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WF '' ' '" n 'TOE gtjtf, SUNDAY, JULY ' lOipbB. ' - ' 'g" !
f URGE HOLDINGS OF GOLD. I jcr $300,000,000 wortb jrorr ur I .vKir roiuc, ,, XU.n 200,000,000 It In the Clear taf House' Strom Box and the Bub miT The Great Treasure Chest ot V, ctprltut House and Its Contents. Wore coined (fold Is packed away for safo t stag In cw York 'n,fl Bummor thnn hM ', Lea gathered horo boforo, probably moro Jklnls at this tlmo stored In any olhorclty on Ah excepting 8t. Petersburg and rariss ''rtrtnlT as much os tho total output of nil tho toes In tho world last year. This may acorn iistecrated statement In vlow of the fact !?.i the gold output of 1807 was tho largest Mdstory being equal to at least $203,000,000. tlt Is well within tho truth, since tho gold Jv holdings horo now nmonnt to botween ' rxtf.000 000 and $210,000,000. and are proba Nearer the larger than tho smallor figure SnreoTf r-snd this statement Is still moro sur-JStoe-tho world's vlelblo supply of gold.cs uatied b7 tho ofllclnls of tho Now York Assay mL though now larger than over before. mounts only to a llttlo moro than fS.000.000. noft, both coined and uneolnod, bo that, aecopt lT.200 000.000 ns the measure of Now York's ntunt Bold coin stornBe. It Is quite caual to Joetwcnty-flfth part of all tho precious yellow m.tsl In existence Though all that has been said Is strictly true. ogfictsbelnK gathered from tho manasor of the New York ClearlnB Houso. tho Assistant Trcicurer of the United States. In chnrBO of toa Bub-Treasury here, and tho Superintendent e( the Assay Offlco.lt would bo Imposslblo to p rite exact figures ns to tho total amount of rtortd gold coin horo for two reasons. First, there Is no way of securing acenrnto reports ot Idul snd prlvato holdlnss. and. second, tho holdings of tho United States Sub-Treasury indthe Now York ClearlnB Houso fluctuate bom day to day. Tho functions of tho Clear injllousolneludotho storaBO of Burplus sold I tor ill the banks belonging to tho association. heiieo Its vaults contain tho bulk of all thi gold eoln In tho city savo that ewned by the Government. A fow days Mo Its storage footed up to $107,000. OOfl, with a fow millions moro In pros wet. On that same day tho Sub-Treasury had I00.000.0OO. If tho amount of Bold locked up In hank vaults and hold by prlvato Individuals toold bo determined and tho sum added to tho monnous total, the estimate horo made would ndoubtedly be found below and not above tho ictual holdlnss. In addition to tho vast Bums represented by the figures quoted thoro was stored In tho As say Offleo on this day about $55,000,000 worth tf bar gold and this added to tho coin holdings f 1227,000.000 In tho ClearlnB House and tho Bnt,.Tnaaury swolls tho gross aside from tank and prlvato holdlngs-to $282,000,000. PnnuMtlonably thoro Is enough moro gold In (few York at this tlmo to raise tho total to$300 pOO.000. or ono-thlrd moro than tho world's wtput In tho year of greatest production. The rresenco at tho nation's commercial eentre of so vast an accumulation of the world's standard monoy metal, duo to no government's (Sorts at concentration. Is unprecedented, and the situation Is not without its embarrassing features. Perhaps the greatest embarrassment arises from the lack ot adequato storage facilities at tat Clearing House. Its great strong box. or treasure chest, was built to hold $105,000,000. ' sod when it was erected, three years ago, there vu little thought that Its capacity would ever t tested. But though tho estlmatod storage limit has long been overrun, no surplus mil lions are kicking around loose on tho floor of the Institution. On tho contrary, by crowding the treasure chost. Its capacity can bo Increased over 60 per cent., and the unexpected millions re to-day stored quite as safely and guarded as carelullr as any ot tho stock on hand. The great Btrong box of tho Now York Clear ing House lithe only treasure chest of its kind In th world, and competent judges say it Is also byall odds the best, oxcoodlngln security the vaults of tho Government at Washington and thosa ol the Bank of England In London u much as n modern burglar-proof safo ex ceeds tho Iron key safes ot our grandfathers. Situated somewhat lower than the sidewalk. It is about as large as a good-sized private dining room, having a frontage of 25 feet and .depth ot 20 feet. ItscolllngTs 12 feet hich. The floor rests on a platform ot Btcol rail road rails. Llko tho sides and top, it is 8 Inches thick, and composed of layers c! chrome steel plates, each pinto being 8-10 of nn Inch thick, so temiored as to be ot almost diamond hardness, and nil bolted together In such a manner as to " brenk joints" at every point. Were there no other safeguards the material used and tho methods ot construc tion would form an almost perfect guarantee, against loss by thoft, for It would take tho most expert burglar, using perfect tools, moro than twenty-four hours to make a hole through either floor, top, or side. As a matter of fact the additional safeguards are so elaborate tlmt the gold would lie secure even wero the walls oltho treasure chest mndo of wood Instead of laminated chromo steel. In the first place, and hero Is tho point in hlch the Clearing House strong Ikix excels all others. It Is entirely Inclosed In a large under ground apartment 40 by W) feet in sire and 20 feet high, which is at all times brilliantly light ed by electrlo bulbs. Thus tho walls of tho treasure chest are entirely free from contact on the. top and sides, while on tho bottom thoro is no contact savo at lour points only. These are furnished by solid masonry plors, set on tho bedrock which forms Manhattan Island's foundation. These piers rntso tho great chefitO feet 0 inches from the. -main floor to the level of n narrow platform reaching quito round tho apartment, but separated by quite a ipyce from the box itself. By this arrangement it Is possible for the watchmen who guard the treasure night and day nctually to walk under It at will; Indeed it is a part of their duty to do this at regular intervals. This arrangement also furnishes an absolute safeguard against robbers working from tho bottom by means of t tunnel, and It would, of course, bo Impossl tleln the circumstance fornnv one to break Into tho lox at any other place. In ordinary circumstances It is Imposslblo to touch the chest at all, excepting at tho bottom, since it is separated from the surrounding platform exactly as a feudal castlo Is separated from the Immediate territory by Its moat, while tho roof la two feet lower than the coiling of the Inplos lng apartment. Asnn additional safeguard tho treasure chest Is surrounded by a grating or trill ot finely tempered 2-Inch steel bars, which reach from floor to ceiling, making it Impossi ble for any one to get nearer than four or flvo fen without unlocking the grill doors. tntcring tho strong box is a matter of some time, it not ceremony, even to those who are tuthorlred to pass through its doors nnd gaxo upon Its yellow treasure. Tho doors can M opened only when representatives of po sets of offlcials-ono from tho Clearing Mouse Itself nnd ono from tho Associated Janks, which own tho gold are present. In 1 actual practice these officials are personated 1 S?"Bi,"H by Sir William Bherer, manager of m Clearing Houso, nnd 3Ir. Frederick 1). Tan ran, President of tho Gallatin National Dank, wno Is nlho Chairman of tho Hankers1 Commit tee on Gold Htorago. When it Is desired either M withdraw or put away gold, both go to tho JPartment in which tho strong box stands, but JJ everything is guardod by tlmo locks, thoy oust, of eourso, do this at a certain predeter mined hour Before the box Itself can bo opened they must Jo ock the sliding doors of tho grill, ench oftl JiM working a separate combination. As theso jwr move aside, a llttlo drawbridge swings into place Passing over this they open ono of oetreaauro chests outer doors, each using a Mparntn combination ns before. Sodollentoly JW these doors adjusted that thoy swing at tho hrfwst touch, though oaeh Is fonrteon Inches JP and weighs ten tons. But the opening of imi door does not admit the men to tho pros foe, of the treasure, since thoro aro Inner fold m doors to bo unlocked nnd passed, nnd after JPesehavohoen swung there nro small steel fnesu which must be unlocked before the gold "accessible, m Internal nrrnngemont of tho, great trea- IP je chest Is admirably suited to Its purposo. were being three rooms, each entered by Its Jjn doors, These rooms aro enoh six foot wido, on eaehone contains soventy steel chests for tneeujrogo of gold. They aro ranged along H? side walls hi tlorsexactlyjlkq bigplgeoti Ifr .l" PlKon hole Is 10 by 2 , by 20 JWiesin slr.o: each hnsltsown door and indl Sdwl key and each will hold one ton. or $5W. JJM in gold coin of any denomination. It Is tho Si?1?,?0 8tro tho poln in strong duck bags. ucli ko ordinary shot bags In material and SSaJi ""d each large enough to hold Impounds Molrdunols. or $5.(HX). so llmt it requires 100 Eg o nil each pigeonhole Of eourso all nro Pw filled, and besides, a tier of extra boxes has . ranged down the centre of each room, MUlthe totntdead weight of gold now eon nfifr..ln th ,Jlg chest amounts to 302 tons, ..Add the gnu eo jn tn Bui,.Treasuryand 5SJL,bar K?1" I" "'" Assay Oitlco to this, and the cross i weight of the precious yellow metal at ' tlm stored In what may bo termod the wyio treasure chosts of New . York would Jjwuntto 522 tons. Wore all this gold planed in one eldo of a glgantlo pair of scales. It would iSV.'i overbalance ten 60-ton .locomotives; i the weight of the chest in which it Is kept af woyM mora than equal the coal In tholr tenders. I hif.l5,'vlapnt from the construction and sur I 8MD,ftP,.the Clearing House treasure phest 1 S7.the l9' who should suooeed in robbfog It w uy of its prolou0 oonUnU wotilo M a nT Ingenious, and persevering man. Indeed. Tot tneha f of thORnferruardshnTO not been told, nor win the .custodian of the Btrong. box ex plain them all. Itls a fact, howevsr. that even were two light-fingered mem to accomplish tho Imposslblo and secure the double combinations, thoy would, bo morally oertaln thoy would oomo to .grlof the moment they began to rnanlnufato tho looks of tho grill doors, for thoy are, flttod L with . electrical con trivance calculated to bring disaster upon any unauthorized nnd therefore unfamiliar person who should touoh them. At tho same, tlmo alarms would bo sounded In a dozen different quarters and arrest would be made before th robbers could get out of the plaoo. So. whllo f H fl015!8,?Lod ,e.el. c?rtaln weight of responsi bility tor tho safety of the gold in their enro. thoy still feel reasonably certain that nothing snort of real magic, not evon the rending power of an enrtnquake. can ever mako posslblo the robbery of the treasure chest. vUJ?..nPLCXD0C.twl by, tho .bankers of Now York that tho vast quantity of gold now stored there will remain long , undiminished, nor would It bo Hkely to remain at this high-water mark oven were no war In progress. Itspres enco colncldcntly with tho early stages of tho current hostilities has undoubtedly had n great effect upon the nations of thoenrth.but It is not horo bocauso of commercial mnnccti vrlngs any more thnn because of government Ereseure. It Is hero. In tho natural eourso ot uslncss. A certain, but not largo porcentngo came from, tho Klondlko region, but most of it was oalled hither from Europo in the settle ment of last year's business, through tho bal anco of trade being largely in America's favor. TJ7B WAIt IX OUR JFOllKiair QUARTERS Potrlotlo Dliplnys in the Jewish, French and German Parts of Town. Cheap flags, put up In all the foreign quarters of tho city when tho war with Spain opened, long since began to fado and somo havo been torn from tholr sticks by wind and rain. But thoro aro not locking other signs In those quar ters of Interest In tho war. Grand street, a thoroughfare ot all nations savo tho American, Is quito as patrlotlo as Broadway. Ingenuity has been taxed to oxpress tho patriotism ot Grand stroot Even a summor garden over thero has been named for one of tho now naval horoes. whllo tho portraits of Dewey, Slgsbco and Hobson, ready framed for hanging on the walls ot neighboring tenemonts. aro sold In half a dozen shops ot from 10 to 40 cents. Ono Grand street merehant'of very foreign name has so far anticipated events as to dis play In his window a tobacco leaf shaped Into a rudo map of Cuba, with navana conspicuously marked on tho coast, and over all tho Stars nnd Stripes waving. A Grand streot merchant whoso businosa Is plaiting and buttonholing displays In his window 'ti fomalo figure whoso plaited draperies aro composed of the national colors. Another Grand streot shop announces tho sale of the stock from a country merchant ruined by the war, In fact a "war failure" sale. Far ovor toward tho East River a Grand street baker displays a "Dowey banquet raisin cake." Bomo ot tho poorest of tho east sldo tono ment streets havo not maintained the patrlotlo display that marked tho first weeks of the war. This is especially truo of the Jewish quarter. whore tho cheap flags flutter feebly horo and therewith llttlo else to Indicate a period of special publlo Interest. Even here, howovor, tho prevailing taste for tho national colors In articles ot dross makes Itself felt, and " butter fly bows" beating the Stars and Stripes aro frooly sold by Itinerant merchants. A Jewish corset-maker displays a lay figure gorgeously corseted In tho national colors. Thero Is no lack of patrlotlo display in tho German quarter, whatever tho attitude of Em peror Avllllam In the presont conflict, but then Emperor William's ears would tingle could he hear the opinion ot him freely oxprcssed In honest native German by frequenters of tho cast side weln stubes. The most famous nnd popular ot these characteristic resorts displays the tutelary American eagle upholding the shield, tho design done deftly In soap on a mir ror behind tho bar. Another weln stubo displays tho national colors on tho inner side of its wicker swinging street door. The man that parades tho eost sldo with an electric shock battery finds It politic to cover his llttlo stand with tho American flag. It would bo hard to And nnywhere In tho Gor man quarter, however, our own nnd the Ger man flag entwined, and. Indeed, tho German flag Is rarely displayed. Gorman stationers And it worth while to display on sain pictures of ourfleotandof the fleet commanders. Tho Slalrto appears everywhere in the German quarter, even on the haekB of photograph albums, an Institution, by tho way. chiefly con fined to that quarter. There is p dearth of patrlotlo display in the several Italian quarters, hut an Italian illus trated weekly, especially devoted to the war with Spain, is published at Milan and sold in at lenst one of tho local Italian quarters. A French fubllcation also gives itself up to Illustrating ho war. Ono of tho best known Illustrated weeklies of Paris was unfortunate enough to publish a picture of Schley labellod Dewey. The French quarters, old and new, give no great sign of interest In tho war. thougn they begin to dress themselves for their own coming national feast. French stntloners and dealers in periodicals seem to feel that tholr compatri ots are not specially anxious for anything be yond current reports of battles and sieges. There is no such display of the naval horoes nnd our ships In such shops throughouttho two French quarters as In like shops in the German quarter. From the opening of the war tho old west side has been richly decked In bunting, and that. too. mainly ot a quality that has enabled the decorations to oomo fresh through tho varying weather of the last ton weoks. Two characteristic English resorts of tho west side, ono a snloon frequented by local Britons, especially ot the horsy type, tho othora chop house dear to the lower order of English actor folk, proudly display tho new-sprung good will of the British. Ono keeps an American flng above Its bar mirror, and another has an abundant display ot bunting. BiailTSEEBS IJT TOWN. Disappointments That Come to Some Sum mer Visitors to New York. Now Is tho time when tho tourist is abroad in the land, and tho crowds at the Now York hotels aro emphatically transient. Every one Is on his way to somo place and has planned to devoto a day or two to New York In passing. It Is too early for tho crowd of men. That invasion comes later. Just now there's a family charac ter to the visiting throngs ; and countless small boys and girls are being introduced to the won dors of New York. It's hot work forthe parents, but the children are having a great tlmo, and after three days' visit they know more about tho town than tho oldest Inhabitant. Grant's tomb and the Art Museum, the Aqunrium and Greenwood Cemetery, Conoy Island and High Bridge aro as familiar to them as their homo doorsteps. The mother and father think that the distances nre great in Now York, but tho children sigh for more worlds to conquer. Tho top of a Fifth Avenue stago Isn't tho coolest placo in town whon tho mercury In thermometer tubes Is ooquotting with tho hundreds ; but It Is a splendid place from which to study millionaires' houses. So tho stages carry crowds. Tho temper of the drlvor Is worn thin by questions, and nny stray New Yorker who joins tho crowd haB a chanco to display his familiarity with tho nabobs nnd to win en thusiastic gratitude from tho travelling public. It is astonishing to see tho amount of satisfaction some persons can Bet out of knowing that Jay Gould lived in one brownstono front nnd Russell Sago lives In another. Thoy nro very particular about got tlng the various Vanderbllts Into tholr respect ive houses, and they nre desperotoly nnxlous to know the denomination of each ono of tho avenuo churches and the names of nil the clubs and hotels. Tho reservoir at Torty-second street always makes a sensation, and tho oblig ing citizen who Is pointing out tho sights Is grieved that ho must ndralt It Is n re sorvolr, and can't call It an Egyptian temple orsomo thlng that will not be disappointing. Ono day Inst week a brldo and bridegroom occupied seats on tho stago 'just behind tho drlvor. They wero so evidently provincial and so unmistakably on their woddlng trip that tho other occupants of tho stago watched thorn with Interest, nnd expected cnthuslnm from them, The young couple snt stiffly nnd stnrqd utthe rows of houses. The bridegroom mndo a fow remarks, but tho brldo didn't respond. Hho looked disappointed. A kindly neighbor pointed out tho homes of famous men ; but tho brldti didn't cheor up. Finally sho turned to her husband like an accusing angel, "John, is It all like this f" " Well, yes, kind of," ho replied. " Is this tho nicest street?" " Ain't the Vnndorbllts got any yards7" "Guess not " Sho dropped back Into tho soat in disgust. " Well, gl me Itogers Crossing." sho said. rrotttbly that Is tho way a good many Isitors feol about Now York when they see It only In summer tlmo. With the xcontlpn of the l'ork and HUersld Drive, thoro is nothing very com forting about the city on a hotday.TMghtsooIng downtown, too.ls discouraging. If takes a pootlo Imagination to Infuso excitement Into he act of sfanding, before n .twenty-story ofllca bulidjng and thinking that George W ashlngton once had headquarters In a house on that .snot. There are persons who get aholr Joy out of standing on hlstorio ground, b- the rank and fllTot tourist want Bomethlnt, :oro tangible. i .mm imhMBBMMMMM SPAIN WAS TOR .CRUEL HKit rticABvnB xx ixFiacriiro xon- tviik ox ran yjtBtPZEns, Atrocious Trentment of War Prisoners no Always Been n National Characteristic Deeds ns Horrible ns Any Ravages Rrer Thought Of Crucifixions nnd Roasting. From (As Albany Evening Journal. Prof. 0. Mlchaolls ot this city has mads a translation of a letter written by Prof, Hate hauser, professor of history In tho University of Bonn. Gormany. to tho New York Sfaaff Zeitung on tho cruelty of tho Spaniards In tholr warfare as Illustrated by hlstorio incidents. Prof, nalzhauser writes; "Wo wero eovoral Gorman doctors of philoso phy who. whllo enjoying the bnlsamlo nlr In the beautiful court garden of tho university, dis cussed eagorly tho all-absorbing now whloh had Just reached us, i. e., tho opening ot hos tilities between tho United States and Spain. Tho sympathies wore somewhat divided, as could be expected, though tho largo majority sldod with tho Stars and Stripes. "One of tho company, howovor, proved to bo a warm frlond of Spain. Ho Is a professor of literary history nnd spoko with groat enthusi asm of tho noblo charactor.of tho Spaniards, and pointed as examples to a Foso, a Carlo, a Hernnnl, and to tho herolo CId Cnmpeador. Ho was further greatly Improssod by the recent patrlotlo outbursts at Madrid and Valladolld. I shook my head to all his fervent words nnd In vited him and his friends to bo seated on one ot tho numerous bonchesof the'old park, and then I begnn to unfold tho real charnotor of tho Spaniards, rolling up boforo tho eyes of my astonished listeners scones of Spanish warfare of tho past, which I had collected In my manu script of the history of tho campaigns of Napo loon I., which I Intond to publish ot the begin ning of tho twentloth century. I herewith sub mit a portion of them to tho perusal of tho Gorman-American public to which I boltovo they ore ot special Interest at tho present tlmo. "Aside from nnythlng that a wilful partisan or a romantically Inclined historian mny havo written, ono can say, without fear of con tradiction, that of all tho olvlllzod nations on earth, none ever hns waged war In a moro cruol and fraudulent mannor than tho Spanish. It Is with horror only that tho Germans think ot tho times of Alva, who devastated their fatherland by his ntroclous actions, and trans formed tho Industrial cities and provinces of the Netherlands Into a desert. "No better than this bloody executioner ot King PhlllD wort othor Spanish loaders in the war waged for tho lndependenco ot tho Nothor lands. Tho city of Maastricht, for Instance, was plundored for tbreo days, after having boen bo slegod for four months by tho Spanish General, Aloxonder Fnrncse. Duko of Parma. Eight thousand Inhabitants were murdered, among them 1.200 women, who. after having been sub jected to unspeakable outrages and tortures, were positively butchered. The cruelties of the civil war between tho followers of Philip V. and of Carlos III. can hardly bo described, and thoy are only snr- fassed by tho brutalities committed during tho ongwnrof the Spaniards against the French (1808-1814). When Naixjlcon had put his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne and had taken possession of tho country with his army tho people beonme furious, nnd tho fanaticism ot thoDlgotod mnsses showed up In a revolting manner, ns thoy feared for tholr religion from tho enlightened French; tho clergy, and espe cially tho monks, preached that tho French wore Inimical to tho Cathollo faith, and that Napoleon was "anti-Christ In person.' They armed tho peasants nnd started a bloody guer rilla war. and In this sort of wnrfaro the dlobollo character of these much-prnlsed chjvnlrous Costlllnns revealed Itself with full force. The Spaniards murdered their cnomles whenever and wherever they could lay their hands on them and Invariably committed hor rible atrocities against tho wounded nnd prison ers, cutting off their noses and ears, or they sawed them In pieces, or crucified or slowly burned them. The Spanish women, those noblo souls, whoso virtues hnvo boon sting by exalted romancers, committed nets of brutality here tofore almost unknown tomnn. In the Sierra Morrenn. for instance, tho transports of prison ers wero attacked by them nnd they dug out tho eyes of those unfortunnto people with Pins and scissors, nnd to enhance the misery of those who wero woundod they cut open tho soles of ihelr feet and then compelled them to march, n lfif8. when the French General. Dupont, and ds 25.000 men surrendered at Baylen a great many of the prisoners wero tortured and killed in tho above described manner. " In tho Island of Mnlorca, whore thousands of prisoners had been forwarded, tho mob stormed tho barracks nnd killed most of them on the spot. Again, many inhabitants of the Islands solemnly promised these prisoners that they would help to snvo and free them If they only would como to their houses; such of tho unfortunate prisoners as trusted theso prom ises wero tortured for many days and then killed. "An English reporter, who wns with Welling ton's army, tells of a peasant who followed a transport of wounded Frenchmen for hours, and begged tho English escort most Implor ingly to give him one of tho wounded enemies. When the English soldier asked him what ho Intended to do with tho wounded man tho brute coolly replied. 'Why. torture him.' In the second volume of his memoirs, the fnmous French General. Mnrbot. tells of o dreadful ride performed by him whllo Captain of the Chas seurs a Choval in 180S. Ho started from In doln. In tho Ebro 'N alley, with Important do spntches from Mnrshnl Lnnncs for Eniperor Na poleon, who was stationed at Aranda, a vlllago on tho road leading from Utirgos to Madrid. Marbot had to rldo through a lonesome and mountainous region, where many bnnds of guerrillas moved. Ho took two hussars with him as escort as soon ns ho reached Tnzra. as he was told from thero on his rian would Do a most perilous one. It was moonlight whon the thrco Frenchmen reached tho mountains. Suddenly they henrd tho well-known whizzing of bullets, but were unnblu to discover tho enomy. As they had not boen hurt they movod on and soon found scores of dead soldiers bo longing to Ney's corps. They hnd been plun dered, robbed of their clothing, and left naked by tho roadside. Shortly after this theyenmo to a lonely barn, where they met with a hor rible sight. A young ofllcer belonging to tho chasseurs was nailed hands nnd feet to the born door with his bend downward, and. to incrcaso tho tortures of tho miserable man, the barbarians had kindled a tiro undor his liead. Tho poor fellow was beyond sutler ipg, but It could not hnvo been a long while, tor iho blood was still trickling from, ids wounds. Che three riders were shocked.nnd when again mllcts begun to whistle from ambush the hus sars answered with their rifles. They promptly killed two ot their aggressors and then rushed at the othors with sabres In hand. In an Instant they jerked two of tho offenders from their horses, of whom ono proved to bo a Capuchin monk, who hnd mounted tho horse of tho cruci fied officer, while the other was a jpeasnnt who enrriod two uniforms of murdered French mus kotocrs. Tho hussars, driven to madnoss. by tho horrible sight of tholr tortured comrades, gavo no quarter, but promptly .despatched tho two brutes. Cnpt. Marbot was. howovor. forced to return iator on to tho headquarters of Mar shal Lannes. as ho hnd been seriously wounded In a similar encounter.,, "Still moro henrt rending nro tho recollections of C. Menzol. n Gorman, who sorvod as a Lieu tenant In tho Twenty-third French Chasseurs during tho Spanish campaign In 1810. and who until n few years ngolh ed as a pension olTleor nt Bonn. Ho tells In his memoirs how n com pany of French prisoners was captured by a ttuerrilla band nnd sentenced to tho most cruol ortures. Tho Simnlnrds wero nt loggerheads whether tho prisoners should bo baked In ovens or bo fried ovor open llres. but thoy Anally agreed thnt tho common soldiers should bo roasted, that tho non-commlsfcionod ofllcors should be hanged nnd thnt tho onieors should bo crueltled. Tho first two pnrts of tho agree ment wero readily carried out. but whon it eamo to tho commissioned officers tho chief of tho guerrilla band Interfered, ns nppar- entlyntrneo of humanity had leen left in his breast, nnd tho commissioned olucors escaped with a partial crucifixion. Ono of theso latter lived near Paris until alout twenty years ago, and oven at his advanced ago traces of tho wounds which had been inflicted upon him could bo seen. , "This sumo Menzol refers in his memoirs to another Incident which gives a vivid picture of happenings In thosodaysin tho Spanish mon asteries and what Interpretation v. as given by the monks to the torm1 Christianity, and how they carried out tholr Ideas of brothorly lovo. "A French Captain one ovenlng quartered his men in a small village, wnlln ho and his ser vant wont to the clolstor near by. Ho was re ceived with greot courtesy nnd .was treated to everything which tho monks had at their dis posal In tho way of natnblen and rich wines. The Cnptnln.wbo was a lover of a good table for tilled byn good drink, was finally landed In a coll la a drunken stupor. Thus far everything wns charming and tho pious brethren rejoiced ns I hey thought that thoy had ontrnpped thocon Idlng Onpialn. Butthey had not reckoned with lis faithful servant, who hnd kept his eyos and ears open. This follow Inducod his master to remain awuko In spite of his condition. The Captain hardly had locked tho. door when something begnn, to , move,. Inside of a closet stationed In tho coll, and as his suspicions hnd been nronscd by tho servant he took his pistol and fired into the closet. Tho shot wns followed by cries and groans. At the same time tho servant gave two alarm shots through tho open window and this brought tho soidlors to their assistance. They stormed tho building, went to the. Captain's coll and then opened tho door of the closet, In this, they found a dagger and bloody tracks which showed the war which tho wounded man had taken. These led them to a large subterranean room, where a number ot dumfounded monks l&ruentco over the body of a dead mo, who wo to have, killed the Captain, Ono can easily lm ngino.lt goes without saving, that tho pious brethren did not enjoy llfo muoh longer; ono round of well-aimed shots sent them without furtlior preparation to eternity. rt In this manner war was carried on by Spain at tho beginning of this century, and tho recent war ot the CarllstS-but twenty-flvs ya ago has proven how little this cruol nation has ioarned of what humanity is. In thotnoraonr of all of us still nro tho cruelties perpetrated at CuoncA, where molten lead was poured down tho throat of tho prisoners,, and tho relatives were compelled, to drive and slash tholr naked brothers and husbands through the streets. Theso same Spaniards nro said to do those rery things at the present day, with the prison era taken on the Philippine Islands, whoro tho captured aro nailed to the walls and then lashed until they dlo from exhaustion. Their aetlon in Cuba is known tho whofo world over and it crlos for vengeance. The manner In which thoy killed Macoo shows the, character of tho Spaniards of tho presont, who boast of their chivalry. They are jut tho.wrao now a they were at the time of tho royal Philip. . , It Is hard to believe that these facts are known to tho French officers, who. .as our pa pers state, ask on masso tor permission to en list In tho Spanish army and navy. Wo must assume that they aro unaware of those data, for how could men of so great a nation a the Frenoh fight In the ranks of a peoplo that have punished their fathers and their nlllet with such cruelty and In a manner contrary to Till laws ot war. civilization, and humanity? "Thewholo of Europo looks with great ex pectations upon tho war now waged on tho othor sldo of tho Atlantic. With our oyos firmly fixed upon tho Stars and Stripes, we eagorly follow Its steady advance from harbor to harbor and from bay to bay. Will the Dag of tho ' Great union' soon wavo fromtho towers of the old cathodral of Havana ? we hopo yes l" CAVALRY JX "MODKIIX irAItFAItK. The Firearms of To-Day nnvo Made It Utility n Question to Be Solved Anew, From On CAteago Tintl-ntrald, A good man on a good horso Is tho superior as an attacking force ot throe good men on the ground. This Is a matter ot common knowl edge in the European capitals, whoretn mobs nro dispersed by cavalry using tho flatot tho sabre only moro quickly thnn thoy aro scat tered by tho bullets ot mllltla In Amorica. Thoro Is something in tho speed, weight, and slzo of a charging man and horso that shakes the nerve of tho most stout-hearted pe destrian. Tho uneontrollobla Instlnot ot tho footman Is to got out of tho wny. A cavalryman learns to lovo his horso with a lovo surpassing thnt of woman. Ho learns to depond upon htm. He nbsorbs confidence from every swell ot tho giant muscles botween his knees. Tho man and tho beast conjoined furnish a mutual support that Is admirable, and In battle ot in calculable valuo. Dismounted cavalry nro tho most difficult of troops to dislodge, for tho rea son thnt tbo riders, doprived of their horses, do not know when or how to run. Military exports bcllove that the Invasion of Cuba by tho American army will furnish excep tional opportunities for tho usoot cavalry. Itls, tor tho most part, a good horso country, of wldo fields and lovol spaces. It Is bellovod. too, that this picturesque arm ot tho service will demon strate that Its usof ulnoss Is not ended by mod ern arms and projectiles, though many theo rists Incline to the opinion that tho days of cav alry as cavalry wore endod in the times of Gravolotto and Sedan. Tho celebrated and fruitless chargo ot tho French cui rassiers, where men and steeds went down In hoars and the watching Wll holm said, " It Is magnificent, but it is not war," sticks In their memorios. That chargo was Balnkkwa over again. Somobody blun dered. Tho general cfllcloncy of cavalry under proper conditions Is not discredited by It. nor is the centuries-old record of a remarkably valu able arm to bo stained by an Individual failure. Men who remember what tho cavalry was and what tho cavalry did In tho wnr between tho States demand something moro than tho crumpling of one column before thoy surrender the beliefs of years. Tho Nupoleqnlo maxim that cavalry cannot charge unshaken Infantry was duo to Nnpo Icon s oxperlenco with rundown forces. His mounted men were badly drilled and his horse flesh was poor. The great Fredorlek under stood the high valuo of this branch, and his campaigns give many Instances ot tho value ot mounted troops in almost all kinds of warfare. Tiie records ot all great wars bristle wttli tho achievements ot the troopers. Evon In the Franco-Prussian struggle tho actual damago wrought by tho Uhlans was far out of pro portion with their numbers, and tho valuo of tho fear they produced was Im measurable. At Salamanca Lo Murchand's British "heavies" wero sent over bad ground against the steadiest of French infantry. Men and horses foil in swnthstwenty yards from the line. Tho rear line did steeple chase jumping overplled corpses to get to tho front. Lo Marehand was instantly killed, nnd many of his officers, but the Infantry was broken and the position carried. The Peninsula cnmpalfrns furnish repeated proofs of tho fact that Infantry will not stand ngnlnst well handled cavalry. Prlnco Frederick Charles, one of tho greatest of modern warriors, wns a steady be liever In the efficacy of cavalry, and so, too, was Yon Wmngel. Tho opponents of tho trooper arm and prophots of ItH utter oflaeement aro used to in stancing the failure of tho brilliant Austrian cavalry at Sadowa when sent against breech loaders. Theso wore troopers seasonod by long servlco nnd so drilled that thirty squadrons of them were manccuvred In mass with the cose and certainty of ono. Thoy were, however, led ovor ground that sloped up threo degrees. It wns sodden with rain. Tho horses wero so wearied that many of them foil from exhaus tion when tho chargo began. Tho Infantrymen who received thorn had been selected by llvo hours of SHvnge and continuous lighting. All taint hearts had gono to tho rear. It Is safe to say that there was not a Prussian on tho west rldgo ot Clilum that day who did not wish to bo thero. Evon undor theso conditions tho chargo came von- closo to success, though all Europo wns shouting that cnnlry wns useless against breoch-londing lire. Tho French got their chassepots In 1808 and 180fi. No German officer believed that his troop would bo of any good against thorn. Yet nt VIonvlllo tho first lino of tho German cavalry halted under heavy lire on tho plateau, took Intervnls by passaging, wont off tho plateau nt n walk and wlieoled up to tho front again ns steadily as If on dress parade. This, too, was mngnlfleont, and It was war. It was done to on courago tho young troops, cost only soventy men nnd horses, though tho chassepots wore bark ing In thousands, nnd It wus worth what It cost. Again nt VIonvlllo Bredow's six squadrons went over two lines of "unshaken" infantry as it they wore papor. In another chnrge the troop ers went over the French cannon, losing only fifty men. Thoy came so fast that tho artillery men found It Imposslblo to depress tholr pieces with sufficient rapidity and accuracy. In this bnttlo thirty-six squadrons ot German horse proved that the French lino of foot Inckod tho strength of cobwebs, yetilils snmo French In fantry was so good that twt days later it took an entire division of tho Gorman footmen three hours to go through them, nt a cost of 4,00() lives, or flO per cent, of tho attacking force There will nover be any flnor or steadier or more " unshaken " Infantry than those French, They were privates nnd non-commlssloncd ofllcors who, to quota Von Moltke, "sought to redeem with tholr llfo blood tho errors for which they wore in nowlso responsible" Tho 'ranco-l'russinn wnr was thick with similar nstances, which nro carefully eschowed In tho writings of ontl-cnvnlrydoctrinnlros. In tho old days troops were safo when hold In reserve MH) yards back of the fighting lino. Now for 2.500 ynrds behind this llnethe ground is torn with bullots. Consequently troops nro held 3,0(X) yards back, and even at tills distanco thoro will ho occasional casualties. To take part in an engagement tho resorvo force must be moved entirely through this wldo and dan gerous zone. Infantry cannot do It In lens than twonty-flvo minutes, and another ten minutes will bo used in getting thorn into line. Cavalry can cover the distance In six minutes. Tho rapidity with whloh tholr range niters makes them a difficult target, and tiin moral oneci or meir tnuniiennpnnu swnr, advance Is great. It Is estimated that the cavalry loss In a charge should not exceed ono thlrd of the Infantry loss. American military men of tho more advancod kind oxpect sorvleo ot tho highest value In heavy engagements from tho splondldly composed anil equipped voluntcor cnvalry tnat has gone to the front Of their worth In scouting, roconnoissanco and as media of communication thore can bo no question. Entirely Free to Go, From (A iroi(njlon Evtnina Xtar. "What Is your namo t" inquired tho officer in chargo, "John Smith." "Your ago. Mr.Bmithr Forty-three, noxt October," " Where wore you bom V "In Indiana." " Do you reside hero ?" . "Yes, sir; havo for tho last ten yoars." "Are you married orslnglo ?" "Married." "Ah. Is that sot" "Yes. sir." "Weil, you can't enlist" ;; Why not?" iAn TJecauso you are married. "What's that got to do with It T" . "Can't take married men Into tho sorvlce." "Why not ? Hasn't a married man got cour ago enough ? Can't he bo as good a patriot as a bachelor 7" . . . "I suppose eo, but wo cant take married men. They have to stay at homo and support their wltes and families." The applicant's face gleamed like a sunrise, "Oh. that's all right,", he laughed easily. ' You needn't worry on that account; my wife keeps a boarding house, and ha erersluce the second year wo were married," j " -J- . . , unjtjpMnaHHBBBK)BJBUEBB CONDITIONS IN MANILA. AS XUJST WERE BEFORE TUB ARRIVAL OF OUR FLEET OF TRAXSPORTS. The Ignoranoe af the People of the Philip pine and Their Medlsoval TJaekwardneu Mow Spain and the Spaniard nnvo Drained the Island and Given Uttlo In Return Agulnnldo, the Insurgent Chief. From at Dallimort Sim. HAauoB or Mjlniu. Juno C Communica tion with tho shore is cosy, thanks to tho per mission ot Admiral Dowoy, who has shown most remarkable powora of administration un der anomalous circumstances. It must bo un derstood that Spanish rulo still prevails, and that thero are about 25,000 troops in tho Capi tal. It U said that tho Government has en rolled aboutlOO.000 volunteers, but this, I take It, Is brag. It would mean that it had reinforced the Insurgents with that number ot mon. Hero, thon, is Dowey, with his small squad ron, not only overawing tho heavy odds ot Spanish troops, but In possession ot tho harbor and preventing tho arrival ot supplies. Hunger, or rather famine will rendor any man des perate, but, although thero is somo stealing and robbery, yot tho city Is kept In remarkably good order, but only on account ot Dowoy'a presence. It Is, howovor, not safo for a stranger to per ambulato the almost deserted streots, and moro dangorous. of course to go openly as an Ameri can correspondent Lettors of introduction from Shanghai friends to an old and wealthy Gorman rosldont loft tho impression that I am hero in tho Interest of a German paper, and I havetakon oxcellont caro not to destroy that Illusion. Tho conBoquonoo Is that tho Spanish officers to whom I havo boon Introduced talked with freedom. It Is Imposslblo not to marvel at tho Ignorance manifested by thorn. A walk through the business part of tho city has a depressing Influence. Tho Plaza del Padro Mornga and tho Rosario aro desortod savo tor tho swaggering, florco-looklng Span ish officer, who has not yot realized thnt Othel lo's occupation Is gono. Theso officers, ono and nil. ore convinced that Europo will fnter foro to prevent tho despoiling of Hpaln. Thoy talk ot kindred rnceB, nnd in tho snmo breath mention tho absolute cortalnty of German In tervention. It is all nonsense, of eourso. for although Germany would by no means object to secure those rich colonics, tho attitude of England Is such that no Europoan power will dare obstruct Admiral Dowoy's measures. I only mention tho tenor of these conversations to show thnt all eolt-rclianco of tho Spaniards Is utterly gone I doubt very much If our troops will havo to fight, notwithstanding the fact that tho very existence of the Spaniards is at stake. Thoro Is no ghost of n doubt that ovory Inhabitant of Manila, excepting those who boast ot being born lu Spain, Is an Insurgent or a sympathizer with the Insurrection. Theso people will not talk to mo. being suspicious ot tho company 1 frequent, but I can readily account for tho hatred prevailing against all that Is Spanish. Native Phlliplnos. residing In Madrid, ox- g reused tholr grievances in an address to tho panlsh pooplo. It contains extracts from tho Philippine budget for the last administrative year (1800-07) and enumerates tho following crying complaints. Quoting from tho budget & states that tho Phlllppino treasury pays a lavy contribution to tho genoral expenses ot o Government nt Madrid; pays pensions to tho Duke de eragun (our guest during the Co lumbian Exhibition) nnd to tho Marquis ot Bed mar, besides those of the Sultans and native chiefs ot the Islands ot Sulu and Mindanao; it provides for tho entire cost of tho Spanish con sulates at Pektn, Tokio, Hong Kong. Singapore, Hatgon, Yokohama and Melbourne: for the staff and material of tho Minister of tho Colo nies, Including tho purely ornamental Council of tho Philippines; tho expenses ot supporting the oolony of Fernando Po. In Africa, and all tho pensions and retiring allowances ot tho civil and military employees who havo sorvod In tho Philippines, amounting to tho sum of 91,100, O00 a year. What a milch cow those Islands havo boon to the Spaniards! 'Vthatn host of Ignorant. Idle hidalgos havo fattened upon huge sums di verted from the unfortunate workers. And what has Spain done In return ? Tho documont from which I trnnslato this states the facts with scathing bluntnoss: Moro than $17,000,000 Is tho amount consigned In tho Philippine budget for that year, but not a penny Is allowed for publlo works, highways, bridges, or publlo buildings, and only (0,000 tor scien tific studies, Indisponsablo repairs, rivers and canals, whllo the amount set apart for religious purposes and clorgy amounts to nearly $1,400. OOO, This sum does not includo tho amounts paid to tho clorgy for baptisms, marriages, snlo of Indulgences, papal bulls and scapularies, which exceed the Government allowances. Tho magnificent sum ot 840,000 In sot apart as a BUbvontlon to railway companies and new projects of rnlhvnys. but tho College for Fran ciscan monks in Spain and the transportation of priests comes in for S65.0001" It seems really as if the world had gono back throe centuries and as If wo wero Irving in tho time of bloody Philip II., after whom theBe most unfortunato islands were named. Six thou sand dollars for all new Improvements, yet the choir of tho Manila Cathedral recolves ,000, and $60,000 Is set apart for tho support of tho Cathedral! Public instruction. Including naval, scientific, technical, and art schools, must bo maintained at a gross expense ot $00,000, and from this plttnaco museums, libraries, tho ob servatory, and a spoclal chair In tho University of Madrid must be paid. Add to this tho squeez ing and peculation of overy Spanish official fromtho Goternor-Genoraldown to tho lowest alguncll, and it Is no wonder thnt theso people, robbed right and left of the fruits of their toil, hate tho Spaniard and will have no moro of Spanish rulo. I acknowledge that I was not predlsposod In favor of our good friend and ally. Don Emllio Afriilnnlilo v KnmL or den. Atruinfttdo. ns he Is known to fame The fact cannot bo denied, nor does ho attempt to deny It, that ho received $800,000 from Govornor-Gonernl Prlmo do Ri vera and that ho refused to shore with his fel low Insurgents, as had been understood. But Gon. Aguinaldo is helping to mako history, and I was anxious to obtain for your readers a truo account of this man nnd tho rolo ho has playod In his island homo. Tho Information I secured is rather fovorabto to him. tho more so slnco my informants, old residents of Manila, did not manifest very friendly feollngs for tho loader ot tho insurgents. I havo taken ovory posslblo means to verify tho account. In tho latter part of last year the Insurgents hold tho mountains, whllo tho Spaniards wero masters ot tho principal towns and villages on tho coast. Gen. Prlmo do Itlvcra understood that an end must bo made to this condition of affairs, and by means of two well-to-do nntlves whom ho despatched to Agulnnldo nt Blncna Bato, entered fnto negotiations with the insur gent leader. A council was hold and the Insur f rents agreed to lay down their arms on tho tol owlng conditions; , , First The expulsion or secularization of tho religious orders nnd tho abolition of all tho of llclal etoes of those orders In civil affairs, Second A general amnesty for all rebels nnd gunrnntees for their personal security nnd from the vengennce ot tho friars and parish priests after returning to their homes. Third llndlcnl reforms to curtail tho glaring abuses In tho administration. Fourth Freedom of tho press to denounco official corruption and blackmailing. . ,, Fitth-lteprosontatlon in tho Spanish Parlla- Sixth Abolition of tho Iniquitous system of secret donortntion of political suspects. Does not tho simple enumeration ot theso conditions of peace condomn tho colonial sys tem of Hpaln ? And In nccoptlng theso con ditions did not tho Governor-General admit thnt tho abuses existed ? For Governor-General Prlmo do Itlvora did agree, but Insisted that tho leaders should leavo tho country. To provido them with tho means of lit Ing. slnco all their property had been confiscated or de stroyed, tho Government paid thorn H00.O0O. Bo far all was well. But when poneo was re stored and the Insurgent leaders bad loft, Hnain's Oovornor-Gonoral refused toexoeuto any and all the conditions ngreodupon.plnying the snmo trick that had been successful with tho Cubans after thepeseoof Zaojon, signed by Martinez Campos, More than that: No sooner had nrms boon laid down than the re ligious orders comnmneed to porsecuto those insurgents who had not boon able to leave, trump up imnglnnry charges against thorn, and have them, nrrested. ,,,,.. Aguinaldo and his associates had left for nong Kong, nnd tho former continued on to Hlngaiore. where Spanish ngents tried pretty hard to get hold of hlra. Evon betorethownr wlth America broko out It sooms that he had doubled to rotlvotha Insurrection. Spain's vio latlon of tho agreement absolving him. On tho 24th of April Agulnnldo met tho lion. E. Hen. cer Pratt. United States Consul-ppnernl, In tho prosonco of Messrs. Howard . Bray. Agul iintdo's prlvote secretary J. Iiyba, Col. U. II. del Pliinr. and Dr. Mnrccilno Santos. In tills Intcrvlow Aguinaldo described tho pauses and incidents of tho Inst rebellion, and, in enso ot wnr, explnlned thonature ot tho eo operntlon he could give, whllo ho promised to maintain order and to eonduot tho wnr on civ ilized prlnclplos. He deelnrcd his ability to es tabllsh a responslblo Governracnt.on liberal principles, and that ho would bo willing to ac cept for Luzon tho samo terms as tho Uliltod States Intend giving to Cuba. . . , , , Consul Pratt communicated by telegraph with Admiral Dower, nt whoso request Agufn aldo left Singapore, for Hong hong on April SO. since then Agulnnldo hasdonp somo fighting: lie has given evldenco of pluck and ability, and thus far ho hns kept hia agreement. Ho has certainly great influence and a host of followors among tho Philippines. AguTnald's scheme is a republlo with hlm seirns President. and In this schemo ho thinks he has Admiral Dewey's support. But. nl though the Americans here received the Insur geut leader kindly, gave hlra two modem JUld piece, .TOO rifles, and plenty of ammunition, Dowey has proved himself too subtton diplo mat to commit either himself ortho Govern ment to any wild sohemo. Fancy n republic of tome 8,000.000. people, of whom ono-nalf ore aavngos, and the rest, not more thnn about 50,000 excepted, with such civilization ns Spain ohoso to Impart. Ot theso 4.000,000 not more than a per cent can read. Tho Spaniards and Phlliplnos, that Is, natives ortho Fldllpplnosot Spanish parents, numbor perhaps lOo.lXX). To establish a republican form of government under theso circumstances would moan to plunge them at oneo Into barbarism. I havo montioned Admiral Dowey's ability as an administrator and diplomat, While main taining a most vigorous blookado ho willingly gavo permission to a delegation of British and Gorman merchants to remote their families to Cavlte He ordorod that place to be made sani tary and placed Consul Williams in chargo. Tho consequence. Is that wealthy Manila f mi nes, like that of the Cortes, havo placed all their houses In Cavlte at Dewey's disposal, no has mado. himself exceedingly popular among the British shipmasters. Instood ot carrying on with tho absolutism of. a conqueror he has aided and facilitated their butlness so far as It did not Interfere with his duties. His praise is In overy port In the far East ; and whon he was In peed of coal theso shipmasters told htm 3,000 tons, o that ho was well supplied. In tho meanwhllo Manila papers, all ot whloh aro under Government Control, try to keen up eourago by all sorts of lying and sensational re ports. Thoy maintain still that tho Baltimore was so damaged. In tho.Iato battle thotjho American Admiral dooided to sauttlo her. Tho latest issue contains n proclamation from tho Archbishop stating that four Spanish battle ships are on tholr way out and that God has Informed htm that In tho noxt engagement tho armies of the most Christian Spain will bo vic torious. This Church dignitary is doing bis utmost to revive tho religious wars of tho six teenth contury. I, stated before that I do not think our boys will have to light In prdor to capture Manila. My reasons are twofold. Tho vigorous blook ado malntnlnod by Dowoy has rendcrodpro vlslons Bcareo, and whllo tho Spanish officers may swoggor, fighting on an empty stomach needs great moral stamina. They aro, bo- !ldes. doing tholr love) bost to alienate the 'hlllpptnos. After enrolling n numbor of vol unteers, promising high pay sometimes as high as n dollar (Mexican) besides food nnd Clothing, they gho nothing, and a sharp rising ot theso volunteors Is ecpectod should tho Americans decldo upon a slego or a bombard ment Horseflesh soils horo nowat $1.00 (Mex ican) per pound, and othor provisions are In proportion. Tho city would surrendor at oneo. and gladly, wero It not for tho religious orders. SIODERX FIELD TACTICS. Considered In Connection with tho Large Percentage of Ofllcors Slain, From tt Hartford Cour an. What astonishes all who havo mado a study of modem flold tactics Is tho largo numbor of ofllcors among tho killed and woundod at Santi ago. In tho first official Hat ton of the sovon toen killed wero ofllcors and tho percentage among tho woundod is hardly less. No battlo In any part of tho world, probably, could havo furnished a better test of tho now tactics, made necessary by tho improvement In firearms. There wore tho rough ground and the long range, mngaztno rifles, and thero also wero the trained soidlors. Ono of tho main ob jects of theso tactics or "drill regulations." as thoy aro called, exoopt when they aro appllod on tho battlefield Is to preserve tho of cors uninjured as long as possible. Moro rellanco is now placed on the Intelligence of the privates, and particularly ot tho non-commlssloncd offlcors, than In the old days of shoulder-to-shouldor formation. Conduct that would havo fastened tho namo ot "cow ard " upon an officor In the civil war Is, In a Bcnso, mado compulsory to-day; that Is, whllo ho is still to Inspire his mon by examplo when occasion demands, ho Is for tho most part to maintain a flxod position with relation to his subordinates, and Is to keep behind sholtor If ho can. Thus all movements can be Intelli gently directed a knowlodgo of which fact is more encouraging to the men than tho physi cal prosonco ot the officer at their elbows. The non-commlssloncd ofllcors havo Immediate chargo of tho mon, and opportunities aro open to thorn such ns never were dreamed of In tho old days. An eminent English writer said, at tho tlmo tho now regulations wore adopted in bis army, thnt in actual warfare, aftor the men, tho non-commisRioned officers would bo most exposed, tho Lieutenants next, the Captains noxt, and so on ; which is as it should lw. To Illustrate tho Idea ot the present battle formation, tako ono company alono. Tho prin ciple is tho eamo for tho battalion, regiment, Ac. In each company thore nre four sootlons." each undor tho lmmedtato command ot a Ser geant. Tho sections aro divided Into squads which nro under tho Immediate command of Corporals. At the beginning of the formation, tor tho offensive, ono of theso sections Is doslg natedasthe reserve, anotheras the support and two as the tiring line, or In any other propor tion as may seem best The First Lieutenant commands tho reserve tho Second the firing line, and the Captain's post Is near the support, with a bugler beside mm to give signals, also tho First Sergeant and any who may bo desig nated to carry messages. If he quits that post for n moment, ho leaves word where ho can bo found. A fow scouts nro sent forward first After thoy havo gono 150 feet, tho firing line ad vances, the sections gradually separating and widening the Intervals between thorn till thoy snbdlvidolnto sanadsand tho squads in turn sepnrato Into skirmfshors, who aro about 0 feet npnrt whon on the tiring line proper. Tho sup port nt the outset Is about 150 yards behind the first line, ready to deploy nnd ndvnnco to tho skirmishers, nnd the resorvo keeps about lot) yards in tho roar of the supiiort. ready for flank attacks or to rolnforeo the llrst line Every man is taught to tako advantago of rocks, bushes and tho llko for cover. Ono object is to get as near as posslblo without being discov ered, then to locate tho enemy's fire and to do colvo him ns to the strength or the attacking nnrtv. The wide Intervals save the men from being mowed down by tho onomy. The tiring begins nt an order from the Cap tain. Tho skirmishers halt whon thoy lire Gradually now. as thoy advance, thoy closo in toward tho centre to mako room for thn sup port on tho flanks. Tho support meanwhile draws nearer till It joins tho first line. Then thoro Is a rush forward. Tho Lloutennnt, giv ing tho instructions whllo tho men are lying down or nro behind cover, commands: " Ad vance by rushes; third section, tiro two (or threo) volloys: soeond seotlon, forward 1" Tho Sergeant of tho third section gives tho com mands for thn volleys. As soon as tho first Is tired nnd undor partial cover of its smoke tho ohiof of the second section ordors his men for ward at double time. When they have gono about tlfteen ynrds, or to covor If thore Is any. ho causes thorn to llo down and tire two or threo volloys. On the first volley the thin! section rushes forward flftoen foet In advance of tho lino of tho second section nnd fires. Tho second section ndvnnoos ns before nnd so It Is continued. Whon nil the men nre on tho line, each Lloutennnt takes position behind his own platoon, nnd the Captain Is in tho roar of tho centre. Having chosen n suitable position from which to make tho assault, tho Captain commands: "Rapid tire I" Tho Lieutenants thereupon order tho men to fix bayonets anil to lay down the sights of their pieces, nfter which they give the commands for tho firing, To charge, thn Captain signals to ccaso firing nnd commnnds: "To the chargo. march!" Tho men rise nnd ndvnnco In double time When they nro nbout thirty yards from the enemy, ho commands: "Chnrgol" Our tactics differ from thoso of the English Army In only ono Important particular, with tho formor. when It Is necessary to ndvnnco support nnd reserve nnd prepnro for tho chnrge tho first lino fnlls back nnd the others deployed lines to tho front through tho Intervnls In tho retiring first line Tho thoory thore is that tho llrst lino may bo toouxhnustod to go on to tho charge. With our army tl)i first lino remains nt the front, thn resorvo joining it in tho intervnls nnd on tho flanks. The exact details of tho fight at Santiago aro awaited with Intcrost by students of modern warfare. Rough ground, long rnngo of tho Spanish guns, rapid tire nil theso things wore reckoned with when the now regulations were drafted. Of eourso. thero wore thoso who said thnt. with any kind of formation, threo men out of llvo would bo klllod In an engagement whero mo-Jern weapons were luednnd Itls truo that thero can be no very safo plieoon the field now adays for either officers or men, With what wo know at present of this tight, only ono thing can account for the disproportionately largo loss of officers which, Indeed, may not bo boruo out by tho final returns and that is that tholr "dash" constrained them to rush onward and expose themselves without regard to what they had learned In their books and on their drill grounds. It It shall turn out thnt tho engage ment wns fought tactically, f tilth In tho new regulations may bo somowhat shakon. Smallest and Oddest Ilepnbllrs in the World, From thi Cincinnati X.iquirer, Goust Is tho smallest republlo as to area, but Tavolarn Istho smallest republlo as to.popnja tinn. Goust is only ono mile In area. It Is lo cated on tho flat ton vt n mouiituln In tho Pyr enees, between i'ranco nnd Spain, and Is recognized by both of those countries. It Is gov erned by n President and a Council of twolvo. It was established in 10-18 and has UK) inhab itants. Tho President Ic Tax Collector. As sessor and Judge. Goust ho no church, e'ergymun orcemetory. Tho peoplo worship in a church outside of their own lorrltory, nnd the dead liodles nre slid down to a cemetery in tho valley below. In that valley nil the bnp- Ilsms nnd marriages are performed, Tavolarn stwelvo miles northeast of Sardinia. It Is an slam! flvo miles long by a half mile wide. Its total lopulatlon consists of fifty-five men, women, and children. Tho women go to tho noils with tho men, and elect every year a President and Council ot six. all serving with out pay, Tho Inhabitants supiiort themselves by fishing and raising fruit nnd vegetables. The republlo ho uo army and no navy. SUMI1ER HOTEL CHAHMBRg. H xotrxa rroxiEx reixo vsizn xow as flpH "EXTERTAIXERS." 1 ' M TheToungMan'sPlnce, However, OnnqtIe .'ft lf Sllled-Whnt the Male "Kntertnlne.ru" Ifi EB nave toDo-Tlielr Successes nnd Failure I UK -One Man's Catch of a 88,000,000 Bride. IK" One of tho Western papors has discovered I j BH new flold for woman In tho employment of aU 4 .HSU traotlvo young womon ns entertainers at fnsh- j 'HI lonablo summor resorts. Tho Innovation In ' ' probably a good one, and getting up whist mr ! JQ ties tor tho old ladles and fanoy dress balls for , 1 H fl theohlldron, Introducing newcomers to ollqurn j gX in into which they will fit and in general making j flj yl guests feel "at home" aro oil good and ptoiU- ,' j j M jfl ablo undertakings. But women have ltmlta- , ' Stfl tlons In entortAlnlng. as In all things, and h 'Bll young men who organized the Industry nro stilt g Effl indispensable. S ' 'HBV A girl, charm sho nover so wisely, cannot cut j ' ; 1E1W suoh a swath at a summor resort ns a man ; fflsiHi can. Her ministration may fall like tho god- , jElH tlo rain from hcavon and mako all women and HH H children twlco blossod: but the old ladles and MLS 9 children always get along fairly woll anyway, tmM Thoy nre sattsflod oaslly. The girls who havo " j I Bl Sf no partners, tho chaperons with unnttractlvo 5 ' fill 1 charges, tho young married couplos who ha,vo) J - BlJ I passed the stago whero each found tho.othor's Iff 1 sooloty sufficient entortalnmont and who havo ( ' ' Br ti' not yet reached tho stago whoro thoy will bo '$i 81! , resigned to stagnation thoso nro tho element It g , that f ortnont and It Is upon thoni that the. pro- fl Bll 3 i fesslonal entortalnor tests his skill. , AllVC What can n girl do to sweeten thotomporof 'MS anothorglrl who Is too unnttractlvo to win any ! (fl attention from tho tow stray mon at a summor ",- i liiiS hotol? Nothing. But a man, who Is woll paid '" n if for It can mako that homely girl think that tho , ffi Mi hotel is an anteroom to clyslum. Naturally. -,' , Kp3f whon tho lonely girls aro many, and tho hotol j8 if provides only ono self-sacrificing man, that ' ; Bp B man has his hands full and must dovolop a t H' j power of diplomacy and a knowlodgo ot tactics nt 3 that would flt him tor Ambassador or GenoraL M Sag Evon undor tho most fnvorablo circumstances 1 fs I ' his position Is no sinecure, and tho man who j SB ff, can enroor successfully through a soason ot , Bjf 1 . Buch work Is fitted for better things. i fflte ffii Ono ot tho most popular ot tho great lako . i wfl resorts asserts that It was tho first to add an ' S entortalnmont committee ot ono to Its staff ot Bw K omployoes. Tho manager know n young fel- , Bfiw low ot good social standing who was handsome 'i j yl jj ' jolly, llkablo and oxcruclatlngly hard up. For i j U' his expenses nnd a tempting consideration thlg .'; jrF. K luminary consontod to shlno upon tho hotol "' I Wj premises during a Bummer season. At llrst tho f IP?: f manager had to wrostlo with a tondoncy on the IeM;; part of tho now employee to comblno duty and i iu!- pleasure by dovotlng himself to tho pretty girls ft IHi' In tho houso ; but ho was brought too. ! 9wl realization that bo couldn't cam his sal- 5 EphJ nry In thot blissful way. and, aftor ISB that he did his duty manfully. His real po- j IS, sltton was kopt a secret Tho guests of tho ho- ! Mttc tel looked upon him as a fascinating follow. HI!? who. from philanthropy or perverted taste ; j SmVt showed marked proforonco for wallflowers. 5 ' SUv The mnnogor chucklod and patted hlmsejt 1 1 MfjffjS upon tho hood, but In tho height ot tho season f umrki the philanthropist In his round of tho needy, t VMS? ran up against a spinster with 12,000.000 in : ffljM borown name. Three weeks later tho wall- ; fflsSl flowers wero drooping their heads dolefully and j J?ga tho philanthropist was travelling In Europo ! Rsks with his bride. ' IKg, It Bounds llko a Sunday school story, but It I ,' Pfffl a matter of history, and thoy do say that tho if Shew" hotel managor now gots his ontertalnmont i I JoPH committee cheaper by telling each aspirant I pi tho encouraging story of tho man who married I IBjafc' tho millions. No one elso has drawn a reward Haw of morit at that particular hotol. and tho mys- t Bwjv tory about tho entortatnors has fadod away. I wUf Evory one knows their real position now. or, at ' j i iBfi loast every ono does after bolng In tho hotol ' jj ' Jmuj for a fow days, but tho manager still shows 1 SBs?" discretion In his selection ot mon. and a charm- ' i gSre Ing man is a comfort at a summer resort, oveu j Km if ho is paid for with tho other extras. -j t ' K It Isn't easy to find tho right man for such a ' ? ,M? hotel plaoo. Ho should bo good looking, well ". - Wrfc bred, well dressed, talkativo, gay. Ho must i ifjKjj $ dance bowl, drive ride swim, play golf, bll- ) jjB llardB and tennis. Ho must bo equnl to getting; "'f Igfijp upBomosortof nlnrkat nnyhourof anydny. Ho "'; 5 ';JB must bo able to deal out a convincing devotion .-' f 'ifwffc' to any woman under threo score and ten, nnd 't S 'SSjcK to threc-Bcoro-and-ton women nt ono and tho 'i, i H$lf snmo time. He must sing and play tho bar.j ' jj &. Ho must havo tho onduraiice of a Hercules noj "! I sMp tho cheerful self-sncrlclng fervor of an carlo jf,!? Christian martyr. ' Kfrif Such Incarnations of all social virtues nre not ') Effill1 to bo had for tho asking, or oven for $500 nnd ' tisifll' expenses for tho season : but nomo hotol man- , iwi' afters nro able to secure tho sorvlccs ot mon sUfir! who approximate to that Ideal. Several sum- t ' H3i mors ago a delightful follow was employed by 1 & tho ownor of a Wisconsin hotol to fill this nM jralf' of ministering nngcl to tho dull and !orod. Ho vSM'i plunged Into tho work with youthful enthu- -iSHji stnsm, and mndo things hum ntxiut tho hotel. ' aHUfl Ho was indefatigable nnd Irresistible. F.von - SMbS! tho old Indies ndnred him. and ho eon- nPXiJ vinccd each girl that ho looked uixin Ills 'j y'Stli momonts witn nor as oases in tno desert or Bflfln hlsoxactlngwork raysof sunshine that bright- iKsti encd tho dark hours which ho was obliged to SEtfSti spend with othors not, llko her. beautiful and t iGftj charming. A serious bachelor girl, who had 9mI gone to tho resort In search of cool nlr und , .frnW; henlth, and nbhorred tho Idea of nicotine peo- sElfn plo nnd being entertained, watched with ah- , Sanl sorblng Interest the career of tho Irrepresslblo ' "SMiM young mnn. He tried to do his duty by her at S&aKi llrst. nnd when, to his lntonso relief, ho found stHtt! thnt sho positively refused to bo entertained, i QtfK ho retrained with difficulty from falling tion f ffisuf her neck and weeping for joy. ' HtMl Later ho dropped Into tho habit of stopping ! iSlDK beside horchalr.occaslonally.indiourlng forth was!! a tale of woe half serious, half humorous, and ; I Simffi wholly ontortnlnlng. Even In moments of ro- ' I "SltfC luxation ho couldn t shake off tho habit of bo- ', . Hrtrfc ing entertaining. Ho told her how ho had ;! i .MVFi tumbled out nt 5 ono morning, to piny tennis i .SUfffl with tho Bryn Mawr girl, who hnd been tho ! ,S!WJR crack player at college, and thought sho wns In , WJmi bost form In tho enrfy morning. Not that sho - SWll has any ' form' to spenk of nt any hour." ho -I SJiU commented; and tho nnchelorglrl only smlledj IIS? for even n professional entertainer must havo i Hew' moments whon he Isn't good natured. ', Wmn When the tennis champion let him off ho Kiev went rowing with another girl who always felt !s'i' so vigorous In the morning. Then ho bowled ' aMm with tho crowd: and, ns the ono loy In the plaoo n (BCT couldn't tnko caro of tho thrco alleys that wero ' mfZ; going, ho threw himself Into tho breach nnd ' i fWijT set up pins for his crowd. After thnt he took : 1130, two now girls and their mothers to consult tho . K'fBi Indian fortune teller. "If thnt old squnw 'l asm- should die I'd havo to give up my job," he said , 3BW apprehensively, "nnd she certainly doesn't look , KS an If she could Inst through tho season," , ; IJjS!r In tho nfternoon ho organized n picnic nnd ;. tiSV carried It out with eclat, and nftor dinner ho f 'fw snng love songs, which encli girl In tho houso ff Jifcl felt to be hurled directly at nor. head: und then ,f tlfiy. he danced, dnnced, danced, with all tho girls JKiSr who had no other pnrtnors. and he. swore to ,5 Hijlt each ono ns he pulled hor around that ho hnd Warn noor known tho imetry of motion before. Ho ,; m mndo engagements by tho dozen for the next . r IluJj dny. and ho said a scorn of soulful good nights: (feu nndthen ho came out to tho ijiiletcornorof .- liyt tho eranda. whero tho bachelor gill wns , , fettj!' sitting, and told her nil niout it. whllo he snv- i ( I 'Jfl; ngoly pulled tho blossoms off tho honeysucklo j 5 MB' Mne; and sno wonuered wny an aurncuyo 'S jik, fellow, with health and strength, ovor wotit la Jf ,M for such hopeless. Inglorious work. ,; !tg- l'.vorythJng went well enough until n pretty, ;, yhjv Southern girl nrrlved Ono dny and attracted all MK, tho non-professional men to hor court Hho i 'Ssji had things her own way, nnd a bewitohlng, Vr SfEJ; oaprleloub. enlsodal way It was, Tho bachelor j f (IB.! girl noticed that tho Entertainment Committee) f , K5ri: seemed flagging n trill?. Tho evening bulletins 1 (BJ1 f:row more blttnr and less humorous, and tho ij i lonoysuekln had no blossoms to boost ot savo i IB. where they wero out of roach of restless lingers. ,'i j iff, j Tho homely girls wore not funny any more. .6 jwi H They were maddening, nntl the whole "blamed 'it ij B business" was detestable, and h was half por- i w J suoiletl toehuek Itovernnd go off Bomowhero. (Hi H nnywhern. Oneo In n whllo ho joined tho crowd I HE (I around thn Southern belle, and occasionally w ST' '1 tho wallflowers languished, whllo he walked uj J j KJ f and dowu tho veranda In the moonlight with ') JV the delicious little coquette from Dixie Tho x fg. bachelor girl could soothem from her chair. t MS,: Then ono morning thoro wns weeping, un.i jf j MS t walling mid gnashing ot teeth, nnd tho hotel ,J Wv manager looked vicious, and everything fl vm $ scemod uncommonly Mupid nnd slow, except jtH ', for tho Bonthcrn girl, who wns enjoying llfe,ua .T Ami usual. The lndlsiensalin young man, the Joy . Jfl J of the wallflowers, bad departed hastily. .' Sfl 1 nidely. without snylng fond good-bys. ," A tel.v ," , sift '4 gram.' some ono said, nnd everyone leloved It, i j3 J savo tho Southern girl nnd tho bachelor girl. t m whofeltsorryiorthotragioyoiithwheiihecauio m jjJj n up to her tho night Ix'foro and sold good-by. Ml i Ills jolly fnco was so abnormally long, and ho f U3' f was so utterly unlike tho hilarious, Irreprossl- l (Tilt bio entertainer The squire of lll-faord ! !lsH' domes had fallen In love nnd not with n mis- 4t Umf ceptlblo spinster who had two million In her fUKft own name. .... 1) firui There ore dangers as woll ns trials for a pro Tj TiEi (Mslouil nUrUunar at a cummer retort, I Ua filijMM JSSJJSHSHMSJBJSjrjBBSJSBSJBenSJSJ S '