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(I1' $ 2 THE SUN, SUNDAY, MARCH 19, 18Q9. I ' J Hi ' BOStK KF.W noons. PI 3,1 1 i J , i f Women In 1npnn J jl, . jj t No book yet published has cost more light '" 1 if upon the actual and prospoctlvo stoto of things I m i InJapnnthau Is derivable from The AVifl Far A w' Jfontby Abthuii Dtosr. Vlco-Chalrman of the I ' ' , Council of the Japan Society of 1-ondon IPut- Fj"8.i I j nams) After depleting the outward chnrac- jjj H'' terlstlcsof tho mon who compose the bulk of 1 H i the ruling dame In the three empires of the j Mi Far East the author proceeds to glvesomeoe- j L j ': ' count of tho Idea that actuate them In their I I j denllnes with each other and with Westorn I j j Peoples, In a ohaplor entitled "The Almighty 1 1 ij ' i Dollar" Is discussed tho vnst and constantly In- ! ji" creasing Importance of tho trndo of Eastern j , .jl , Asia. togother with the economic questions S3 'I j,' which nwalt solution In Hint part of the world. I j !l j J The fighting power of Japan Is mnde the sub I j ii I Jed of careful study, hut, while full credit (ll'lj ,'t l given to that country's mllllaiy enpa ) Pi;;' ff bllltlos, the opinion Is expressed that ; f jl! jl the trio "yellow porll" will arise from l 1 ;jB Industrial competition. It Is pointed out that, i I I j flj notwlthitondlng tho rise of wages In Japan, I ', -i'i' vjS Its manufactures tire encroaching upon tho ''!( Ji markets hitherto supposed to bo reserved for f ' i Hw the products of Europe and tho United States. Mm 'si n' tne deduot'on I" drawn that, if once tho 'IS Jfx tolling millions of China are persuaded to call I't K In the aid of Wostern science, they will prove ( e ' JJj still more formidable rlals of Occidental t i i , J& workers than are tho Japanese. The volume If.'! ' J also contains n review of the position at tires ! I i " ent occupied by Ilnssln, Trance nnd Germany I M l I ij In tho Far Fast, and n suggestion of the courso i ' !' V'vl which ought to be pursued by England. The J a ?i $3 most original and interesting fpaturo of tho Hjf'l T-n, book, howover. Is that section of It which is de 1 jj ,, ' ' 1j voted to an opposition of tlio status "and pros Mi I rjjj pects of women In tho new I'ar East. Wo call ; I Ml " author's treatment of the thomo original , ;s because. In denllng witli Japan, for Instance. ! w '! '"' !r 18 oeK no' ,Tr" B3 " "1B Kl',lla wero fit T '"" 'yD0 ' ',er Rnx' nn n,,,lmr,t'on no j a 'it) less preposterous than would bo tho j M . t conclusions reachod by n Jnpanese writer 1 i jf who should baso his views of Atneilcon !P i j6 Women on his observations In the deml- V If' jjj! tnonde. It Is tho rtvspoctablo women of Japan. S ! ' oonstltutln. of course, a vast majority, about wi ' ?T whom Mr. I)l5sv spoiiks, and It lschloflyfor g t J! tills reason that wn would direct particular W l V-jj attention to his work. Hitherto tho Oecl- W I kn dental publlo lias probably drawn the most j , liu, lasting Impressions reirnrdlnc the f.ilr sex j m' r j 4ffi In Japan from I'ierro Ixitl's Madame t'hryiaii- f ' I 'I theme, which is nothing moro nor less than tho I l ' I ii story of a French naal officer's hafo;i with a 1 1 i Japanese girl of tho lower class and of easy J! -f jj virtue. It In no way describes tho neraeo I' 'I .ii Japanese woman, high liorn or in humble life. W " t 41 n ''1P 0,ner na1(l. MN Alice It.ieon. In her fit ' ' - "Japaneso Olrls and Women." gae a true iS. j I 5 picture of the Japaneso female chnraeter. and j Bj ' ,t 'a astorehouso of Information nbout tho life of 1 111 i 'tt the reputahlo daughters of Japan. Her testl- jl I !! mony will bo found fully confirmed In tho book ji s before us u! j iifS It 6eems that, lately, n Japaneso sailor, a B ''I 'I mnto on tho steamship Mllgatn Slaru. tho first jljj' s3 vessel flying the Japanese flag that entered the I!1 !''f m Port of London, communicated his observn- 'jl i h tlons ton leading Toklo newspaper in n series I l I I frij of letters In which he commented se-eiely on ii ii' !''( 13 tne want ' rt,,n,mcnt dlsplnjed bv tho i ! ' II'' "lydlos"of the Ilritlnh metropolis, who "com ' jj 1 1 monlr eat fruit a-t thoy walk along the streets, ' 1 1 1 Iw an' 're'lue""' 'n'v0 their meals of shellfish, ' J J, ild fried fish, atoned eels and potatoes at peram j! j Wm bulating food stnlls In tlio open ulr" Many of ,Tij j Ijl tho statements mado by superficial Occidental j'j Lj Hi obsorors with regard to the women of Japan j'j J 'jjj rest on researches us limited In scopo as wore jj t ji ') those of the mate of the Jlllgata Maru. Tho j j J Mi Japanese sailor ascribed tho freo-nnd-easy de '! il )'ji meanor, tlio raucous voices, the un tliitic but '" 'll Ha refined appearance of those n horn ho took for !f : '' I (US rcpresentatUo Vngllsh ladies, entirely to racial ,( .' j U3j differences. Had they been Japanese women, 'II ?! een of the lowest class, ho would have been jj jl 03'' Inexpressibly shocked by their conduct and C J l l)!a . their gonoral coarseness. They wore English, i ! I'l iSl howeer, and tho canons of good manners and ii I .1 S5S. of good taste being so widely dhergent In Eng- '" IIP Is I' land and in Jnnin. Kal and Fol of the Ratcliffe ''III r Highway might, for might he knew to the con- III 'I r trarv, be behaving in accordance with the f- j ' fjj (Hi highest social "good form " of the West t j ' j i i' Mr. Dlrtsy shows how It has come to pass that fir JS' most Wostorn tourists In Jnpan liaxo arrived at till 'I llr finally mistaken conclusions. How. Indeed. II ill I II can 'hoavor,1,!0 Occidental globe-trotter, espe- F'lj HI 'jjll daily tho IJrlton. he expected to believe that IjJI biji the gentle llttlo wiiman with hands like thoso J If jjj ,i of n duchess, and n low, sweet olce. with ex- Ir II 111 11 1' 'Uilslte manners and a quaint, holemn kind of ft' I IP 'w1' dignity In her courteous obeisances, a curious i I m refinement in thu graceful motions of her V r j III M arms and a dellcato. iiuiet taste, displayed S S IS! In every Item of her admirably becoming ''ll IB j costume. Is. hoeially, on n par with braren jjj! Iffl! "I.Iza of Tlgor May. with her tawdry finery, her I Ii !tH' ill-made clothing "of startling aniline hues. f I lil'itl' ler mon"'ou, 'ia' bedecked with hired I ill" it ostrich plumes, her coarse red hands nnd III ''ai coarse voice, her manners of tho gut- II' ill Pr antl '",r wlt of t,ie c'n palace bar. R w. n ftl Bmall blame attaches to him if he jn jlj ' ; really bclloes tho little charmer, whom ho It 'Sli! 'f hears defined as a gelslia. to belong to nt least K 1 'I ' the middle class, of Japan, und, consequently. v y ' jl accepts her moral standard as that of a vast jti jj 1 11 number of lier countrywomen, pertaining to W ft,' what would be called In tho West " respecta- K jjLi' blo" families. ltasonlng from this erroneous ft jllijl promise, ho takes for granted that tho Japanese v lil i women nnd girls whom ho sees working for j. f III & their living, and. therefore, presumably, of B ! j'lj lowor social rank than tho particular "Madame Hr ' It'll Chrysanthemo" he has been studying must bo E l-llfSJ equally frail. Mr. Dl(5sy soys that, as a matter H i II U offset, even tho teahouse girls, the human H ' I I j hummingbirds who wait upon the traveller at H J ' j the teahouse, are, often, of tlie most exemplary H 1 Ii'' character, and do not descrvo to bo treated Hv il! with the rude fnmlllarlty to which thoy are often B, ' UH!' exposed at the hands of foreigners. Tho truth f ' j , ffll ' j Is that there are various kinds of teahouses. H Hi U8t ln rar'B there are various kinds of Lv 'Il i cafe's, and that the Japauoso Inhabitants of a H j -BJ j given town know perfectly well which tea- H J 1 I ' houses are respectably conducted and which B. ' ' ! are not. In tlio latter tho attendants look for H j 1 I I i no re9t)oct end get none: In the former they H I I M are good, hard-working girls, smiling sweetly LV i I I ' ' Bt "10 cutoraers' certainly, becnube that Is B Ik I r I ' sooond nature In the land of smiles and bows. B iS I' t fl nntI reaJ,r t0 Erect any little pleasantry with " W I lil silvery laughter, yet as capablo of guarding i'llfil their virtue as any women In the world. The 111 truth appears to be that In Japan there are uh- ' lilil chaste people, malo and female, but they con- II I B ttitute no larger fraction of the whole ponula- ' 'lit I tlon than they do In any Occidental country. The author of this book had tlio good for- BVu it i' I'll "n0 lo en')r "IU Irlendshlp of seernl Jnp- B 1 1 ffl ane66 ladles, and It Is to them ho owes what B lil H knowlcdgo lie possesses of a class of women I illH with which tho globo-trotter hardly over and H jn theacrnge foreign resident but seldom be- lil iaU comes acquainted. In many hours of conver- 'VH'B cotton with them on the topic of the position III 'B assigned by law and custom In Japan to them- 111! 'fl selves and to their slaters in lower social ranks I'll B and by close observation of their conduct to- Til 8 ward their husbands and children, Mr. Dl(5sy list 9 arrlvedat nn estimatoof theworthof the edu- iCtlS cated, hlgh.grailo Japanese women. It Is, he Ijji'rjfl Btjures us, a high one. Gifted with oery illl'Sal domestic lrtue. absorbed in the manifold iillfa duties deolviug upon her, according to the i'l'lfl Far Eastern social constitution, too much ab- Pll 1 aorbed In those duties to realize the Western rti'il Ideal of n woman moinc In swlety, tho Japa- 'uf! 9 nese womnn ofpur da), hermiud enlightened iff II by the excellent education which a wise Gov- lijj j ernment has placed within her r'ach. has at- 'Ijtljljw talnedan iiitellivtual eul urdresmt of in tho '111, M days of her mother's youtli Iortunately for HI a Japan, tlio new light that has entcreJ Into her Ijll mind hasnot eausedhertoubandoathe solemn III I rrlsiclples of duty, llllal, conjugal and maternal, BH 'IfG 111 I liandeldown to her through geneiations of BB I II I "l l't'i'. obedient, hi Ipful wives and loving. Hj j j do'.oted mothers, HJ j j ';! l Is ucknonledged by the author, however, HR. , H j M that the Japanese woman dos not yet occupy JB i t thepotltlon In the social falulc to which her HHB j ) Worth utltles hor. The avtiauo Japanese man teemi not to be aware of his good fortune, and, while gentle, even affectionate, to his womankind, denies them a plaoe on an equal plane with himself. It la not to be Inferred that the Japanese woman is mad unhappy by the superiority arrogated to himself by the Japanese man. Phe Is, as a rule, quite content with her place In the social system, and. though deeply grateful for the Improvement In her legal status effected by the new Civil Code pro mulgated In JHOO, It Is pronounced doubtful whother she, herself would, for along tlmo to come, have agitated for the limited rights which it has pleaaod the mon of Mew Japan to confer upon her. To the "nd anccd" motion of British womankind, and I to woman suffraglits ln the United States, their Japauoso elstent must appear poor, spirit less creatures, content to occupy an Inferior position through life. It should not be In ferred that the men of New Japan hao nny rooted objection to the intellectual advance ment of women: on the contrary, every effort In that direction has had the act he support of thollovcrnment. Mr. Dlosy has had. ho tells us, many talks on the subject with Influential pub lic men, and found them all agreed as to tho necessity of educational facilltle of the high est order for tho rising generation of Japanese women. The fncllltlos are already far In nd anco of anything within tho reach of the fomalo population of many European coun tries. The leaders of Japan favor an extension of tho admirable system of female education nlroady established ln the Island empire, a system which combines adaptations from tho best features of tho Htato schools of Germany, Hcandlnavla. tho Nether lands, Switzerland and tho United States. It Is only when wo examine tho reason for tho enthusiasm for female education that we dis cern the vast difference between tho Japanese point of view and our own. The majority of Japanese men deslro to see their womankind well educated, for the reason that thoy will thus bo ennblod to perform better their duties as a daughter-in-law, n wife, a mother and a daughter. To bo helpful Is the one object that Japanese woman is taught to strive for: help ful to her husband's parents, toiler husband, to herchlldron. jutnsshe has, In girlhood, been helpful to her own parents. The njother-ln-law. so often mado the butt of cheap satire In the Occident. Is a veritable terror In the For East, but on tho other sldo of tho family. In Eastern Asia, it is not the wife's motlior who wntches over her child's domestic happiness with a jealous lgllance hnrdly to be endured by the terrorised husband, bul the husband's mother who Insists on being obeyed by hor daughtor-ln-lav and on seeing that her beloed son is mnde thoroughly comfortable by tho wlfo he has brought home, in most cases, to live under the paternnl root Ho exacting Is the old lady at times, so exasporatlng does her continual nagging become, especially when enforced, as It sometimes is among tho lower elasses. by blows with nor metal tobacco Dlpe, that Japa nese wles have been known to seek relief In death. l'. en in those households where the same dwelling does not shelter two or three genera tions, and the parents of husband and wife are only occasional guests, the wife Is obliged to show tho utmost deference to her husband's parents nnd to all his relatives oldor than him self. Ono might expect that a long continu ance of such subjection to tho will of others, together with a heuvy burden of domestic duties nnd tho engrossing enre of children, would lmo crushed all spirit out of tho Japan eso woman nnd reduced her to a mere house hold drudge. Such Is, however, by no means tho case. II. Mr Dirtsy testifies that the gentle, low voiced, soft-mannered llttlo woman, apparently exist ing only for the purpose of doing the bidding of hor husband nnd of his parents, of keeping his house and clothes In good order and of rearing a family, gives proof, when occasion arises, of the possession of nn Iron w 111. When honor and duty are at stako the meek llttlo lady becomes a heroine, towering head and shoulders above the ordinary run of woman kind. Tho heart that flutters beneath the soft friinoim Is u stout in the hour of national emergency, or of Imminent peril to personal honor, as that of nny Samurai of old. The tiny soft hands are as ready to-day to bear arms In defence of Jnpan's sacred soil, or to grasp the dagger that will bring death as the mean? of escape from dishonor, as they were In the days of Old Jnpan, when every lady was trained in tho ait of fencing with the halberd, In ordor to defend thowomen's apartments. tho lant f-tronghold of the feudal castle overrun by the enemy. During the war with China women olunteeiod In large numbers for service in tho field, nnd wero much mortified nt the refusal they met with from tho authorities. Forbidden totnkonn netlopnrt In the warfare, they did wondeis In the morn appropriate work of nurs ing thu slok and th wounded, nnd, ln innu merable instances, both In tho hospitals and nt home, gave convincing Proof of fearless dovo otion. of stoical resignation and of ardent patriotism. Tho latter virtues wore mado manifest In the manner of receiving the tidings of the death of husband or son In the field or at sea and In the wav In which tho bereavement was borno. In many cases the bcreavemont meant the 1omj of tho breadwinner, and threw tho task of sup porting herself and her llttlo ones on thu widow or compelled aged parents to return to work. Noertholess. all was borne without n murmur: tho holoved ones had fallen fighting for their country; thoy had died for Japan, and ln tho moment of Ictory. A Japanese woman would rather hue herdear ones porlsh thus than pass quietly away on a bod of sickness. A typical case of patriotic dovotlon on the pnrt of women Is cited It is that of an old lady, bereft of all her male relatives, husband, brother and son, nil killed or carried away by sickness nt the seat of war, who re ceived the successive tidings with stoical calm until the nows readied hor of tho death of her youngest son. tho Inst of the family to fall In defence of his country. Then the old mother burst Into tonrs, exclaiming: " I weopnt last, but do not misunderstand the cause of my tears. I woepbocnusol have no oneloft whom I can send out to dlo for our country, and be cause, were I to marry again, I nm too old to give the Emperor more warriors to fight his battles." It does not noed the stimulus of war to prompt Japanese women to deeds of self-sacrifice. In Mny, 1801, a young lerrant girl journeyed by train from Knuagawa to Kioto for tho express purpose of offering hor Innocent life ns a vicarious atonement for tho disgrace to tho national honor resulting from the murderous nttnek at Otsu on tho Czarovltch, now the C7nr Nicholas II., by a de mented policeman. She had rend In the nows papers that his Imperial Majesty, the Mikado, was grieving sorely because of the attempt on tlio life of his honored guest, nnd sho trusted that the voluntary sacrifice of her young llfo would explato the crime, remove the blot from tho nntlonul escutcheon, nnd lift the burden, of sorrow from the Emperor's heart. Calmly sho proceeded toearryout her plans, entering every little Horn of her modest expenditure to the last moment In her notebook, down to the trifling fee paid to a fomalo hairdresser for putting a keen edge on tho llttlo razor with which she ended hor llfo. Shu entered, too, tho amount of money remaining In her purso. fivo ten and a few sen, eufflclont bho hoped, for her funeral expenses ; and, with the purse, the account book and two explana tory letters placed In her bosom, she tied her long uudcr-glrdle of silk tightly round her clothing, just above hor knees, for she was the daughter of an imjioverlshod Namurnl, nnd knew tlmt a Japanese of good breeding, liken citizen or ancient Homo, must fall decently In death. Even to Occidentals the story of the poor girl's self-immolation seems unspeakably pitiful, but Mr. Didiy tells us that the men of New Japan relate itwltr. a strange light gleam ing in their eyes, and nay: "She was a true Japanese woman; In her heart burned the flame of the genuine Yamato Damashi-I, the undying Spirit of Old Japan." III. What are the qualities most admired In a Japanese lady? Our author answers that the men of Japan frequently apeak ol a girl of equal social rank as "a good, dutiful girl, ono who would make a good wlfo nnd a good motlior," seldom as "n sweet girl," for sweetness goes without saying In the land of gentle, amiable women; neveras "a jolly girl." Tho Jollity Is loft to thoso girls who have to I Wo by It, the tea house waitresses and, especially, tho "ac-eompllshraont-mongors," the Oelshas, who are the tuofesslonnl flirts of Japan. Ama teur flirting does not exist In Japan ese social life. Tiis aocompllshmonts that insure a woman's social success in the Occident are relegated In tho Far East, as they wore In ancient Athens, to those who are paid to entertain men: theirs nro the wit and the power of repnrteo. the Interesting small talk on the topics oftho day, the amusing little affectations. In short, all the delightful frivoli ties that go to mako up tho overy-day conver sation of tho "charming woman" of tho West, but that oro considered beneath tho dignity of a Japanese lady, absorbed In the serious busi ness of female llfo. It Is conceded that tho absenoo of that free dom In therelntlonof young people of different sexes which Is usual amoug English-speaking nations deprives the young Japanese of much harmless pleasure. Tho absence of such free dom, however, is not, as might bo thought, a hindrance to marriage. In Jnpan every body's betrothal Is arranged through tho me diation of tho tiakotlo. or "go-between." who negotiates with the parents on both sldos. The author intimates that tho loss entailed on tho community by tho restriction of flirting to pro fessionals may bo counterbalanced by tho gain accruing from tho greater security of fem inine morals. Ho is convinced that tho vlrtuo of women is moro efficiently pro tected by Institutions and customs In Japan than In tho West. It Is true that Japaneso girls of the lower nnd lower-mlddlo clnsses spend a considerable part of their lelsuro hours in a manner seem ingly Identical with that In voguti nmonc the corresponding classes ln Great Ilrltaln and the United States. They array themselves In their best clothes, not, to be sure, in cheap finery, imitating the dross of the class above thorn, as their Western sisters do, but in neat, clean at tire, tasteful and becoming. They then take their walks abroad, just us In Ocoldental coun tiles, generally In couples, hand in hand, or In jovous groups, merrily chatting nnd whisper ing thoso mysterious confidences common to girlhood all the world over that lead to fits of uncontrollable giggling and occasionally to peals of laughter. They have even boon known to let the glances of their bright eyes rest for a moment on the passing stranger of the oppo site sex. and even to smllo nt him. especially if ho be an J-jin San, a " Mr. Foreigner," for he Is, In nil respects, euch nn abnormal creature that n llttlo lapse from strict decorum is pardonable when he Is the cause of It Ho fnr n Japanese girl's behav ior may be Indistinguishable from that of the English, sjienklng girl of the same sociut stand ing, but it differs In this respect, that she does not walk out In the company of her brother's masculine friends, nor does sho become ac quainted with vnung men on the slightest per functory Introduction, much lees on no Intro duction nt all. She does not "walk out" nor " keop company" with nny ono. while her English-speaking sister frequently does with a young man of whose antecedents and moral character she knows llttlo or nothing. Horein, in our author's opinion, llos tho superiority of the Japaneso social system. He admits that the wide latitude given to voung people in English speaking countries is. in the majority of cases, harmless: but ho Inslststhatlna very consider able minority, on tho other hand.it leads to evils from which Japan is romarkably free. On tho whole, ho thinks that It may be safely as serted that tho state of morality among tho women of the lower and middle classes of tho Island empire compares very favorably with the conditions obtaining In the Occident. As to tho highest clnsses. some verv rare excep tions apart, their women aro virtuous nnd set n worthy oxamplo of goo! works and personal dignity to their less fortunately situated sis ters. Their llfo Is spent ln a calmer and cooler atmosphere than that of Western social life. Fiee from tho race after pleasures In which society v.omen of the Occident are whirled along, they are. as yet. untainted by the neu rotic craving for "smartness" that saps the foundations oi family life In those Western social circles the actions of which aro most conspicuously published to the world. IV. BlneolRPO, a signal change has tnken placo in an important feature of the conjugal llfo of Japanese women of the higher and uppor middle classes. Wo refer to the Institution of concubinage, which, by the penal code promul gated In tho ear mentioned, was deprived, for the first time, of all legal sanction. In the years since the publication of Hint code, con cubinage has fallen steadily Into disfavor. It was always confined In Japan. China and Coroa. to the affluent classes, ns. naturally, only tho man who could afford to keop another woman besides his wife would avail himself of the pilvilege conferred by Immemorial custom. Throughout the Far East, concublnnge had Its origin in tho desire for male Issue. Should the wife there has always been only ono legal wife, except in n very few cases amongst the highest clas0h In ancient times fall to pre sent hor husband with a son, he took, if his means allowed It, n concublno. In the hopo of securing the continuance of tho family in the male line. Numerous instances nre recorded of wives, unable to bear male off spring, actually requesting tholr husbands to tnko a concubine for the sake of perpetuating the family name without having rocourse to adoption, the course followed by men destitute of sons, but too poor to keep up a plural do mestic establishment or too fond cf a wife to divorce her on a flimsy pretext with a view to marrying another. What is here statd on the subject of concublnngo Is applicable, In the present tense, to China and Coroa. but In the past tei.se only as regards a large proportion of the population of Japan. Tlio Japanese law of 1880 forbade the recognition In the family register of the son of a concubine as the heir, failing mnlo issuo by the wife, and thus tho primary ration iVfre of tho whole system fell to tho ground. It Is probable onough that other causes than tho desire of a son and heir had. In the course of centuries, oporated In favor of the custom. The Ineradicable polygamous Instinct common In varving degrees to men of all periods suggested the addition of concubines beyond the requirements of family perpetuation to the household capablo of supportingthem. Hence, concubinage dies hard In Jnpan. the polygam ous Instinct bing unnffeetcd by tho law de priving the custom of its logical excuse. Still It Is tendlpg to disappear, Tho concublno iilelake, or Aio) was always a kind of upper servant rather than a consort; sho waited on the wlfo in cases where tho two lived under the same roof, only rich households having a separate establishment, or shu-fnat, for tho concubine; she addressed her respectfully as (Hit Soma (madam), while she, herself, was called only by hor pcisonal name, even by her own son, should she bo fortunate onough to have borno the heir, whereas ho would call the legal wife his " mother." To her son, the ifekahe" would stand In the position occupied In many Occidental households by a faithful, valued nurse, who had "brought up the young mns tor;" toward his father's wlfo. although united to her by no ties of blood, the concubine's son would obscrvo the severe subjection prescribed by Far Eastern filial piety. Since 1HS0 the con cubine has no legal status In the family, and Japanese women, inspired by tliouewthoughts Instilled with the modern education, are net slow to realize the fact Mr. DMsy thinks that It may bo assumed that the lapse of another generation will mark the virtual extinction of the Sho, or Mekake", It seems, however, that there nre not want ing Japanese observers of social condition who are in considerable doubt ns to the ultimate benefit derivable by the nation from thu disestablishment of the system of concubinage. They express a fear, based on their Inspection of Occidental life, that the disappearance of the Mekake- as a recog nized Institution may lead to social evil of j another kind. The husband, they say. may seek variety In his sexual relations in other and less open, and, therefore moro pernicious ways; he may lead a doublo life, squandering his means on a ctandcstlno establishment, per haps raising an llloaltlmato family, and thus creating a class hitherto almost unknown In Japan, the ctassof unfortunate innocent beings who. In tlio west, suffer cruelly for the trans gression of their parents; ho may frequent tho rbsnf-trara, or ho may cast ees ol deslro on his neighbor's wlfo or daughter. These foro boding are uttered by men who. in oonflrma tlon of them, point to the wrecked lives so com mon in tho Occident. It Is, we are told, a pe culiarity of the Far Eastern observors of our sootal conditions that they are not deluded by tho conventional fictions which we find com forting, but probe deep Intoourtiatlonnl faults. They are just, and acknowledge that tho fam ily life of thu majority of Occidentals Is worthy of Imitation, but they reject the assumption to which tho West clings, that this majority Is overwhelmingly largo. They know, by tho re sults of unprejudiced observation, how largo the minority Is, and they hosltnto before rec ommending tho wholesale adoption of n social system that permits. In their opinion, the ex istence of so much unhapplness. so much un deserved suffering, so much hypocritical de ceit. "The MekaU," they say, "was, undor the old dispensation, a respectable wom an, and her children had equal rights with tholr fellow crenturos. If we abol ish concubinage entirety, we lower her to the position of n clandestine mistress and her children will bo condemned to tho hard lot of bastards. Moreovor. tho husband who hitherto saw no wrong in his conduct will ln future vWt his mistress by stealth, becomo a moral coward, and practice deceit toward his wife, who, for her part, will bo tortured by pangs of jealousy, suspicion and hatred sho never knew before." To these warnings the nrdent social reformers of Japan reply that husbands must learn to conform strictly to monoxnmy, the purest and best form of matri mony; tho objectors return to tho ehargo with tho assertion that continence Is not given to every man, that marriages nre often unhappy from physical causes entirely beyond control, and. Anally, that counsels of perfection do not enter Into the rango of practical social reforms. It is not to be supposed that tho Japanese people, happily as they are situated in this respect, arc entirety exempt from thoso dramas of passion so frequent ln the West. Even In the island empire the sexual appctito occasionally works havoc. Cases of conjugal infldollty occur among the Japanese ns in every nation, nor Is every young unmarried girl content to await the good offices of the Sakoilo.oT "go-betwoen." nnd her parents' subsequent bidding before giving herself to a man. Instances are not rare on the contrary, they supply material for innumerable novels and plays and for sensa tional paragraphs in the newspapers of young people plighting their troth spontaneously and resolving to die together when thoy despair of obtaining the parental consent to their union. We are told that these doublo suicides from love, called jo-thi or thn-yii, some time terminate a clandestlno liaison that has been or is In danger of being dis covered; but. much moro frequently, they nre pure "bridals of denth." scaling for eter nity the hitherto platonlo affoctlon of two young heaits despairing of the fulfillment in this world of their yearnings. In such a caso the lovers will plight thelrtroth to each other, sometimes "for evor and over," sometimes "for thioo or moro successive existences," using, ln connection with suicide, an act strongly condemned by Buddhism, nn idea borrowed from tho Jluddhlst belief In tho trans migration of souls. They then, In many in stances, partake togother of a little feast, nnd die by thoir own hands, clasped In n last, which Is often the first, embrace. Invariably they leave a written statement of their motive Oc casionally they commit suicide separately, and In rlnces distant from each other, but as n rule they die In each other's nrms by dagger or poison, or. more fre quently, by easting themselves, tightly bound together with tho girl's under-glrdie. Into n river. The Introduction of railways has sug gested an additional method of consummating the " nuptials of death." and tho Toklo express has sent more than one couple of unfortunnto lovers to seek reunion "forever and over" In the Met-da, the world hereafter. Should, by any chance, one of the lovers be saved from death through tho intervention of others, tho survivor Is bound In honor to commit suicide ntthe earliest opportunity, so ns to rejoin tho beloved twin soul. A girl thus saved who should long survive her lover's suicide, would be despised by her feminine companions nsn crnvon: a man who should neglect his obliga tion to abide by his plighted troth, and should consent to linger in this world ns the survivor of an attempted jo-slii, would be hounded out of the society of his comrades as u coward and perjurer. V. It must not be tnken for granted either that fashion has no power over the female mind In Japan. Its tyranny, however. Is less capricious than In the West, and Its decrees take a longer time to permeate though tho social strata. In Japan one does not eee the costumes of the highest classes repeated In cheap and tawdry imitations on the persons of serving maids and factory girls out for a holiday. It is well known that. In Great Britain, the housemaid, shop girl, barmaid, and "chorus lady" sally forth in their lelsuro hours nttired in clothes and trin kets that would, wero these things really whnt they pretend to be. Imply the outlay of at least half a yoar's income on their persons. In Japan, on the contrary, things are what thoy Beem as regards matters of feminine apparel, and this genuineness extends to the por son of tho wearer, except in tho matter of the complexion, which often Is artU flolally raodlflod with the help of powder and of paint, and, sometimes in the case of pro fessional entertainers, even of gliding, nppllod to tho centre of the lips. The "mnke-up," how ever. Is so polpable, the powder Is so thickly strewn, the little patch of red on the lips Is so brilliant and sharply outllnod, that there Is no attempt at deceit. Astotheflgure.it Is truth ltselt;"lmprovers"of various Kinds are mys teries unknown in the Japanese femlnlnn dress, the small cushion sometimes worn at tho back under tho waist being intended solely to support the great bow of tho wide sash, the obi, Tho clothes and ornaments worn by Japanese women being really composed of the materials Indicated by their appearance, and these be ing frequently of a costly nature, a woman's complete costume sometimes represents a sum entirely out of proportion to the means of her husband or her parents. This arises not from extravagance, but from the fact that Bhe is wearing heirlooms, for the beautiful wear-resisting products of the silk looms of old Japan are handed down from mother to daughter, the changes of fashion being so slight that thoy can be easily followed by mlnoralteratlonsthat do not Injure the fabric. The women who devote the greatest amount of time and attention to their personal adorn ment, which forms no Inconsiderable part of their stock in trade, are the geishas that Is to say, the professional entertainers, singing I girls and trained flirts. These are no less careful than are the most exaltod ladles that their dress should be In the quietest taste, yet thuy are easily to be distinguished from the lat ter, just because the simplicity of the geisha's costume Is too evidently a studied effect Tho quiet colors and simple adornment of her dress are manifestly the resultof much forethought and of a determination to be tret-chic. Mr. Dlosy has no Intention of adding to the numer ous dissertations on the geishas, but he devotos a few lines to them, in ordor to clear thelrcharac ter from an Imputation that has been sown broadcast. The general impression prevailing among Occidentals Is that they are, without exception, as frail as they are charming. This Is an erroneous view, for, although the circum stances ln whloh they exercise their calling expose them to great temptations, to which they frequently succumb, there Is absolutely nothing In the nature of their vocation render ing laxity of morals inevitable. There Is no more reason (or a geisha to be Immoral than liBBBBBBlBHBBBBBBI there Is for an Occidental publlo entertnlner, octresd or coneort singer to abandon the straight path of virtue M. In a most Important Phase of tho question of woman's placo In tho social fabric, tho men of Japan havo undertaken to deal with an evil which Is ns old ns tho human race and which has baffled social reformers throughout thu West. Tho Japanese have succeeded, for many generations. In stripping vice of Its most dnngorous, repulslvo nnd degrading attributes without thereby Increasing It prevalence. Tho so-called "social evil" exists in Japan un der the vlgllnnt caro and strict control of the State, wisely oxerelscd In n niminer thnt safe guards the health of tho whole community nnd the virtue of chaste women, whilst raising their fallen sisters to n level of comparative decency that saves them from utterly hopeless moral and physical degradation, nnd oven gives them nchnncoof returning, some day. to a virtuous life. It Is undeniable that the existence of the unfortu nate Inmates of the l'o.ii(-irarn at Tokio. and of similar localities In provincial cities, Is sad enough at the best, and, especially, In tho fre quent caso of a girl who has sold hersolf for a term of ) oars Into the vvotst kind of slavery, so as to obtain sufficient funds to save hor fathor from bankruptcy. Grievous, however, nsls their lot, the .ro-ro who must be distin guished from the Qeinhag, or professional enterlnlners nro In nn Infinitely better position than are their sisters in tho West, who, with Occidental Irony, are cnllod "gay women." for the Japanese fallen women have prospects, however faint, of social redemption, nnd are, Indoed. often fit for It. With the exception of n few who havo become contaminated bv association with the scum of all nations nt the treaty ports, they nro sober, clean In their persons and their speech, nnd retnln. In splto of their Immoral mode of life, n certain cour tesy and refinement of manner, togother with a gentleness of disposition that enable them, if fortunate, to reenter the ranks of tlielrrospect nblo sisters without bcnrlng too glaringly the brand of their rust. Not only Is vice not Increased in Japan through its regulntlon by tho State, but wo are also assured that It Is not thereby palli ated In the eyes of the self-iespectlng section of the community. Wo should here notu thnt tho sash-bow tied lUrnnl, nnd wore than three hairpins, are badges of their calling imposed on prostitutes In Japan, formerly by old sumptuary laws, nnd to this day by custom. This fact should not be lost sight of by Occi dental ladles, so that they may avoid tlio gro tesque mistakes frequently made by them when appearing at fnney-dress balls in Japa nese costumes. Wo observe, further, that in Old Japan that Is to say. before ltfUS-the amurai, or nntive gentleman, who visited tho Wif-trara, concealed his features beneath n broad pudding-basin shaped hat or a cloth tied over his face. To this day no respocta Dlo Japaneso would like to bo seen pass ing through the gntchof the prostitutes' qunr tcr. unless In tho eompanv of a foreigner to whomhowns showing the sights of the me tropolis. Whatever may bo thought of tho sys tem, with Its strict police control and regular medical Inspection, its complete efficiency in one respect cannot bo disputed: it succeeds In confining Meo to one particular district, where only those who deliberately seek It come In contact with It. It leaves the rest of the streets of the great city clean nnd pure. Thus Kandn Is the most rowdy vvnrd of Toklo, tho I.atln Quartorof tho Japanese capital, tho homo of students nnd the location of clandestlno drinking shops and tea houses of shady repu tation. Nevertheless, a Janmeso lady might walk through tho streets of Knnda nt any hour of tho night without seelngnnvthlngthntcould possibly offend tho most sensitive feelings of propriety. So, too. at midnight, a man might stroll nlorrg Ginza. tho Iteeont street of Tokio. without being once accosted. For aught lie could soe orhearln nocturnal rambles through the city, such a thing ns vice might he abso lutely unknown In tho Japaneso metropolis. If we compare this with tho state of London streets between 11 o'clock at night nnd the small hours of the morning. ve muot accept tho author's conclusion that "they order these things better In Japan " M. W. II. Andrew Jnrksnn nnd rfls Times. In n volume of 470 pages entitled The Jack fnnian Kvneh (Hnrpers). a credltobieattempt Is mnde by Mr. Ciiaiii.es II. Pf.ck to given critical survey of the political history of the United Btntes from the Presidential candidacy of Jack son to I lie accession of Tyler Theiels no doubt that the period trented is ono of tlio most sug trestl v o and dramatic in our history. It marks t lie full development of American political methods nnd presents tho most distinguished group of public men ever brought together in tills coun try. It Istruo, ns the author says In his pref ace, thnt general histories, however useful, subordinate mon to events, while biographies nre apt to magnify Individuals and toglve their environment nn inadequate portrayal. Mr. Teck's aim Is to comblno tho historical and bi ographical methods so as to prcsont n lifelike picture of an animated political era. The book begins with nn account of Jack son's Seminole campaign, which had a decisive effect on his political relations to Henry Clay, and, we might add, to Cnlhoun. There Is no doubt that, in soiuo of Ids acts, and notably In tho execution of two British sub jects, Arbuthnot and Ambrister, Jackson ex ceeded his Instructions nnd violated Interna tional law. Tho order, morcovei, to take St. Augustlno, given by him to Gen. Gaines, would, hnd It been carried out. have pro vontod the poaconblo cession of tho Floridas bv Spain to tlio United States. Consequent ly, this order wns countermanded, nnd the posts which Jackson had seizod were restored to Spain. But so great was the Gonornl's popu larity that thoAdmlnlstrntlon did not venture to censure him. It Is now known, howover. that Cnlhoun. Secretary of War In Monroe's Cabl not. nnd Cruwford. Secretary of tho Treasury, advocatod censure, and that J. Q. Adam. Sec retary of State, alono defonded the Gonoral. Tho outcome of the discussion was that the Cabinet verbally approved of Jackson's course on the ground that It was necessary, under tho circumstances, but proceeded to disavow It In fact. When Congress met. resolutions were proposed censuring Jackson In tho Houso of Keprosentnt Ives, nnd thoy wero supported by Henry Clay in two speeches, one of which, de livered on Jnn. 17. 1HW. Is reported. Tho resolutions wore rejected, nnd Clay's attack upon Juckson provod to be tho most far-reaching and calamitous of his political mistakes. The long feud botween Jackson and Clay dated from the delivery of this speech. The second cause of offence glvon by Clay to Jackson wns, of course, the pnrt taken hv the former in tho election of J Q. Adnms as Presi dent by the House of Representatives. To the end of his llfo Jackson bollovod nnd charged that Clayhad been bribed bythepromlsoofthooffleo of Secretary of State. In a brief inference to tho matter, Mr. Feck e.tpressos tho conclusions at which nlmost nil unbiassed investigators of tho subject havo arrived. Trom Clay's point of view, to chooso between Jackson and Adams was. at best, n choice ot evils. He at once de cided, however, to support Adams, convinced that ho could not do otherwise with any re spect for consistency. When his determination became known, and after all other means of changing It had been exhausted, certain friends of Jackson attempted to drive Clay from his purposo by n performance char acteristic of tlio worst kind of American politics. Somo days before the olectlon wns to take place In the Houso of Representa tives, a letter, anonymous but purporting to bo written by a membor of tho House, ap pearod In a Philadelphia newspaper, assorting that Clay had ngreed to support Adams on the condition thnt Clay should be mndo Secretary of State. It was further alleged that the samo terms had been offered to Jackson's friends, but that none of them would "doscend to such mean barter and sale" Clay forthwith pub lished a card. He pronounced the writer "a base and Infamous calumniator, a dastard and ) altar: and," ho continued, "It he dare unroll himself and avow his svame, I will hold him responsible, as I hero admit mysolf to bo. to all tho laws which govern nnd rcgulato mon of honor," Two days later. In tho samo paper which hnd published Clay's card, tho letter was ncknowlodged by ono Kremor. a witless member from l'onnslvanla, chiefly known nt tho Federal capital by a leopard-Hkln overcoat that ho commonly wore. He asserted that the statements ho had mudo wero truo, nnd thnt he was ready to provo them. A duel with such n character would have been ridiculous; tho tragedy hud turnod to farce. Somothlng, however, hnd to bo done. Clay Immediately demanded an Investigation by n specinl committee of tho House, and retracted his hasty challengo by stating that "the charges emanating from such a source, this was tho only notice ho could tnko of them." After two days of discussion n com mittoewnschoson. It was oom posed of soven members, none of whom had supported Clay for the Presidency. Krnmer at oneounnoupcod his willingness to meet the Inquiry; but on tho morning of tho day of the olectlon of n Presi dent In the Houso tho commltteo reported that Kremer had declined to nppoar boforo It. Bond ing a communication in which ho denied tho constitutional power of the House to compel him to testify. No further nctlon wns taken. Adnms was elected and Clay becamo Secretary of State. Tho fact is recalled by Mr. Peck that, by Kromor's own udmlrslons, ho had been In duced by others to undertake this business. At ono time, frightened by the turmoil he had created, he repented nnd disclaimed: but. again stimulated by his promptors. he repeated tho original charge Tho contemptible out come of tho affair gavo Clay reason to think that tho bnsclossness of the accusation hod been sufficiently exposed, and that tho affair could bo solely Ignored. His mistake was soon nppnient. Never was a groundloss political scandal more offectlvo. A strong effort was made In the Sonnto to reject his nomination for Secretary of State, fifteen Senators, includ ing Jackson himself, voting agninst him. This attempt failing, the cry of "bargain and corruption" was started to influence tho next Presidential electlun, Tho extremo propriety of Clay's appointment wns entirely lost sight of, ns was also the fact, then well known in Washington, and now on nil hnnds acknowl edged, that the only attempt at bargain had been made by Jackson's frlonds, although without the Genernl's knowlodge. It was natural, however, that tho rank nnd file of those who favored Jackson should regard Clay's appointment ns conclusive proof that a deal had been made. By accepting it he mado himself tho victim of circumstantial evidence. It is true that for several days he hesitated to accept tho placo which Adams had immedlntel,tendorcd. His friends wero. at first, divided in their opin ions regarding tho right courso to pursue, but they, finally, concurred In ndvlslng accept ance of the offer. Even friends of Crawford nnd Jackson joined in this advice, although Crawford himself refused Adams's offer of the Treasury Department. Of tho position Itself Clay was not desirous, and he assumed Its duties with reluctance. Whnt chiefly deter mined him was the belief that, if ho did not ac cept, it would be arguod that he dared not. The prospect of such nn accusation was more ob noxious to him than the other horn of tho dilemma. Ho. therefore, took the alternative of bold defiance It is well known that Jaatson was elected President over Adams by a largo majority In lB'JK. Tho fact, howcrvor. Is generally overlooked thnt the procoding campaign was tho longest nnd most scandalous that has ever been known In American politi cal history Everything thnt rancorous nnd conscienceless partisan Invention eould con coct was poured Into the noisome ntmos phere. Nor were Adams nnd Clay tho solo ob jects of tlio storm of slander. Charges oftho mo9t Infamous character were made against Jackson. So sorious were some of theso that it was deemed needful to refute them formally by means of a "whitewashing committee." as It was termed by his opponents. Even Jack son's wlfo. a plain and inoffcnslvo womnn, whom lie. in early life, had marrlod. and had been ohilgod to remarry because sho had not been fully divorced from hor former hus band, was not exempt from nttnek. Soon after tho election, sho dlod of grief occasioned by tho nbuso to which suo had been subjected during tho shameless scandal. This rankled In Jackson's mind to tho verv end of his life, nnd inflamed his animosity against his oppo nent In that campaign to a degree that ap proached Insanity His hatred of Clay. In par ticular, was llerco nnd Implacable. Jackson fully believed Clay capable of anything of which tlio latter could be accused, and he him self gave currency to tho "bargain and cor ruption" cry. Nothing could silenco that im putation It was printed, plaoarded and hnrpod upon throughout the land. Several times It was thought to bo annihilated, but that was a mistaken notion; It still thrived. In company with a variety of aspersions against Clay's personal habits and character. Argument had little force against tho fact that he had mado Adams President nnd had become Secretnrv of State. On tho stump in his own Stnto, Kentucky, Clay was unable to uRsume the lino of dignified refuta tion; his language lost all moderation and re straint, nnd became the vehicle of raving wrath. The result of the contest was a signal triumph for Jackson. Even Kentucky went for htm. Adnms retired In tho shadow of deep humiliation, nnd Clay with broken health nnd spirits. The fourth chaptor of this book is mainly devoted to u brief biography of Jackson up to the date, March -J. 1829. whon. ntthe ago of 02, ho took possession of tlio White House. Tho author's romnrks on tho popular estimate of Jnckson desorvo particular attention. We aro reminded that nt no previous period of our national history had the people been so Individualized as during that which be gan with Jackson's first Administration. The Domocratio awakening was as thor ough as it had. finally, boon rapid. In the popular mind, Jackson's mission was to -Infuse the Democrntlo spirit Into tho management of the Government. The prevailing conception of Jackson was that ho wan "of and for the peo ple." and It was prodigiously aldod by tho crit icism that ho was without academical train ing, and. on that account, barbarously unfit for the offlco of Chief Magistrate. Thoroughly homespun ho certainly was. Desplto his mar tial bearing nnd tho bolllgerent vigor of his administration, he was, personally, accessible nnd unnfTeoted. To all but his declared ene mies he wus sincerely cordial and winning. His long exporienco of life had subdued and improved his manners. Ho was entirely straightforward, utterly free from cant and pretension. Now. ns in his military career, ho scorned to bo devoid of strong personal ambi tion, and tho ferocious energy with which tho olectoml contest, onco entered upon, had been prosecuted Is attributed rather to his pugna cious temperament than to his doslre for tho honor of being elected During his Presidency tho samo self-reliance which had nlways marked him governed his conduct. Herein he displayed one of the prime eloments of superior ity. A strong mind operates unawed by tho mngnltudo of results. With the samo freedom as though he were docldlng which fields of his farm should be ploughed. Jackson applied his common sense, so far as his Intense personal prejudices would permit him, to the publlo questions that were forced fenn him. No one thought him venal, and few accused him of any moral obliquity. However violent nnd vindic tive ho might be. a largo majority of the peo pie believed him honest and well-meaning. The first feature that marked Jackson's Ad ministration was the establishment of what is familiarly known as the "spoils" system. Mr Peck essays a critical consideration of tlte causes that led to tho Introduction of the practice of removals from the Inferior publlo offices for political reasons. He does not deny that the apollssystem is Inherently susoeptlble of abuses; he holds, howover, that bad ap. polntments, in consequence of the practice in troduced by Jackson, have never been of them selves sufficient to warrant Its overthrow. The sBsWsBBHBMsassVMsMassssMiaisssi most serious o-cll produced by the system Is 1 Its effect on political activity, it tends to make 1 b party contest a vonal quest for office Instead fl of a sincere and olovutod contention over largo questions of politics,! principle an, i public iiollcy. with the result of aiding ' medloero nnd unfit men to push them, selves Into publlo life. Our author Is on tho whole, convinced that tho compels tlvo system, with fixed tenure. Is the wissit C and most beneficial, yot he recognizes thatth ! rise nnd long contlnunnce of tho opposite prao. I tlco woro Inevltablo nnd must be regarded as a I natural outgrowth of our political organln. 1 tlon. The fundamental principle of our InstS I unions Is equality ot opportunity to nil tho po- plo. So long ns tho routine business of govern- I ment can bo performod with reasonable efTS I cloncy without speolnl training or prolonged I oxperlence land this Mr. Peck belioves to be I the ense), tho greater tho number of those who N gnln nn acquaintance. If only a brlof ono, with H offlolal duties tho better: for It Is In some 1 souse n means of education In popular wovrn- I ment which. In tho largest degroo possible. I should be ono of tho reoplo, by tho people and I tor tho peoplo. This seems to to the only ar gument In behnlfof tho spoils system It Is ccrtnln thnt. for mnny years afterths establishment of our Fedornl Government under tlio Constitution, the total number of appointees to tho minor Fodernl offices was less than tho number now appointed under the Stnto Government of New Iforkor of PonnsyS vnnln. For such positions there was no urgent nnd general rivalry. At length, however, the increase of the population nnd the correspond ing expansion of tho Federal business naturally attracted tho attention of the constantly aug. monted class doslrlng employment other than manual The Influence of this phenomenon, wns first felt in State politics, espeolallyln New York, Pennsylvania nnd Massachusetts, whre tho spoils systom was speedily evolved, not. In deed, through the instrumentality of party, bul ns n consequence of changing conditions. From tho time of Jofforson's Administration to that of J. Q. Adams there had been little oc casion to mnko removals for political reasons. For twenty-four years thoro'had been but one Presidential dynasty. Tho opposition bolng at no tlmo sufficiently strong and coherent fully to doserve the title of n party, there was no opportunity for nn offlco-seeklng class to de. elop In tho national arena; there wns nothing upon which to found claims to offlco as the re ward for services, nnd. If there had been, thoso already Installed wero mnlnly among the fnithful. Moreover, time was necessarily re quired for the transfer to national politics of system which wns rapidly taking shapo in sev eral States, though It was Inevltablo that evontually In thoso and othor Statos the numberless Influencos thnt produced a new political epoch would operate to evoke efforts to secure the minor Federal appointments nlo ns compensations for par tisan zeal. Our author expresses tho opinion that, whllo Jackson's name Is associated with the introduction of tho spoils system Into nn tlonnl politics, any other man representing the Democrntlo party in 1820 must havo pursued substantially tho same courso. It Is. Indeed, suggested that John Qulncy Adams was the Indirect and Involuntary cause of tho system: for his absoluto refusal to allow political con siderations to influence tho retention or selec tion of appointees did but stimulate tlio clamor nnd the efforts of the multiplying "outs." But. thougli tho situation rendorod pro scription unavoidable, Jackson was not reluc tant to enforce It. In this, ns in nil ho did. he proceeded with -vigor nnd celerity. During the first year of his Presidency ho made ns mony removals for political reasons ns had been effected, mostly, for cause, by all his predeces sors put together. Of courso a still greater number were mado by heads of departments nnd other high functionaries. Tho policy was greeted by ii loud chorus of denunciation nnd direful prophecy, nnd by no ono with such lati tude of Indignant phrase ns by Clay, although he had been much disappointed by tho Inflexi ble attitude whicli Adams had taken with ref erence to the subject. Jackson was. nn Innovator, also, as regards his treatment of his Cabinet. He first set the example of surrounding himself with obscure nnd insignificant men. Undor nil previous Administrations a Cablnot hnd boon composed principally ot distinguished men who had In fluenced, and who continued to Influence the policy of tho Government. In Jackson's hands the Cabinet wns shorn of much of the dignity it had formerly possossod. No longer were Cabinet officers the "constitutional ndvisers" of the Presldont. No Cabinet councils were held. The members resembled military staff officers Ith the exception of Van Biiron.ttmr were not men of conspicuous ability. Jackson's most Influential advisers wero conflnod to a small cotorlo of friends, who, with one excep tion, were not members of the Coblnet Thor constituted the so-called "kitchen cabinet." Jackson's enomles chnrgod thnt It wns the la mentable defects of his education nnd his un willingness to expose theso thut caused him to repose confidence in men unequal to himself. Of the many interesting topics discussed by Mr. Peek, wo can hero refer only to one othor. namely, the violent dlsson slon which arose In Jackson's own party soon nfter tho beginning ot his first Adminis tration. Tho causo of tho dissension was the rivalry between Cnlhoun. the Vice-President, nnd an Buren. the Secretary of State, each of whom sought to succeed Jackson in the Presidency. The rlvnlry began In n contest be tween them to strengthen their positions by menns of patronage, nnd speedily reachod a Eass that needed only small provocation to ring about open disruption The provocation was soon supplied. John H. Eaton. Hocretary ot var. and.breviously. for ten years, n Sena tor from Tennessee, had recently mar ried Mrs. Tlmberlakc. tho widow of a purser n the navy who had commit ted suicide. She was thn only daughter of 5k.in?.1,.!n,Kt?n tavern, keeper, nnd. ns " Peggy p .Nell. had. nt one tlmo, enjoyed much popu larity among tho frequenters of the capital. Before her husband's death Eaton had beon more attentive to her than was good for her reputation. Under these clrcumsmncs. the wives of the ico-Presldent nnd theCabinek ciflleers refused to recognize her socially, Jackson, smarting under tho recollection of the charges that his own mntrlmonlal ex perience had occasioned, strove to oompel the recognition of Mrs. Eaton. Even his ?wn-.P eee. however, who was mistress ot the White House, refused to oomply with his wish, nnd was sent bnck to Tonnessee in con sequence. As Van Buren was a widower, ho wa in n position to profit by the complication. This Incident gnvo rlso to a breach between tho President nnd Vice-President that other events tended to widen. A circum stance, hitherto concealed, now came to light. Vie have mentioned that, after the Florida campaign. Cnlhoun. then Secretary of War. fnvorptl the proposed censure of Gen Jnckson. who was now. for tho first time, apprised ot tho Tact by a letter which had been written by rawford to one of Jackson's friends Jackson nt onco inclosed n copy of It to Cnlhoun. with a request for nn explanation; as there could be no explanation satisfactory to Jackson, open war between them was declared As the Ctthlnet contained threo membors who wore partisans of Calhoun, n reorganlz itlnn of It was decided upon. To bring tills about I. at on sot the example which it wax desired tho others should follow Ho resigned nnd was appointed .Governor of Florida Van lluren immediatelv did likewise, nnd wns sent as I Minister to Englnnd Tho obnoxious members wero then disposed of, nnd a new Cabinet was constructed. Such was thn Internal condition or the Democratic party on the ove ntthe cam paign of 18.12. In which It had been determined that Jnckson should bo n candidate for re election. In the Presidential onmpalpn of 1K'I2 tlii slanders of 1828 were repented Por'nnal vil llllcatlnii wnspot conflneil to either party, the epithets nnd Imputations with which Jacks n was assailed were not less scurrilous nnd un founded than those from which ('lav. his p pouent. suffered. Indeed, Jackson seems to have got the worst ot It In tills respect, for tlei Krent mnjnrlly of the newspapers were Whlc. "!d their columns were continually filled with nil thnt partisan Ingenuity could invent. A fa vorit" Idea of the Whig caricaturist was to du plet an Buren ns nn Infnnt In the nrms of lien Jackson, receiving sustenance frein a spoon In the hand of thotioi.crnl One pnpu' picture (represented tho President pviiig i crown from Van Buren and a sceptre from 'ho opvll. Another showed tho President ra ne ntn delegation. Still nnnther presented l mJ and Jnckson In th guise of jockles riding a race toward, the White House. Clay hnlf a length ahead Events liy no means just, tie I the forecast. Jaeksun'M triumph wns o" whelming. Clay received but 411 out of -"-,( electoral votes The disparity in the i.ru:w vote was not so marked, though siifllcient'y emphatic: Clay eeelvedrrm.lHll ballots t ijiv Hon'sil87..riV. The humiliation stllTetedbv ('nr was Intensified bv Van Bui en's elect I m toil vice-Presidency The i eject Ion h tho.nnitte '.' van Huron's nomination fnr .Minister 'o i.ngland had produced an effect precisely ' poslte to thai Intended Vet so cmnpletc'y Had thu Whigs been deceived by their news papers, which represented the eultlvated classes rather than Id" so-called "p'-Jn people." jlmt they eontiniied bo istfuT, conw dent until the result ol the eleeU- was malf known. . !