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The sun. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916, October 16, 1898, 2, Image 15

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ma onxn AVL mm watbb on r.
sale of Mae Water In the Inhabitants
and Sfc'P' ThM CJ1 n" M"d f,,ln "
Millionaire -He ""' "' 'ok " the
I'nlted States Xavy-Can'tWrlte HI Nam
"Take aw" a" '' yy' i'1'" of 'ha
,nlm. which can te very readily done."
AlvalT itatM oM geography, "and yon have
II Portuguese." Thl huwmato be an adage
' the English who live In Portuguese
"ountrlM. nd 'h rue '" emphasized hy nt
UMt one striking exception.
' This ! ,n ,,ie Person of ",n 'Bn Madeira. as
hs'la popularly known, who lives In the town
ef Memlalo. o the island of St. Vluoent. Cane
d, Verde group, and Is the patriarch of that
faraway habitation both In wisdom and
cridl' tfoi-1.
rnnng ra the shady quadrangle of his atore
(,., with a monkey on his knee, this odd
nsfl wstches year ifl and roar out the (treat
mr reliant ships creep through the narrow pas
MIi between Bird Rook and the huge preci
pice opposite, which Is capped by a little Por
tuguese fort. Though unable to distinguish
h own name In writing, Manoel Homer. Ma
jplra can figure almost In the glint of an eya
how much cargo any of those ships can carry,
mi), what Is more to the point, about how
ninth water and provender may be required.
Before the ship has slipped her cable, the
sld man's nephew has boarded hor and taken
the order, for Madeira la a ship chindler and
own every drop of water on the island of Ht.
Vincent While the other Portuguese ac
knowledge, to an extent, the superiority of
the English. Mr. Madeira's position enables
1 bim to act with extreme Independence, and
' rhsn the English coal princes desire his
o-opcration they must transport the moun
tain to Mohammed.
Madeira got possession of the entire water
ocply by his own enterprise. 8t. Vincent,
which achieved publicity when Cervera's fleet
harbored there en route to America, is a bar
ren, dismal looking island, about thirty-five
miles in circumference. It lies 3.800 miles
loutlieast of New York as the crow HI as. and
JX) miles off the African coast. The town of
tfeniialo. with a population of 6,tKX) blacks,
Portuguese and English, is the only town on
Ihs Island. Its entrance is a bay about five
faihnm deep, but so clear Is the water that
ane can see a sixpence on the bottom
Nearly nil the vessels nlving twlxt Europe
mil South Amerioa and those which trade
between the I'nited States and South Africa,
put In at Mendalo for coal, water and fruit, so
lmt u ship chandler has plenty of custom.
This old red thing is nlwsys thick as ver
min in i his blooming bay." observed a tniek
tongued English skipper one day. pointing
In a fleet of twenty merchantmen, all of which
(! the Union .lack from the stern.
But the English do not any longer monopo
lize foreign trade in that part of the world,
and every maritime nation is represented at
time in the harbor of Mendalo.
When Madeira came there, thirty-five years
U". and set up business aa a bumboatman.
luting about among the sailors In a red-sailed
felucca, the town was very small, but the shlp-r-inc
Water at thut time had to be brought from
the island of St. Antonio, nine miles to west
ward. It does mt seem to have occurred to
sny one ihat water might be piped down from
the mountains, where are situated two beauti
ful wirings, and it wis not until ('apt. Semmes
in the AJubamu ii cd Mendalo that the in
ipiratlon seized the liu tllng Madeira.
A British eliniivr i-ut into the harbor one
veiling." related Mr. Madeira in telling this
Ireldeiit recently, "and passed vrord that the
Inborn had liecn sighted cruising twenty
miles to leeward. You cannot imagine how
termr-stricken the thou and people on rhe
l.anl were. Kvrrylio.lv wanted to move into
' Um mountains immediately and leave the
tevm to be sacked. Humors of this terrible
vessel had long kept the potmlution anxious .
aim if needed onlv a word to set them in hys
teric I bad be in twenty year- in the Amer
ican Navy and did n t feel scared about the
lil'. Init decided to make some capital out of
the scare.
'I procured u large supply of water, and
tleimiie night, with two other young felloxs,
1 raised the alarm by blowing horns and
sereaminK. tu evervliody to run to the moun
tain, that the Alabama was coming around
Bird Rock.
The next morning there was not one in
habitant left In Mendalo. Even my competl
t ir in business bad tied. Front the moun
tain tup tiny saw n beautiful ship slide Into
the lay about noon and lower a lioat. Capt.
remines liim-ell came ashore and offered to
I uv all Ihe wter and fruit I could get. He
inl me i'J.'n 'n gold tor the supply, and as he
was eaung he said- Isn't there any water
on tins Island? I told him about the spring.
jou damned idiot.' he said, 'plie it down,
"hen I drown all the Yankees I'll come and
hem you."
It was not until fifteen years Inter that Ma
deira had sullleient capital to think of operat
ing a nine line from the spring six miles up in
tne mountain. hen he invest igat en he found
tW;i springs instead of one, situated about one
nnl apart.
I earing to take the step alone, he asked the
r "iierati in uf a rich English coal dealer.
who anrerlngly refused the offer. Madeira
lien took Ills capital of $3.1.000. hired an Eng
Mh engineer Ironi London, and began to build
hit water works unaided. He had lavishly
entertained the Englishman, whom he treated
R an honored guest, hut ho concluded that
the latter was making a fool of him. Bo one
day he went iiion-the hills, where the engi
i.eer was .1--. initiating time, and ordered him
to an It the joh.
'Oh, hut you're not me master." contended
t.a Britisher. "I'll stay here, doneher know.
until ineeomiiany orders me home."
Oh. but yon won't." insisted the Portu
V.'.'Jf.JU be tuaile a rush at the Englishman.
olth the aid of twenty coolies he tied the en
gineer to an ox cart and sent him ripping down
"ir the hills into town, and the next steamer
carried him baufc to England.
Madeira then engineered the job himself.
a.d flnished it in two months. The water.
1 ure as crystal, comes down through a three
liii n pipe and empties into u reservoir ten feet
'ngand live feet broad. This is the town sup
rif. tine pays a cent for as much a he can
","! "wav, and it is an interesting sight to
"ir 1 e "' Vincent women, dressed in gar
an 1'iilnrs. parade to the tank with a large tub.
nil It at thespignt. und with the aid of a nelgh
I ii 11 '" 'h head and march away.
...Madeira always has a number of Iron tanks
niied u that they can lie towed out to a steam
er ami the water pumped In throagh canvas
hose Less than fifty tons he sells at $1..") a
OD Atove that up to 100 he makes a reduc
tion or 2f) cents. Any amount over 100 tons
oe sells at the rate or $1. Home vessels take on
tons ot water, and the skippers always
pay in English gold. Mr. Madeira has made a
"Of.", fjrtune out of this enterprise nlone.
D 1 his man has all the characteristics of a
ft'rtugiiese and the shrewdness of a Yankee.
fi was Porn Jan. 10. B3.r. on the island of ,
aiieira, and at the age 3f H started out to 1
"Jake his fortune. When the I'nlted Htates
irisute Nusiniehanna stopped at Madeira on
1,1 'iV '"Japan, the lad ran away from home
d,'"i slur.i.oil asagiilley boy. He served on the !
'bridge. Congress and Mississippi, finally I
"coming chicr steward on the latter vessel,
"pii 111 tlu eanacitv received an honorable dis
' 'iarg from the navy.
tin last voyage was made memorable by x
nl with one l.ieut. Kelly on the Mlssls
BW'i. who undert.s.k to criticise Madeira's
'king as the vessel was returning from the
nil- Thq future nabob of the 'ape de
1 .V, '"amis was a great trickster then and
'""'"I 111 a modified way.
1 naide up inv mind to get even with this
amy young Lieutenant." telle the o'd man.
' "I lie was always eomnlainlng. Ho on a Hun
F I foig.,1 t,, oo, dessert for the officers'
! Aiiotber day I would put no yeist in
',' ""1'' "id again surprise them by putting
l".r T 11. rice pudding.
,. ""en IwiHv found out that he was the butt
.' 11.1 wli...e shin lie ordered me to apologize.
i. .'77' a"'1 P't in the sweat box. )n
hi ' I1 fr'ate this was un upright coffin below
iw ' 'Hop dsok ainidsliliw. I was kept in tnere
I, f "ur hours and taken out almost dead.
, ' '"'a b'.'' stand up until the vessel reached
1.1 ''. N,w Vork. But I never apologized
II., . ""' "'' sirno Kelly tried to smooth
yiugs ,ver 1 v handing me $7.50 docked pay.
"'r- iM I,,,, ft(,0 arid eft the nav, vard."
lii'ii," "hs'andlng this unpleasant experience
li I 1" I' '" America with fondest regnnls for
,, '.. ' 'ho lountry has no more steady sup-
ii.i'r a ""ad than this Portuguese L'nieua.
K'.i ''-", 'hat the Spanish fleet lay in the
."I this upring Cervera had to face an
ivl, h " fi''ur Haunting from the old plan's
it i-1 ' V Another reminder of America in
,:!" island Is a letiiarkalile profile of Oeorge
i'"" '""gt"ii made by the undulations of the
"SUiitaTu which iuclosea the bay.
ia.ie.ira has littlesympatliy for his own coun
,',''!'" "hose Indolence ami dishonesty he
r'l rl.i '"ndetnns. "There's only one thing
1 rattier I thau a Portuguese customs ofll
I,.' ,'" '"''I Herpa PinU. the (lovernor of the
ai'.n. . 1 ".rf1 la'ands. "and that la profes
"'uji thief "
( "'' P'ayed a rather amualng trick on thla
a I '"I', ,ew months ago when the latter
tin i'"Ltln '. VlnoenT. In the course of
Ite ,n,i r" t?nl accidentally shot his Davor
I ' ai.i.""!- fhlch he calletT ( 00k. Madeira
L :
and killed hie eook to-day." adding a few more
words. It was the news sensation of the day.
and It required much cabling to straighten the
maltor. when the Governor did shoot his
coog by accident gome weeks later, not a paper
would use the despatch.
The regret of this man'a life ia that he never
learned the A It ("s. and to this day he can
not apell the simplest word. This Ignorance
has kept him from taking knighthood honors,
which nave been offered him by the Portuguese
court and has forced him to refrain from
associating with the cultured English on the
Ills life as a galley boy, cook, stswnrd and
ship 'handler crop out even In his religion.
"I believe In a Supreme Being alone." he says,
"and I know I am light, lor when I want to
buy a bam off a steamer, I don't go to the
steward or mate, but right to the Captain.
And so I put mv trust In (tod, who is at the
helm." In a lawsuit with a Catholic priest,
t he old man made a retort which is told widely
by the Portuguese, who regard him as an ora
cle of wisdom.
"I'll report yon to the King." screamed the
priest, swollen with anger, after some .Mtlng
remark or the old ship chandler.
"And I." snld the latter, drawing himself
up t-alinly. "shall reiiort yoti to God."
Tnr and wide through Ihe Islands of the
eastern Atlantic this remarkable ohara"ter is
known, and every seafaring man who goes
sshore at Mendalo makes It a roint to shake
hands with Old Man Madeira, who rose from
the position of galley boy on n Yankee clipper
to the ranks of the millionaires. And any
American who visits there mav be sure of a
warm welcome. He will extend him the hos
pitality of his house and table. He will open
bis oldest bottle of wine, antl the stranger will
lie lulled to sleep by the strains of many soft
toned mandolins, to the music of which dnrk
eyed sertorltaa dance the "Contra." the allur
ing fascination of which surely has few equals
In dance movement.
imf.v vamk the ar.tsr.iit II. AG.
Capt. mice's Story of an Incident In gOfl at
a Pawnee village In Knnsas.
Topggi. Kan.. Oct. 12.-In 1HO0. at a Paw
nee Indian village. In the Great American
Desert, the site of which Is now In Republic
county. Kansas. Zebulon M. Pike hauled down
the Spanish ting and ran up Old Glory In Ite
stead. On Sept. 20 of each year the oeopleof
north central Kansas meet at the little town of
Republic City lo commemorate the deed of
Capt. Pike. This year the celebration was of
special interest because of the war with Spain.
Kansas, In 1H00. was In disputed territory,
and the relations between the I'nlted States
nnd Spain wore a serious aspect. Actual hos
tilities between the troops on the Texas and
Orleans frontiers were narrowly averted. The
Pawnee Indians. were riving the Spanish flag
because of fear of the parent country. NVhen
Capt. Pike arrived at the Pawnee village, he
decided to rest a day on his expedition to the
Rocky Mountains, where he discovered the
great peak which was named In his honor.
In the presence of 400 warriors Capt. Pike held
a council. The notes he took on that occasion
were afterward seized by the Spanish author
ies, together with copies of all his speeches
to the different Indian nations.
At the recent celebration held at Republic
City Capt. Pike' own story of the incident
was reud:
"But it may be interesting to observe here."
said Cant. Pike, in speaking of the documents
which the Spanish Government had seized. "In
ease they should be returned, thnt the Span
iards bad left several of their flags in this vil
lage, one of which was unfurled at the chief's
door the day of the grand council, and that
among various charges and demands I gave
them was that the said flag should be delivered
to me. and one of the I'nlted States flogs be
received and hoisted In its stead. This prob
ably was nrrviiig the pride of the nation a
little too far. as there had so lately been a large
foroe'of Spanish cavalry nt the village, which
had made a great Impression on the minds of
the young men as to their power, eonse
quenceAe.. which my apneorance with twenty
inrantrv was by no means calculated to re
move. After the chiefs hail replied to vari
ous parte of mv discourse, but were silent as
to the flag, I again reiterated the demand for
the flag, adding that it was impossible for the
nation to have two fathers that thv must
either be the children of the Spaniards or ac
knowledge their American father.
"After a silence of some time on old man
niose. went to the door, took down the Span
ish Hog. brought it in and laid it at my feet.
He then received the American flag and ele
vated It on the staff which had lately borne
the. standard of his Catholic Majesty. This
Save great satisfaction to the Osage and Kaws.
oth ot whom registered vows to be them
selves under American protection.
"Perceiving that overy face in the council
was clouded with sorrow, as If some great na
tional calamity were about to befullthem. I
took up the contested colors and told them
that, as they had shown themselves dutiful
children in acknowledging their great Amer
ican father. I did not wish to embarrass them
with the Spaniards, for It was the wish of the
American that their red brethren should re
main peaceably around their own fires and not
embroil themselves In any disputes between
the white people, and for fear that the Span
iard might return there in force again. I re
turned them their flag, but with an injunction
that it should never tie hoisted again during
our stay. At this there wa a general shout
ot applause, and the charge was particularly
attended to."
At the recent celebration It was voted that
the Sta'.e of Knnsas should erect on the site of
the old Pawnee village a monument commen
surate with the deea of Capt. Pike.
Not All of the History of That Country Is to
Be Taken Without Salt.
From Ihf 7V Repubtict.
The Tiro Rpublic$ would he pleased to satis
fy the laudable curiosity of a reader in Pueblo
who waio.a to know something about the popu
lation of ancient Mexico and Montezuma's
Vo are unable to do eo. however, with re
gard to either question. As to Hie former
question, there is a variety of opinion. For
eigners who speak and read the English lan
guage have usually taken Prscott'eword for It.
and I'rescott has undoubtedly given a very
greatlr exaggerated word painting of the situa
tion that existed prior to and at the time of the
onquest. The early Spanish chroniclers were
also given to flights of imagination not valua
ble for historical purposes, and the conquista
dores delighted in mentioning the name of
Emperor, princes nnd such, which undoubt
edly magnified the importance of their own
Mr. Ignncio Altamirano. who gave the sub
ject profound study, is of the impression that
the city of Mexico at the time of the arrival ot
Cortez consisted of nothing but rude huts and
a population of about .'Mi.ooo people The Tr,
Hrjniblirt I inclined to accept Mr. Altami
rano' statement. Few men In the republic
were in a better position to get at the facts,
and none have been more conscientious in
their Investigations. While it may spoil some
very beautiful fiction, facts comiel us to the be
lief that the Aztec people were very far from
being the magnificent, semi-barbarous people
that they have been represented. Montezuma,
who Is spoken of as the great "Emperor" of
the Aztecs, is said to have frequently appeared
at court in undress uniform and to nave eaten
his meals at very irregular hours out of a huge
pot that alway stood over the Are.
What the races were that preceded tne Az
tecs might lie another question, but as for the
Aztec themseives, tnere is little reliable ic
formation to wa-rant us in saying that they
were much above the plane of hundreds of
oilier tribes tiint populated Mexico genera
tions ugo. or, for that matter, still form nu
merically the greater pari 0 our population.
As to Montezuma's treasure, that Is some
thing of 11 myth. One good priest who wa
connected with the first occupation of Mexico
staled. ii"iii seeing a parcel of gold In an Az
tec establishment which stond on the present
si;e of the Monte l'ieuad. that it appeared to
be more gold than be had thought was to he
found In the whole world. This ntutemei.t I
usualU taker with nsiVaalt bv historians.
There was undoubtedly goi.; here, ami eoi
slderuhle gold, in those poor times. During
the retreat of Hie iinclw Irirtte the Spaniards
lost most of their ill-gotten gains, nnd later.
slien Cortez returned to the citv. this gold was
not discovered. The usanmptlou was imme
diately jumped tit thut it was hidden, and the
assumption muy have been iierfectlv correct.
"Montezuma's treasure" has been handed
down to us as n collective name lor all the val
uables which tl,e Spaniards were unable to lo
cate. There are still some people who de
voutly believe that It exists, but there are
others who waste little time In the thought.
Carved HI Kpltaph and Iled.
From tkt CouritrJvurna!.
John Harmon died here from the bite of a
This is an inscription on a boc-h tree stand
ing on the knobs. In Monroe township, back of
Jeffcuonvllle. A date onoe followed the word.
but it is now indistinct. There Is a strange
atory connected with the inscription. An old
resident relate It
"Years ago. when that section of Indiana
was little explored, and when the heavy bush
was the dwelling place of the wild turkey, deer,
and ruttlesnako, John Harmon started to
ChMilestown to attend court. He was armed
with an old-lashloned rifle. A rattler bit Har
mon's leg. Harmon killed the reptile. Then
lie began to prepare forde'nth. It wa be who
carved the wonts In lighter Hues 011 the tree.
with the request beneath, long since obliter
ated by the tree's growth, to bury him on the
pot. A few days later Harmon's body wee
found. A grave was due by the tree and there
it can bt eee n u-djr."
ik thk iirniAir txhiutokt.
lis Members Killed a Man tor Exhibition
Purposes In 1171. and That Act Con
vinced Secretary Delano of the Necessity
of Federal Interference InAplteof Treaties
A man was killed at Muskogee. In the Indian
Territory, the other day. The shooting was
just around the corner from where Judge
Springer presides In the Federal Court. It
wss not so great an affront to Federal au
thority a occurred nt Muskogee one morning
In 1871. Then a man was killed for exhibition
purposes, to Impress Secretary Dclnnoof the
Interior Department under President Grant.
Muskogee Is billed for a boom after the Cur
tis law becomes operative or such treaties as
the Dawes Commission may conclude with the
Creek Indians are in force. The boom will not
bo of the enthusiastic and sanguinary kind
that prevailed In 1871. It wa that boom which
brought the Secretary of the Interior lo the
pot to see what could lie done to check tho
rapid growth of the cemetery. Tho visit led to
a technical violation ot treaty obligations and
tho Invasion of tho country by our troops.
Frontier life in the United States has never
produced a worse variety of tho bad man than
the one known as tho terminus man. The
terminus man followed Ihe gangs thnt built
the great lines of railroad across tho plains.
Whercvor tho temporary terminus of the lino
was found, there ho wa found also. Whether
In tent or rough board shack or dugout, lie was
a short-card gambler, a purveyor of bad
whiskey, or a plain desperado without
any disguise. When tho Atchison. Topoka
and Santa Fe line was being laid west
ward along the southern border of Kan
sas the terminus mnn flourished at Cald
well, Kiowa. Dodge City and Liberal. He did
much of the work for which the Texas cowboy
ha had too much of tho discredit. But there
was law In Kansas which, enforced by men of
the Bat Masterson stripe. rOAtralajfd the ter
minus man. He was n hard proposition at
bet. but undor State or Territorial govern
ment, backed by the right sort of material for
Its administration, ho never rose to the dignity
of being negotiated with by one of the Cabinet
officers from Washington.
Tho negotiations were unprecedented, but
they were clearly justified. The terminus mar,
had trailed along with the Missouri. Kansas
and Texas Railway, then under construction
toward the Gulf, all the way from Sedaliadown.
The main terminus was at Parson. Kan.,
where the gang kept its headquarters for a
longtime. The terminus man wan his usual
self at that place, restrained somewhat by the
law and the public sentiment behind thoee
who were there to enforce it. He had made
profitable season, but was not reluctant to
move, for the next terminal point would put
him beyond the jurisdiction of any court.
The Indian Territory lay invitingly before
him. The Territory is now a comparatively
lawless country. Then it was superlatively so.
A little squad of I'nlted State Deputy Marshals
pretended to exercise Federal authority within
the limitations or the treaties. Shadowy as
was this semblance ot government, it was sub
stantial when compared with that of the Indian
tribes. The Cherokee had a feud raging be
tween the Rosses and the Ridges. In the
Creek country factions and families were, still
fighting the civil war. Not to be depended upon
at best for any vigorous enforcement of social
order and security, tho tribal governments,
under such circumstance, were imjiotent.
There was a body or Feleral troops quar
tered nt Fort Oibaon. but that they could not bo
used without a violation of the treaties with
the Indians was clear to everybody, and to
none more so than to the terminus men. Tho
Missouri. Kansas nnd Toxasgotintothc Indian
Territory in n hurry, but it was none too quick
rorthe terminus men. who got there with It.
and resumed business 011 u new nnd enlarged
scale ut Chetopn. the llrst temporary terminal
point on the line In the Red Commonwealth,
t'hetopn was entered bv the llrst locomotive
that ever ran Into the Indian Territory on .May
0. Wl. at noon. Thnt night all the gambling
saloons and dance house were in lull blast,
and one man was buried with his boots on be
fore sundown. The railroad company had laid
twenty-six and a half miles or finished line In
eleven days to get to Chetopo and confirm Its
right to n 3,000,000-acro land grant, hut the
terminus men opened up trade In a way to con
vey the impression that it was their opinion
that the expedition wn made for the purpose
of enlarging their facilities for doing business.
They enlarged accordingly. The engineers,
builders 0110 contractor on the lino knew
many of the men in the terminus gang. They
had hud experience with them nt Laramie,
t'heyenne. Ogden and other tcmimrary ter
minal points during the years in which the
Union Pacific road was being built. They had
been oble to manage them, in a way. when un
der Federal authority nnd within the call of
Federal troops. But without such forces to
cominnnd. the railroad men soon found tlmt
the terminus gang was a quantity it was no
longer jiosslble for them to deal with. Murder
I e.nine an event of daily occurrence. Tho ter
minus men took to shooting people for the fun
of seeing them die with their boots on. What
was worse Irom the company view, perhaps,
was that they took to robbing the pay cars und
killing the men supposed to be carrying com
pany funds. Several valued employees or the
comrany were shot under the Impression that
they were I'nited Htates Deputy Marshal, a
foet eloquent of the degree of respect enter
tained by the terminus men for the shadowy
authority of the Federal Government.
Conditions grew worse the further the line
got Into the Territory. At Chetopa they wore
hod. At Vinitn they were worse. At Muskogee
they reached their worst. There the event
which broke the record was the killing of three
men in one night without provocation. Hob
I cry was the motive in two of the cases and
just the desire to kill in the other. The work
of construction was threatened with paralysis
I y condition which made it almost as difficult
for the company to pay it men a to protect
them, for pav cor robberies were growing more
frequent and the terminus men did not conceal
the fact that they were responsible for them.
The open defiance of the authority of the com
pany was having a demoralizing influence upon
the men along the line. Things had reached
the point where tho company must either have
the protection of the Government or organize
an armed force to protect itself, a step it hesi
tated much to take.
In this emergency Georgo Denison and David
Crawford, Jr.. both of New York city, went to
Washington and urged some form of Federal
action to protect the great investments they
had made In the railroad, and also to protect
the public Interests. They talked with the
President nnd with Hecretnry of tho Interior
Delano. The treaty difficulties In the woy of
Federal interference were pointed out. Secretary-
Delano said he had been in correspondence
with tho tribal chiefs of the Indian in tho Ter
ritory in relation to the matter, but had been
unable to get anything from them either
In the way ol assurance or performance.
The result of the conferenco was that
Mr. Delano, reluctant, like the Presi
dent, to take any action involving any
violation of treaty obligations, proposed to go
himself to Muskogee nnd see If he could not.
either by moral suasion or threats, induce the
terminus gang to leave the Territory. He wos
,,f the opinion that the entire trouble could be
settled in this way. Although Messrs. Deni
son and Crawford did not share the Secretary's
faith, they encouraged the project, believing
that a sight of conditions at Muskogee would
be worth more than all the representations or
arguments they could make.
As it fell out. a better course could not have
been taken to bring the reign of terror to an
end. The coming of the Secretary of the In
terior and the object of his visit were known
at Muskogee in advance, but so for from put
ting them on their good behavior, the terminus
men prepared to defy the Government Itsolf.
As luck would have it. knowledge of this feel
ing nnd intention reached the Socretary while
on the road, and In an amusing though some
what dramatic way. Tho night before the
party reached Muskogee, one of it mem
bers was taken seriously ill. A division
superintendent of the Missouri, Kansas
und Texas who wa on board volunteered
to detach the engine, run ahead to a
point where he knew u physician could be
found, get tho doctor and bring him back to
the special train. Before the doctor's station
was reached the engine was stopped said tho
superintendent taken out of the cab. He
recognized several ot the terminus toughs of
Muskogee in the gang, but they did not know
him. and were about to shoot him under the
suspicion that he was a United Htates officer
who had been sent ahead to make the road
clear for the next train, which it was their In
tention to rob. The railroad official only saved
his life by proving bis identity, and protesting
thut nothing could Induce blai to play the part
of a Government spy upon gentlemen in pur
suit of their calling.
When this story got back to the special,
along with the doctor and the railroad official,
it created a profound sensation. Secretary
Delano was no less impressed than the other.
but be wanted to know if the outlaws were
aware that the train they were proposing to
rob bad the Cabinet party aboard.
"A knowledge of that fact must have been
the motive for the contemplated robbery,"
aald the superintendent, "for they said that
it was hard luck to miss the Washington ten
derleet. wh" might pan out better than a rail
road pay car.
If the Secretary entertained any doubts
after this that the men he was lo deal with
were not open tc missionary work they were
E -moved at Muskogee the next morning, when
s waa invited into a tent to view the remains
of a man who. he waa Informed by a terminus
man, bad been killed to give him an idea of how
things were done In that country. Wbjtte uiak-
Ing the rounds of the canvas town the Cabinet
' party saw many exhibition of the termlnu
man skill In marksmanship, evidently with
Ihepurpoeo of Impressing the Recretgry. Any
brilliant feat of gun play brought the loudeUt
and most vainglorious boast, ngs from the man
who had performed It. together with the asser
tion that he had fought In the war and was
1 worth n regiment of brnecoats.
i Shortly before noon the Secretary held a
public reception in a tout He talked with
every terminus tough In the camp. To a man
they refused to leave the Nutlon. ns they eelied
I the Indian Territory. This refusal they voiced
1 with many and copious oaths, and the threat
that if anybody attempted to make them leave
: there would bo more killing than the Nation
I had ever heard of before. Then thev told stories
1 ol their murderous exploits, practiced at diffi
cult mark with their revolvers and seemed to
be without fear of the Secretary a the visible
representative of the power t Washington.
Much of this bravado rested upon their convic
tion that tho Governitient was powerless under
its treaties.
Thoy were without understanding of how
diplomacy deals with treaties in emergencies.
As Secretary Delano had seen the emergency
with his own eyes, he stopped the special nt the
next telegraph station and from that lonely
office In the wilderness sent a Ions despatch to
President Grant to the effect that he was con
vinced that the Indians were unable to protect
their soil against the invasion or this lawless
element and that It wns the duty of the United
States, as well osthelr right under Implied or
expressed clauses In tho treatlos. to use the
army to put the terminus men out.
About ten days sfter the receipt of this tele
gram at Washington the Tenth United States
Cavalry left Fort Gibson, nnd. making Its gnn
eral headquartors nt Muskogee, made flying
trips all over the Territory. The terminus
toughs organized for reRlstancoat first, but the
morning of the second dsv round many of them
gone. They were all caught in detull nnd or
dered to leave the Terrltorv under penalty of
being shot if found again within its boundaries.
Then Muskogco became comparatively quiet.
Killings are not Infrequent there now, but the
oldest inhabitant, who speak by comparison.
Insist that it has become one ot the quietest
and most orderly towns to be found.
Fear of Witches at the Birth of Chtldren-
The Native Itevli Dance.
An English physician now living In London,
who has spent many years on the Island ot
Luzon, In the Philippines, relntes these super
stitions and custom which prevail among the
less enlightened Filipino:
"Many of thoee who conform outwardly to
the rite of the Catholic Church." he eaid. "still
cherish a belief In witches and demons. They
believe thut witches congregate at the birth of
children and watch nn opportunity to snatch
the soul of the new-born infant. When a birth
take place the room hermetically sealed,
not eo much as a crack of the door or window
being left open, because to do that would be to
allow the entrance of the patianac. or witch,
who is supposed to be able to get through the
smallest hole. If the attending midwife has
occasion to believe that witches are actually at
work, a charge of gunpowder is blown off In
the room to frighten them away.
"When the child thus bewitched is born It is
placed In a draught of air in an open door or
window so that the witches may have a chance
to escape, and the exorcism begins. Three
witch can Ilea are placed upon the little face,
one on each cheek and another on the chin.
These are lighted and allowed to burn until
they are almost consumed. Though the child
sometimes gets badly burned in the process,
such an accident I considered of small ac
count so long a the witch is expelled.
"The Filipinos have some curious customs
in regard to courtship and marriage. They
believe that the odor imparted to the clothing
by the body has power to excite love. Those
who wish to attract some one of the oppo
site sex will scheme to brine thnt person in
contact with some article of clothing which
has been worn bv themselves. When plighted
lovers are obliged to separate for a time they
exchange garments with each other. They
believe that by this means faithfulness is as
sured. So keen is the sense of smell among
the Filipinos that they say they can tell to
whom any article belongs by merely smelling
of it. There is a peculiar manner of kissing In
vogue among mnny of these tribes. Instead
of touching lips thev press the nose against
the cheek of the person they wih to caress
and draw n long, deep breath.
"There are many modern Jacobs and
Rachels among the Filipino, for it Is a custom
for the prospective bridegroom to serve for a
time in the household of the hride's father, if
he ha not money enough to make a cash pay
ment for the bride.
"One of their most Interesting superstitions
is the belief that the soul of a man leaves his
body during sleep and gives forth on some mys
terious errand of its own This belief was
doubtless borrowed from the Buddhists, and
one can offer no greater Insult to a Filipino
than to step over him while he lies asleep,
which, according to his idea. Is getting be
tween his body and hi absent soul.
"The. islanders have many superstitions in
regard to huts, animals and reptiles. The
huge caymans which abound In the Philip
pine rivers fill them with a peculiar horror. ,
They believe that the caymans ure always on
the lookout for those who have sworn falsely
or broken their promises, and almost any na
tive can tll wonderful stories about tho terri
ble fate which has overtaken liars who have
fallen into the jaws of the cayman.
"The old belief, so common In Asia and else
where, that certain sounds hove isywer over
non-human presences i cherished bv the. na
tives of the Philippines, and certain ol their
most powerful incantation are said to be pre
served in secret manuscripts but. though the
Spanish clergy have tried every means to pro
cure these books of the devil, ns they call them,
their efforts have been unrewarded, and the
dreaded formula' still remain the secrets of
the native priests.
"One of their customs is the de 11 dance, for
the exorcism of evil spirits. If an epidemic of
smallpox, cholera or other disease occurs In n
village, the mischief is at once attributed to
some evil spirit which lias taken up its abode
In a neighboring banyan ttee. The particular
tree inhabited by the devil is determined upon
by the native prient. and on the night ap
pointed for the exorcism the entire population
of the village inarches to the spot, bearing soc
Iflclal meat nnd spices. They form in n circle
round the banyan tree and await the coming of
.he priest. Presently a strange-looking figure
appears, clad in a long, flowing gown, nnd with
a high, peaked red hat upon his head. Then
the din begins. and the tomtoms and other bar
baric Instruments make night hideous. The
priest takes his place in the centre of the circle,
occasionally brandishing his great, curved
aacrlflclal knife, and now and then striking
the strings of his bow. which adds it deep,
booming sound to the noise of the tomtom and
drum. Swaying slowly to and fro. he gradu
ally work himself up Into a state of frenzy,
all the time crooning to himself strange melo
dies. A hi movements become foster and
more frenzied the noise of the tomtoms in
?renses. Suddenly the priest leaps Into the air
and proclaims himself to be a god. and the
wild devil dance begins. The assembled na
tives offer their sacrifices and pray aloud to be
delivered from the evil spirit. The dancing
priest becomes more and more excited ana
slashes his body vith the sacrificial knife. The
sight of hi own blood seems to madden him
still further, and he shrieks and dances on till
nature calls a halt and he sinks to the ground
in a swoon. After a few moments of utter
prostration he rise from the ground, washes
away the blood from his body and goes quietly
on his way. The evil spirit ha been driven
out ot the banyan tree and the dance ends."
Red Tape.
From the ll'tjfmiiutrr OaittU.
At Gleiwitz. In Upper Silesia, a youngster's
kite got caught on the electric wire of afire
alarm. A policeman noticed the acoident, and
in order to get the kite removed ma le a writ
ten report, which, after having been perused
by the Pollzolkonimissar." waa forwarded in
succession to the "Pulizel-Inspektor," the
Magistrate and the " FeucrlosrhgerlUkoinmis
fclon." The last-named authority engaged an
engineer to remove the offending kite, and
recommended the Magistrate to reward the
zeulous policeman with premium of 25 pfen
nigs. The engineer handed in a written report
to the effect that the kite had been removed.
Tho municipal treasury paid the policeman
the sum of 25 pfennigs and received In return
a duly signed acknowledgment The master
of the school which the unlucky kite flyer at
tended I fourteen days had been spent In
tracing I1I111I received Instructions to severely
warn his pupils against flying their kites
against electric wires, and alter complying
with the instruction reported accordingly
But the "Feuerloschgeratkommlsslon" de
termined that the matter should not rest there.
They sent a deputation to the local School
Board to ask that all school inspectors in the
district should be instructed to see that all the
children In the local schools received a similar
warning. The headmasters of oil the
schools were accordingly supplied with
written Instructions as to the war In
which the necessary warning should be con
veyed. Circulars were distributed among
the juvenile population The head school
inspector was informed of the step ihat had
been taken He Informed the School Board,
and the School Board the BOrgermrlster.
Finally the written documents relating to the
affair were collected, and. alter being furnished
with a formidable register number, were laid
to rest in an official pigeonhole. Four months
passed from the loss ot the kite to the final
subsidence of documents and reports concern
ing It,
I THAT CA1T hk Forrrn,
Barring the Wolves, Which Are More Com
montv Classed an "Varmints "-The Dis
appearance of Buffalo and Wild Horses.
From tkt fal Mbtn Dalit Snot.
Avarii.i.o. Tex., Oct. 6. The Inquiry con
stantly on the lips of those who aak bout the
West Is, "What has I become of all the game
which formerly covered the great plains and
crowded Into the ' brakes ' along the streams of
that oonntry?" It ha not been so long ago
when truly these plains were filled with buf
falo. But the story of them Is known to all.
In tho Smithsonian Institution at Washington
thorn li a picture of the last of these monarch
of the plains. It represents a man lying
in a small depression In tho prairie, sight
ing his long-range gun at a small herd of buf
falo gracing not far away. All around htm
were the skeleton of thl animal, which had
been killed by those who had come before him.
It wns the saddest picture Imaginable, and told
of cruelty, wantonness, and greed.
I remember when I went buffalo hunting
back In 1S70 Ihat wo came upon a party of buf
falo hunters men who made a business of
hunting and killing the animals forthelr hides.
They warned us away from where they were,
ns our presence disturbed thoir game. They
talked as If they owned the animals nd would
not brook our presence. We explained that
we were only hunting for simrt nnd did not
intend to kill many of the beasts, hut this did
not satisfy them, because, as they explained,
we rnn nfter them with our horse, we tight
ened the whole herd and drove them away,
thus putting; those lords ot the prairies to too
much trouble In following them.
Their manner ot slaughtering the animals
was to He in a depression In the prairie or
behind a rock and from theso points calmly
shoot ot a long distance Into the herd whlcn
fed about on the grass. The distance of the
shooters from the game prevented the latlor
Irom taking fright, and thus they were killed
by the hundreds of dozens before they would
take tho alarm.
Such parties ns this were generally accom
panied by a wngon which carried provisions
and ammunition and the camp outfit. When
the slaughter of the day was about nt an end
the wagon would come up. The animals would
be turned on their backs, the skin cut down
tho stomachs, around the tall, then down the
legs nnd around the ankles. Stake were
driven In the ground nnd the hind legs tied to
them. A hook was then sunk Into the hide
tieartlietail.il rope attached to the hook was
tied to the wagon, and when It was driven
away the bide wa peeled from Ihe body. It
was quick nnd effective work and mnny a
hide could be taken in a day by this processor
skinning. In time all the buffalo which were
on tho wild prairie, by which I mean those
firalrlcs whlcli had not been Inclosed by wiro
ences. disappeared. Then the work of collect
ing the bones of the destroyed herd com
menced. This work brought thousands of dol
lar to the country. And when it was done it
may bo said that the last vestige of the buffalo
had been wiped out.
It may be asked why something was not
done in the past to preserve tho buffalo from
extinction. The question is an entirely reason
able one. I asked it myself fifteen years ago.
when It became apparent that they hail to go.
I asked It or Gov. Throckmorton. I was sur
prised when ho told me that tho buffalo ought
not to tie preserved and when the day camo
when there were none of them It would be the
best day In the calendar for the State. He then
went on to explnin that the buffalo was the
mainstay of the Indian. A long as there was
a herd In Texas mst so long the roving
Comanche wns an independent being, and
it would bo Impossible to either tame him or
make him remain on bis reservation. Now. a
he would not remain on the reservation jufit a
long as he could leave it to hunt buffalo, just so
long would be depredate on the settlements. !
In fact, the Governor's idea wa that tho preser
vation of life and property on the trontier de
pended on the extinction of tills animal, which
wns the beef or the wild Indian.
The view held by Gov. Throckmorton was
the view held by nearly, if not all. of the old
settlers and the consequence was that the
slaughter of the buffalo went on undisturbed
bv the law. As long ns there was nn particular
improvement in guns o long the destruction
was not grent. But with the long-range rifle,
which would shoot a mile with dendlv effect, it
was nn easy matter to almost destroy a whole
herd' before they would take the alarm, or all
the millions ol these animal- which roamed
these prairies twenty to thirty year ago, the
eolltory representatives of them. I am informed,
are now in the pasture of Mr. Charles Good
night, one of whose ranches Is near the town of
Goodnight, on the Fort Worth and Denver
Railroad. The herd is increasing to some ox
tent and the value of them Is increasing also.
The plains were tilled with antelope also, hut
like their companions, the buffalo, they have
suffered greatly In Ihe Inst ten years. The only
thing thai saved them rroni total destruction
was that their hides were not a valuable asthn
hldosof the buffalo. After the advent of the
railroads the slaughter of them commenced.
Their enrcas-es were shipped to Northern mar
kets, and it looked a If in a short time they
would be an animal of the past. But just an
they were on the verge of extinction, the Stnto
passed a game law which prevented them
being killed. The result Is that in the
last two rears they have increased rapidly, and
though thev will never again be as numerous
a they hove been, because of the pastures,
still they are here to stav and will always be
plentilul. The owners of the pastures are also
protecting them about as carefully as they pro
tect their cattle and this in connection with the
luw will prevent that total destruction threat
ened several years ago.
The deer have decreased greatlr, for the
same reason that the antelope decreased, that
is. through the pot hunters for the Northern
markets, but the game laws have also come
fongard lor their protection.
The wild horses which used to roam these
prairies are about all gone. I asked an old
resident what had become ol them and he told
me that only a very few remained, and they
were in the large pastures, snd they were being
killed us often us a shot could be had at them.
I asked him the reason for this destruction,
nnd he said that they were worthless in the llrst
place, and in the second they stole other horses
which were good and carried them off with
them. He informed me. also, that of all the
wild animal, a horse or mule which had for
merly been under the dominion of man
was the wildest when once It became a Part of
II wild herd. The stallions of the wild herd
were always ambitious to keep their "bunch"
filled, and would steal a maro or horse or even
a mule from the settlement or cow rnnche
when the occasion presented itself. When
once a tome horse or mule got with a wild herd
he became the wildest and most cunning ot
them all. Aa the wire fences went up the ter
ritory of the wild horse contracted. Finally nil
that remained were In the large pastures.
I was told that before the pastures came it
was the custom to "walk down" the wild
herds and reduce them to servitude. One
gentleman I mot here told me how this
walking down" was done. He said that
tho wild herd which one was determined
to capture always hud a certain range.
This range was known from men who scout
ed on the prairies. For Instance, one man
may have seen the " bunch," for that is
whut a herd is called, up near some par
ticular point in the northwest of the pan
handle. Another ranger may have seen the
same "bunch" fifty miles southeast of
where the first man saw it. Others may
have seen it along the route between the
two points. Thu it would be concluded
that the range waa between the two point
mentioned. Four or Ave men would enter
the expedition to walk down the "bunch." A
man would be stationed every twenty or
thirty miles along the range route and then
the "hunch" would bo started. For the first
day the wild horses would scamper off,
throwing their manes and tails to the
breeze, making a sight that would whet the
desire of those pursuing them to capture
them; for there Is nothing prettier in the
world than a troop of wild horses at m
distance. They look perfection as they
throw up their heads and sniff the wind
and then scamper away. I have seen one
or two bunches myself. The man who starts
them on their trip follows them for a day on
pony, taking his time. Ill place is tnken alwimt
nightfall, presuming that the bunch wag
started in the morning. Thl second man fol
lows them all night, for the hunt Is made when
there is a lull moon, so that the bunch con lie
tracked at night as well a during the day. On
the morning of the second day. the stallion, or
master of the bunch, I behind hi herd, biting
and kicking the laggards in it. The third day.
oreven ihe evening of the second day. finds the
bunch strung out in straight line, each follow
ing the other in Indian file. They are getting
very tired then.
They areallowed notlmetoeator drink. The
pursuer, knowing thut they are tiring, forces
them, and thus tne chase continues for about
five dt'ys. when the whole herd is so tired that
it is easily taken with the rope or lasso or can
be driven Into a corral. But. so said my in-
tormant. when the work is done and every
lorse ujkeu. the pursuersNire always unani
mous In their verdict that the game was not
worth the labor expended, (or the horses taken
are a measly set and never good for any
thing. Here und there a pretty one and a good
one may be picked up. but these instances are
rare. There are stories ats-iut these horse on
the plains something like the nautical stories
about the " Flying Dutchman " and the like.
There wa once a white stallion that ranged
with his bunch from the panhandle toOi.lo
rado, Every effort was made to run him down
and to "crease" him, but all effort proved
unavailing. It was said thnt he could pace
faster than the best tame horse on the plains
could run. and hi herd was exceptionally fust.
All sort of stories are told about his swiftness.
There waa 11 very fine stallion down in the
southwestern part of the State which defied all
effort to reduce him to slavery. Dick Ware,
forraor marshal for the western district, waa
very desirous of obtaining this horse, and he
had himself made several efforts to capture
him. Finally a man earaealong who said he
would walk him down. Ware offered a large
sum for the animal. Th man who knew how
to walk him down started out after him and
failed. But he Was not to be beaten by
creature of the desert, and o he started out
after him thla time with a gun, determined to
"crease" him. In a day or two he got back
and bore the animal's tall. He explained that
he shot too low and killed the animal. When
the animal was alive his tail swept the ground.
Ware had It a short time ago In his offloe.
"Creasing" mean ahootlng the animal just
beneath the mane, not low enough to break the
; neok.and yet low enough that a ehockmiffi-
! dent to bring down the animal will he Inflicted.
It requires the best marksmanship to dothts.
and as the distance at which the shooting must
: be done Is usually great, very few animals have
1 been taken in this way.
The wolf Is tho terror of the stockmen, and
' In some Instances the large ranch owners have
1 standing bounties for the scalps of the larger
I kinds, known here as the "looter" woir. a cor
ruption, evidently of the Spanish name for
wolf. When mem hern of this family of wolves
get hungry they will attnek even a two-year-old
calf and kill It. Cattle of everethree year
old have been known to be killed by them.
They, aa a rule, hunt in pocks, and calves are
their special delight. As thernro the most
cunning of all the beast that rosin the
field, they are hard to kill. Many stories are
told about their smartness and the stranger
finds everybody ready to tell him about somo
certain wolf of tremendous size whlcn bus
made a name for himself by his depredations
and hi marvellous escapes from the lolls set
by man for him. The large ranches keep
hounds to hnnt them down, and when their
dens are discovered the young are dug nut and
slaughtered. It seem that poison is not very
effective with them. A he wolf will lead her
young from the den almost ns soon as they
can get around, nnd will remain In one place
a day or two and then move to another
' place, a If she desired to prevent detec
tion. A oon asjhe teaches her litter lo kill.
I when they are' three-quarters grown, thev
,' must hustle on their own account.
The common coyote Is not considered in con
nection with the wolf family, n he usually con
fines his depredations to the farmyard or the
sheep pen.
A Vailing OH In the Crop in Asiatic Turkey
Has Led to an Inrrease In Pi-Ire.
The Importations from Asiatic Turkey or
fig into the American market average from
8,000,000 to 10.000.000 pound n vear. Thev
exceeded the latter quantity by 'JOO.000 pounds
In 1800. when the value of Asiatic Turkish figs
imported Into this market wns $IOO,iHai. Oc
casionally when f here I a short supply abroad
the volume of Importations falls off greatly, and
such appears to be tho cae (his year, when
there I a corresponding increase In mice.
Fig are the chief article imported into the
United State from Asiatic Turkey with the
exception of licorice, but there come also a
considerable amount ot wool, some opium,
several million pounds of raisins nnd some
Turkish tobacco of a kind highly esteemed by
some smoker. The gross value of Asiatic
Turkish importations into the United States
varies from $2,500,000 to $3,500,000 n yeor.
The American exportation to Turkey are In
significant in volume and value and are made
up chiefly of cotton goods add spirits, but
nelthor In large quantities.
The Importations of this country in 18P.7 of
figs rrom Turker nmounted to li.oon.000
pound, and for the fiscal vear ending Julv 1.
1HIK they were O.flfW.OOO. This year the short
age in what are known as Smyrna figs Is not a
matter of any serious dispute, for Ihe receipts
to Oct. 1 in New York city lost year wore H.von
cases nnd 5.200 bogs, while so far in 1HH the
arrivals have amounted to only 002 case and
:t."il bags, these light receipt being taken as
conclusive evidenco ot the shortage of the
Turkish crop. The qunllty ol a considerable
quontitv ot the flgs so far received has been In
ferior.but. notwithstanding! his. in consequence
of the shortage prices have Increased. The fail
ure of the Turkish supply ho led already to a
larger market tor other figs, particularly those
or California. The average yearly product of
California tigs amounts to 12,XM),0OO pounds,
or nbout 20 per cent, more than the total Amer
ican importations from Asiatic Turkey in the
years of largest supply, but California flgs are
regarded in the trade as being, as yet. in
terior to the imported article, which re
sult from climatic condition on the Pacific
coast not yet entirely overcome. Then freight
rates lietween New York and Turkev on slow
going Italian steamer are not heavy, whereas
railroad charges on flg brought East by cars
are considerable. The American market for
flgs ie chiefly In and about the city of New
York and in Eastern cities generally, and the
disadvantage o' California compttition Is.
therefore, evident.
There are other countries which supply part
of the American trade in flga. and Portugal and
Greece especially are taking advantage of the
short crop in Turkey and pressing their wares
on the American markets. Portuguese nnd
Greek flgs. though esteemed less highly than
those shipped fromAsiatic Turkey, have many
advantages and in a year of a short Turkish
orp are accepted as fair substitute-.
Individual Firing While Watching tha
Movements of Ihe Lender. .
From th' RQltimort Sun.
The Indian method of fighting, as shown at
Leech Lake, is a unique type of warfare and as
such is a subject of great interest to foreign
military men. The United States regular
soldier is an expert ot it and has learned to
fight tho Indian as tho Indian fight him.
Military attaches sent by foreign Governments
to observe tho Spanish-American war asked
many question from American officers on this
topic and considered the veteran Indian fighter,
represented by such men as Generals Chaffee
and Kent, as one of the best typos of soldiers.
Individual fighting Is the Indian style. It
was so In the days before tho Revolution, and a
century has not changed it. The Indian ha
adopted many innovations taught him hy the
white man. He usually wears ' store clothes"
In these days and lives in a house, even if It Is
only a log hut. But he fights a his forefather
did. Reeking to gain an advantage over his foe
hy ambush or some other form of strategy.
The Indian who can hide behind a rock or tree
and shoot down an unsuspecting ton who is
passing is considered much more of a hero
then one who will fight In the open and die
bravely lacing the enemy.
Indians un tho warpath ure commanded by
chlels. who arc generally elected at a council
Are. Thcee chiefs are usually the head of
large families und command squads of from
20 to UK) men. oomposed of tneir brothers,
sons, cousin and other relative. One of tne
chiefs I known a the "great chief." und is
usually given this rank for prowess In war or
hunting. He occupies something like tho same
relation to the forces under him that a Gonerol
or Colonel has In the I'nlted States Army, but
his author ty i much more restricted and is
exercised only In rare cases.
The usual method In u fight such as that nt
Leech Lake Is for the chief to advance and his
men to follow him. keeping near enough to see
his movement and acting in conformity with
them. When the foe approaches within range
general firing begins, one of the chlels usually
setting the example. When his men sec him
lire thev lire too, and bo the rattle of the guns
becomes general.
It is seldom thnt an order is given to an In
dian in buttle. He follows hi chief, picking
out Individual foes and fighting Individually.
His commissary and quartermaster's arrange
ment areattelided to by SqUOWV,
The United State regular when fighting
Indians adopts their tactic only when tho
Indians are near. The skirmish formation is
then used and the men dodge behind trees or
rocks, but they listen for and quickly obey the
orders ol their officers. If hard pressed they
usually assemble and throw up hasty intrench
itienis. wheie they can pour a collective Are
into any too that may attack them.
It Is Larger Thau That sf Any Other stale
Pacific Coast Hop Orowlng.
While the Pacific coast wine yield is not up
to expectations this year, there haa been a
large crop of barley and a very considerable
product of hops In California, Oregon, and
Washington. The production of barley in the
United Slates has increased from 44,000,000
bushels in 1888 and tt8.000.000 In 1800 to 00.
000.000 thl year. The bualnea of malting
kept pace with the rapid development of brew
ing, and one of the result of the enlarged de
mand has been the establishment of many
malt houses and the discontinuance of malting
by brewer. At the present time, comparatively
few brewer malt their own barley, it being
more profitable to buy of the maltster.
The central and northern counties of New
York had formerly a monopoly of hops, but
Washington and Oregon are now In the field.
By the census of 1HIS) V aahington ranked sec
end among the States ot the country in the
product of hopa. California third, and Oregon
fourth. In the total amount of its barley
product California ranks not only at the head
of the States, but produces in a yearatout one
fourth of the barley product of the whole coun
Uj. It Is estimated that the total hop crop of
Hshlugton State this season will be between
27.000 and .'(O.(KX) bales The picking is fin
ished, and much of the crop ha already been
sold on the basis of 10 to 12 cents per pound.
According to the Secretary of the Wine
Makers' Corporation of California tlii vintage
this year will be one of the smallest In tne
recent history of the State. The yield of dry
wines will be in the neighborhood of H.06O.O0O
gallons, as against 27.000.000 gallons last
year. Sweet wines will show about one-balf
the production of a year ago. ,
- - -
jaTogrmrrorrg nwrm.optmcT or rmm
amxAT nouTHKRtr tndvktbt.
Its Centre Has Maved Beyond tha attests.
slppl and Scientific Methods of Cultaera
Have Bean Adopted Tha Law Prions
Keep Down Foreign Competition.
North Carolina ha already enough mills
within her border to spin every bale of oot
ton raised In the State and a little to spare,
and In a few years the same will he true of
Georgia. South Carolina and a few other At
lantic States. But now It 1 predicted that
within ten year these grent Southern. mtlle
will be n for from the centre of notion pro
duction a the New I'ngland mills, when th
distance is measured bv freight rates.- Tha
reason for thk I not far to seek. Theoottbn
belt has been changing ami shifting rear by
vear. The great bull; of our cotton earae
from Ihe States east of tho Mississippi twontv
yenrs ago. hut to-dtiv about seven-tenths ot ma
crop is rained Imynnd that river. The oofton
belt was supposed originally to run only
through the best Iambi of Virginia. Georgia;
anq the two ( 'nn , linns, with tho edge overlap
ping parts ot the contiguous States. Texaa . S
was not thought of. Arkansas was too far
west and Missouri nnd Kama were supposed
to be good only for corn ami cattle.
The map of the cotton holt l entirety al
tered, and ench successive yenr it must be en
larged to include new territory where cotton,
flourishes abundantly. Texas ha forged
ahead in cotton rnislng so rapidly that grow
ers wonder whore It will ntot: Arkansas hog
more recently started upon 11 similar career,
while the farmers of Kansas and Missouri ara
beginning to raise cotton on a large scale. At
the present rate of Increase thl great halt
west of the Mississippi will soon lie raising
three-fourths of all our cotton. Thon tha
mills of the South, nround which eo much In
terest centres to-dny, will linve a great m
problem to solve as the New .Knglnnd mills are
struggling with.
But the growth and development of the cot
ton mill In the South will eonrlnue. now that
the movement has been once started. The
will not stop in the cotton belt .vist of the Mis
sissippi, but new ones will appear In Kansas
antl Missouri, and south to tho Gulf. There la
something In till new cotton holt that prom
ises great things for the future. The climata
Is. in some respects, better suited to cotton
growing than the Atlantic seaboard States.
The cotton plnnt demonstrate this better
than any scientific theory. The buh growa
higher nnd bears longor. while open, rainless
falls make the harvesting easier and the in
jury from insect and weather less.
It Is e-t jmat-d by the Department of Agri
culture that cotton can be raised successfully
In nearly one-third of the terrltorr of tha
United States. At present the cotton belt
covers 24 degrees of longitude and about 10 de
grees of latitude, but only about ono-twon-tleth
or the land Is actually used for cotton
growing. Thus the LIi.ihhi.ikxi acres of cotton
plantation represent only 0 fraction of the vast
empire of cotton soil that ha nover been tl'led.
The fear that cotton growing ha reached ita
zenith, and thnt it must soon docline. In view
of the low price received for it. looms up every
season when the new crop begin to come In,
but like similnr nightmare, it foils to produce
ony permanent results. The world has just
begun to use cotton. Our Invasion of tha
Japanese markets with thin product is but g
promiae of what we mav expect on a large
scnle in other quarters. There are over 1.500.
000.000 human beings existirg on thl globe,
and of this number about half ore Imper
fectly clad. Thev live In climates where littles
protection Ir needed, bul that protection must
come in the form or cotton clothe. The vast
hordes or the Orient, of the island of the Pa
cific, and of the great African continent, re- -1
quire cotton goods for clothing. To-day they
go without them only because they are not ob
tainable at prices within their mean.
The world' yield of cotton litis trebled In
twenty five year, anil if has nearly double!
itseir In the last r'n years. Our own product
hos represented n large percentage of this In
crease. India. China and I'.gyjit con raise cotton
on n large scale, too. but. with all thoirZeheaia
labor, the Southern planter can raise nnd tha
American manufacturer enn work up into
salable goods our cotton mid Place it in Hast
en markets at prices lower than the natives
can ever hope to accomplish.
Much of this depend upon 1 he superior tnllla
Which are being erected in the cotton belt and
upon the more Intelligent operators in them:
but the low price of cotton is a factor
of the grcntes' Importoncp. Cotton haa
steadily declined in price since tho acre
age ha been increasing. Planters hava
fought this downward tendencv. Individ
ually nnd collectively, bill without avail. No
one is sure that the bottom bus lieon reached
yet There are plenty wlMi predict 4-ecnt cot
ton within another decade. This seems utter
ly inconceivable to the grower, esiieeially in
mnnv of the older cot Ion district, but eo did
r-cent and G-uent cotton years ago. The at
tempts to restrict the acreage or cotton hava
failed repeatedly. If our crop falls below a
certain s,lnt in the world's supply there will b
a corresponding Increise in the acreage in
other cpuntrle English capital and brains
are working hard in Egypt I" control the cot
ton trade of the Far Knsl. and any tendency to)
loosen our hold upon the great cotton Indus- -i
try would be the signal tor th" rapid eyteusion
ot the cotton field of Rgypt. Itiiilu and even
( hlna and Japan. The law of sunplv nnd do
iiiiuid must regulate the price
The new cotton belt is more able to ralsa
cotton to-day than mnny f the older regions.
Thl 1 due to ihe letter soil nnd climete.
Tcxos "forced prices for cotton down mora
than any other factor. In that Princely do
main hin ( otton flourished so well that plant
ers who had been struggling for years with
hidifTerent cotton woll could no longer com
pete In the open marks'. Thev were shoved
to the wall and forced to raise other products.
Some of the counties In Ihe cotton Slates par
tially or wholly broke away from cotton and
turned their attention more to grass, grains
and fruits. Others ire sure to follow, and not
only counties, but Htates. Inn ibis is no In
dication that the cotton crop will lie reduced.
The change is due merely f the shifting of tha
cotton belt.
The South is meeting the same shifting;
conditions thai faced the Ku-tern farmers half
a century ago. When the great Weat opened
up its marvellous fields ,,r corn and wheat tha
Lastcrn farmers were purulvyedtby the streams
of golden grain that poured In the markets
and sold for prices that threatened rulu ana
starvation for them. But after n decade of
two they recover' d from their surprise and
fear. and. abandoning grains. 1 1,.-- turned thelg
attention to fruits and dairying
Cotton funning 'I nrobaldv a primitive as
anv oilier branch of agriculture. The sys
tem in the South is jiif changing. Capital,
science and hr 11ns lire revolutionizing the In
dustry. The shifting or the cotton belt from
the east to the west of the MisNlpii is of no
greater Importance than the new method of
culture which nre being adopted. New on d
superior plnnt are being devel ,,e,l through
selection and intensive cultivation. The old,
half-fanning systi in i being replaced by
larg" plnntntlotiK, systematically orgnnizod and
conducted, mid thev will produce more cotton
to the ii'ic ami nt less outlay ihan the one
horse, unscientific farms of the shl'tlcs. care
less negroes.
For a long time (he contention was made by
Intelligent growers that an ignorant, shiftless
darky or white than c eihl raie as much cot
ton to the acre as a skilled, scientific agricul
turist, but tliis could liardlv he true, even
though It lonuired little Intelligence to ralsa
the plants. In the light of recent develop,
inenl tile folly of It is made apparent to all.
The cotton planter, with new sued, now ma
chinery und new method of "iilture. Increases
the yield In a way that threaten the one
horse farms with ruin.
It i believed that the United Slates will al
ways lie able to control the cotton trade of tha
world, and If our lund was properly farmed,
we could eusilr run other countries out of tha
market. But the old cotton putches of the
Bhifiless fanners must improve or disappear,
Other cotton countries stand ready lo Increase
their cotton crop upon the slightest provoca
tion. It was trie war of the rebellion that mads
Egypt a cotton-growing country of iinpOr
tsnee. When the war closed our cotton ports
to England, the Khedive of Kgynt put out im
mense cotton plantation, and between I80I
and ltl.1 the crop of Egyptian cotton increased
over 400 per cent. This sudden discovery 01
the country's possibilities has worked injury
to our cotton industry ever since. Not only
does Egypt supply agi.d deal of the demand of
the world tor cotton, nut we Import some 100.
0O0 bales a year ouraeive
India has laken'a similar start In cotton grow
Ing. and it only need some opportune moment
to stimulate it to a wonderful development A
war that would interfere with our cotton
growing, or a sharp decrease in our oottos
acreage so thut prices would advance a few
cent a pound, would be followed in India and
Egypt bv a doubling or trebling of tbe acreage.
Tne advantage thus gained would require
years to overcome. Row low cotton can
Ro and yet prove profitable Is a problem,
ist the future must decide, with a new
stimulus lu our Far Eastern trade relation, it
may soon be found that five-cent and eves
four-cent oottou will prove a great boon to thd
Mouth, and. Incidentally, to UM 00UUtO

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