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j 2 THE SUN, SUNDAY NOVEMBER 6, 18&8. "
t bomb sew aoons. !, "" x The Philippines. ? In a small quarto volume of ome Ave Inm dred pagos, entitled, ThePMIIpplne stands and Their Tropic, the Macmlllans havo publlahod a ,, record o( personal observation and experience, '" together with a summary of the more lm 5 ' portant facts In the annals of tho nrohlpelago. . The author, Prof, ttr.ks 0. WoncrsTJtn of tho 1 University of Michigan, spent eleven month L In the Philippine archipelago In 1887-88, and ; In 1800 visited the Islands a second time- and ' remained there two ) ears and eight months. ' The author had exceptional opportunities of TR acquiring Information, having spent some time B In every on of tho larger Islands, and having K mingled with all classes of the people, from tho K hlghcstBpanlehomciaUtothowlldcstsavages. W. The comprehensive knowledge that ho thus E secured will be found sot forth In the book.be wr; fore us. which he has prefaced with n brlof ac K count of the principal In tho history of the arch ly Ipalsgo. After a glance at tho plnco which the ' Philippines have occupied In history, we shall vL direct attention to tho chnpters In which tho K' author describes what he saw In (ho two larger jR Islands. ) .air on and Mindanao. K i. ;B Something, perhaps, should first be said IE- about tho archipelago from u cllmatologlcal point of vlow. The Philippines oxtend from 425,to21 north latitude. Lying, as thcrdo, wholly within the tropics, a hot climate Is to bo xpected In all of them; but since they extend through somo sixteen degrees of latitude. It follows Hint tho Intensity of the heat varies considerably In different parts of the group. No ono city can bo taken as typical of t ho whole f- archipelago, but as the only plnco where con- fl " tlmtous tompcraturo records have been kept Is the Jesuit obsorntury at Manila, our author t has had to content himself with tho statistics gathorod at that point. By averaging tho ro ' suits of observations extending ovora period iof thirteen years ho finds that the mean annual temperature at Manila Is 80" Fahrenheit. Tho thermomoter almost never rises above 100 In the slmdo. nor docs It fall below 00. Thero Is no month In tho year during which It docs not l.'su nt lonst onco as high ns 01. Tho mean monthly temperature rongos from 77 In December and January to 84 lu May. It . should also bo inentlonod that, during much of tho tme, the nlr Is heavily charged with mols tur which renders tho hoot doubly trying. In Do ombcr, January and February tho nights ore fairly cool, but during the hot sonson littlo relief Is obtainable from ono week's end to an other. Malaria Is prevalent Is somo of the Islands, notably In Mlndoro.Balabac and por tions of Palawan, Mindanao and Luzon : on tho othor hand, there are many localities entirely free from It. As to tho effect of tho climate upon whlto raon. Prof. Worcester sums up the facts ns follows: If ono Is permanently situated 8 In a good locality, whoro ho can secure suitable F; food and good drinking water; if he is scrupu- lou&ly eareful as to his diet, avoids oxcesses of 8 all kinds, keeps out of the sun In tho middle of fe the day and refrains from eevoro and long-con- tlnued physical exertion, he Is likely to remain w well, assuming, of course, that he is fortunate F enough to escape malarial Infection. & Our author know an old Spaniard who. at tho E end of a residence of thirty-nlno years In tho E Philippines, was able to boast that ho hnd not r been 111 n day. On tho other hand, the explorer, r tho engineer, tho man who would fell timber. g, cultivate new ground, or. In other wats. devolop & tho resources of thecountry, is protty certain to B contract malarial fever, of which thero are sev- ii end types; one recurs ovory second day; an- ft other, ovory third day. and a third daily. If S taken In hand promptly and energetically, any of these fevers mav be takon off. but tho much- ff dreaded cafenfura ptrniciosa Is a very mang le nant disease, running Its conrso In a few hours, fc and frequently tormlnating In black vomit and B death. Luckily, "la pernlcloaa" Is limited to fir certain localities, and tho places where it Is H known to exist aro shunned by natives k and whttos alike. In a number of instances W it has been shown that the malaria fe was due to remedlablo causes. Thus p Sulu, before the tlmo of Gen. Arolas, was H a fever centre. By Improving tho draln- K age of tho town, however, and by filling in B low places with coral sand he succeeded in jr stamping out the disease almost completely. Still more striking results wore obtained at L Tataan In Tawl Tawl by an ofllcor who had K worked under Gen. Arolas In Sulu. After tho K primeval forest had been elearod away tor half ?' a mile around the blockhouse, and the ground had been thoroughly cleaned up, fover almost completely disappeared. Malaria and dlges ; tlve troubles aside, the health of tho colony Is fairly good, and the danger from epidemic dls ;, ease Is comparatively slight. Tho bubonic plague has never gained a hold upon the i Philippines. L TJe soil of many of the islands Is described , by this first-hand observer as nstontshlngly fer- !Ki tile. Year after year crops are taken from the I same pleas of ground without thought of on- J llohlng It artificially. The productive area is f by no mean limited to the valloys and bottom lands. Soma of the most valuable crops grow particularly well on the mountain side. The value of the forest products Is Incalculable. C Tine woods, useful for cabinet making or building, are abundant; the nipa palm fur nishes a valuable, matorlal for thatching and r tiding houses, and from the sap obtained by euttlng off Its blossom stalk a strong alcohol of excellent quality Is readily obtained; thore are many varieties of that most useful of plants, bamboo; the hard, outer wood of the ralma brava resists the action of water Indefinitely, and the trunks are used not only for conduct ing; streams of fresh water, but for piles under V wharves; rattan of excellent quality is ono of K the Important forest products, and Is useful In fk many ways; In addition, there are gutta ; peroha, dammar, cinnamon, wax, and gums of , various sorts. Our author also bears witness ;. lo the fact that the mineral wealth of the islands Is great, although It has never been de veloped. Gold exists in paying quantities In ,' Onion and Mindanao, while valuable deposits , It Iron and other minerals have long beon l known. There are extensive lignite beds In f Cebu and Mindoro, and petroleum has been i found In the former island. We scaroely need add that hitherto the lack, notonly of railroads, ' but of roads of any description, has Impeded ; communication and transportation. f, v " ' It Is well known that Magellan, In the mem- ' arable voyage the outcome of which was the I tret elrcumnavlcatlon of the globe, discovered J the Ladrone Islands on March 10, 1520. They m rrere namod "Bobber Islands," from the fact S that the natives proved adroit thieves, evengo- K ing so far as to steal a boat from one of the S; ihlps. After a short stay in this group, Magel- R Ian contlnuad on his westward course and next f- reached the north coast of Mindanao. After K, aklng possession of that Island In the name of jL the King of Spain, tho explorer proceodod to jfc Sebu, and formed an offensive and defonslvo tlllanoe with Its King. In pursuance of the ', tompact, he entered lntoa war against tho ene- ' mtes of this chief, and on April 25, 1521, per- . Ished In a skirmish on the little Island of Mao- " tan. It la woll known that a part of his oom- rades, after making other discoveries and suf fering many vicissitudes, ultimately arrived in ; Spain by th route around the Cape of Good r (lope. Although, after the return of Magellan's ' eompanlons, two more expeditions to the Philip pines was organlxed by the Kmpcror Charles f. V the alue of the Islands seems to have been for a time unappreciated. The first serious attempt to take actual possession of thera was - made under Philip II., In whose honor they had k- been named. To this end four ships and a f frigate weromade ready on tho coast of Mex ico. Tho commander of the expedition. Legas pl, landed at Cobu on April 27, 1505, and took possession of the town. The pacification of this and neighboring Islands was proceeding iteadlly enough when the Portuguese arrived and set up a claim to them. In 1570LegaspI's grandson, Salcedo, was sent to subdue Luton, He disembarked near the alteof Manila and the territory now Included in the provlnoo of Batangas was soon subdued, r was tho Island f Hiadoro, and communication was eitab- L - Egjafeetsv j 'fr-V.. .. ,rt-'';'.'1-''---! " - -i llshed with Lcgaspl. who was subjugating Pa nay. lie hastened to Manila, and on arriving thero declared, that city thocapltal of tho archi pelago and tho King of Spain tho sovereign of the whole group. The method of subduing ro fractory tribes adopted by Salcedo has been followed more or lss closely by his successors up to tho present day. It consisted In allowing tho conquered people to bo governed by their own chiefs so long as tho latter aoknowledgod tho sovereignty of tho Spanish Ring. It was not alone by the Portuguese that the Spaniards waro disturbed In their possession of tho Philippine. Shortly after Legaspl's doath ono Llmahong.aChlneso pirate, brought a formidable fleet of sixty-two armed junks to attack Mnnlla, and forced his way within the walls of the citadel Itself, but was finally ro pulsed. Subsequently ha landod on the west coast of Luron and organtzod n settlement nt the mouth of the Agno River. Eventually, how over, a strong forco was sent against him. and ho was compelled to leaxe the archipelago. About tho same time began the long series of dlssonsions between Church and State which have continued to disturb the peaco of the colony up to the present day. Supremacy was claimed by both civil and ecclesiastical author ities, and so much trouble aroso that the Bishop of Manila despatched a prlost to Spain with instructions to lay the wholo matter before theKlng. This nppsnltothc soverolgn resultod In the publication of an Important decreo which provided In detail for the conduct of affalra In tho Philippines. By this organlo law. whloh may bo regarded as the basis of tho system of government hitherto pursued, tribute was to be levied upon the natives, and the sum thus raised was to be divided In a definite ratio between tho Church, the treas ury and the army. Import and export duties wero also established, as woll as fixed stipends for all soldiers and Stato employees. Tho for tifications of Manila wore to be Improved, hos tiltals wero to bo founded, four penitentiaries were to bo Disced nt suitable points, and It was further onlnlnod that a number of well-armed war vessels should bo kopt In commission to repel attacks from without. An Important foaluroof this decree was a provision that all the slaves of the colonies should be set free within n specified time, and that no one should be enslnvod In future. Money was provided for tho orectlon of a cathedral, tho number of Augustinlan friars was Increased by forty, and tho wandering mendicant friars who had pre viously Infested the colonies were suppressed. Meanwhile, the only communication between Bpaln and the Philippines was to bo by way of Moxlco. and tho colony was to be dependent for additional troops, for manufactured goods of all descriptions, and oven for monoy, on the galleons which arrived at long Intervals from Acapulco. III. At the beginning of the seventeenth century the hostilities between the Spanish and tho Dutch extended to the Philippines. The Hol landers not Infrequently sent strongly armed vessels to capture the Mexican treasure ships, thereby Inflicting heavy losses upon tho colo nies. Prof. Worcester says that n detailed ac count of the naval engagements which took placo in Philfpplno waters at this period would fill a volume. At ono tlmo a formidable Dutch fleet arrived off Manila Bay at a tlmo when tho Governor was 111 prepared to repel an attaok. and had the advantage been pressed the capi tal might have beon taken and the history of tho Philippines beon changed. Delay enabled the Spaniards to concentrate their resources, and they eventually routed tho Dutch fleet In tho battle of Plata Honda. Though reprisals followed, the Dutch nevor succeeded In effect ing a permanent lodgment In the Philippines. They captured, howover. a Spanish colony In Formosa, but wero themselves driven out of that Island by the Chinese twenty years later. After half a century of strife they ceased to molest the Spaniards and con centrated their onorgy on the development of their own East Indian possessions, whioh lay further south. For soma years afterward the only causes of disturbance in the Philippines wero the dishonesty of officials and the Inces sant dissensions between Church and State. An event of Importance In tho history of the archipelago was the first massacre of Chi nese It seoms that, at tho time of the Man chu Invasion of China In the first half of the seventeenth century, a mandarin named Ku senc retired to tho island of Elnueri, but. flnd lnc his communication with the mainland cut off. turned his attention to Formosa, on which thero were, at the time. Dutch settlements. Twonty-elght hundred Europeans wero at tacked by about a hundred thousand Chinese and forcod to surrender. Kuseng then be thought himself of the Philippines, and de spatched a Dominican missionary to demand from their Governor tho payment of tribute un der penalty of attack. In 1002 this envoy, named Blccio. arrived at Manila, but mean while Inflammatory letters from Formosa had reached some of the Chinese at the Philippine capital, and tho Governor, learning the fact, accused them of conspiracy. All his available forces wero concentrated and, when every thing was ready, the Chinese wore incited to rebel and a general massacre followed. Some of the Chinese, however, escaped to Formosa, and Kuseng prepared to take vengeance on the Spaniards, but died of fever before his plans could be carried out. In 1701 war was declared by Great Britain against Spain, and a fleet wus despatched under Admiral Cornish, with orders to take Manila. On Sopt. 22, 1702. tho vossols arrived before the city, and land forces wero disem barked. The Spanish garrison, though In ferior to the English In numbers, mado a stout resistance, and 6.000 nativo recruits came to Its support. The city ultimately fell, hut the terms of capitulation arranged with the Arch bishop of Manila provided for freedom In tho exercise of religion as well as for the security of private property and assured freo trade to all the inhabitants of the Island, together with tho maintenance of the powers of the Spanish Supreme Court. An Indemlty of S4.000.000 was exacted. The surrendered territory In cluded the wholo archipelago, but the English never occupied more than that part of Luron which lay Immediately around Manila. The peace of Paris, concluded In February, 1703, provided for tho ev acuatlon of the town, and the Spaniards regained possession of It In tho fol lowing year, although 'a considerable portion nt the indemnity remained unpaid. After the departure of the British several revolts against Spanish authority occurred. In 1823 a body of nativo troops roso in rebellion and unsuc cessfully tried to seize the capital and place their captain at the head of the government. Other uprisings followed, among which may be mentioned one In Cebu In 1827 and one In Negros In 1844. Tho latter Is said to have been duo to the Governor compelling Stato prison ers to work for his private advautago. The most formidable Insurrection before that of 1800 broke out at CavIM In 1872. A conspiracy had beon formed not only at the arsenal, but also In tho capital, and It had bren agreed that when the opportune moment arrived tho Ma nila contingent should glvo the signal by dis charging a rocket. TheCavltfl Insurgents mis took fireworks sent up at a local celebration for the expected notification, and began opera tions prematurely. They were forced to retire to the arsenal, and eventually all were killed or captured. Hostility to the Spanish friars was at the bottom of this uprising. A cer tain Dr. Burgos had headed a party whloh demanded fulfilment of the deolslon of the Counell of Trent prohibiting friars from holding parishes. The provision had never been carried out In the Philippines. It is believed that the monastlo order were the In stigators of this revolt, desiring to Involve Burgos and his followers In treasonable trans actions, and thus bring about tholr death. Howevor this may have been, It I oertaln that the execution of the ringleaders took place. Our author Bays that the revolt of 1800 was to him no surprise, tor, during the years 1800-f 3, while travelling In the archipelago, ho heard everywhere the mutterlngs that go before a storm. Repeated on all sldos were the old complaints of compulsory military shi-vIcs; of taxes too heavy to be born, while Imprison ment or deportation, with confiscation of prop erty, was meted out to tho who could not par a (hem ; of Justice withheld from all except Ihose who could afford to buy It; of cruel extortion by tho friars in tho more ae eluded dlstrlotsj of wives and daughters ruined; of the Inordlnato cost of tho mar rlago ceremony; of the refusal of burial to tho dead oxcept upon payment of a aub-i stantlal sum In advanco ! of tho withholding of opportunities for education, and of thesmalb encouragomont afforded to Industry nnd econ omy, slnco to acquire wealth meant to b6coma a target for ofllclals and friars nllko ; thtso and' other wrongs had goadod tho natives and tho half-castos, until they woro stung to des peration. Wo need not hero dwoll ntnny longth upon the early successos of tho rebels In 1800; tholr subsequent retreat to tho mountains: tho fearful mortality oauscd by tho climate among' tho Spanish troops sont against them, or their ultlmato pacification by promises of reform and by the bribing of tholr leader. These, thlugs aro all matiors of common knowlodffe, ns well as tho failure of thoGovornor-Oonerel to carry out his promises, whloh caused a fresh revolt that was rapidly assuming dangoroUs proportions, when Admiral Dowey'a victory over the Spanish fleet gave It such an Impetus as no other uprising In the Philippines has had IV. We pass to a chapter dealing exclusively with Luzon, whloh, with Its 42,000 square miles. Includes more than a third of the aggregate land area of the Philippine Islands. In Its. northern portion aro extonsive chains of lofty mountains. Thero are also a number of vol canto peaks, nctlvo and oxtlnct, and Prof. Worcester tells us that the world does not con tain a more perfect cone than that of the Mayon volcano In Albay province. It rises to a height of nearly ton thousand feet, and from every point of view Its outline Is perfect. Tall, on the other hand. Is one of the lowest active volcanos known ; It is now but 000 foot high, i Its whole top having been blown off during a terrlflo eruption In 1741). The rlvor and lake systems of Luzon aro second In Importance only to those of Mindanao. The Bio Grande de Cagavan rises in tho South Caraballo Moun tains, noar the centre of the Island, and empties nt Its oxtromo northern end. after drain ing an immense area. Tho soil throughout its valley is extraordinarily fertile, producing tho besttobaooo grown In the archipelago. Tho Bio Grando de la Pampanga also rises in the South Caraballo rango, but flows In the oppo site direction, emptying into Manila Bay by more than twonty mouths. Tho low ground along Its banks produces good crops ofrlcoand sugarcane. Among other constderableatreams In Luzon may bo montloned tho Bio Agno arid . the Blool. Tho Lacuna do Bay, distant but a few miles from tho capital. Is probably tho largest body of fresh water In the'archlpelago, although somo of the Mindanao lakes approach It closely In alze. Its greatest length Is 25 mllos and its greatest breadth 21. It omp tles into Manila Bay by tho Paste Bivor, which separates the newer portion of tho city from the old. Lake Bombon, from the centre of which rises tho Toal volcano, measures 14 by 11 miles. The population of Luzon, roughly estimated at 5.000.000, is divided Into numerous tribes, of which the Ta gals. or Tagalogs, and the Ilocanos aro the most important. Both of these racos aro civilized, and. as a rulo. orderly, although brigandage Is not uncommon In tho Tagal territory. Thero are a few Negritos left in Marldeles Mountain, near the mouth of Manila Bay, and In the vicinity of Cape Lngaflo they are still quite nu merous. They aro commonly believed to bo tho true aborigines of tho Philippines, but, even at tho outset of the Spanish conquest, they were getting the worst of It in their strug gle with the Malay Invaders. They ore de scribed as n sickly race, of almost dwarfish staturo: their skins nro black, their hair is curly, their features are coarse and repulsive. They practice agriculture but little, living ohiofly on the fruits and tubor which they And in tho forest and on the gamo which they bring down with poisoned arrows. Some of the re maining wild tribes in Luzon aro of pure Malay extraction, and others are, apparently, half-breods. between Malays and Negritos: ons of the Igorrote peoples is believed to bo de scended from tho foltowors of tho Chinese In vader Llmahong. Tho word " Igorrote." which waa originally tho name of a single tribe, was extended to include all tho head-hunting peo ples of Luzon, and later becamo almost synony mous with wild, so that when one uses tho term to-day ho refers to a number of fierce hill tribes whloh differ more or less infer . Head-hunting Is practiced with especial zost by the Gad danos. but Is for the most part confined to the season when the flretree Is In bloom. It is said to bo impossible for a young man of this tribe to find a bride until he has at least ono head to his credit. There aro a number of other head-hunting peoples, among whom may bo mentioned the Altasanes and Apayaos. Not all of the wild peoples, however, aro war like, the Tinguianos, for example, being a peaceable, well-disposed race. V. Prof. Worcester mado two visits to the Island of Mindanao, which Is nearly as large as Penn sylvania. Until recently next to nothing was known of its interior, but the priests of the Jesuit mission have persistently pushed explo rations until they have gathered data, for a fairly complete and accurate map. They recog nize In the island tvvonty-four distinct tribes, of which seventeen are pagan nnd six Moham medan (Moro). while the remainder are Chris tian Vlsayans, who havo migrated from the Vlsaya group and settled at various points In Mindanao, especially along the north coast. Most of the wild tribes aro of Malay origin, but thero still remain a considerable number of the little black Negritos, with whom some of the Malays havo lutormarrled. -The warlike Moros are dreaded. They are found along tho southern and southwestern coasts and near (he large rivers and Inland lakes. Although the Island Is nominally divided Into .provinces, Spanish control is, as a matter of fact, effective only In narrow and moro or less Isolated strips along the sea and near a few of the rivers, which afford the only meana of communication with the Interior. There are no roads, and the futility of attempting to move troops Inland was demonstrated by Gen. Weyler during our author's second visit. Tho scenery In Mindanao Is described as particularly fine. Extinct volcanoes are nur merous. and thore aro several active ones, the most famous of which Is Mount Apo,.wrlch rises to a height of 10,312 feet. Extensive areas are covered with magnificent trees, and, apart from the valuable forest products Whloh Mindanao has In common with several of the other Islands, gutta percba is abundant In several localities. The largest known flower, measuring some three feet In diameter has been discovered there. As might be Inferred from Its name, which signifies "man of the lake," Mindanao la well watered. Its rivers ore more important than those of Luzon. The Butuan rises within a few miles of the south coast, and, running north, traverses the whole Island, The Bio Grande, on the other hand, takes its rise near the north coast, and floors south and west. Considerable lakes are con nected with both these streams, while Lake Lanao. situated where the western peninsula joins the main body of the island, empties Into the sea by the Blver Agus. The soil, especial ly In the river and lake region, I enormously productive. Little Is known of the mineral wealth, but It Is certain that gold exist In paying quantities at a number of points. Dig. Kings have long been worked by the ftctlves near Mlsamls and Burtgao. After landing at Zainboanga. the oldest of the Spanish settlement In Mindanao, our author's party proceeded to Ayala, whloh may be re garded as the type of the villages of decent, civilized natives under Spanish control. Huoh a village has a church, a ronrrnfo or priest's house, and a tribunate, which Is a sort of town hall, whore the head men meet to transact business. It Is frequently used as a barrack for troops and as a lodging house, for travel-'' lers, who have a right to put up there, and who usually And hanging on the wall a lift ot (ho proper local prices for rice, fowl, eggs, meat and other articles ot food, as woll a forgone blre, buffalo hire, carriers, 4a A very impor- , tant personage In every Philippine town or vil lage Is. the Gobernadorclllo. or "Littlo Gov ernor." He U always a nativo or mestizo (half breed), and Is tho looal 'representative ot the Govornor of his province, from whom he recolves Instructions nnd to whom ho sends report. ' His headquarter are nt the tribunate. He Is addressed as Oapllnn during his term of office, and, 'after his auccossor has been chosen, I known as a Cnpltan Pasado, Ho settles all local questions, except those which assume a serious legal aspect, and. therefore belong to (ho Justloe of I he Peace : but his most Important duty la. to see that tho taxes of his town are collected, and to turn them over to tho admin istrator of tho province. Ho Is personally re sponsible for these (axes, and must obtain them from his cabeia. or make good the deficit The families of every town are 'divided Into ffrou.p-1 qf from 40 to 00, each under a "Cabcza do Barnngny,' who. It he cannot get the taxes from the people, must pay thorn out ot his own pbekot. For obvious reasons, men ot means aro ohosen for this position, and, though nom inally eleoted'overy two years, theynreaotttally kopt In offleo ns long as they have anything to lose. Prof. Worcester has seen enbezas suffer confiscation ot property and deportation, be cause they could not pay dobts whioh they did not owe. The Gobernadorclllo Is obllgod to aid tho Guardla Civil In the capture ot crimi nals, and to assist the pariah friar In pro , rooting the Interests of the Church; often, nlio. In advsnoing the friar's prlvato ends. The "Little Governor." moreover. Is at tho beck and call of all the officials who may chanco to visit hh town. He has to entertain them at his own expense, and not Infrequently finds It adeitabte to mako them presents. He Is liable at any time to bo summoned to the capital of the province, but he reoetvos no compensation for the cost ot travelling or loss of tlmo. If he does not speak Bpanlsh ho must employ a clerk. There la a great deal ot writing to be doneat thotrlbunnle, and as tho allowance for clerk hire Is usually Insufficient, the Gobor nadorclllo must make up tho difference. In return for all this he is allowed a salary of $2 per month and permitted to carry a cane. It ho does not squeeze his fellow townsmen or steal publla funds ho Is apt to como out badly behind. Nevertheless, as thore Is nothing quite so dear to the averago Philippine native ns a littlo authority over his fallows, tho posi tion. In splto ot its numerous drawbacks, is in somo places eagorly sought. We should add that the "Littlo Governor" has a Ministry, oon Blstlnt; ot the first and second tenirnln, (lieutenants), who take his placo in his ab sence, other tenlontes having charge of outly ing, districts, and chiefs ot polloe, plantations and cattle. A man who has been elected Gobernadorclllo or Tenlento. or who has servod ten years as u Cabeza de Barangay, Is num bered among the "head men" of the place, who meet atthe trlbunalo from time to time and discuss publlo affairs with gravity. They as semble also overy Sunday morning and. headod by the "Little Govornor." and frequently also by a band playing lively airs, they march to the convento. or priest's house, and escort the friar 'to the church, where they all attend moss. The state dress which thoy wear on such occasions is described as picturesque. Their white shirts dangle outside ot their trousers, after tho Philippine fashion, and over them they wear tlght-flttlne jackets without tails which reach barely to their waists. When the jacket Is but toned It causes the shirt to stand out In a frill, producing a grotesque effect. Never did the visitors fall to be touched by the hospitalityof the villagers. The Christian ized native seams always ready to kill his last fowl for.a stranger, or share with him his last pot of rico. "When Prof. Worcester's party stopped at a hut and asked for a drink. Its In mates were loath to offer them wator In the cocoanut shell cup which served thoir own purpose, but hunted up and washed old tum blers. o even sent to a neighbor's to borrow thtm. With a slass ot wator they always gavo a lump of panoehr. coarse brown sugar, that the traveller, as they expressed It. might "have thirst." The housos at Ayala were found! to be like thbieof the poorer civilized native through out the arohlpelago. The typical Philippine house rests on four or more heavy timbers, which are firmly sot in the ground. The floor is raised from Ave to ten feet Into the air. There is not a nail or a peg In the whole struc ture. The frame Is of bamboo, tied together with rattan. The sides and roof are usually of nipa palm, although the former maybe mado by splitting green bamboos, pounding the halves flat, end then weaving them to gether;'1 whllo. If nipa Is very scarce, the roof 'may bo 'thatcHed with tho long grass called cogon. Tho floor Is usually mado ot bamboo strips with their con vex sides up; they aro tied firmly in place, but In such a yiaj that wide cracksaro left between thorn. The windows are provided with swing ing shades, -which can be propped open during the day. You have to cljmb a, ladder to enter the house. Frequently there Is but ono room for cooking, eating, and Bleeping. The cooking is done over an open fire built on a heap of earth In one corner, and the house Is often rendered almost uninhabitable by smoke. In the bettor dwellings there Is a place partitioned off for cooking, usually at the head ot the ladder, while tho body.of the house Is d(vfded Into two or more rooms. Prof. Worcester ays thnt nativo dwellings of this latter sort have muoh to recommend' them. The' ventilation Is per fect, and the air Is kept much cooler than In a tightly closed building. Moreover. If suoh fabrics are shaken down by an earthquake, or blown down by a typhoon.no one gets hurt; for the materials used are too light to do harm when they fall. It seems that rich natives aometlmos build houses of boards with galva nized iron roofs and limes t ono foundations, but they are very much more expensive, and are pronounced decidedly lessoomfortablo than the humbler dwellings of bamboo and nipa palm. VI. During his -second visit to Mindanao our author saw a' good deal of the Moros, or Mo hammedan Malays, who have" played an, im portant part In the history ,of the Philippines. Thoy entered the archipelago from Borneo just atthe time of. the Spanish discovery. They Arstlapded in Bssllan. but rapidly spread over the small Islands ot the Sulu and Tawl Tawl groups, and eventually occupied the wholo coast of Mindanao, as well as Cagayan, Sulu, Balabaoand the southern third of Talawan, Before they could complete the conquest of the last-named Island thoy had their first serious collision with Bpanlsh troops, and they have not since been able to extend their territory; but most ot what they had already taken they have continued to hold. Hostili ties between the Spaniards and the Moros were precipitated through an unprovoked at tack by the former on one of the Moro chiefs In north Mindanao. The attacking force was almost annihilated, and the fanatical passions of the Moslem warriors were thoroughly aroused. They forthwith began to organize forays against the Christianized native ooast towns of the central and northern Islands, From the outset they met with great success, and.tbelrplratlcslexpedltlonssoon became an nual event. With each reourrlng southeast monsoon hordes of Moros manned their war praus and sailed for the north, where they harried th ooast, butchered the men and made captives ot women and children, until chang ing winds warned them to turn thetr faoe homeward. For two and a halt centuries this state of af fair continued. Emboldened by continued success, the Moros did not confine their atten tion to defenceless native. Spanish planter and even Government officials were killed and hsld for ransom. The special delight ot the Moslem warrior was to capture the Spanish priests 'and friars, toward whom they dls played the bitterest hatred, a freling.that was reciprocated by the churchmen. The Span lards, on their part, did not tamely submit to auch Incursions. Expodltlon after expedition was organized against the Moros. Millions of dollars and thousands of Uvea were wasted. Temporary successes would be gained, but they resulted In no permanent advan tage, On several occasions landings were 'tnd on Sulu luelf, the residence ot f vr the Moro Sultan: forts were built there and garrisons established; but tho troops were, ovontually, massacred or driven from tho Island. Tho teol weapons ot tho Moros were of oxcolloht qllallly. and for many yonrs they wero really bitter armod than wero tho sol diem sent against them. But such cannon nnd rifle as they possessod wero nntlquatod, nnd the fernduat Irriprbtcmont In firearms brought to tho Spaniards; an advantago In which tho Moro did not share to any groat extent It wAs not, however, until the day of light draught steam gunboats and rnpld-flro guns that piracy was finally checked. An efficient patrol of gunboats was at last established. Tho Moro praus Were forbidden to put to sea without a written permit from the nearest Spanish Govornor, and wero ordered to fly the Spanish flag, Whon a prau was encountered that did not show tho flag or could not produce n passport It vfas rammed nnd cut In two, or sunk by tho flro of machine gun.1 No quarter was Iplven. As opportuni ties bfforod, tho gunboats woutd sholl tho vil lages which wore built over tho sea, and so could bo easily roachod. Tho town of Sulu. which had always been tho scat or tho Moro Govcrnhient.'and tho residence ot tho reigning Huttfcn. was destroyed in 1870, and a Spanish military post was established In Its nlaeo. At first the Moros had the habit of dropping In and decimating the garrison, but this was con stantly reinforced, and from 1870 to tho pres ent day Spanish occupation has been nearly continuous. Othor points In Mindanao. Basllan. Sulu and TawiTawl wore taken nnd fortlflod. M'any of the const vlllagos wero burnod. and tho Inhabitant driven inland, until, finally, a sort of armed truco prevallod. Such was tho condition of affairs on the south coast of Min danao and In tho smaller neighboring islands at the time of Prof. Worcester's visit. Before taking leavo of this book, we would say a word about Cebu. partly bocause the Isl and occupies an Important strateglo position In tho contre of tlio archipelago, and partly be cause tho Gormans ore said to have desired to acquire It. Tho Island Itself Is somewhat smaller than our Stato of Delaware. As being tho slto of thft first Spanish settlement In the Philippines, tho town of Cobu Is a place of con siderable historic Interest. Up to 1571 It was the capital of tho colony, nnd up to 1750 It con tinued to have a municipal govornment, which waB then abolished because thero was but one Spaniard In the place capnblo of being a city councillor. The municipal government was not restored until 1800. The city Is on the east coast of tho Island, a little north of Its contre. Tho population at tho time of our author's visit was computed nt 10.000. The town was oloan and well built, and. what Is un usual in tho Philippines, fairly good carriage roads led out from It for somo distance In sev eral direction. Churches were numerous and conspicuous. Besides the cathedral there Is a chapel ot the Jesuits and a church of San Nicolas; but more famous than the others Is the Church of Santo Nino do Cobu, built In honor of tho most ancient and famous of the miraculous Images of tho Philip pines. The Santo NlfJo was found on tho shore of th island by a soldier In 1505. and was nd judgod by competent authorities to be an Image of the Christ Child whloh had fallen from heavon. At tho tlmo of Prof. Wor cester's visit It was guarded In the strong room of the Augustinlan convento, but could bo seen by pormlsslon of tho friar. It Is of obony, measures about fifteen Inches In height, and is half covered by silver trinkets which have been presented to it from time to tlmo. In January of eaoh year a feast la given In Its honor, to attond which pilgrims como from nil ovor tho nrchtpelago. It Is then exposed to publlo view In tho church and receives the honors paid to a field marshal. Wo observe. Anally, that Cobu Is. not only a Bishop's see, but also tho residence of a Govornor and of a General of Brigade commanding tho Gov ernors of all the Vlsaya Islands, the largoat of which are Samar, Panay, Leyto and Negros. M. W. H. Food nnd Feeding. Those who believe that the art of cooking should be studied and practiced from a scien tific point ot view will do well to look at the revised and onlarged edition of Food and Feed ing, by Sir Henbt Thompson- (Frederick Warno it Co,). Slnco this volume originally appeared, somo twenty years ago. scientific research has added something to our knowledge of the dlrostlve processes as well as to our knowledge of tho value to man of cortaln food prlnclplos. There have boon Improvements, also. In the appliances and methods adopted for the preparation of n wholesome nnd agreeable diet It Is as truo. too. of tho United States as It Is of England that the selection of food and the adaptation of it for tho table are now much more widely understood than they wero when Sir Henry Thompson first undertook to dis cuss tho subject Wo observe that In one of his early chapters tho author not only dwells on tho Importance of mastication, but assigns a reason for tho oarofal practice of It which Is sometimes over looked. The process of chewing has a special relation to tho great classes ot cereal foods and tubora. We are reminded that tho act of masti cation by meansot the teeth and tongue exerts an Influence of two kinds on food during Its transit through the mouth. Thero Is first, of coarse, the mechanical prooess whereby all solid substances are finely divided before they are swallowed. Such a division of fibres Is es sential to good dlgoitlon; food thus broken up cab be acted upon easily when It arrives In the stomach, where it Is exposed to the chemical action of the gastric juice nnd ot prolonged, moist heat at a temperature ot about 08. This mechanical division Is the nolo effect produced by mastication upon flesh. Another off cct Is pro duced In the case of a different class of foods, the Cdrbo-hydrates. malnlycomposedofstarch. whloh Inolnde all kinds of bread, potatoes and farlnaoeous paddings. By means of the saliva poured out during the process of chewing, and of the peculiar principle, "ptyalln," which the sallta contains, a speolAo digestive aotlon takes place on the starch while still within the mouth, , Naturally Insoluble In water, the starch I converted by the saliva Into a solu ble material called glucose, and thus prepared for absorption Into the system. All starches should havo undergone this change through a proper amount ot mastication before they ar rive lb tho stomaeh. Any failure In the process of converting starch Into glucose whloh may have occurred through hasty or Inefficient mastication cannot be remedied until after the tood has left the stomach and entered tho first Intestine, where It meets with the Juices ot the panoreas, which complete the process. Sir Henry Thompson points out that ohildren' should be taught to practice prolonged masti cation, not only In eating meat, where It Is really ot Jess consoquenoe, but t specially In the case bf soft food, such at potatoes, bread, and farinaceous puddings. While the author Is no vegetarian, he Is con vinced that more flesh Is consumed by a large part of the Inhabitants of the United Kingdom than Is either necessary or desirable. Es pecially 1 this thn case among those who pos sess ample mean, and whose vocations do not demand great muscular exertion or exposure In all Weather, of, In other words, do not sub ject the animal tissues to wear and tear. Where a great deal ot exerolse Is taken, or where manual labor 1 hard and prolonged, the con centrated and easily digested protelds of flesh art the most valuable food, for man's purpose. Where there I bnt little physical aotlvlty, a smaller proportion ot these is advisable, and a better State ot bodily health may be assured by eating not beef or mutton, but those forms ot animal food which are loss rich In protelds, and especially In fat, suoh as Ash, poultry and game, for Instance. To sedentary per sons a considerable proportion of vegetable products Is also recommended. Theoretically, Indeed, the rigorous vegetarian can And In his dietary all the- principles adapted for the growth add support of the body, as well as for the production ot heat and energy. Tho'vegn table products, however, must bo selected with care n order that the total sunt offood con sumed per diem may not become too bulky; otherwise oneoiay have to swallow and digest anlnprdlnatewilahtof vegetable matter eon- V talnlng at least one necessary elemont In largo excess tor tho sake ot obtaining nil tho elo ments, he needs. Thus tho Irishman, It ho were confined solely to a dlotot potn(oon, which consist chiefly of starch, would require for his support from twelve to fifteen pounds dally In order to get a barely sufficient quantity of nitrogen, whereof this tuber contains vory lit tle. It Is also to be noted that In potatoes thore Is scarcely any fat Honco tho Irlshmnn makos good the deflcloncy, when ho can. with milk, lard, bacon or her rings. Tho Highlander, living mainly on oatmeal, requires a very much smaller weight becauso this grain contains not only starch, but a moderato amount of nltrogon and fat, al though not sufficient for his purposo. Tho oat meal Is Bupplomontod with milk, and. whero It I practicable, with Ash and bacon. As re gards the quantity of food that should bo con sumed In twonty-four hours, tho nuthor con curs with Dr. F. W. Pavy In recommending 23 ounces of dry, solid food for a person of aver age height and wolght who Is exposed to a temperate climate, and who performs a moder ate amount ot muscular work. Of the dry, solid matteraboutl4 ounces are assigned to carbo hydrates, 4)J to protelds, 3 to fatty matter and 1 ounce to salts. It Is further to bo noted that as our ordinary food contains about 50por cent of water, these 23 onuses correspond to 40ounoos of nutriment In tho condition In which It Is usually consumod. To comptote the alimentary Ingestn, an additional quantity of from 50 to 80 ounces of water should bo takon under some form or othor dally. Blr Henry Thompson has n (rood deal to say about tho slow process of cooking. It has long been known that for tho purpose of cooking flesh thoroughly It Is needless to maintain so high a temperature as that employed by tho ordinary methods of roasting or boiling. Tho tlmeot exposure to the lower degree of heat must, howover, be considerably prolonged. Thero Is In most cookery books a table indicat ing the time which every joint requires, based on Its wolght; but this table presupposes tho bolting point of water to begin with, and the maintenance of the water at that temperature by a continual combustion of fuel. Tho flavor ot animal food is much bettorwhen It Is pro pared by tho system of prolonged low tempera tures, and the meat Isrendored moro tonder and more digestible, results which, In the au thor'soplnlon, must tend to bring the practice of slow cooking Into favor. That flosli so treated Is easily digested Is due to the fact that, at the temporature of 170 to 180. tho albunion con tained therein, while sufficiently oooked. Is not overheated and hardened. Any temporature hlgherthan tho above-named tends to solidify tho albumen, and. when oxpoaod to too much heat as often happens to a fried orover-broited steak, the flesh becomes diminished In thick ness and curved. Instead of being plump nnd tender, while tho shrunken and Indurated fibres of the over-cooked portion nro difficult of digestion by nn averago stomach. For the Norwegian cooking apparatus, which Is de scribed at length, about eighteen or twenty hours are required, but tho temperature of the warm water jacket, although originally at boiling point Is allowed gradually to decline to about 80 or 00. This procoss Is recom mended for fowls and mutton. In a chapter on soup making tho proper dis tinction Is drawn between tho pot-au-feu and tho "stook-pot." Tho pot-au-feu Is a composlto dish which produces, first a simple but not strong beet broth (bouillon), well Aavored by fresh vegetables: secondly, a somewhat over cooked and exhausted piece of beef ilouUU), which is served after tho soup; and, lastly, tho vegetables themselves. This Is a different thing from tho common "stock -pot" of tho French peasant so frequently termed a pot-au-feu, and confounded with It Tho primary object ofn "stock-pot" is to mako a decoction or basis for soup. It should be formed of ani mal food. It possible; to that end overy morsel of Aesh and poultry and such trimmings from joints and boues well bruised as are avallablo for tho purpose are reserved for It To tho pot of the Frenoh peasant, who wastes absolutely nothing, all things are welcomo ; every atom ot nutritive material, solid or liquid, goes Into it to whloh aro -added herbs and vege tables, together with the liquor In which any of tho latter may ohance to have been boiled. Sometimes It Is a pot maigre, no moat ot any kind having been procurable; very good vege table soups, however, are deduclble therefrom. At times, too. Instead ot the slices ot bread which are usually put Into the broth whon served, the peasant's wife will clean a fresh cabbage, boll It In water, whloh Is carefully preserved, and then put tho cabbago for a few minutes into her pot The truo pot-au-feu, on the other hand, has for its object, as wo havo said, not only tho making ot a well flavored beef broth, but the cooking of a por tion of the beef, to be eaten separately, either oold or hot together with the vegetables nssoclotedwlth it. Formerly this bout'ft always appeared at an ordinary I'rench table imme diately after the bouillon, but, of late years. It has tended to disappear. The author of this book denounces the prac tice that was formerlyso common In England ot drinking wine after dinner. Ho insists that no alcoholic bevorages should be served after the repast, except n small glnss of cognac. As regards the order of wluos at dinner. Sir Henry Thompson recommends a glass of light, pale sherry or dry sauteme after soup, a dellcato rhino wine or Moselle after flsh. a glass of good bordeaux with the joint; a dry. but not brut ohampagno with the entrees, and tho best red wine in tho cellar, eithor bordeaux or bur gundy, with the game. With the Ice or dessert a glass of full-flavored or matured champagne or a Hquour may bo served. We are cau tioned, however, that both temporanco and digestion are promoted by the avold anco of much mixing of red and white, or. Indeed, of any wines at meals. From a hyglenlo point of view, tho moro prudent course Is to drink either a fine bordeaux or a choice, dry champagne, and to sarvo only the one wine throughout the dinner. Our author, for his part. Is convinced that those who drink water with their dinner enjoy tho pleasure ot eating more than do thoso who drink wlno. Travellers on the Continent otEuropo are ad monished neverto drink water, unless they ran procure mo nuiunu mineral tame waters, such as the St. Galmler. In France: Seltzers or Apol llnarls. In Gormany. and GleshD.be!, in Austria. The table woters.however, which are Imported Into England and tho United States are pro nounced Inferlortothe aerated, distilled waters which are prepared at home, Daniel D. Tompklui. Among the historical material reesntly pub lished by the State of New York Is a volume containing the Military Paper of Daniel J). Tompkins, to which an Interesting and useful Introduction has been prefixed by Mr. Hugh Haatlngs, tho State historian. Thora is no doubt that Gov. Tompkins played well nigh as Important a part In the second war against Great Britain as had been takon by Bobert Morris In the Revolutionary war. It Is also true that the services rendered to the American oauso by the State of New York and by tho war Governor ot that State have not. as yet, been adequately set forth. In one of the works purporting to deal with that contest the name ot Gov. Tompkins Is mentioned but once, and then Incidentally. It was certainly high time that reoords so valuable as those presented In the Tompkins papers should be rendered accessible ; for, considered as a his tory of the State of New York from 1807 to 1817, the collection Is unique. Not only is Gov. Tompkins believed to have written his own State papers, but all military orders Issued during his administration, exoept those of a routine kind, were drawn by his band. The State obtained possession ot th colleotlon In 1888, but only those paper which are devoted exclusively to military subjects are published In the volume before us. In order to render Intelligible the biographical as well as histori cal bearing of these documents, Mr. Hastings has prepared a sketoh of Gov, Tompkins's life, which covers over one hundred pages, whloh no student of the history ot tho State during the earlier part of this century Is likely to overlook. Daniel D. Tompkins waa'bom at the Fox Meadows. Bcarsdale, Westchester county. N. Y.. on June 21. 1774, He was the seventh son of Jonathan Tompkins, one of the three loyal Americans who lived In that part of Weat cheater county during the war of the revolu tion. Born on a farm, and Inured from child hood to the rougheat kind of work, young Tompkins, nevertheless, succeeded In acquir ing education enough to snab'e him to enter Columbia College, from which be graduated In 1705, Tiro ream later ho was admitted to th J bar. Before reaching his majority he hd takon an oagorpart In tho warm political con tests that then raged botweon tho Federalist! nnd tho Republicans. It will bo remem bered that, throo years after the adoption of tho Fedoral Constitution, the oppo. ' ' nents of centralization In govornment who bellovcd In a strict construction of tin organlo laws framed at Philadelphia, crystal. Ilred Into (ho Bopubllcnn party. Tho Federal. Ists, who favored centralization and a hj p0n. atructlon of tho Constitution, stigmatized tlidi opponents as Domocrats for tholr Impute sympathy with tho Jacobins or Democrats ol tho French rovolmlon; tho Itrpuhllcnns, In re, tnllatlon, termed t ho Federalists "aristocrats Trom 1700 to 1700 political excitement n. creased from year to yoar. Tho Foderniisti were, for a tlmo, triumphant In New York oltr controlling six out of tho seven wanlsof hlch ' ' It was then composed, Tho property rcsl (Ion In the olcctlvo frnnchlso gavo the red. orallats a great advantage. In tho oharUi eloctlon of 1700 tho Republicans succeed - In carrying two wnrds, agnlnst five re. j tnlnod by tho Federalists. In tho noxt yearthi former summoned tholr resources for a deel. slvo effort, nnd succeeded In carrying also tin Fifth Ward, of which Tompkins was n resident, But tho victory was a barren one, as tho votti cast by him nnd his frtonds were thrown out on tho ground that the "Tontine" association foundod by them waa contrary to tho prln. clplofl ot the olty chartor. Yet. although tht Republicans lost control of the City Council, thoy wero victorious In the State, and elected, ns Governor, Georgo Clinton, who had been the first Chlof Magistrate of tho Stato, nnd wholni sorved ns such continuously from 1777 to 1705, The "Farmer's Boy," nsTompklnswas then; popularly callod, represented tho Ninth Now York district In tho Assembly of 180D a April of tho next year ho was elected to Congress, but resigned his scat before Con gress convened, In order to accept the position l7 of Judge of the 8upremo Court, whloh honor 'had been bostowod upon him by tho Council of Appointment. Tho Judgeship in turn he re linquished upon bolng nomlnntcd for Gov ernor by the Bopubllcans In caucus on Feb. 10, 1R07. Ho was a compromlso candidate botween I) Witt Clinton nnd Judgo Ambrose Spencer. It was chargod by his opponents that ho was selectod from the holiof that he would be a plastic tool in tholr hands, but, as Mr. Hast ings points out. no evldcnco has ov er been pro duced to Bhow that Mossrs. Glnton and Spen cer were govorned by any such purpose In nominating Tompkins. Ho was elected, and took his sent ns Governor In Janunry. 1MK In tho following year the 1'o.lernllsls returned a majority of tho members nf Assembly, and, a year later, through the treachory of a Bopubllcan Senator, se cured control of tho Council of Appointment Tho Governor now found himself In precisely the samo position which Gov. Jny had occu pied nlno yoars before: that Is to Bay, the op- , poslto party was preponderant In tho council Vf wherein he hnd only a casting vote. The po- I lltlcal dlfforenco botween the Council of Ap- H polntment and tho Governor mlghthavo proved 18 a serious matter on tho outbreak of the war of 3 ', 1812 had a man ot less resolution than Tom p. H kins beon In tho Governor's chair. During his four vearn' Rnrvlen nt ihn hpnrl nf thn HfntA a-.. DTBTI ecutlvo, Tompkins had becomo thoroughly H oquippod Tor tho arduous responsibilities that wero to devolve upon him. When he found. I therefore, that tho Council of Appointment U was bestowing commissions upon Federalists H alone, ho rotusod to assign the officers thus ap- B pointed to command, and, by tho liberal dls- I trlbutton of " brevets." delegated to duty In H the Aeld officers of his own political faith. H Even during his first term of office Gov. H Tompkins's speechos to tho Legislature had H dwelt upon tho serious condition of our na- H tional affairs and tho danger of embroilment H In war with olthor Franco or Great Britain. H His address dated Jan. .10, 1810, contained an I emphatic Indorsement of Presldont Madison's U foreign policy, but this the Federalists, who W, commanded a majority of the Assembly, re- mf fused to ratify. On Fob. 5. 1810. Gov. Tomp- U kins was renominated In the Bopubllcan cau- H cus without a dissenting volco. and nt tho poll M his majority overGon. Stephen VanBensselaer. H his Fedorullst opponent, was between 6.000 and 7.000 votes. He was now the leader of the Bopubllcan party In tho State. Da Witt Clinton being his most dangerous rival. When tho Madison Administration desired during its first torm, the influence of the Bo publlcan party In New York. Tompkins was consulted, nor was a aufd pro quo over with hold from him when tho assistance of the Fed eral Administration was needed by him In th State. President Mudiaon sent his war mes sage to Congress Juno 1, 1812, and, seventeen days later, war was declared against Great Britain. Before the contest had continued a year, the faot was demonstrated that Got. Tompkins was the most conspicuous and th strongost oharacter which the crisis had brought forth. In his annual speech at tht -I If extra session of the Legislature In November. "Jjr 1812, ho suggested that a loan should be mad by the State of Now York to the National Gov- eminent, In order to inaugurate a vigorous prosecution ot the struggle. A resolution to that H effect was passed through the State Senate, but Jf killed by the Federalists in the House. On B Fob. 4, 1813, Gov. Tompkins was again noml- H nated nnd In the ensuing eleetton once mors flj defeated Gen. Stephen Van Bensselaer. In spits I ot tho opposition of De Witt Clinton and his frlonds, who openly repudiated the candidal Hj of their party, being prompted thereto by th H suspicion that the Governor had prevented H Clinton's nomination to the Presidency. Th H Federalists continued to control the lower H house ot tho Stato Legislature and effectually H ohecked every recommendation and projeot I Which the Governor and his friends proposed forthedefonce of the State and tho support ot the National Administration. Flnl! in Hn. tombor of the year last named, tho Governor raised, on his own responsibility, a large sum ot money, which ho used In purchasing arms and equipments for the troops and In Improving the defoncea ot the State. Within a , brief time 12.000 soldiers had been mobilized and placed In the fortifications. At his request the President appointed him theoommanderof the Third Military district, and. after the burn ing of the Capitol at Washington, offered him the portfolio of the 8tate Department. The latter compliment was declined by Tompkins on the ground that ho could be more usoful In tho State of New York. At the expiration of Madison's seoond term In the Whlto Houso Oov. Tompkins aspired to the Presidency, and a resolution was unani mously adopted In February. 1810. by the lte publlcan members of tho New York Legislature Instructing tho Senators and Representative of that 8tato in Congress to take all proper means to secure his nomination. In tho caucus which was held on March 18 James Monroo of Virginia proved the successful candidate aid Gov. Tompkins received tho nomination lor yico-President It was believed that his well known hostility to slavery prejudloed the South ern members of Congress against him: It la uer tain that he obtained In the caucus not a single ', vote from the Statos south nt the Potomsc. AN though chosen Vice-President of tho United States. Judge Tompkins continued to x orclso the functions of the ofnoe of Gov ernor until the close of February, 1817. when he resigned. The most serious trouble of his life now began. Whon ho took his oath of office as Vice-President his accounts with the . u , State had not been settled, and on the ledgers ID V ot the Comptroller's oftloe ho was made to ar- '' Fear as a defaulter to the amount of $120,000. twas cot until 1821 that a law was passed authorizing tho accounts to be adjusted upon Vice-President Tompkins' executing a r- lease to the Htate of his claim for commissions. As late us 1847 the Federal Govornment was Indebted to him to the amount of S40.000. In frtt 1820 he was again a candidate for Governor of Jf New York, but was defeated by DeWltt Clinton, In the last-named year, however, he was re elected Vice-President of the United States The last public honor conferred upon him was his election by his constituents ot Rlohmond county to the State Constitutional Convention of 1821. Over thlsbody ho presided: On Feb. 1 of the following year lie requested United Statos Senator Rufus King to Inform th Senate that his, health would not permit him to preside over that body, and the only occasion whon he again appeared lu t no Senate chamber TF&M th.? reassembling of Congress on Dee 2.1822. He died on Juno 11. 1825. Unques tlonably his death was hastened by the two nlnry embarrassments from which he had suf fered during his latter days, for he wasmlr V about 01 years old at the time of Ills dem ! 1 He wan burled In Ht, Mark's Churchyard. Ns" I lorkolty. Theonly monument to his memory J, erected by tho State or by tho nation. In when mJH behalf he expended the best years of hlsll'e. IB and for whose sake he forfeited his oredlt, sur rendered his fortune, and died a bankrupt l III the profile bas relief recently cut In one of th I eorbal of the great western stalrcatt o th ,WL I Cajoltol at Aliur. - f jjjj-i-j22j t,bTM