and tho whites HI
begnu to preparo for Indian Incursions. The B
two great leaders of tho Indian movo-
ment were Tecumseh and his brother Pern- U
squntnwah. sumamed the Protihet, tho prlnel-
Sal chiefs of tho Bhawnees. Tecumsoh was
urlng leador, a man of eloquence, and pos
sessed ot nil tho parts necessary to Influence
snvngo trllies. About tho closo of 1805 To
cumseh and his brother, followed by n small
band of tho Shaw nees. removed to Oreonvllie,
O. In 1808. however, the Prophet returned to
Indiana and settled nmong the Pottnwattamles
ami Kicknnooson the Wnbasli, near the mouth
of the Timieeaiioo. There ho soon gathered
around him n considerable followlngof the most
disaffected trlbos. Tecumseh, meanwhile, was
travelling ovor the country endeavoring to
form n confederacy to resist tho oneroachmonts
of the whites, and to demand n retrocession of
tho Inuds which had been granted. Ho con
tended that no slnglo tritio ot Indians had a
righttodlsposoof the land; tliat the whole ter
ritory belonged to all the tribes In common,
and ho doclarcd thnt ho and his brother
would opposu nny further attempts of tho
whites to extend tholr settlements northwest
of tho Ohio ltlver.
In tho early part of tho year 1811 It becamn
evident that British agents from Cnnnda,
acting under tho belief that wnr lmtween I
tho two countries must soon break out, were
making over effort to got on good teniH J,
with tho Indians, and were Incltliur thum to f
acts of violence. In tho wnr which subsequent- 1
ly occurred thn hopes of tho Indians were
ilasheil In the Tlppecanoo campaign and were
annihilated by tho defeat of thn combined I
Indians nnd British, two yeors Inter, nt tho fl
bnttlo of tho Thames. It was not. howover. 1
until home tlmo after Indiana was admitted ns f
a Stato In tho Union (1810) that nil Indian dep
redatlotm ceased. On the whole, howexer. the
scttlementsenjoyedcomparatlvo pence aflertho
end of thn last war wl(h Great Britain, In con
nection with this subject, Mr Smith recalls the
attempt of Great Britain to induce tho United
States to give up n largo pnrt of tho land
which had been acquired nt the close of tho
Beioliitlonary Wnr, nnd thus to nffnrd the Eng
lish n good foothold through which to pursue
other aggressive designs. One of thn things
Insisted upon by the English Commissioners nt
Ghent III 181 4, nt the npeiilngnf Ihenegot latlons
for peace, wns thnt nil the territory now occu
pied by Michigan. Wisconsin, Illinois. and thn
larger imrt of Indiana, wlthahout one-third of
Ohio, should bo set u pnrt for the Indians, to
constitute an Indian Hoverelgnty.under British
protection. The Idea wns that this territory
should none ns a buffer or perpetual huf
work of the British ixmsesslons against Ameri
can ambition. The United States were to ngreo
not to purchase the hinds from thn Indians nt
anytime. This pniixmal was mailo n tine qua
tion condition of the negotiations. Thn reso
lute opposition to it mndo by tho American En
voys alarmed the British Government nnd tho
Duko of Wellington wns enlled into council. Ho
declared hlniM-lf emphatically ngalnst any at
tempt to acquire new territory or to mnko any
dfmand that would afford thn Americans any
ground for abandoning the negotiations, and,
M'conllnglr, the proiKisal was withdrawn.
In 1810 the first complete ceimus of the In
dlann Territory was taken. Tho imputation
then amounted to 24.520. There were in tho
Territory .13 grist mills, 14 sawmills. 18 tan
neries, 28 distilleries, 3 powder mills, 1,2'xl
looms nnd 1.3.riO spinning wheels. Tho total
value of Inillann maiurncturesnt this data did
not equal S200.000. In IHlfi, on the other 1
hind, when a census wns taken hy order of tl u I
Territorial legislature, the population wns
I13.M7. and, after the ascertainment of this
fact. Congress passed nn net authorizing the 1
S lection of delegates to u coin em Ion to frame a lv
tato Constitution. After tlie admission nf In- A A
dlana to tha Union the population of thu Ktute 4
grow rapidly, but the later course of lis history '

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