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W - I ..-, THE SOT?, SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 2b, 1898.
Kg I, I- f ojcs jnnr jboojc ' IRS jjjjl, Emln Pasha. 1 ' mfk Th If110 Incident and tht (till ptndlnc f ft1 controversy regarding the Valley of the Bhr- ; WOK lahazfcl tiarn reawakened Interest In the ax- '.t tensive rsglona o( Central Africa, which, be Hi 'or lh ' WahdUm. were controlled by 'IS tbo Khedive of Egypt. Full and trustworthy & BIS' Information concerning these Important terrl- i F 11. torlcs la now acoetalble In the tiro volumos i mm, collectively entitled Bmtn I'niha, by Qeobos 1 lav ScnwKiTZKn (Hartley A Matthewa). The author IE ' "'' lx)ok ' Emln I'aaha'a executor and the ! 9& icuardlanof his daughter; he haa founded thli M V sketch on numerous letters addressed br the II subject from the osntre of Africa to his friends IjjS in various eountrlss. and on hla diaries, whloh I Jfj comprlso some nineteen volumes, and const!- KIR tute an almost Inexhaustible store of val- F I aablo records. In his seleotlons from these 11 materials and In his comments thereon, the i 1 jf, biographer has had the expert assistance of b I ft "r Bohwslnfnrth, one of the highest anthorl- f J K ties on Central African Questions. The aim of I m, the work Is to perpetuate the memorr of a til German explorer and administrator, who, al- ' i vK though his acta were not always free from hu- i 81 mD w,a'EneM' l apon "' whole. memor- ' si K Bt' ezaniDl ' unselfish devotion to the hlgh- ' B m "' 'ntorcBts of mankind. The nsetulness of B k these volumes is enhanoed by an Introduction IE ,rom th pen ' Dr " W- Felkn- wh "tu f from first-hand knowledge of Egypt's equa- 1 I B torlal provlnoes, having been an eyewitness of t jj w somt of the events dismissed. I ' 1 . I. Edward Bohnitzer. eventually known aa 5 j : ' Emln rasha, waa Dorn March 28. 1840. at Op- ! i ' peln. In Uie Prussian province of Silesia. When i I; tie was two yoars old his parents removod to ( J ; k Nelsse. Where, in 1840. he was baptized in the 1,1, Protestant parish church. In this town he ro- , celved nls school education: In 1858he entered i ! i '. the University of lircslau. Letters written by '. , ; htm at an early ace show a great predilection i, ' for natural science, and at the university he M ! devoted himself especially to zoology and or- i S i Blthologr. He obtaluod a degree of doctor of I m ' medicine at the University of Berlin, but was jM i refused permission to enter for theStateexam- tm lnatlon Qualifying for the prnottce ofthomedl- By cal profession ou the ground that he had al- f wJt lowed tod long a time to e!apa before filing K& nn aDP"ca'on- When his hopes were dlt i ' appointed In this particular ho doter r' K rained to leave Genuuny, and tried in t KB JIncland. to got an appointment In Africa. P Uolng unsuccessful, he went to Turkey, and. ' Ii Jn 'IWIj, was appointed iiuarantlno medluil ( Kf o nicer at Antharl. During his stay at this ' If place, which Insted till tho end of 1K70. Rchnlt- ' lp scrnot only lourneil Turkish, lllync modern imt Grouk, Italian, and Albanian, but also made j JHr Croat progress In Arablo ond Version He aNo Ji 1 y lonrned to speak rronch well, and somo rnc- eM $? JIsli. Xor was hli selentiflo workby any moans , forgotten : at this period of his llfo ho was i I elected a fellow of no fewer than flo learned ,i societies. Ills Ietter showed thnt ho liked tho )' ? Jlfent Antlari; In one of them ho ny that ho i f liad become a regular Turk, and did not think l r he could ecrsottlo down again In Germany. g- Asn mnltorof fact, ho ner accepted Jloham- J sr rnodanlsm: notwithstanding Ids outwanlcon- f S formlty to Turkish mnnners and customs, ho ' J nlwnys remained a Christian. S I I At tho end of 1870 ho was taken into tho ser- jl & vicoof Isinall Hakkl l'anh.i, (jOM-rnorof north- j: I I ern Albania, and remained with him until hit lH gf death His icl.itions with tho Pasha's joung iif 1 Ifoscom to )mo been eiy Intimate. nml. in I Vi i' 387.'). utter she beiamun widow, ho took Iter jj 4. iithhlmto Veisse.nnd ullowml lilt n-latlons 11 V to suppoho tliat thoyworo married. That no II B wnrrlacotookplncolsoNldentfromtln'fni'ttlmt t II V. ho nftvrwaid compl lined to members of tho 'w m. Bchnltyorfniiiilythatliohaden-.theroffwlthout tin K marrying hei. After Ids sojourn at Xolsse )r. Ill B bchnltzer did not return to Kuropean Turkey, f If but wont directly to Alexandria, wlioro ho ar- r i 1 S rlXecl ll,',t"ut0 of means, so that, at first, ho tj I was compelled to get toeuthorn little money J I f ly nifdieal practice. In Khaitoum also, Jt I B whither ho Biibsciiueiitly proceeded, he Ihod ii In straitened circumstances If at nny timoho I ' i recehed n higli honorarltini for an operation I 5; ho would Immediately bestow tho money on I f tho poor or clvo It to friends. Ho had at this l time adopted a Turkish name, and wa known I I as Dr. HairoulUih Kffnndi. l'rom tho date of I s his loalng Nolsse. J875. until after his arrival J f lnZnn7ibarwith btanley in 1HK. heseeinH to is. htno had no communication with liN family. H Amomr tho few Gormnns at Khartoum in HHC 3875-7tt. ono of whom was Slatin. much curi- 11 osltywas aioused concerning tho newcomer. Pr. Junker records that. "n he wasontlrely without menns. Jlosset then Gorman Vice II Consull and I took upon ourHelies toprold jt for his wants. Ho used to take his dlnnor with S Itossetand hlssupperwithme.andliemember & with much pleusuro tho delightful evenings wo used to spend at my house, when wo passed 'IF "l0 ",n0 con,erRlncnbout our fur-ofT natlxo ,9,1 land and playing chose. Sometimes we would E lr so together to my neighbor, tho Austrian 6 Is Consul, Ilnnsal. who had a piano There. IJ& lmln. who was a splendid pianist, would If play Mendelssohn nnd Chopin to us. or is would accompany Hansal, wlio was a II first-rate slngor." It seoinsthit at Khartoum ii tho subject of this biography passed himself 18 off as a Turk who had been brought up and it' educated In Germany. Ho persisted In kcep- ( Ing up the fiction, notwithstanding tho fact II that he ultimately had to submit to Rossi this passport, in which he waa correctly defcrlbod II as" Dr. Rohnltzer.n German." In March, 18m), W Zlbehr Pasha arrived at Khartoum from Dar- fur. on his way to Cairo. Schnltnr inado his a acauatntanee. nnd Zlbehr promised tliat ho , should bo allowed to join thenovt avpeditLn to tho llalir-el-Ghazal country. Ileforeany jf thing came, of this arrangement, however, Dr, ill" Junker, who had written to Gordon about his mf Interesting friend, received nn answer inviting jMi tho latter to join Gordon nt I.ado. 8chnit7or JBffc started thither In April, 1870. and. upon his lil arrival thoro, was appointed by Gordon II 3 tho government modlenl oftlcor of his province Tills Is tho placo In which to II f explain how Hchnltyer uamii by the nnnin of l b T.mUi. Hseem8that"GoidonPnsha. tlieGov S 1 F ernorof tho urjuntorlnl provinces, had with him ii I Phjslelan named Km In JlfTondi, who was the '111 only son of n widow in Talro Tho oor woman lit I could no longer bear being soparatod thnu 'III f sands of miles from her son, and petitioned II! i the Khedive, Ismail Pasha, to plvo him an ap Ii j pointment in the Kgyptlun capital Tho ra il) i J"ei?t vras granted, ami Gordon Pasha waa dl tj jr. reeled to wnd Dr '.mln KfToiKtl back to Cairo. )) vr A short tlnio after Sehnlt.er'h an ivnl In Khar ! j toum All Suiad, who was Gordon's representii '( ' 'vo '" "iat ,ow" reL"Iveii nn order from his ill i, chief to hend him A doctor All huiaJ offnreil ij J the appointment to Selinller, who gladly ae. I I cepted It " Having arrived nt l.udo, he SBcnis i to havo tal.on not only Hih nflice. but the l name nf hlH preJeessor Although hi lunl j i been Miniiuonod foi tlio purpose of ronderlng j j medical aid, lie was soon miiployed Inadlirei j h entcnpaelty Gordon niinoit iniinndlatel In J h trubtel lilm with political iiiIkhIoiis, n faot worth noting, as Gordon win. accimtomed to I I, testa inaiicurufilllybiiforeheplscedeonlldenee ' I In him. Oii.Iiiiio:i,lH7i!.i:uiliiwailesmti'liei f I K to I'dndatotrytoostabiishlMtteriolalloiisbii- J ft tvvceii hliigMtfsiiiiidthel.gyptiai.nutlioritles. IS, He had n friuudlj reception from tin) AfriiHii Si I ' jott-ntate. and leporleil that the nation of . IK Uginil.twu'' distinguished for a comparatively JIT Klvanceil dutidopniont In his opinion. Its J 1 fl descent from tho Gallas ot houtheiii v.bys- t j slnluns was umlenlaUIf Mti-s.i hlnisiii was - IS doierlboi by 1 mill as n man of about 'X, ''l Ir yoirs of nge. of a daik-broivn vuinplexlnn. lit always dressed after the tIiuii of the. M IP r!cl' Arnl's "f Zanibai; Ur ,H an ictivc I km ml Intelligent mind, in puli.hed ami pltusant Ij jf to -'0iives with peeullur Halt in I liV" him Is hlspiedileitlon lei ( hrlstianlti ; is this j JH- aconteiiueneeof his Alijhslnlftii diiKient? Ho j; Jsverv tiiendli towaid nioaiiil projnseit icask jHp the tjovernmi'iit to let im reside erninnentl) II g witlililm Hels nut iiberal and makes no pros, ii f ents, except bimaust. gouts. Ac, yet is most IB '. willing tor ""tlniui, like the test uMiIh two f I vi ' p1' w:t'1 n ,'oul, bi ,1,u " ''' elUkS ljcail'i though Has fev ! mmmmmWmmiiAi. ranch In request avsrywhsre else, are a drug In the market, whereas white calico. sop. red Uppers, clothing, shirts, Ae., are In demand, and In exchange for thtse they will give slaves or Ivory." On his return Journey to Lado, Emln met Gordon at Mrull, and thence proceeded with him to Mjamajonso. on tho Victoria Nile. On 1 the day following their arrival a steamer left i that point on a short reconnoitring expedition I Into Kabrega's country. By the end of Novem ber Emln was back In Khartoum, but a month later returned to Lado and resumed his official duties, devoting his leisure to scientific re search, for the results of which he had found a purchaser and publlihorlnDr. Noll of Frank fort. II. In the oourse of the year 1877 Emln under took, by Gordon's order, a second Journey to King Mtesa of Uganda, and an expedition beyond his realm, besides a visit to Chief Kabrega nt Unyoro. Exhaustive accounts of these Journeys, treating especially of geogra phy and natural history, were forwarded to Dr, A. I'ctormnnn. s ho published them In his Gen graphlsche Mltthellungon during 1878. 1870 and 1880. From theso missions, which wore entirely auccessful. Emln returned to Lado. where In May, 1878, he met his former ac quaintance, Dr. Junkor, who was on his way to Khartoum after a jounioy In the Bahr-el-Ghazal. Junker's description of Emln at the tlmo Is worth reading, because it throws llchton the causes of the promotion which was then awaiting the latter: "Dr. Emln arrived in a boat which had brought him from the He J as nation lo XjSuo. us was rccervea nore wun the honors dun to a superior official. The email garrison, with Its officers, was drawn up under arms on tho bank of tho Nile, where I, too. Jolnod those who had come to greet htm. Dr. Emln rovlowodtho soldiers, passing along the front, exchanged greetings with the Mudlr and others, and then proceeded to thenowly built divan, whore we followed him. After the endless ceremonial ot an Arabic reception, with the Inevitable coffoo and sherbet, the oft repeated questions as to health, .to , Dr. Emln came forward toward mo In tho friendliest manner nnd said: 'Now that tho ceremony is ovor, I may welcome you In German; at least we can speak German to each oth-r ' Dr. Emln Is a slonder, almost thin, man of little more than medium size, with n narrow face framed by a dark, full beard, and deep-set eyes, looking forthwith a keenly observing glanca through ids iiovverful epoctaclos. His pronounced short sightedness compels him to strain and concen tratohlssightupon tho person before hlm.whlch imparts to tils look a hard and sometimes, ap parently, a frowning expression. The head, which Is interesting from an artist's point ot view, and in which intelligence is unmistakably manifest, does not In any way suggest a Ger man: its undeniably Oriental stamp materially hclncd Dr. Emln in the rule of a Turk, which ho had assumed toward tho official world and the peoplo at large, and which. more especially during tho first tears of ids stay in the. Houdnn, he unswervingly kept up Every Friday one would see him going to the Mosque, where ho would recite the prescribed prajers His bear ing, as well as his movements, exhibited a studied statellness and solf-couimandcalcu-lited to make hhn appear dlgnllled nnd self conscious. This was particularly noticeable whenever ho had intercourse with hissubordl natesln his capacity as an Egyptian oflleial. His external appearance showed nn almost punc tilious neatness and great euro In his dress." Gordon had himself nt this tlmo boen made. Governor-General of tho Soudan, and hl suc cessor in the ofllco of Gov ernorof the Equato rial Provinces. Ibrahim Fauzl. had been guilty of gravo offences Tho question as to who should bo appointed to tho vacant post was discussed by Gordon with his eontlduuts and friends at Khartoum, among whom was Dr. Junker, who had just arrived from l.ndo In his " f lavols in Africa" Junker writes- "Asked by Gordon vv hat 1 thought or whom I could suggest. I proposed Dr. Km1n Effendi. Gordon first objected, but nt Inst assented, and ap pointed Dr Emln Governorof the Equatorial Provinces with the title, of Hey." Emin, who was well acquainted with tho greatest part of tho territories now placed In his charge, at onco began to organfzo their administration, Iu the llrst place he nbollshed the mudlrlas (provinces) and made thorn simply districts of one and tho same province, of which ho was Governor, ami which comprised the whole of Egipt's equatorial possessions. He showed that lie understood how to keep In check the aaiiagla (Nubian irregulars), whose conduct had greatly prejudiced tho interests of ths Government, and had made many enemies among tho blacks. He applied his energies also to the extension of the province He an nexed the greater part of tho territory tempo larllyconquored by Ilakor, nnd once more oc cupied tho country of tho Eurs nnd Latukas He contracted friendly relations with the chiefs of tho tribes and busied himself with the devel opment of agriculture. Under l'mln'snusplces. tho pqnatorial territory was guided into un expected paths) of order and prosperity Dis turbances having broken out repeatedly In the southern districts of the equatorial prov inec, Gordon gavo orders that henceforth Dufllo should bo considered tho southern fron tier, and that the stations ot Fadibek, Tnuvera, Lutuka, Klroto, Ac. wore to bo nhindoneil. This programme did not coincide with Emin's notions of expediency, nnd ho did not obey Gor don's orders permanently, being Impelled to disobedlenco, apparently, by tho clrcumstnnee that the southern stutions had become very re munerative Consequently, instead ot abandon ing them, ho nrojoctod a further oxtenslon of tho province as far as tho Albert I.ako Gordon, howuv er, adhered to ills resolution, and directed (fessl Palm. who was In tho Ilahr-el-Ghazal. to go to tho Equator and effect thoovacuatlon. Nevertheless, us soon as Gordon had quitted the service, the dosorted stations wero reoccuplnd by I'mlii. to whom they proved subsequently of great value. Gordon's resignation of tho post of Governor-General of tho8oudanlnl87l) was a mutter of special Importance to Emin, for tho former had determined to remove his disobedient subordinate, and Emln, In fact, re ceived n letter informing him that ho had been appointed Governorof Huaklm, Ono result of Gordon's resignation wns that Emln remained In his old post, for tho noxt Govornor-Ooneral, ltaus Pasha, revoked the order of removal. In tho fliatot-theso two volumes wo find an outline ot the, economical conditions of the equatorial province under Emin's administra tion. It was sketched by lilmsolf, Aftorpolnt Ing out that nt the time tho equatorial prov Ince put about l'J.OOO cwts of Ivory per annum on tho market, worth on an averaco $l,r0. 000. 1'.mln went on to say that tho production of lvoi could not be long expected to cover tho cost of admlnlsttation, and consequent ly recourse must be made to other piod nets 'J ho fact is noted that in the country eaxt of the Hahi-ei-Gliaral ostriches abound, and the quality of the feathers is excellent. Tho trade In honey anil wax mlghtalso acuulro great proiortlons. Again, no countiy Is so rich in tanning materials ns Central Africa: according to Emln the. skins of tho oxen killed by the troops alone would sulllco to fill thn mullet of Khartoum, Among the nntlves there Is no Idea of thn uses to which skins may bo put. In r.niins province came existed in abundance, ami to tho east and southeast of it multitudes of donkevs and cumels were reared In tho wlileeountry of the I-aiigos, from Allaiu to Turkan.ilonkois wore bred in herds, nnd no body thouuht of using them for work, their milk alone being valued Among the western Ijiillak tlio camel was then, nnd is now. kept In hcrdsofriOOtnUOO, and is esteemed only for Its milk. Mich cere its ns dulnrsh, tulahtiu, dukon, and sesame wuie cultivated on a huge scab lu order to route) an approximate Idea nf the quautlt) of grain grown Emln di reited attention to the fact tint up t i tho second degree of nui thorn latltui'- grain constltutis the staple and often tho only food, in addition to which n great qufin tlly is used overywheto In the p'eparatlon of mrlsi. tho native, heor In view or tho low prloo, Emln thought that exportation would lo prolltablo; at all events, the surplus grain wight be turned to account in tho znaau- t . i Ifsoture of alcohol. The attempts mado nt growing wheat In the equatorial province have i not mot with good results, but tho rice sown by Emln turned out very well SugaronnB Is frequently met with In Uganda It was grown by Emln nt all his stations, nnd It was obsort ed that, with ample Irrigation, strong nnd very juicy canes wero obtainable A llml ot cotton occurs In somo localities: It has long nnd fine fibres, nnd, while Emln was Got ernor, u good donl ot homn-mndo cotton cloth was pro duced. Descrtlngot PBpeclal mention are the tobaccos of Unyoro Coffoo, too. exists In abundanco In Uganda, and Its cultivation Is recommended In all the hilly pnrts of tho equa torial province Nutmegs are plentifully found In the south, moro especially lu Monbuttu. Of vegetable oils and fats, tho possible production Is llllmltablo. As regards the India lubber plant. It Is encountered almost every where, from 8 of northern latitude towards the south; tho tops of hills are covorod with forests of it. Innumerable, truly, are the treas ures ot tho vegetable kingdom In tho equa torial region On the other hand, the only mlnornl product thus far discovered Is irou, which exists evorywhero In abundance, and of good quality. It Is wrought or cast In the country Itself, nnd Is an nrtlclo of commerce greatly In demand, moro especially In the north ern and western parts, where coarsely wrought arrow and spearheads take tho place of coin, and, like oxen, are nvnilablo to buy a wife with. III. Returning from one of his expeditions to Lado, at tho close of December, 1881, Emln first heard of the Mahdlst rising, that pol Itlco- rellgious war for Independence In tho boudan. which, owing to tho Inability of tho Egyptian Government to act betimes, dot eloped from paltry beginnings Into one of tho most seilous upheavals that liavoconvulscdAfrlcudnrlngtlio present century. We need not here rov low the familiar course of this revolution, which culmi nated In tho capture of Khaitoum and tho murder of Gordon on Jan. 2d, 188o. As far back as 1884, Equalorla had sufforcd from tile Inroads of the Mnhdlsts. but had repelled thorn. In 1880. they again assailed tho province. As parly as May '-'7. 1885, a letter addressed by Nubar Pasha to Emln Pasha, Commandant of Gondokoro, had ordered him to withdraw Ids garrisons by tho eastward routo to Zanzibar. Emln, however, determined to continue In the position intrusted to him by tho Governor General on behalf of the Egyptian Govern ment. In n letter dated Jnn 'JO. 1887,onoof the Inst received from him previously tohls so called rosoue by Stunlo), he announced: "I um fully decided to stay, and, ovon assuming that no helD comes, and tho province slowly goes to pieces, I shall remain steadfast to tho end. It is perfectly clear to mo that, with inv tnotloy crowd, a journey right across Uganda and ovor thulaloisun impossibility, nnd if it camo to the worst, it would be much easier to push forward with or without Kabrega's help, from l the southern extremity of the Albert N)anz.i j directly to tho northern point of Tangnii)iku 1 to tho English missionary station theie." Then ensued a period of protraetod ne gotiations with tho neighboring chiefs tn the south, whose friendship and alliance Emln sought to gain, because. In the event ot a determined Mahdist advance Irom tho north, ho considered, as wo have seen, that his only possible course wns a retreat to the ssuth via tho Albert Nyanra to Lako Tangan Ika. At that tlmo ho had not heard of the i existenco of an intermediate lake, the Albert Edward Nyanza. During tho months that fol lowed ho occasionally recolved news from Eu ropo through tho medium of the British mis sionaries, nnd. in this way. heard of Stanley's expedition Wo need not recapitulate the prin cipal incidents in the lattcr's journey, but merely point out that it has long been doubtful whether Stanloy rescued Emln, or Emin, Stan ley. The reader of this biography will scarcely be able to resist the conclusion that, instead ot btanley's bringing help to Emln. it was the Intter who succored tho wrecked rem nants of Btanloy's expedition As a mat ter of fact, somo famine-stricken, tattered, worn nnd exhausted men brought him just thirty-four cases of ammunition, two bales of half-spoiled clothes and a letter from the Khedite, According to Emin's diary, extracts from which are hero printed, Stanley proposed to him to renounce his allegiance to tho Khodlve nnd turn ovor the equatoilnl province to the King of the Belgians, who would, of course, incorporate it with the Congo Stato. Emln would b made Governor-General and allowed touameliinsalarv. If this proposal weio unacceptable, Stanley suggested that Emln should establish himself at tho northeastern corner of tho Mclorla Nyanza, under the auspices of an English trading corporation. It Is well known that the ofTor to annex his province to the Congo Stato was rejected by Emin, and although he looked witli moro favor on the offer to employ him in tho scrtlcoof tho English East Africa Compnny he finally de cided to evacuate Equatona, being moved thereto by mutinous demonstrations on tho part of his soldiers. On Emin's arrival at the east coast, he entered upon n now carcor, which is set forth In the second of theso tol umes. Although ho hud professed for many years to no a Turk nnd had cut himself oft from almost nil ties with his fatherland, yet no sooner did circumstances lend him within sight of n German Hag than he was overcomo by the lovo of his native country. Ho refused nil tho offers of the British East Africa Com pany, nnd patrlot'eilly nccepted a moro pit tance in order to further the colonial enter prises or the German Empire. For tho subsequent achievements of Emln Pasha in the sorvicoof the German Govern ment nnd for his prosecution of the new expe dition Into the interior, which was to bring him to a tragic end, wo must refer the reader to tho second of these xnliimes Tho later, like tho earlier part of his career, beais witness tosln gular unselfishness, as woll as a remarkable capacity for administration ami oxplor.ition. Long after tho whole Koudau had been overrun by Muhdlst hordes and communication witli Cairo had been utterly cut off, ho held out In tho post which had been confided to him by theGovurnor-Oeneral. When he consented to go to the coast w 1th Stanley lie went, not altogether voluntarll). but rather ns Stanley's prisoner. Bhnllurly.w lien ho took charge of tho expedition equipped by tho German Empire, ho wns faith ful totho last. It has been alleged by those who had only a superficial acquaintance witli him, that tho object of his lust enterprise was to mako himself master of the Ivory stored In his former province with a vlon to enriching himself. There seins to bo nowairant for tho Imputation of a sordid aim If Emln thought at all of securing tho abandoned treas ures, it was, as his notis make cleat, in the in terest of his country, that thn cost of the jour ney might bo defrayed mid that fresli menus for seiontlllo Investigation might bo provided. Theie Is, pel haps, more foundation foi the charge that lie was ruther u studont than a man of action. It is certain that nothing was more hatoful to him than brutalit), Ilibinarck hit the murk when h said of him- "That Emln Is n gieat scholar Is beond dispute; but If I had his pro fllo before me, It would show, I believe, the bnck nf Ills head to bo Insufficiently dot eloped botokenliuf a want of thu hrni eiu.ir-v nfi.i.,1. ciiiuot be altogether dleiK-nsed with in Africa." All thut Emln really accomplished for sclciicu will not he known until his diaries have been ciiefully worked otui b compotent specialists. Dr. P. ton lllchthofen, who has Inspected them, describes them as "documents of ex traordinary Importance, which, In man) re. spects, will probably be, the luture historian's onl sources of Information" l'iof Jluttlaub of Bremen has fluid In the Dmhrhr Knur: "Lmln's researches have, thrown light clear as nooiida) upon a great tract of oquatoiinl Alriia, tthli h, so far as seieuen was concerned, had hitherto been nhiouded in darkness Tills Is especial!) true legardlpg ornithology o are also iudehti d to lum fora mass of taluable uotison the habits of thoanl mals that c-amo under his observation ' ills philological reseaiohes havoheen the subject of speeialprnlse f rom fileuler Pasha, who. with his intimate knowledge of the Houdan, writes "No African traveller can have at ill ay- f - -to HMiwi TiiimumIiimhH mmmaU I preached him In tho mastery of Inner African Idioms. II his notes on theso were tost It would be an Irrcparablo misfortune for future explorers." M. W II I The Development ot American Politics. No studont of our constitutional and political history can afford to ovorlool tho book ontltlod 77if Jlirt and Growth of American Jbhffcs. by Henut Jones Fonp (Macmillans). The pur pose of this work Is to tell tho story of our politics so as to explain tholr natttro nnd Inter pret their characteristics Tho author's aim Is to give an explanation of causes rathor than n narrative of events, so that the reader may understand tho actual system of government under which wo lite. Holding that our politics do not become lntolllgible until thcyaro t lowed nsnn offshoot from English politics, or until. In other words, tho growth of tho variety Is studlod with regard to tho character istics of tho stock, Mr. Ford begins with a chapter on colonial methods, niter which ho defines tho political Ideas ot the authors of our Ketolutton.and then doscrlbes the consortatito reaction which followed the peace of 1783 nnd culmlnntod In tho adoption of our Foderal Constitution This prlmnry part of tho ossayends with a chapter on thn extent to which class rule protnlled In tho United States during the closing years of the lastand thn early yoars of the presont contury. Then ensues nn Interesting review of the cir cumstances undor which political parties wore evolved and tho ruling class was itself divided. Eminently suggestive, also, will bo found the comments on the establishment of the "ma chine." on the nationalizing Influence of party, on tho convention system and on the con ditions ot party organization, subsistence nnd efficiency. I. Mr. Ford finds It easy to demonstrate that many of our Political methods which are re garded as distinctively Amoricnn really origi nated In England, but died out thoro nnd sur vived In the Now World. For example, the American practlco which requires representa tives In Congress or In tho State Legislatures to bo Inhabitants of the districts from which they nro returned was an ancient usngo In Eng land. In early times the King's writ, ex pressly confirmed by n statute, ordered that none but resident burgesses should bo sent to tho House of Commons. Tho law wns disre garded and became a doad letter in Eng land; transplanted to America, It lited nnd nourished. Again, tho Introduction of the ballot on this sldoof tho Atlantic may bo looked upon as the fruition of Ideas which In England foil upon stony ground, but which found a fertile soil in the Now World Among the reformatory projects with which tho politi cal theorists of tho seventeenth contury busied themsolves the ballot occupied a conspicuous placo. Apolitical tract published In tho tlmo of William and Mary refers to tho use of tho ballot ns being then nn old custom In the borough of I.lmmlngton. Hampshire. This was, howoter. an exception which was des tined to pass away, and tho ballot was not es tablished In England until tho Australian s)s tem was ndopted In 1872. In tho American colonics, on tho other hand, tho mode of toting by ballot tool root nt an cnrl) period. It figured in tho philosophical constitutions dctised In tho sotentecnth century for tho proprietary colonlos of South Carolina. West Jorsey and Peiinstlvaiiia. Even before the formnl introduction or tho ballot In any of tho colonies a practlco had sprung up In Virginia and iu Now England of sondinc totes in writing tontoid thetroublo of personal attendance at elections. Tills practice was sup pressed in Vlrginin at nn early date, but it waa methodlzod into a regular system throughout Now England, where elections camo to ha known ns " proxlngs," because the votes of tint freemen wero given by proxy, by means of toting papers. At tho timoof tho Iiotolution such papers wero in use not only throughout New England, but also in Pennsylvania, Dela i ware nnd South Carolina. On tho oilier hand. Now Jersey nnd North Carolina, which had, at ono tlmo, used tho ballot, had. by that date, adopted the English sys tem of tlva voco toting, which also pretalled In Now York, Maryland, Virginia nnd Georgia. It Is likewise shown by Mr. Ford that party organlmtion. whoso astonishing de velopment since the adoption of tho Constitu tion has sometimes causod it to be regarded as peculiar to the iKlltlos of tho Itepublio. is Itself an outgrowth of colonial politics. Its begin nings wore common to England and America. In 1700. during tho excitement ovor the famous Middlesex election, the holding of mass moetlngs been mo n political custom In England, nnd many reform associations wero organized. To keep up communication with ono another they appolntod committees on correspondence. With these movements tho American Whigs wore in hearty sympathy, lieforo thn jear was out, the South Carolina nssembly had an angr) contest with tho provincial council because the latter refused to concur In a grant of 10.500 pounds, colonial currency, ns a con tribution to the funds of tho English Constitu tional Society In 1771 Samuel Adams wrototo Arthur Loe of Virginia, then In London and nctlvo In politics there ns a supporter of John Wilkes, proposing that committees should be formed in tho colonies to correspond with "tho Society of the Supporters of tho 1)111 or Eights" in England. Toward tno close of tho following )ear, the Roston town meeting took the lead lu banding togothornli the Massachusetts town meetings by means of such committees of cor respondence. Soon afterward. Intercolonial committeesof correspondence were organized under tho headship of the Virplnia House of Ilurgcssen Mr. Ford points out that theso committees nro tho lineal predecessors of our Hlato central comtnlttt cs. Still another feature of modern political methods which was derived from colonial poll tics Is tho caucus. It mado its nppearunco in Now England long boforo tho Involution. Tho historian William Gordon, writing In 177-1, said thut tho system had beon In operation fifty years before that tlmo. An entry of Feb ruary, 177,'l, In John Adams's diary presontsa picture curiously modern Ho records that "this day I learned Hint tho Caucus Club meets atcertnln times in tho garret of Tom Danes, tho Adjutant of tho Boston regiment. Holms a large house. nnd he hasa motablo paitltlon In his garret, which he takes down, and tho whole club meets In ono room There they smote tobacco till )ou cannot see from ono end of the room to tho other. Thoro the) drink flip, I suppose, nnd there they choose n moderator, who puts questions to tho totti regularly, nnd selectmen, assessors, col lectors, llte-wnrds, nnd represoiitntites urn legularly chosen boforo thov aro chosen lu tho town." Durimr tho ltevolutlonniy period, however, constitutional means of popular participation lu tho conduct of government wero so undeveloped tint part), considered as an agency of political control, denoted Utile more than a connection of Interest among the gentry. John Adams admltH that, even In caucus-ruled Iloston, three rich merchants, Thomas Hancock, Charles Aplhorp nnd Thomas Greou, when united, could carry any election almost iiuauiuiousl) Ho remarks that " half a dozen, or, ut most, a dozen, fami lies hadulwiDs uoutiolled Connecticut " Tho cour-onf .Noworl ixdltles wnKdotHinilmd by thoattltudo of tho great families, the Living, stops, tho h(hii)lurs and tho Clintons on thn onosldo.and tho Do Lance)son tlmother In tho South political tower depended almost wholly on social Influence nnd fnmll) commo tion Thorn aro still to bo found Isolated dis tricts, particularly in tho (south, whi -h repro duce to n notable degree tho social conditions which obtiiinod etcrywhore east of the ll ghanlcsat tho Ilovolutionury period Among tho Inhabit ints or such a loeallt) will bn on countered nu abundnnioof political prejudice, combined with ten littlo knowledge ff the basis of a nirrent opinion be luve-.tlgatnd.it will b discovered to consist of popular con fidence in the local magnate from which It was derived The phenomenon Is illustrated in an anecdote quoted by Mr Ford from tho Maiquls do Chastellux, who visited the Fnlled States in 1780-82. Gov. Benjamin Harrison of Virginia I told tho visitor that, when ho -was setting, out with Joffcrson and Leo to attend the flrstses- 1 slon of the Continental Congress, his anxiety ovor tho crisis was Increased by tho fact that a number of tho plain peoplo In his neighbor hood walled on him nnd satdi "You assort that thoro Is n tlxed Intention to Invade our rights and prltllcgos; wo own that wo do not seo this clearly, but since you assure us that It Is so, wo bclloto the faot" Wo aro cau tioned not to Imnglno that such dlffldencoon thn part ot thn plain people Implied nny sub servloncy of disposition It was n necessary consequence ot tho fact that agencies for tho creation ot nn Intelligent publlo opinion were not yotln existenco. Tlicro woie only thirty soton newspapers In the rntlro country In 1775, andthoy had no regular sources of Intel ligence. Leading men In different localities kept ono another informed of political move ments by correspondence. The political con ditions wero such that, as a rulo, only those In social relations with the governing class, that Is, say, thogotitry, were In n position to obtain tho Information, nnd arrango tho concert of action necessary to the execution of political doslgns Democratic, activities might gito tho revolu tionary movement explosive vlolenco In Ilos ton nnd causo ferment In other centres of pop ulation which hastened the progrcssof ovents toward Independence.; but the urban popula tion was stnnll, not onn-thirtlcth ot tho whole. Thoro wore but four cities In tho country with over 10,000 Inhabitants. Tho chief city wns Philadelphia, with a population of but 42,000. Ono-flf th of tho total population of the country wns ombiaccd within tho bounds of Virginia, a colony which had no largo towns. It Is mani fest that tho mass of the people wore outside thonrea of democratic Influence, II. Before indicating tho foellngs with which the English Whigs watched our struggle for Inde pendence. Mr. Ford direct nttontlon to the fact that tho scheme ot taxing tho colonies did not orlglnato ns n party measure. The great Itiorcase ot Imperial expenditure on account of tlio American civil nnd military establishment caused by tho French nnd Indian war would naturally suggest It to any economical admin istration. Tho idoa of imposing tnxes had been broached as early as 17o"0. when the Whig leader, Walpolo, was nt the head ot affairs, but had been rejected by tint statesman' The angry controtorsyMn Mitssnchusotts otor tho issuo of general search warrants forthedlscov eryof smuggled goods, in which Jnmes Otis distinguished hlmsolf, and which John Adams regarded ns tho first step toward revolution, be gan while tho cider Pitt wns still Prime Minister. Tho passage of the llrst Stump act. In 1705, met with iittlo opposition In Parliament and was almost unnoticed iu England, The vio lent outburst of resentment in Amorlca took English statesmen bj surprise. That tho Whigs wore as much committed as tho Tories to tho principle of taxation Is manifest from tho cir cumstance that, nlthougli the Stamp net was repealed by tho short-lived Whig Ministry ot 1705-00. tho right of Parliament to tax tho colo nies was strongly reaffirmed. Nevertheless, as moderation mid consldcratenos wore habitual characteristics of Whig policy, it Is probable enough that, had tho Whigs remained In iower. means might hate been found to satlsfylmperial needs without outraging colonial sentiment. In any ov cut. how over, a piofound change in the relations of tho colonies to tho home Gov ernment would havo beon required to make room fortho grow Ing spirit of self-reliance and inclplont nationality. No class of mon wero less fitted to donl with such a delicate matter than thn Tones, undor Lord North, whom GeorgoIII rnlsod to power In 1770 ns tho in struments of Ids personal will, nnd for whom ho provided a parliamentary majority by tho exerclso of etory influenco which the Crown could bring to bear. Their solo idea of deal ing witli Amorican affairs was to meet colonial resistance with stubborn coercion. Mr. Ford thinks thut. while the burning In terest with which Amoricnn party loaders In our own times follow tho fortunes of n dcclstvo campaign In tin Important Stato represonts the kind of feeling with which tho English Whig lenders regarded tho strugglo of the American Whigs, It cin afford no measure of Its depth or Intcnslt). '1 ho English Whigs recognized that the mun who organized the Continental Con gress, who bombarded King and Parliament with constitutional arguments, nnd who Anally declared their Independence of the British Crown, wero men of tho same breed and typo a those who had upset tho throne of James II. Moreover, tho English Whigs believed that their own party existence, nnv, tho vcrvlifoof the English Constitution, was staked upon tho issuo of the contest waged on tho othersldo of tho Atlantic At tho time when tho Ameri can discontent broke out In open Insurrection, the Whig party In England was in a dispirited stato Tho spirit of resistance to Crown on croichments which had flamed so audaciously in the Letters of Junius and in the diatribes of Wilkes seemed to have died out altogether. "Enlund,"vvroto Chatham, "Is no moicllke old England, or England fortv years ago, than tho monsignori of modern Jtomo are liko tho Decll, the Gracchi or the Catos " Iiurke de clared: "The peoplo have fallen into a totnl Indlfferenco to any matters of public concern. I do not suppose that there tt a overatnthing like this torpor In any period ot ourhlstor) " Junius wroto to his publisher Hint It would he folly for him to w rite an) thing more, since tho cause had become lioioli'ss. Tho only offec tlvo resistance to tho design ot tho court wns that which camo from tho colonies. If that should be broken down. It was tho bollof of the Whig lenders that tho ruin of English liberties would follow. The Duko of lilehuiond took steps to provldo himself with a suitable asylum in Franco In caso American dereut should bo tho signal of proscription iu Eng lxnil Theehlefs of tho English Whigs com pared tho Continental ttoops to the army of doliternnco led b) William of Orango In 1im, It wns. In fuct, tlio surrender of Cornwallls which gavo the deathblow to tho 8) stem of per sonal rulo which tho King had laboriously erected, nnd ended a long crisis by definitely sotting the course of tho English constitutional development In tho ways of Piullainentary government. Tho event. In truth, was a vlctoty fortho Whigs on both sides of the water, and was treated as such. Terms of separation woro uiratigod without rancor. Nominally, tho American luterists tturo In ch irgu of Franco; but the American Com nilssloneis. In direct negotiation with thn Whig .Mltihtr), then in powor, obtained creator concessions I than Franco had Intended, as It vmih not hui policy to favor tho rise ot n great power In America. Her design was that the solo navi gation of tint Mississippi and tlm solo dominion over the unoccupied t'otor mntr) slio.tld I bo tlm compensation which Spain would re cclto for entering tlm alliance iigninst Eng land On her own account, France was op posed to citing so great a s'liaro in tho Nuw founctland lUliorles as was claimed by the American Commissioners. Ii) tho aid of their Whig friend, hovvovor. tho Amerlian l'letilio tentlarlcs wero successful nteveri point. To tlio )iiunu nation wore accordod liberal flshert rights, ami territorial claims wero conceded which piovlded a continental are i whuiclu to OMMIIll, III, Of nil the subjects scpaintel) dim ussed In the book beloin us wi- liavn followed with io. cull ii luti ro-t the authors eoltlou of the tiuth that th constitutional bistort of tlio I lilted States begins with iln establlslimi ntof a government of the mussus b) cl isscs Jtwas cxpeited.nsn matter nf couisc, by the fra'mers of our l'ldtiml organic, law that the gentry would control evei) branch of the Government 'I lie IiiiiiioiiIiiub operation of the executive, leglslitivu mid Jildieiar) turn lions wits to be. maintained by the fact that the conduct 0f piiblli-ittTulis would bo a put of thmictivil) of good soelet). oiiiiusid in Its usual ambitions, onjoviu -nls utiil habits of inleicouiso Who sate the goiitr) would have the means or abll it) to attend to such matters'' The ominon pooplo were not tegatded as having, or as bclna likely to have, any direct part In the Government nt nil Itvrasadmittcd tliat "there aie strong minds lu every walk ot llfo that will rise superior to the dls.tdt antnges of their situ ation, and will command tho trlbuto due to their morlts. not only from tho classes to which they particularly belong, but from society In general": these, howoter. are pronounced by thcrVifrrfitol "exceptlonstotho rulo " Accord ing to the satno authority, "tho reprcscntntlte body, with too few exception to have nny In fluonco on tho spirit of tho Government, will bo composed of landholders, merchant and men of tho learned professions" The cheeks nnd balances of the Constitution ttuio regarded not a restraints tiiwn the Uotoinment ltclf so much n restraints ukh tho classes which would havo iossesslon of tho Government, to leep them from abusing tholr trusts for Indl tldunl advantage It was ntcndedtocouiitcract class selfishness by creating antagonistic, In terests. Tint John Adams wroto: "It Is tho true policy of tho common people to placo tho whole executive ownr hi ono man, nnd to mako him n distinct order In the State, wheneo nrlsos nu inevitable Jcnloasly between him nnd the rest of the gentleinon; this fotecs lilm to bocomo tho father nnd protector of the com mon people, nnd to endeavor nlwnys to humble every proud, nsplrlng Sonntor or other officer in tho State who Is tn danger of nequlrlneiui Influence too great foi the law or the snliltof tho Constitution." To tlio snmo PlTeet lie argued on another occasion: "If the peoplo nro sufficiently enlightened to seunll thcdati uors that surround them, they will nlwntHho represented; llrst, by a distinct pni inimgn tu mnnago tlio wholo oxecutlto power: second ly, by a distinct Senate, to bo guntillatts of property against Ictellois for tho pur poses of plunder, to bu a ropositoi) of the uatlonal traditions, of publlo mnxlms, cus toms and manners, and to bo controllers. In turn, both of Kings and Ministers on ono sldo. and tho representatives ot the people, on thn other, when cither shall disclose a disposition todowroug; nnd. thlrdl). b) a distinct House of Jleprosentntltos, to bo tho guardian of tho publlo purse, and to protect tho peo ple, in their turn, against both Kings nnd nobles " Mr. Ford points out Hint a pollt) con stituted on theso principles was. obvlousl), not n republic in tho sonso in which wo uso the wordns implying popular rulo. A title more descriptive of Its nature was applied to It by John Adams In somo correspond enco with ltogor Sherman nt tlio time of the adoption nf tho Constitution. Ho called it "a monarchical republic." in his writings on government ho elnsslfled Eng land undor the same title, and, hi nuwnppl) lng it to the United States, h" tneantslmply that they, too, constituted n momncli) insofar as tho custody of tlm oxecutlvo powor wasiin Individual trust, hut thnt they nlso formed n j republic Inasmuch ns thn C institution urn. , tided for tlio representation of the people. Madison nlso explained that by republic he meant "n government In which theschemoof representation took place." a definition which manifestly includes England ns well as Ameri ca. Ho contendod that tlio now Government should by no means bo classed vv It Ii tho demo cratic republic of antiquity In which tho peoplo ruled. "Democracies huto over been spectacles of turbulence and controversy, havo over boen found Incompatible with peisounl security or thn lights of property, and have, in general, boon a short in tlielr lives a they havo beon violent in tholr death" Means must bo provided, ac cording to tlio FetUralitt. "to tetlno a id en large tho public views byposslngtliemthrough tho medium of n chosen body of citizen whose wisdom may bestdi-eern tho true intei ests of their country." Elsowhero wo lenrn, on the same, authority, that "tho true distinc tion between tho ancient republics and the Amoricnn Government lies in tho total exclu sion of the people. In their collective capacity, from nny share In tho lattet " Wo read In a footnote that Adams, in oncof his l tiers, ro marksthat In England n Hepubllcan was re garded as unamlably as a witcli or blasphemer. According to Jefforson's Anas, something of tlio same prejudice against tho wonl lingered in Washington's mind. Jofferson relates that. onMny23. 17lt.1j Washington Called his atten tion to the word ".Republic" in tho draft of a Stato paper, with the remark that It was u word " which lie hid never before seen in any of our public communications." Significant of tho Intentions of the framer Is the fnct that there is nothing In the Constitu tion requiring Congress to hold public sitting, although "each house shall keen n journal of its proceedings and from time to tlmo publish the same, oxeept such paits as may in their judgment require secrecy." This was one of the feature on which Patrlok Henry based his opposition to tho adoption of the Constitution. In ono pt his speeches before tho Virginia Con vention ho said: "What security huto we In money matters? Inquiry is precluded by this Constitution, which forbids mombors of either house to bo questioned in nny other place for any speech or debate. How, then, to discover their conduct? We nro told that a regular statement nnd account of the receipts nnd expenditures of public money shall be published from (mir (0 mfl Hore I the utmost latitude loft. If those who are in Congress please to put that construction upon it, the words of the Constitution will be satisfied by publishing those accounts onco in a hundred years." No doubt, a certain degree of accountability wns established bv the Con stitution. )et, obviously, tho dcslro of its author was. nottoennhlo tho peoplo to control tho Government, but to enable this Government to control tho people. This desire Is revoaled by Madison when bo sa)s in tho Feilerahut : "In framing n government which Is to bo ad ministered by men oter mon. tho great diffi culty lies in tills: You must first cnablo tlio Government to control tho governed, nnd. In tho next place, oblige it to control Itself" IV. That thn frnmers of tlio Constitution tnndo no intentional protlsiou hi the control of the Government by publlo opinion Is not In thn least surprising, for public opinion, in tho modorn senso of tho word, Is a very recent thing It iHtruothat tho first amendment to tho Constitution prohibited the making of nny laws "abridging the freedom of speech or of tlio press" Ah late however, as 18'JO, Sir Itobert Peel spoke contemptuously ot "Hint great compound of folly, weakness, prejudice, wrong feeling, right reeling, obstlnncy nnd newspaper parngiaphs which Is called public opinion." Mr I'ord suggests that If tlm dcllnl tlon Ind been ittomptod iu the United Slntcs In 1"h7, public opinion would have been de scribed as nt Mocialle greed, knavery and Intrigue, o impounded with popular stupidity and mob elimor Who, then, could hive ilteauied of tho n-ntu of Intentions which hive Irausfonnud tlm world-' Mr Find si s trul) that "tlm elaboiato uctwnrksuf riillim Isitndlclegiiiphs. tlio products or a oclnl aitltlt) which Ins, meanwhile bean muling eoi responding gains In publlu education nnd poiwlni Intelligence. should be. looked lit as nei to llliHiieiitsof the body politic. Kivmglt an organization nnd u sensitivenesr, lli.it ((institute a new being previously iinkiicmn Iu the eighteenth cen tury the possiblllt) of such u phenomenon was unthinkable Tin- hum in ntiliiial, iliunorlu the, held, wns ti bout the satno ns hit ulwas s Ii 1 1 Im"ii. and such us he seemed nlwa)s likely to b Political di inn tonstics wcie much tho s lino as the) had I w lieu A rl-tolln surt e) ed part) struggles in Hi,- fneelan Mates, orvvheti Cleeio iiiiaDz-d the faction strifes ot Home Modern cltlilzatln i Itself seunicd to l, liarbarinn oiuiiuipineiii amid t Int uilns of tlm ancient world, the memorial or whoso grandeur were niel.iii imlv pirleiils Gib bon, whose hlstoiv belongs to this pe riod, lonclnde hi- n count or the fall of tlio Iloinnn Empire with some specula tions op thn r.itu i if tliKiiitilcru world, whose mulct tone of gloom) forebodings is not hidden by Hi" show o" philo-iiiililenimposiiiii rng llsh Institutions were still ton unsettled niter the upheaval ot the seventeenth ceiilurt to permit any false sensv ,,f ,onri) tnnrisc In England ami Vaierici the nplilt ir tho tlmo was pessimistic Innhgton was almost as abounding ns in Franco; but it was not mock ing In spirit, ror tho necessity or making uso , of every element of social order caused states- J mon to value evert the authority of supor. $ tlon." Thoro wa n cynical contempt of ,ini Wfm dreams nnd Utopian fancies While doing wiis Kfff stolo fortltudo what It lay In them to )o Wva: the men who took tho chief nri ,' Mwi founding tho republlo had piluful n, s git Ing n to tho durability ,,f ti,,,,. K( work In n footnoto Mr Ford t W, Eftt1 a characteristic, nlluslon in a nitmPer r,t Kdo' tlio FetUiatifl, written by Hamilton, to tiie .,,. IrjUse tliuslatH"thopxpecttocphiri!ilcv n-ni IllS of tho , ..vetloor fabulous ngo tenllnt in Wr Etc lea" Toward tho close or tho career wh n BWT' was brought to nn untimely end, Hutu it ,n lkll' wroto to a friend: "Perhaps no mm ,n t ,, tit Unit"! Stato has sacrlllcd or donem r- r ",tiT tho p. 'sent Constitution than invsi If , t jjji contrary to all my anticipations of its rate -,," ' (j'( joii know, from tho tery heglnnliig. I am -tin sllif laboring to prop up tlio fiall and vm nine,, tfh rubric " John Adams, In n letter pi lined , , . nldao, siysthat WnshhiBton, after oeeu,itn, ,'to tho P.vsldnntlal clmir. was made unlnpte m kjrl his retirement by fear for his coiintri ,JJi The class supremacy, doxtcrnusl) reuse-t,4 (,)i; b) tho Ainoriciti gentry, through the nd t0a l4lr nf tho Constitution framed nt l'lillndclphu, Mf wns. howuver. doomed to dealt m-llon xiu tiii English gcittrv. who, fiotn tho Ilntnlutinimf -jXTi 1088 until nftur thn imssngo or the tlrst It t ,, ,ifi hill, continued to rule tholr countr) had m i n0n. with a settled population trained to hat its ,f 1 deference, nml unnblo lo escape from Itmilierd abut control. The Amoricnn gontrv wero different j t rel situated. It Is true that, during the giop,.r rrW' liortlonoftliecolonlalperlod.tho pressure f the slid French and Iudinns upon tlm Fugl sh .. mi,,. inz incuts hndsoeontlticd thn Held of settlement 01 that tho prestige of thn gentrt lould not hi Iter seriously Impaired. With the expulsion m t jr European tmwom mid tho dilv ing Inek of ils ,)?; Iniliniis.il profound i-hango In social ,. ;(Jr, tlons ensued Tlm laud was thenceforth pr,i . 'wle tlcnl!y Illimitable In extent, nnd vnerelte i-neiii ihlri nrrangemciitswerolnipractlcablcasthefatli r nit' soon dlscotered. "We nond. ns all nnMom ichC do," wroto Fisher Amos to ltufits King in 1kh, ris," "the compression on tho outsido nt ourein-iA rilih of n formidable neighbor, whose proscn -'nil t d at all time excite stronger fears th m f n ill. 1 agogues can inspire tho people with tuv rOTt their Government " ,0n The actua' conditions were Rush as to fver jMfi concessions of n democratic kind The ,, f, f.far to obtain settlois cnusod the tender of in, In e. ebt nionts which eailv took tho shape or ffer tory or political franchises. Tho restrictions upon irer tho sufftngo, on which tlio authors of tin cotu Constitution had dois'tided n guarahte-iii( of tho political control of the gentr) soin b.-mi I it to loo-en The breach between soe ot an I ratlc politics, which wns sure to occur when polltie l rat Influenco ceased to bo a diss prlvilego o' tin hex gentry, wns not long delayed Hamilton h. the mented tho growing indifference of the better phlc clnss of pooplo to the uxorclse of thelt sulTrac 11 Pt much In tho stylo bo common novvadn)s Ths - lnt breach was destined to expand until tho ones ' iran honornblo tltlo of politician should ctrry with Dob Unsocial stigma, and whnt Is known ns good U)t society would hold Itself aloof from polities or ors meiel) Invndo It nt Intorvnls 1 In V. lwt Tho drift toward democracy was Instened ji by a split In tho ruling class. In Mrginin Hit ioor gentry soon began to call thomsolvos ltepubli- n0D cans, whereas In Now England most ot th-un (n,a long continued to bo Fcdniallsts Curiously j enough. Jefferson nml his colleagues believed themselves to bo tho genulno couscrvatlvn j8.1 "Tlio ltcpublicuu party wish to preservo th a ' Government in its present form." wroto Jeftcr- ao son to Washington in justification of their ("J1 courso Mr. Ford shows thnt, as atuattnri.' fact, what they did was to givo a powerful nTC impetus to democratic tendencies, which wor n.x destined to transform the Government Men '"J hko. Mndlson. who. in tho Constitutional Con- j, ventlon and iu their (list piinted comments t?? on tlio Federal organic law, had de J canted on tlio evils of democracy, and By1.? trlod to leajie ns little, room ns possible for B" popular control ovor the Government, ca-t MB nsldu their scruples when the only practicable Crc wny of maintaining tholr own Influence was kw.oa tostlrupthepoople against tho Government Wfcf Mr. Ford suggests that the Itepublican leader-. "' In tbo latter )ears of tho last century, wer- Br, very much In thn position or thn Itocllnghai i Brio W hlgs in 17l):i, when, uunblo to mnko an effei- Bnl tlvo resistnnco iu Parliament, they had sub- Bvtl sldlrcd tlio demagogue John Wilkes, and Bill nbetted a pamphlet and newspaper war on BlM tho Administration. It wns not possible for Ban Jefferson to emulate the oxnmplo ot His Bite rich nobles who gavo Wilkes an nnnuitv at B 1.000. but lie assisted Callender bj prc- Biili ents of money, nnd ho gavo Froneau an Blldl office in the Stato Department, keeping him Bom there despite Washington's complaint that Kit) tho publications in Fieneau's p-per were Ktr't "outrages on common decency." InthoAmet- JKm lean colonies tlio censorship or tho press had iKm. been very strict. Benjamin rranklln in his m ' autobiography gives some amusing Instances Ihh or his collisions with tho authorities because Ktot of his audacity in venturing an occasional re- tt"" mark on public nffolrs. It was tho Itovolutlon- JK.no ary movement that gavo liberty to journalism. SSrrl Tho practical convenience of sucli a medium Brtt for the expression nf colonial opinion out- Ben welghn.1 nil theoretical ohjectlons.nnd nrtream Bet of articles poured Into tho columns of the Ifn0 nnnspnpersof the day, until, gradually, pollt- Bar leal comment wa recognized ns an prdlmrr 9b function or the newspnper pre. and theedl- ml?M torlal nrtlclo bcamo an established institu- Boo tlon fuit Federalism, howover. being essentially H,"1 movement tor tho restoration of the oldordei, It" thn traditional Ideas as to the placo and duties 'cl1 of tho press in a well-regtihitod Government ev were revived In ono of his essays on g. vein- Evo ment. 1'lslier niessald "Tho press Isnn 'V Bicrui nnd. certain!), ii powerful agent in human ,if BV"I fiirs It will chnnge society: but It Is illluVult Wfli to (oiiiolvn how, by teiideting men Indo i i IrHi nml presumptuous. It cm change them U i tlm M,,' l.ittnr. It has inspired Ignorance with pro K1 sumption, so that tho-n who cannot lee v- .InIi erued b) reason are no longer awed bv author- afff lt," rlieso fnicbodlngssoon soctned to be In . course of rapid fulfilment Tho highest prlv- W)' ilegesort ongress were violated with Impunity ? t The constitutional right of members that ' (or ' nny speech or debate In either house tin' . shall not lie fiuehtloned in an) rither Ar plneo" wus virtually annulled The license Krm of speech iissiiinu 1 by the papois Was ., abominable to the supporters of thn doverri IK mi'iit. W lien tho Itnpuhilcun journals began to Woii edinrgn tint Washington was drawing m n hrc ficun thoTreasurv than tlm law allowed, mil l., were circulating forged letters to show tlia' W during thn l evolutional y war hn desired ' al submit to tlio king, wliatever contempt iii'd.' ti be felt tor such attack tho effect upon publli -i. opinion could nut be Ignored The provni a ""J, tlon was increased bv thn fact that the lemlu e "HI llcpubtlcnn lournallstswere men of alien blr ' ujd ' group of foreign Hits," lolin vdaieste'inei! .. them Tlm growth of party spirit, which 'vm n' reganled as destrtn live to constitulloiinl g v Whl eminent, seemed to bn a direct consoiim-n" lete of the ti.teratieo shown to a sedll t Pti'-K ft is ncee-siii) to tiiid-rstain! th" Jr nttltudo of tli .uuhtfiil antagonism toward 6 tlm nhiiscsof jninii dlin In orilei tn ci.uipu- too hi'lidthe remarkable features which thn pf.l- ,. tics of thn time- evi nttinlly presented me v"0 behatlorof the Federalist fudges duiitig J ' u tpt Adams's Administration would seem to m j: amazing exhibition of headlong i. irtlsn -hip. I C, If tint viewed In the light nf their Ideas or - Jt , stltutlonnl privilege and dint 'I hey wrv J'1 trdng to uphold tlm trulltionn! Ideil nf g v a, eminent ho, ton, thn mien and serlliinn laws, . which commended themselves to mujnriths in ?f both bruises of Congress seem tons In reir- jf; spect like prootsof inn luess, and th tn l i o Jx ilniibt that they (le.oniBil the federalist piny v t Tho people rebelled agilnst the voko and ,P thn ledernll-ts went down In Irrctrlevn- ? bin ruin The extraordinary scenes wh "Ii nv disgraced the close of John dims' Vim ' n istratlui vvernthn nntural product of Fede a i 1st picas of government 1'he, Const tut J si etiieil to havngnnetiiwreik.nnil apparent!). JJ! Jlii ilmy of the hour was to mnko as rrev n gl silvngeas poshlble II Is well known thn' 'he J? vvnrknf ti.K)lntng Federalists to eifilcn w i on tn the very last hour ed Adams stern ' I? otllee lly thn old school of statesmen, Jef i W son's iiiHtiill.itla.il in the Chief Magistracy vrvi 5) nil event regnr lid with the glooming ' .r. I it r! Ing 'leitlieiii it s nod thnt thn time had ' lived of which I ishcr Ames vviote Hi J' Democrat n lilt wish to see an linrc tblr - J porlini ut falrli tried, and t t vurn w.'l ' TJ Government There Is, unlverallv a jiresoe p I linn In I'eninenie) Hint promises everv'hlrg B" iilid nt (lie Mime time mi imbecility thnt "i JKi ifwiiiii.hsli nothing, not even preserve Its f ll III i other chapters of tills Interesting k w X see how the 1 nlerallst forecast wns rnfuti d r K thnctent.nnd how there wasnt work in 't - JfM eeiuntry. iilthough ns yet iiulfe unsuspeoted n Al principle of eoiisurvatfsm that seams to bo pe. MB cullor to party organization or the English and tjRfl American typo, 'VBI