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The sun. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916, December 29, 1901, Image 14

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J James amee Brycei F7COI Lateiri Lat LIr ttal ttalJ ttalIn ttua ttuaIn J
In a volume of more than 1U1 nine bund bundpaged hundred hundredpagCII hundpagc
paged the New York branch bran b of th the OxT OxTUniversity Odon OdonUnlvefllty OztUnIve1ty
University press has published s collect collectof collection collectionot collectof
of elzUten e es teU ey ayr under lh 1be general tof t title titleof tiof
of Studies 8lJdi in il Hittorv H and an Juritpfud Juritpfudby Juriap1iidiby rle rleby
by JAMES JAW Dnicc DnTc D C L None of th thetudW thetudtea 1 1eh1dlM
etudW bad previously prrlouly appeared oPPMr In I pr prexcept prt prtoxcpttwo prexcept
except oxcpttwo two namely nomoI one on relating rlAtng to t toConstItutIon t tConstitution the theCntuton
Constitution Cntuton of the United Unte Stated 8 tl and andto one c cr <
r to 1 tho thr ro rvitwctlve t tthe > ectlve Constitutions rontltutoM of the theDutch t tDutch to toDutch
Dutch republics republC In South Suth Africa E Ethese EVln EVlnthf Ev Evtheec
these thf hare h ve e been bn enlarged cnlargf and rovl rovlTtio rvl rovbw rovbwThe
The purpowj pU of all the coneys CI cM8 Is II to bri briout brng brngout briout
out t thoJmportance thlmpro h4 znportanco sometimes ImetmO overlook overlookof overloko overlokoor
of the Constitutional Conttutiona and legal I a eleme elemeIn el elemeIn m nt ntIn
In history hlt and to present p nt toplon tplO which whlcbecause whichblrmewhnt whicbecauoomewhat
becauoomewhat because somewhat technical tehnical often otter rer rerpeople rer rerpeople rpl rplpplo
people pplo blrmewhnt bytheir bthelr apparent oppot drynoAs drM In a wi wiwhich wiwhich ly lywhIch
which shall s 1 make them thM at at at least 1lt Intelllf Intelllfbio Intelgl Intelglblo intcI1Iblo
blo to t readers who have ho no special Plal kno knoedge knowl knowlege knoedge
edge of ner law lw The first frt paper In the volun volunembodies volumo volumoembIes voluneinbodiee
ege embodies embIes a detailed drtolO comparison comparln ppr of tl tlJlomnn tho thoIomnnEplr tiltomnn
Jlomnn IomnnEplr Empire with the British rllh Empli Empliin Fplr
in India It will I bo b rend rd with Intern Internby Intt intereby t tby
by thorn tbOwbo who would forcast tOrMt the dostln dostlnof dCtny dCtnyct deMinof
of ct the British DrUsh ruleIn rleln rule in tho Indian Indiln Ponlnsuli PonlnsuliAnother PenlOlla PenlOllanoth Ponln8uLAnother
Another noth r essay t1 In II devoted dtotO to PrlmltU PrlmltUIceland prllho prllho1oldln Primith1ceiand
Iceland 1oldln In It th primitive prlmlto oonstltutlo oonstltutloof cntttuton cntttutoncf
Is examined I Ietlll In Insti Iattil
of cf the thef Toolandio T lmdlo republic rpublo tumlnrd
etlll sti another NY ca ay tho author outline outlinethe outnN outnNthe outlincthe
the treatment tr ¼ tment of marriage marlogt and dlvorc dlvorcla divor cllvorcIn
In Romanand Rmanand English EIII h law In and points pint ot othow out out10w othow
how 10w American legislation ICILJnllon linn hnl tended ttldld tendedb t tadoptthe to toaopt
b adoptthe topt the view of tho invtltutlon Inltlutlon of mm mmrlago mnrnajo mutiago
rlago aopt wlJch tut l ch vew wii wn al taken by Roman 10man law lawgivers 11 iaigIvera I Igerunilr
najo givers untler the Inter Intlr republic rpuhlo and Ind unde undetho undtr undtrto undithe
gerunilr lx lxcome I Iao beanne
the to Empire Elplm even ln after Christianity ChrIRtlnnl
come ao tha to State religion rtlglol In other papcn papcnngalni plX plXIgalu poponmgainiupi
mgainiupi Igalu ngalni > uph h qucstlono qUIRtono ax ni tho nature nalur o oK of ofFverlotythQ oaovero1giyth
K FverlotythQ aovero1giyth > veroicoty th law II of nature natlr the method methodof m hcl hclcf
of cf legnl science lcnt and tho I he relations rlatonl of la laand laad iaand
dfecufwed Wo Vo think thinkhowever think10wecr thinlibowevcr
and ad religion 1IgI01 flgion nro nm dIFCUJNI
however that nmst mlt American Altrlan reader readerwill radrl rcntkrwtiI
10wecr will i wish IIh rcpeclnlly rp co to hrnr what hot th thauthor tht thtauthor tbauthor
author of orThe Tho American Amlrkal Commonwealth Commonwealthhas
has 1 to say I about tho conceptions rlcptlolR of tin tinConstitution tho thoCnsttutIn tbContltutlon
Constitution CnsttutIn of f tho th United Unied States Rtatt anno annoelated 8N 8Ncato assodated
elated with ih the th names ni mIl of Hnmllton Inmlton am amTocquevlllp nnd nndTouell aruTocquerlite
Tocquevlllp Touell ol II nIotit > otit ut till th Cowtitutlons Con tltutlo tin tijiOmngo tinOrnngo tho thoOmngQf
Ornngo OmngQf tVeo 4ren State and I tho South SOlth Af Afrlcan Mnrn ittrican
rican nrn I IepuldIc puhllc Vuhlc and n1 ohout the latest lott t ex experlmenl f fprlmPt e eperimeot
perlmenl hi J federal organic fpanio law tho thl th Austral AustralIan AustrnlIa tustrniIan
Ian prlmPt Ia Constitution Contl ullon In II connection cOlnCtOI with theft thefttopics thlFO thlFOtoplCto thestopIcM
topics toplCto to each cncltotwhkb of which wilh a 1 chapter chaptlr IH II nlloted nllotedit
it ma may fY IrtVAvell h w 1 to mark the general gtllral con eonclusloni conclusions ronclulloM ¬
clusions clulloM reached rMclld by Mr Ir Bryco Hr In an OSNIJ OSNIJIn ISAY tRsayIn
In wIdth whlth tho various varois aroul examples oxamplC1 of Flexible Flexibleand Jlpxlhle Jlpxlhleand FIeIbieand
and lUgidOonMllutiorm R icfon tltulloO arc nrl reviewed reviewedIt rtlewl rtlewlIt
It h In n paper entitled onlllld Tho Thl United UnitedStates t lnltedStates nlt
BtatcCnptlutlol States ConPtltutloti a al as Se s1 Sn n In the Past Pastthat IMI IMIthM Pastthat
that our author nliho recalls tho predictions ol olHamilton of ofHaml olBamlithu
Hamilton Haml l and Tooquevlllo TONueII ami conldoni conldonithe con consldenthe ldol ldolte
the te exwnt extntto oxt4nttoihIch to which thwo thlo predictions prNctoll have havebeen liavrbeen
been bn verified verne Thpso Th predictions are con contained cn cnto eontamed ¬ I
tamed to It Is I t well wel known in two books one oneof on onof onoof
of which whtohThe The Federalist FOtr1t reproduces rprdut n nseries nlrll nerles
series lrll erles of letters lete written rUen In 178S liS I7S by b Hamilton HamiltonMadUon Jalulonl liaifltonMadLon
MadUon MadJn and John Jay whllo hlo tho other otherDemocracy olhlr olhlrDmory otherDemocracy
Democracy Dmory In America erlcn nets lt8 forth torh the theobservations thl thlobrtton thsotyioryatlona
observations obrtton and reflections rletlo08 made by byAlexis brAoxl byAlexis
Alexis Aoxl di do Tocquevllle Touovlo In the coun course cun of atour a atour atur
tour tur In the United Unite States Slalt In InAfter 18JJ 18JJAfter 11
After Ater reciting reltlnl in detail detai the predictions predictionsmade pllclonl pllclonlmde predktloniimade
made mde on 0 tho one hand by Hamilton Jamlton and htcoilahoratora his hiscollaborators hI
collaborators cllbrator in Tho To Federalist Foemllt and on onon onon onon
on tIm lhf Other othfr by by Tocquevtlle Touerlt In his hl hl Democ Democracy Demo Demomay 1emoeracy ¬
racy In America Amerc our author alihor proceed proeeodsto proceedto I Itl
to tl compare cmpr the events which have actually actuallyUkon nctlol netuallyLakn
tk Ukon pbioe with wth thooe thO which hleh wore oro oroph ox oxpocttiJ X Xh
ph pocttiJ h 11 pJo the te thetwomoat two most mot conspicuous cn oonsplcmousstiid plcoU students studentsof IleIIA IleIIAvt nts ntsof
of our institutions InttUtoM Wo are for example examplemmlnded xmpl xmplrmnlnllc xampe xampernrnlnded
rmnlnllc mmlnded that tho l Federal Feeral republic rpuhle organiz organized orlaliz oranIzed ¬ I If
ed f In 1780 18 has fared faJ1 far otherwise e than thanas thanA titanas
as A Hamilton 11mlln and his hl friends Irlnds either hoped hopedor hop hopor
or featfdi teaTi leafed t In thin th hownver Mr tr Uryeo Uryeocan Jryr JryrCn Itrycojn
can Cn jn soxflnolhlng oth Ing to Impeach Im eh their wisdom wisdomTheySaw wllomTheymw wbdomThftysal
TheySaw the dangers danef of their own time timeand timeand
and llko Ilo wise w nnd patriotic ptriotc men pro provlded pmvlde provided I
vided vlde the t lx bcst > t remedies remcl which hlch exlylng exlylngconditions exhtngCOfltitiOflR xl fnl
conditions cndltloD pormlttod ponltcd Some Rm danger Iloljrr > y jrovercame yOVOrmo yovorcimo
overcame OVOrmo BO si 0 completely cmpletely particularly paricularly paricularlyJnc > n nfinancial cflnanct
financial Jnc misdoings mllolnJI of Stato Ria Legisla Legislature Illl IgLdaturi ¬
ture that them thtI hart ha now nO ptitwod out outof Olt Oltot outof
of memory memor They Tho could clI < not lon < wv > what whstthe whlt whltto whatthe
the to power of money monl would wOlld l become > e < > mo lie liecauso li licUA heuw
causo cUA uw there va at4 al then little Itl money mOllY In tho thocountry th thcuntr ticountry
country cuntr They could cllci not lot foresee torB tho n ntonlshlnedQVclppmontof RI RItonL1hID as astonthIedQvci9pIltent
tonlshlnedQVclppmontof tonL1hID dld91110nt o of party pr machinery machinerybccauto msehhuryO inacidnerybecaujw
bccauto O It IH I a perfectly 1rlfly new IIW thing thlnl In the thehistory th thhltry theidawrr
history hltry of tho world worle and human humal Im Imagination 11 11aglnat tinagination ¬
agination aglnat n never neVfr doe tO more mort nt any an rat ratIn ralI rate
In I tho held of politics po11iC and wxlnlogy hlnloIY than thanbody thll titanbody
body by forth ror thing Ihlnl a little Itl bigger hhcllr than or orIn orIn orIn
In some Ini othtrwUfl othlrY1 n little 111 varying from fromvital trm trmhal miii miiihat
vital hal they IMVH h iiitv Uvn U before > foro It I runnot runnotcrnato lJot lJotcrtl tunrotcreate
create crtl omnthlriR Imlthlnl mt ful < of nothing lolhlll lyant lyantof IItof Iutof
of all al could culd they th divine thln what th remits remitswould ieu1taiwoulI 1IIlA 1IIlAou1
would ou1 l Ii i of the th noexluUncn f > IItlr of thn tl iiionny iiionnypower 101 101pwr mousypower
power and th t the ht party Ilr machine IIAchlu Nor or did didvn tit titavn tiltieven
avn even pwr vn T Tociuevl1i 9nJ xxuev luvI > ll writing rlll lialf hul n 1 iwntnry iwntnryItUT 1ltury ittiry ittiryliter I IIwr
liter when whel wten wealth wlll hail already lwlly 8 > ar > d dnd
ald aiid nd tits du jiarty IWr pert iiuehliiH 111 wu U In II plarrv 11 pas bs bsgtniitii I m mjcltinlni I
jcltinlni 111111 to work Inivo Htn sriv iv What hal IxMh had hadill hadil hatiIn
ill il toi toiOur wrl
Our author aLtlor rmtt f1 t lmuln lniiulreui Itour 10 T TnAllu TnAlluli ToettuyI1ti u urillo I
rillo li would oull siifiul llld liU hl lit rrttlirU4n Irllf wen rr r I 1 Ito Itoaurtylii MI MIurviyln
urviyln urylll lltn III p 111111 pIiumnsiia lufuiiitniMt of t liMlayf I 1 1U II I Ithat
11 U UIUHII uaIM llt that t l I > wiKjlH ttl add 11 tu t 41 I be beof H 11 > rou rouof I Ior
of iltn tl iii Unlitxl tnlt1 rit htt hItia u thai U I Iau11 Iau11tabllalw1 > pU pUUlilWw >
UlilWw tIJIWII l their Ihtr Itxlnrut JIrt < twniiiiiu4it IUJIIIt ki t uiisit mi mifirm UI ai aiunit
firm Inl fotimUilAiui 10uIII Mftar nfl IftO < < r a frhllul frIstIuI < rt litlul siII siIIEr t l lwar I I Iwar
war Ilt4t lh Ur lr ttf 11 tuiuy my Murti sn4 I lank 11 u Lu H I jM4 jM4ful tw twful I Ilul
ful nfnujmttuli oIJI ttuit they tl Isaki wilil kl oil Jl Ila4t Ila4tdcM II4cIeIi4 1 I
erl dcM HIM 11 tlu tly tiuy > y luivx I II ajIttMttit uiiUti Mi l IIt < > M HII HIIfrwt <
It frwt f fri A fleW < M 1 fur f an a wt I44lltlai444 > iitlMwl uuliMrtol uuliMrtolll 11h mluaIrildsbslojwitoitt
ll dsbslojwitoitt VI > 10Mltnltt 1001 and l 10 tu IWttMtM eM4miUitItIMltogt H ItMltKIUl ItMltKIUlUit hM hMunauol
unauol UitItIMltogt Uit llolrx l kUinUrd 1lllnl wf 4 Mvittfuil 111 sH1mt aHdfUullf aHdfUullfM 1 n1
bat II kir4 of wtIsIs It j4 1 k44t4ia1 k44t4ia1eultufu
IU uI o 1
eultufu 1llur 1 ltas rie m rniui4 I hr tut twtihI twtihIi4iiiIt I
i4iiiIt 111 hat I It eI weiaIi4 a I Ut 4ujc IkC I Ibs
bs I ttad 1 flt tis et IHeMu4 f Ht sm Ky e ebait
bait IIIt wi4saiiI St 04kti f w i I IIr Ie IeMr
Mr Ir U lhIrw ia l p my y NW4dSt NW4dStbet
bet IS W1ItP 1 w wII wwW M sMa sMaiii4ti1
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tl 4 0 S1 mtiv1Mb mtiv1Mbut R I
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b ib i ililI
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S is m ii t J r rMm
Mm u4 inj H Hw Hsb
sb a S A Aii ji jiS
S ldlriu 11 atiw t I w wa
a ha fi lIb fi fiU
b 4 I O d Li t tP
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p 4 4 a a II t 14 M 4 l eIg4 < i iI
o o
I Ig4 uP4 s r rc LInt1 LInt1g
c thu ms a sgr at 1 Ia
posal Moreover Morver oroYer the theonehb on onechambered < xhmb rd rdUlatur Li Liiittu
Ulatur llt p waimach wuImuohltrDIII itrong strongP r M alahlt alahlthim gal galhim
him than are re the twochambered twoohbre Let1 Let1latures L IM IMZturee
latures ItuJ of ae America Americ which may mT and ad f fquently tquently rr rrqueDt
quently queDt do differ dlrer In opinion eo 8 that tht thatPreldent t tPresident tho thoPrdent
President Prdent or Governor Govoror can on play ply pl off ot c cagainst ole oleagalnt Cagalnat
An Amerlc AmerlcPexleral AJU1CFederal
against th the other Again Alan
Federal Feora President Pldent has ha a Cabinet Cblot of n t tvUors ad advr evbcra I
vUors vr whom hom be has hR himself hlm 1 selected eleted a aan od oda aIn
an American Btate Governor Ooeror has usual usualofficials usualy usualyomcll uaua uauaofficial
a omcll officials AmeroAn around aound him who being bna elected ele electeda 1 1a by bya
a party par vote oto at the name Ime election olooton are nr pro proably prb prbably proably
ably his political pUtcal aUto aUIO wboroa whor n Sou SouAfrican South SouthArcan RotiAfrican
African Arcan President Prdent might possibly psIbly have i iExecutive o oEethe I IExecutive
Executive Eethe Council Cunci of opponents oppncmtl forced tol forcc4him t thim on onhim
him by tho Volksraad VolkArad And oven In n ngotlatlont ne negotton ngotlationa
gotlatlont with lb foreign States lio could Culd n nact not notac nact
act gotton from this Executive Council M MDryce Mr MrDrC 1 1lIryee
apart frm thl Eetvo Cunci
ac npa to Indicate tho distinct1 distinct1noto distinctinote
DrC Dryce goes gO on Indlrat diltincho diltinchonoto
noto of both bth the South African Arcln Constlti ContItttions Constltitlons CnRttu CnRttuton
tlons which was wn tho kind of relation rlaton the thecreated thor thorcr tiitcreated
created ton botwoon btwon tho Exocutlvo Exotvo nnd tl tlLegislature tho thoLlllatur tiLegIiature
Legislature cr Llllatur Tboso Tbo powers pwerl were wcr no not dl dljolnod dl dljoined
joined Jolno as In tho United Unite States Btatt because bocnusoSouth hecuf becauseouth a aSouth
South outh African Ancln President Prldent habitually hahlully ni nidromwd nd ndnnt litiTOsOi
dromwd and might even load lod the Yolk Yolkmad Yolke Yolkemnd Yolkmail
mad Xolthor were wcr they united InitNI as 1 aaBritain I IBritain In Innntnln
Britain nnd her colonies where wher tho E Eecutlve Ex Execthc EcutIo
ecutlve ecthc Ifl II at tho ho same time tme dependent do pndent o otho on ontho cthe
tho Legislature Lglltlr and Int also Rls the loaderof th thlegislature tho thoIflllatlre t tLegislature
legislature Iflllatlre for the th South African Arcan Proa Proadent lr Irotdent I Idlt
dent dlt was elected oleto by b tho people Jpl for a I flxc flxcterm fxe flxcterm
term and could culd not lot bo displaced dwplncd by h tl tlVolksraad the theYolk tiVolksraad
Volksraad Yolk rd He 10 combined the thl Indspei Indspeiclonra Indepln IndeplndOIO IntlapetinUro
dOIO clonra of an American AmlrcA President Prolidont with t topportunities the theopprtunltlll topportunities
opportunities of influencing Innuencng the fg1aturenjoyed LegWatui LegWatuienjoymi Ijtlature Ijtlaturenjoy1
opprtunltlll enjoyed njoy1 by a UritUh Jrltlh or IlrltUhoolonlal IlrltUhoolonlalMlniHtry Brtlholonll Brtlholonlllnlt lirItIthcotontalMiiibttry
MlniHtry lnlt For nearly all ni practical practc1 pui puiIKXOH purIIO pUItost4
IIO IKXOH ho woa on at lt tho morcy more of tho LttghInture Loglt Logltlature LOjIA LOjIAIntur
lature l henu ltocnuo > ecnui o he had neither a veto to Ilk Ilktlm lke lketho ilkdie
die Amorioan Amori01 President Pr ldont nor n power powerdIaMiuIon < Qf QfdWluton i iillcflolutlon
dWluton illcflolutlon llko Iko tho th BritUh Britllh MlnUtry ntr Th ThVolksraad ThYolklrn1 TbVoikaraad
Yolklrn1 Volksraad could culd tko all al real power froi froililm from fromhim froitint
him should It lx no t mlndocl mllrDI Hut Blt ho wa watrong was wastrug wintrong
trong trug by bythe bythe the possession p Alon of two ndvantngcf ndvantngcfilo nlhaltnrf
ilo could culd persuade pnuado his Volksraad Volksnd whlc whlcliad whictad hleh hlehhad
had not by forming lormlnl Itwlf Into organize organizefiartleo orglulzld orglulzldpnrtM OrgitIIiZ4lstrtIrts
pnrtM fiartleo strtIrts become bmo Inaccoswlblo InncoAlhlo to pjrsuatlon pjrsuatlonIlo p lunlon lunlonHo
Ilo could rlhllnfuenr Influence the t h opinion of hit hl po poilo po poplo peoiie
their choice and i iJngle n nnglo i4nla
plo ilo because laul he WAS 11 thllr cholo Ind
Jngle man In A hl hlh h plncn ploC Ilt flies fx tho at aticntlon nthmtlon atentlon
icntlon and lend Ilda tie mind mlnr of n peopl peoplnoro pplo pplomor <
mor 1101 noro 0 than tln dox rOI 1OO on al intlOur ns Momhl MomhlOur emhly emhlyOur
Our author remind n > mlndH us I that thlt tho twliJouth twit tlnSoulh twitouth
Jouth African Afrcnn rtpubllob npublC though Ihou h not pun punjut Ilurebut P Put
but jut ut representative rpnHmtnth democracies demorcls wen wenloverthelcw iterICVCIthSlCt ef efnlerh
nlerh loverthelcw k from lrm one point of view 101 com comarable cr crparnhlo cornarnhe
parnhlo > arable with wih the Greek Orok Commonwealths CommonwealthsThe COlmolwoalhs COlmolwoalhsThe
The Orange OrlllO Free JJ Stnto had In 189 1S6 1S95 onlj onljomo olly ollyIme 0111 0111omo
Ime omo 17000 10 otlng citizens clIzll and Inl the th Trans Transaal TrM TrMMI Transant
ant not nt many man moro mort while whlo Athens In thelays the thodnf tiulays
dnf lays of TheinUtocIes Thlnltoc hnd about 30000 30000Lfter 300 OOOOLfttr
Lfter noting this tWI numerical nUlerlnl resomblanet resomblanettweeu rlomblnnC rlomblnnCblWll resomblanectetween
blWll tweeu < the Greek G k and the 111 Boer democ democaclen dlmo dlmorndr hiurteado
ado our author expresses exprt 1 tho oplnlor oplnlorhat opllion opllionthnt opinlorhot
hat any an one who knowing knowlnl little 1t10 or nothing nothingbout 101hln 101hlnnbut notitinjibout
nbut bout the social lolnl conditions rneillon anti od the hlstorj hlstorjf histor historf hIstor hIstorI
f tho two South African republics rlpuhlcH should shouldnvo Ihould Ihouldhno iiotiliaye
hno aye tried to toprldlot predict the working worldn of theli theliovermnents thrlrolrmeltl theitovrrnlnents
overmnents olrmeltl from morn n perusal IrnAI or ° f thou thelionstltutlons thouoiistItutIoii I IconRtltullOII
conRtltullOII onstltutlons would oxpoot to flnclItem flncl fld fintitwin I
tbtm Item producing prouclnp a supremacy perhaps perhapsCranny a atrnnn t tranny
trnnn Cranny of their reprencntativo rprclnlnthe ns nlOrhlj nlOrhljfew assembly assemblynnt embly emblysw
few sw checks chok upon upn Its IR power pler being bing discover discoverbio dlstr dlstrohIo c1isoverblo
ohIo bio within wihin the four corners corol of cither elhrr In Intrumwit Intrm Intiulnerit
trm trumwit < nt Ho 10 lb would have l lll Itoeri > oeii prepared preparedj prpare
to j N F 500 > party 1lry government IOefltnt develop itself ltw IJI > lf In a arenounced aprououlcNI aroiiotinccd
prououlcNI renounced form to see F power concern concenatinl cOlcon cOlcontralllln concernated
tralllln atinl In the party majority and Its 1111fllrrl 1111fllrrlto loaders loadersi
to i see the Executive 1xlullv l hlomo become ocomo the th < humble humbleistruinont hlmblo hlmbloIllrrmt humblettrumnont
Illrrmt istruinont of their will 1 and to w 10 see > o finally finallyie flaly flalyth
law In in tho Trans Transaal TraitsluLl
th ie courts CoWl of especially tpelal Trnl TrnlMI
luLl with wih itIi Its I flexible constitution Con tlutlon unable unablestem unnhleto unableI
to I stem tlem the tide of UgUlatlvo Illlllallt violence violenceM t
M 1 n matter IIUcr of fact what hat hnppencdl hnppencdlParty hnp itappetiediParty leP lePParty
Party government In the th English FnIU h andmerican and andmericnn nndAmernn
Amernn mericnn s snae jnse I did dil not make mko Its I app npJIr npJIrnncl appear appearace < < ar arnee
nncl nee The 110 Legislature Iglllalrn did not twrnim1 twrnim1ho
Iht ho dominant t power > ower KUbj subJeetln ubJII < < ctlng all ni other otherowers othlrIOWIU otherowera
owers to itM 11 Itsslf > lf In general Ienerl It It followed followwllm tolow1 tolow1tho
IOWIU tho lm ie lead Ird of tt the Eseeutlve E uthl The courts cturla of ofiw orI ofOs
I iw though Ihoulh In the th TranKvanl TrlMInt at ono mo molent monWlt rnotent
nWlt lent menaced Dellelondmlnltered nilmlnlctorMl jiiHtlcn with withUrnesH wih withdrness I Ifarc
farc UrnesH nnd Indipotidonco Inlhflululco From rom I Isci IsciI MM MMj a1
to j ISM ISC the tlo l gllnturo IorIlatur of the Orange Orl o From Frootato Fromtate r rStle I
Stle tate wan guided uld1 liy h the counsels runel of Prenl Prenlent In Indelt Ireshslit
delt slit Hron nrarul < l whom the people l > ple olexntxl ollt1 for forve forfho forie
fho ve Micciwlvn 1 < I t ttrm term rtn Ill II Micc INr uecesor M8or Mr Mriltr Mrpita Ir IrItI7
ItI7 pita who 110 was 10 as oblistl Qhl1 by h ill 1 hralth hnlh to re rero rl rltire meIe
tire ro from frl offlco omr In IS53 Ik enjoyed ImJore e equal < Iusl ual re reK relud meIot
K Iot > ct nnd lud alm nhnot < > i i injual 1 wunl > unllnOufncn influence with wih the thaolkxrand thl theotkraiid
olkxrand while hile President Irilllt Kteyn whoas who whoas Im I
as 18 rlwled In IMK5 vra wal was Imllovwl 11llO1 to 11 11lho i ito > ° OSM > M Mlio
lho lio to qualities qualL which hlh had endeared Jnrld his hl pre preMf lirewessors
dHI > wessors Mf Mors to the th iixnniiinlty nlII In the th South 8oiithfriemn SouthifrlcMii SUllh SUllhAfrllan
Afrllan ifrlcMii lUpulilic Hlllhlc Ir Iilllt Iresiiist wid < > iit burgers huntr who whoM whohJ
hJ M offlci omel from froIIHiIII 1872 till Pi77 K77 wan wnlkl like Ilk Prml Prmlent lredWit
dent Wit M I W V PntorliiH 1lor l IHfot before foru him prae praeially pmC pmCIknly urle urleahiy
Iknly ially morn K sierfuI Hrfitl limit tlan thin tl Vulk Ihrad Ihradnld iktmaaih iktmaaihiil > raad raadii
nld ii iil < l after ah r 1M h l rri Iroidint ldi > nt KrQucr IrOKr Krugerrieitsld Ihrlm IhrlmjVlwtud Ihtl I
rIhdla jVlwtud wax the 1 ruling rlll form tu eros inllic il tu II I hi pyttltlm pyttltlmf juihtirr ll llot
ot f Ui UII t t uountry oullry Tlm lti I gMatuiM 1liAIII th titer titerJro > rt rtirx < i ifor
t tIIJrt
for irx did not lot hnvo h ban in tlm I Ihi Trunnviuil Tnllt any anyor alY shytome
IIJrt > tome or i than In tho lb Orange nlil Jr I ruI Slnti lIA Int thx thxintr Ihl Ihlr tI tIIrer
intr r of Inlllh tnuriiih ot iitF > r 141 I I hi other tlrr author authorIn
u In II the IIi 4 iuiBfinwHilllt < uln11 Vk wlth whtkhi Uih liiltht liilthtav IIhl IIhlI midItta
I av a < < Uwii I prt IfdilI prsIitdN4 liol i fur Ilr It ItIn It Itlii
In II N I MiMtMfrlpt to I < i IWa I Mi i attiy Miiy tlw II Its author authorimtffillr alihor alihornoII authorieogitli
noII imtffillr I tlll thtiit h i Ih 11 dMMrudUHi 1111 + i nr r at lt all allviirf Al sillivlg
11 viirf lit I ii druxttf dltl trMiH UIIurIIIUn1 trau1urnuttos > furir ii ii uf tl tlm tll tioitMltututts
l oitMltututts < m Itlulul lltulluiM of > f OM its t TIHIMVIMI awl H > I the thwr theruIIMti t I
r ruIIMti HK flo IS I I 11 hisiti liitii wi wil will I < uiw ui uutobimt uutobimtKt 111 it it10t I I
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berg b and Ad the te dry cit republics iubU ofLObe ofLObeBretnen of orLlb LO LOBremen
Bremen Bren and ad Hamburg Hambugnnn HarnbtigIInbt Hut t > 4 la iajthnifl iajthniflfoderati6n ta tafederation t n
federation teerton Instructive itr lve0 oa It uf I deals det w wconditions wih wihcndion wconditions
conditions cndion too to dissimilar dlllllr from trmtho those thoseAustralia thoseAwiftaila t tAUtrla
Australia AUtrla to famUh many manyrta precodanta precodantapoint recodentapolnt iI iIpint
point pint In a footnote root note Mr Dryeo Drc recognl recognlthat rgnlr rgnlrtht recognlithat
that tht the Comitltutlon COJtuton of the AustroIIigarion AustroIIi AustrIun AustrIunKaro AustroIltgarlan
garion Karo realm rlm in f a sort lor of double fodoratl fodoratlbut faoratlon faoratlonbut fodomatitbut
but It Is 1 pronounced too to peculiar pelar to se seas lno lnoMan set setas
as Man an example oxlpleto to other peoples ppl a proposl proposlto propolnl
to federalize foorl7 It was 4 the Cqnstltutlon Cqnstltutlontho CJt uton of oftho
tho United Unie States Sttc and nndot of Canada Cnna with whltho whloh withthe I Itho
tho Australians AustralAII studied Itudled most mot careful carefuland rrful carefuland
and It Is thoto syatoms lystOI together with wlh withfederal t tfederal tho thofeeml
federal feeml organic lawof Switzerland Swltzerlald 8witzerhandthat that thatr f fcompared pcompared
compared cmparln In detail detai by our ur urautinorwitht urautinorwithtAustralian author author with t tAustralian tho thoAutral
Australian Autral scheme ischemoIt Ihem IhemIt
It Is well cl known that the Senate Snt of t tAustralian tho thoUltrlln tAustralian
Australian Ultrlln Commonwealth Commonw1lh Is I modell modellupon mo mcxlellupon < 111
upon that tt of the United UnlNI States Stnt tatea In cortn certhcardinal cortncardinal crnln crnlncanlnnl
cardinal canlnnl particulars prtoulnr namely nmel tine Senate Senatenro Sntor Sntornr Senateare
are nr not to be b appointed npplnt hut elected eloto ai aitho Ind Indtho atthe
tho equal oual representation rprntaton of tho six origin originStatoA original original8ttO originStates
States 8ttO In tho Senate Snto Is always alwo to bo b nial nialtalned mnln mnlntnlnO nnaItamed
tamed tnlnO In both bodies blo moreover moreer Sen Sentors Bnl Bnlto Sentots
tots to sit for six Ix years rtnr and do not all al rotl rotlat rtr rtrnt retiat
at tho same Mie time tm Thorn Ther are however hO or r rmnrkablo r rmnrklblo rininrkabio
mnrkablo mnrklblo variations variatlol In tho AustralU AustralUftchemo Australan Australanhomo Australlsscheme
noted by M MBryco Mr MrDrc Mliryco
scheme homo Six of those arc nr notel
Bryco Drc on pages 431122 41422 Thus In the Unt UntBtatcn UnltNI UnltNI8taiM UnltState
State each ch newly 10wl created crntod State rocclvi rocclvias rhe rheOR reedY reedYas
as a n matter matr of right Its iA two Senators SenatorsAustralia Snator SenatorsAtistraita Ii
Australia Autrola f on the other hand the Comnrniwraith Commoi Commoiwealth Qmmon Qmmonwraih
wealth wraih may mn allot nlot such ueh number numl > r as 1 It thlnlnt think thinknt thinifit
nt Again AIAln In the United Unl1 States Htnt onethli onethliof onethlrd onethlrdof onet hip hipof
of the Senate lato retires rtn ever every two yearsAustralia yearn yearnAustralia cal In InAUltml1
AUltml1 Australia onehalf olehal retire ri Ir every or thiv thivyears thnW thnWyl thiryears
years In tho United UnltO States StatC the Prosldoi Prosldoiof lrlr < nt ntof
yl of time tl Soniito nato Is the Vice YlcIllmt VIceIrtIdont President of tl tlUnited tho thoUlled tIUnited
United Ulled KtntEvt HlltN who rIl Is chosen practical practicalby prctlcal
by I II tho people ppl though formally formlb by t a 1 bod bodof bo boof hodof
of Electors Ilotol elected oloted for that JjurpOse prP8e II IIAUHtrln I IAustralia I IVtiKtralla
AUHtrln Australia tho Senate SCIlo chooww cho lu6wn I wn Pros Prcslent P Proslent 81 81denl
lent Wo Wonto Vc note next that In tho UniteStntort Unite Unl UnlSlnlM UnltoStntus
Stntort a quorum quonln of tho Senate Senatois one on mom inoitlutn J momtirnit r rthll
thll tlutn a lialf hllf of tho total numl numitor > er r in All Atbralln Alltrnll Anttrahla
trnll ralln It U I onethird ollthlrr of tho total numb numbAnother lumbr lumbrAnothrr numubelAnother
Another point of great rMt Interest U that I Ilio In Intho Iio
lio io United Unl1 Suites Sttl the th Legislatures Igllltur of th thveral tho thotral thoreral
veral > tral States Rtnto elect dot the tht Senators wheroa wheroan whcrl18 whcrl18In
In n Australia AU11mln tho Senators Rlnalof arc Ir elected eletll b bhe hy hythe bhe
he people fOplo of tho States SIl tN The Th Constltutlo ConttltuttorOYiiPM ConstltutloirovldpH COlltltutlon COlltltutlonproldl
proldl irovldpH that In II the first frt Instance Inltnnc Senator Senatoriro SlltOf SlltOfar
ar iro to bo b elected clllClln In each teh State by h tho peopl peoplotlng pllu plluotn peopiottng
otlng as al ono electorate eletorl hut this thll methie methiemisty met mctho ho hoimy
IIY misty l ho > o altered to one ont of district dltrlct election electionly electiontho Iotlol Iotlolb
b ly tho Parliament Iarllm nt of the CommonwoalO CommonwoalOr Commolnlth Commolnlthor
or IF r if I It I fall tnl to tnko any nn action ncton on the suhtet mill millect Il IlJtt
Jtt ect by h the Parliament Plrlament of a State Stle We Weohfo W Wtbaerve V VibMorve
ohfo ibMorve finally fnI that In tho Unltod Unlll State Statehu StntMthu Statebti
thu hu Senate Bnl is Is an undying und111 body bod porpet porpetinlly porpettally prpt
11 tally rennwi rnowll renntVMI d by I fn tnh froth < h elections eloton neve nevejslng Ilvtr flevenslng
101111 jslng more 10 than tll onothird ontllrc of Its Il membor membort membr membrlt
lt t any an ono elton In Australia AIRtraUn on th ththrr tho thoothrr thtier
tier hand the ttO Senate Snatn may IIY miuu bo 10 dissolve dissolveu dIAIN
In u ease Cao a deadlock dlnrlek should hoild arise lxtwe hCtwOn between < n 1 1nd It ItAnd Ind
And nd the House Houpt of Representatives nepresentntlvosThe RlprFltnth RlprFltnthThl
The Thl Australian Au tmlln scheme tchlto also divergerom diverge dl divergesrem rgl
trm rom both bth the Canadian and the Amen Amerian Amtr Amensin
IA an models toell In the matter mnter of the th judiciary judiciaryho judlclnryThn
Thn ho AustrallaiiH Au trollnl have established 181ahllhl < a Fedoraiupromo Fedora FIralSuprmo Fedoraupreinno
Suprmo iupromo upreinno Court lrt to IHJ called rlo the Hlgli 9higFflIrt Hlgliourt 1gb 1gbCUr
CUr flIrt of Australia AItrll amid nntlllo hate taken tlkln powe poweor 1lr 1lrfor rotroor
for or their Pitrllament PiJamlnt to create Cto other Fed Fedral Fei FeiIml Fedmini
Iml mini courts curs So H far they have hal followe followeh tolowO fohlowotho <
tho h ho United Unled States S IIM precedent prNlent They Tho have havelowever harhowoor iiavtowever
howoor lowever given hln power per to tho Commonrcalth Common Commoncalth om nol nolcolh
calth colh Parliament larlLmlnt to in lnvot e t State court courtIlth curl curlwih courtidti
wih Ilth Federal J < IIri1 juris jUrlct jurisdiction < llctlon lon thereby thtmb allowing allowinghem nlowlng nlowlngtht allow1nIteso
tht hem courts Clr to ho as In Canada Cmlda both Stanmid Stan Stntind Sllto Slltoand
and nd Federal tIIrJ They 1he hnvo nlso allowed alow1 anppeal an nnR1 anitbsil
R1 ppeal > l from trm noun all al State Stin courts Nmrf to tho tii Fedora FedernIlgh rdrl rdrll Fedorafight
l fight h Court COlr By I this thl plan Io the th State Stllo antore nn nnnoro nr nrmor
mor tore directly dirct connected rnlllll with wih tho Nationn Nationnoveniment Sallolol SallololOmmtlt Nationakt
Ommtlt kt oveniment rnrnent and Ind ttulxirdlnated lhonlnnle to It thnr thnrhey thnnUty tharhey
Uty hey are n In II tho UnIted tnld States StatesOther 81Ih 81IhOlher SisitesOther
Other dlIoreiioj Iltellr from trm the United Unie Stnto Stntoinstitution Slntn StntetonstitutIon
Qnltlton institution will IM h < found linllc hllmt1 iiitllOiiti t xl on onAg onpR onagv
pR Ag agv < y < 410 40 and ut 441 In II the Ort plieo ph thn thnUMmllnn th thAItmlan thetirnhian
AItmlan UMmllnn Cnnxtltutlnn Illutol Is I n 1 longer 10ljer Instni Instnilent Intnltlnt insnicnt
tlnt lent than t ourx 01 and lt go fOt g Into Ilto much Iueh fuller fulleretall rulr rulrdolal fullerotall
dolal etall nn ni many mnn topIc topl It I leaves 11 less 11 JK vwir vwirthai > WII
to 9 the II SIn Sfltli4 I < < M and gives Kh more IOr power 1Ir to the theommonwealth thoCommonwallb tlicommonwealtli
ommonwealth and it riiabln thin Com Comlonwiuhh Cornonwosdth 0 0Ionwlh
Ionwlh lonwiuhh PArllnrnent Ilnmllt to legislate Itgllalo for a aitntit n nHlal ntat
Hlal itntit tat upon Ipon tho SUittiH SII1 tiHjuwt n t1sLzm t1sLzmhicit thliiR thliiRliich tllj
which liich lIes 11 Ilulo qtilteu iilto outMlilo outllo tho t h functon fumict functions bits > nl nlongrewi ot otOIr olflgrtVU4
ongrewi OIr It contain rltail hardly hanl any 11 11Mttonl ro roItlctlons
Mttonl Itlctlons Ii In the natuin latur of a Hill 111 of ILlgbitsuxn ItlghU ItlghUwn Itlh
uon uxn wn tho Iwrr H wttcr er of the th Fixleral cJrl I egliiln Ijiln Ijilntum LugtdaLint egliilnan
tum an over the Individual Ilclhd citizens CltZll IiiHtond IiiHtondf I 11 t 01 01uf <
uf f dlxjiilnlng dlJulllK igil lgi 1IhllI liturn ii tire and nlel Executive Jccutivsuuhtos ExecutiveUIUCH Iltho IlthoIt
It UIUCH Uhl llioin Iht1 elowly cIOI by HIM th h systtmn > tom r ot oljKi otf41 otor
f41 < jKi illn hl or Clhllt ibinet Joverntnont oerllnt and andir an amidin I I
Inr ir from In rein I excluding oXlludll1 every ntry r official Imdnl fn r11on r11onn rrtozi m ton tonTo on onrt
To n rt it Ilk stinks a it t In II Parliament ljatunnt a oon oonitlun DUl DUlIhUOI csjmitituui >
IhUOI itlun of If if MiuirTlil tlihril ollkw Iml It I vt tota t t thu thuluiliii th thhul thiiiijlt
hul luiliii iiijlt of th < ItoAil hNII of UB th Ksiicutlvn 1ututh not noti lut lutII
II i th P w ° > pl hut htt In an 11 uxternnl oxtllflauthurlty oxtllflauthurltyth authority authoritylie
th lie t0 llrliUh 10111 Imwii lruwl rJwmt To lx film u ur IhU thl thu IHNII IHNIIi 11d 11dI
I i I iiuiiilnal lolllal BIK alMI not lot nwxtir nlollhl lll < iitlior llnr tn tnno toas
110 no jNHiplc fr or < ir to tho I 1eItatisn gUUtutp oitlil thin thuKIMMI thoI thineIrINI
I KIMMI r nU fl01i7 lly InvKoiol with lh exucutivti exucutivtioner exllh exllhIr lUOUtltWgtt11r
oner iiiMl uteiler Ir r HH th > AiiMrallan uomlll i ytteiil > l 111 < in IK I 1i tutu tlmrliim tl tlJhl tutumliii
Jhl rliim mliii MlnMor Agtln AIIII Ih tlm AuitrallasilIbtItUt4uil Australian AustralianiHwMltutiiiii Auoralll
c iHwMltutiiiii wu KVIWI to t thee t lk B1th xiitlf no 11 it ikh ikhM 11thit h ht
M it t I on I l 1 1b4I154kP51 tti t4t Ikl < > < i a th t JiIiismit ri tiHiit leo ltji ho hohi
hi i ilio Ih ljih iibial In1 < l KuiiH i4t t1 Tim ll ituiulitiil Kllhlil itiiiisrf vtMo vtMouvef 1 1I
I uvef c fIt < tf f Uio U CN iovifinif eisws iMwMl aiwl 1 DM DMruN I i ir
t ruN r a U 1 a i vxry vi t tW iwsiai i ii IW iMiig fiuw tu u IIr IIrt IrwM IrwMllt Itrwisot
sot l t iI4 aisl ti I rrtJ 11 sj4yt sj4ytiiilly
JNr iiilly llt u AmtrnUuu UI n4nn koeu t makm toak k ku it itlullllilt the thetdNtul
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45111 ml IMI H MM N Im I MM4 st HUM I Iheiiid uttH
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IUtuIo Ututloti1 Uttl I Canada Cnd hu h no cuch le me mejind mto zneth znethatid
jind thoroby leave leve amendment amondmnt to tho thoperlal theper1a1 1m 1mpra
t tbo1y
perlal Parliament of tho United Unie Klngd KlngdTil Klnadom KlnadomThe KlngdThe
Til The pra deduction deucion Palment which Jlr Ir Bryco Drr drfrom dr drw drwrrm diifrom
from thlsvcomparlson 1s 1 that tho Aus Ausllan Austr Austrlin Auathan
han rrm scheme thlcuparon of Federal Feoral Government oo rnmnt sta stalnt aund aundInt utallintermediate
lnt lintermediate rmodlat scom between that of tho Unl UnlStates UniStates
States rolto and that btwon of Canada In tho Unii UniiStntca UniStates Unit
States 8110 tho Federal Cna Government has ha 1 1power Ipower
SttC Jeol than In A Atralta Atralla
power us against tho States 8ttt Au Autmla
tralta 1 In Canada Qlda the Federal Feorl Oovc Oovcment Govemrnenthaa Gvern Gvernmenthl
tmla ment menthl rnenthaa has more mor power or at least ICt a wl wlrango witmango ldtr ldtrrngo
words tho A Atrallan AUA AUAtalln Atrsnitan
mango of action acion In other word
trallan talln syEtom IY6tom approaches npprchCII nearer nrrr In po poof poof pint pintor
of form ror to ft unitary unltr government tJ tJdoes than thandO Uidoes
does dO the United States Stto but not BO 1 near nenrdoes ncr neardoca o odO
does dO Canada tntld Mr Bryoe Ilro recognizes rlnlE he heever how howeor hoever
ever Cnaa that It does dO not tot follow folow that thatspirit I Ieplrlt thn thnIplrlt
spirit Iplrlt In which Institutions Inltltutlon are ar worl worlwill wonliwill
will precisely correspond to their form formOur tormOur formOur
wi prIely cr pnd
Our authors final fnl1 word onl upon lpn tho si siJect uh uhJet t tjeet
Jet Ject Is I that tht tho Australian u8trlln Instrument Instrumentthe I Ithe
the true tro child ohld of Its 11 era the latent lat t bli bliof lllrh lllrhor liiiof
of time tme Compared Cmpr with It the Amerlc AmerlcConstitution Amorlcn AmorlcnCntltuton AmericiConstitution
Cntltuton Constitution seems Inl oldfoshlonwl oldtRhlonnd and pat paiof pnrJ pnrJof patof
of tho Swiss SwM Constitution CMttlton positively p0IUely amelia nrchaCabinet orlu ameliaCabinet c cCbinet
Cabinet Cbinet government jomment venom tho fullydevelop fullydevelopform fulyellopd
form of which whlcl is scarcely farly a century cntury o ois old oldIs ois
is taken for 1U 11 basis 11 Ideas Ietn and oel cnti cntiprices enter entupmfse
prices pr l problems prblcl and proposals BO 10 ru mthat ruthat notat
that they tho are nr only just prJ beginning Iglnnlng to toseriously toseriously
seriously ferloul discussed dL c1 figure fgre In It For or I Istance In Inslnc Istance
stance slnc the th struggle lrglle between btwoen white hlo lab labnhd Jabor JaborMel labsinmi
Mel free r colored Clorrd lalx labor > r makes M Its 11 appro approonce npPr npPronc appeoonce
once onc In tho Australian Alltralnn document doumont The Thetoo Then Thento Thietoo
too to tho Australian AU8tmlnn Constitution Cnlttullon roprnsenthe reprosor reprosortho prnt
tho highwater hhthwate mark frk of popular ppular govcrment Iovor Iovormont govcr govermeat
mont It Is penetrated pnclmted by b tho spiritdemocracy spirit spiritdoniocrocy of ofomorc
democracy omorc The actual Ictua every day da wor worIriR work workhi wortrig
trig hi of government Iovumment In tho Australian AU1trnlan c coplos col coloplO cc ccopios <
oplos oplO U more mor democratic domoratlo than In tho Unit UnitStale Unniti1tates
Stale Ralf because OU0 there ther both bth tho State St41 at atthn and andtho arthe
the Union are ar fettered fotor by many rny constlt constlttfonal CORttu CORttutConnl coruttititonal
tonal restrictions retrlctons and because b caU wealth oll h hthore hM hMtbor hithere
tbor there boon bn able to exert oxor a 1 control cOltrol none nOlo tl tllo tho tholO tilutes
lutes lo lO s ixitent l > tClt because bauo halfconcealed Tl TiConstittitlon TlConstitution 1le 1leQnttullon
Qnttullon Constitution of the Australian AntrRlan Common Commoiwealth Commonwtnth Cornmoiwealth
wealth wtnth however Is more mor democratic romorntlo evi evithan even eventhn etithan
thn than are the Constitutions COlutltutons of tho sever BoverAustralian rocral rocralAu severituatrallan
Au Australian tralan colonies olonll In some of which hlch pro procrty prop propery projarty
ery arty qualifications qualfOtoll and nominated lomnat < 1 sorer eecorDhnmlxirx locnd locndchnlll sorerehanibonii
chnlll Dhnmlxirx have hvo survived turlvec until unti now nowfact I Ifact In
111 fact alt ni the th checks chlkl and balance bln of tl tlEnglish the theJlllh thEnglishi
Jlllh English and American Amerl4n Constitutions Cntltutlonf t twhich by bywhich Iwhich
which tho censors clOr of democracy demore used uOI uedet i iot to toAt
At ot such store ItOr have ha 1 In tho Australia AustraliaCommonwealth Autrslln AutrsllnommonNlth Australiaommonwnciith
Commonwealth ommonNlth dwindled down to or oranly one oneonly orimly
only viz 1 ir The existence of two chaners chan chamr chankus
kus > ers r Moreover Ioror these thl two chambers chAmbr ai aislocted are arecll anktcted
cll slocted on tho santo franchise trnehl o and con connt comp conpoiid
nt poiid od of similar Hlmlar mon though tho tondem tondemto tondoncy tondoncyt tenidencdissension
p t to dissension dhFnlon natural otuml to rival bodies bodle ins insnomctlmo 1Mfomttlml mantometimes
fomttlml nomctlmo Interpose IntCIKe delays del The row rowto rower rowerto EOWo
to o dissolve < 1010 both hOIR IIOUSOH however In tl tljvnnt the theernt tIwent
ernt went of n deadlock dMdlek may enable onblo a Prin PrinNflnlster Prme PrmennIRtr Pnimrflnlstor
Nflnlster to control contrl the Senate 8el1te as I well wel r rho R eho
tho ho House 10ut It may lny 1m thought thoulht that thateapects i iospects n nnp8
np8 ospects the distribution Il trlbuton of political pUtleal pow powtuvl pwer pwernd powlflt
nd uvl tho structure Itructur of the Federal F > lrl govern govennent Kovemmtnt governient
mtnt nent tho Austrnliaii AUltmlan Commonwealth Commonwealthilrendy Qmmonwelh Contrnonweahtinthready II IInlrdy
nlrdy ilrendy so R democratlo doroemto that tht It cannot clnnt n nnuch gnuch IO IOmuch
nuch further furhtr Mr Bryco Drr expects eXJI how howsvor howocr hoeIver
ocr that proposals propl will wi lw 11 made rdo to exten exteno extend extendto
to o women In nil ni the states tntc tbat rightotlng right rght t totlng of ofotng
otlng otng at Commonwealth CommonwoJh elections olflOI wide whlchey widehey hlch hlchth
th hey already nlrady enjoy In South Suth Austral Australmil AUtmla AUtmlaInd AuitrnlitOil
West Australia under tho local law lawir latuir
Ind mil WOt OIIt Amtrll undlr loal Ilw Ilwor
or ir to apply more mor widely the Instltutto Instltuttof Ilttutlon
01 tf > f tho direct dir popular ppulr vote oto or to amen amenho arnd arndthe anionlie
the ho Constitution ConMtlullon In some 10mI point which wi winln wi wiat
ml nln at o nn Issue I Mlo between l tln tho more mor rndlciinr rndlci mdlalInr mndiccimiri
Inr inr imiri tho more conservative conAratho sections Iclonl c ciplnlon at atopinion cpinion
opinion That questions qUCtlol of Constitution Constitutionmondniont COltlutlonal COltlutlonalnnu1dmont Consititutionsrnendrnont
nnu1dmont mondniont have playixi pl1 so 0 small ImAI a par para pnr
In n American mtrcan llltlC iolitlcs > olltici Is I attributable Ittrbulnblo to th thXtrcmodlnieultyof tho thoIxtrmldll1cultyot thxtremouilfllculty
Ixtrmldll1cultyot Xtrcmodlnieultyof of securingthe mnjoritie mnjoritierqulrmi mojorltlellntluln1 majonitieequirol
rqulrmi for altering the Constitution I Iiustrnlisi IkuMralta In InAwotrnll
kuMralta the proeeM > roc will bo far easier easierMr CIUIItrIr easierMr
Mr Ir Ilryces IIr f essay A on th Australia AustraliaoiiHtitiition AII AustmahisioIMtftmit trn1ltan trn1ltano
oiiHtitiition o oIMtftmit titulln tori was written just l hlorn > efornthp th the tie tieederal nei neie 1I0W 1I0Whrnl
e ederal ernl Government went Ollt into operation operationlne opt > ratlon ratlonHlnl
Hlnl > lne < then two of Ids hi predictions prl < lctlolill have ha l Iln IlntWII1 loeiujimiesl oei oeiiilfllod
iilfllod Attention Attc > ntlon Is here directed ti tiho to totill Cilie
till ho fact that In several of tho Australia Australialonlol AlilltrallanIonln Atistrallitiolonlal
< lonlol parliaments a Istlior party p rty ha hariwn hM hMnrI1I haviscri
riwn which keeping Itself Independen Independenf IlIdrpt > ndoni ndoniof
of f tho two older parties par II has l ten > een aId nblD nhle nhleto
to D I throw Its It weight on one or the th otheIde ethic olhertldl ethicIi
Ide Ii nod thus endanger t tho stability stahulit y o oabinttH ot otrahinI oahiniti
abinttH The author forew foresees s that shouli shouliIJ hollidthl iiouhtia
thl IJ tia pluiiotnenon roapp reappear ar In the th Porlla Porllatent PnrIlAWilt Panllauitt
tent of thin th Commonwealth It will II com comIlcntn 1m1IInl cornlicali
1IInl Ilcntn Mill 1111 further n position which hloh tin tinrWtrdlnatn tllCodnllnntlJ tiitrkircilnlflto
rWtrdlnatn powerti I owr > of Senate anti HOUM HOUMIrrndy 11011 11011nlrncly Ilomislnatly
Irrndy mako MifllclMttly mCItl complicated complicateds
All s n mutter of fact the phenomenon hai loultIsarol haiiHipM hlllfor
iHipM ltIsarol > arm for nt thin th first Commonw4 ommonwenllh ommnonwcaltilediomis xltl xltlIwlloiid
1 Iwlloiid 11011 < of the tll B 8 Sonatsi > nat nllto i and house lIou bfld It Itm In Inth init
th it m hjirltic rllI of iwi Cbs Ijibor Party obliiiOii ob oblne ohtalll1
talll1 lne < i molt than oiioflfth of thu th M teals > BK al li lineli In Inell Inrich
rich ell chsmlxT Mr llryiw Ilry also Kipffwu Kipffwuin Xll Xllth
th in tMllff 1II < f that qupHtloiM of the th rctmoiuli cconoiniirder rctmoiulirder nnollll nnollllonlr
onlr rder will 11 Im I Is likely morn than th any othr othro eIhteitxsupy Ihr Ihrto
to > o vupy < ihn Ih C III mimi ot f Auitrallai Auitrallaia Aupt raIler raIlerstentsn
a stentsn < M > nti II > n fib hm lu prtivnd to l he e the Ih CHMlie cams e camslie <
111 lie llr first t iiji lullnll tlini l hut dhidiHl partln partlnt rtlN rtlNIII
III t UiH th immiiiiHcnlth HOUMI IIftu of Idpro IdproWlntlvr ltntnthItv
Wlntlvr 1 III h wn was M the th tariff tarllTIt
II w to > iwiiHliton IIIIIn U I rUkolfy Constitution C4 II tltutl n nrti4 fill fillII asijilsit
rti4 ijilsit II > n or r UHwriti unwritten < n Mr Ir Hrytv tlilnki tlilnkiHtulc tMllkJlII thtnktisols
II Htulc M iwMiIiilfle ilitinr lIlln tu t ii i4 Itll rllm tlnlll Aa a H 11 < 1 1iluji
100 4 It t lt4gl I IC Ihiet sa 1 Its I1 14u4f10Iesl 14u4f10Iesllupiwi AahlII
iluji 1 lupiwi < i4 < 4 In 11104 mm iii wf f IM tl Ibm iyp > hi Ihl tl tlt vuluiiw vuluiiwI tjItiiii tjItiiiiliMItIttijs
t liMItIttijs if tIt kl kii t n p aetiij4i41is1 aetiij4i41is1I MloItfttooi MloItfttooiU
I I I lie U M Ulwfk MI iiw It Mill AI n4 Mi H lUllw IHMf 11411 iu I IitUil hi hiithel IIut
Iut itUil CVuHilx loolIIIH IMWMUMI lny tl Chs linvr I cputwily cputwilyIM 4aM MUy MUyhit
al IM hit 014 iM I to IH IMMI I or r uMofMl 1 In I furtw fr > bM bMhm tStiiliwiSii M Mf <
iliwiSii hm f UMtf It HUUtt ft fti ll > I IIf 4044I44 W i4M4l i4M4li
1111 i 4lf 4 llt It4 UMWIIT If UlMt IMII is IM I I sflsI sflsIIie IU IUart
IM art iMiMwo 1 Iie ilmlr HIM 111 k MI tw < 10 htuisi MU km kmIW situ situHI 1 1Ut
Ut HI Ii I this tha 1 tiuW W ItsM ie ieLtIwieiu
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power ti t obngaj bn J Africa bad until untiloentiy untilcetitl re recenUy
oentiy cetitl hi tho Oningo Free Stole B le I Irepubllo tiny tinyre t trepi
republlo re repi bUo bllollvlng lWnr under a rigid Constltutl ConstltutlAa ConetltutlonAa
Aa to tho ho dew F Joed Yedrat xl0ral ral ConstllutlonAuatralU Constllutlon ConstilutlonofAQlltr ConatilutlonAustnilia
AuatralU AQlltr ll there Is no doubt that thl thlrigid UIII thurigid Is Isrlgld
rigid for forany any alteration In It roqulrt roqulrtmajorityof roquircimajonityof 11 11nucJorltyotthl
majorityof the Ktatce atee and also a inajoi inajoiof JMJority JMJorityof
of the th direct popular l > vote voteThe voterho voteFho
The methods by which rigid Constl Constltlonn Conatltu ConatltutloM ConstItion
tlonn maT b be amended differ widely widelythem widelythese ot otthMO
them Mr Dryce describes four The f fmethod first firstmethOd I Imethod
method Is to give the U o amending funct functto function functionto fuectto
to the Legislature but under condltli condltliwhich condltlonwhle conditliwhIch
which oblige obi It to act In a special Rpi Lil way wa wayferofit c cfercht dlf dlftembt
fercht fromthat from that by which ordinary ptatu ptatuore tntuteA tntuteAare tntu tntuare
are posted There may for triRtnnoe triRtnnoerequired Instlln instnncrtiqWntxt be berequlrull
required a fixed quorum of members membersthe memlwrsthe tor tortho
the oonfildoratlon of amendments I Iagain Or Orngafnn Inga1n
again ngafnn a spoclfled J minimum majority majorltvvotes majorityvotes or orotC
votes nuy be berequlrcd required to carry nn amen arnoiment amond amondment amenmeat
ment Sometime this majority is thrfourths the throo throotoUrM thefourths
fourths moro frequently fr It IM twothlr twothlrAnother twothlrdsAnoUerplan twothinAnoUnr
Another AnoUerplan plan 1s l to require a dUwtolut dUwtolutof dlKRolullon dlKRolullonot diosolutiof
of tho LcglsUture no that tho nmundmi nmundmicarrlotl nmundmel1tcarrlod anicadmicarried
carried In one section Cton may mil come under t tjudgment the thejudgment Ijudgment
judgment of the voters nt n general eli elitlon eloo elootlon eltion
tlon nnd be thereafter passed or reject rejectby rejected rejectedby rejectby
by the newly neylyoholCn chosen Legislature Legislaturefinally u Legislaturefinally > Or Orfinally
finally the th two houses of tho Leglslati Leglslatimay ujtls1nturomny 14gislattmay
may sit I t together tog thr an In a Constituentiembly Constituent Constituentnembly AB ABIOembly
nembly This Thlsu U the plan adopted In Fran Fnuand Fmnro Fmnroand Franand
and In Haiti lUltlA
A second method Is to create a specbody spec specbody Ilpec141 Ilpec141body
body for the method of revision ro tlon In InUnited t tUnited tho thoUnlt
United Unlt < 1 Stato where n groat deal of Cc CcRtltutlon Con ConAtltutlon Ccaathtution
Rtltutlon making and revising goes on onthe onthe III IIIthe
the several States such a body b call calla called calledn
a convention and Is usually elected wh whIt when whenIt wbit <
It ii Is desired to redraft the whole holo Constitute Constitutethe Constltullolthe
the ultimate approval nppto al of tho draft boln bolnhowever Ldnp Ldnphoweer hem hemhowever
however almost always reserved for tpeople t tho thoJ1lOplo tipeople
people In ServUx and Bulgaria aft nftamendments nfler nflerIU1Icndmont8 aftamendments
amendments have b ben n twice pasccd 1 R > tll1 1 1tho by bytho 1 1tho
tho ordinary legislatures Ugi lltllrtR a sort of aped gpocassembly spodal spodall1R apedasnernhily
assembly l1R mhly similarly elected but twice twicelarge twiceIaro Ill Illlarfo
large called tho Great Skuptschlna SkuptschlnaSorvU Skupt Skuptaclitna5y chlM In InSorvla
SorvU 5y or tho Great Sobranje < in Bi BiRorln nul nulglU Btgrimm
grimm rccolres Jt lrC8 and finally Onn decide on tl tlproposed tho thopropoeed tiproposed
proposed amendment The republics ro republicsParaguay > ubllOl i iParaguay of ofP
Paraguay P raguay OuMemnln Honduras lIondu Nlc Nlcragun h1oregina ICI ICIrl4tu
regina and Salvador also prescribe co coventlons con conI coventions
I ventlons ventlo precede l in each case by votof vot votof 01 01of
of the Legislature such votes usually r rquiring re requlrln rqulrlng
quiring < a twothirds majority A third plr plrIn plan planIA pkIs
In to refer th the now Constitution or tl tlamendment tho thoImentfmutAI tiamentlinatita
amendment proponed to a number numbermimer i iminor of ofII
minor of loon authorities for approve approvtThis apprOal apprOalThIA approveThIs
II This course whloh Is obviously eultab eultabIn suitabimi lIltahlo lIltahloIn
by b tl tlUnited tho thoUnited ItUnited
In Hi e federation rodnr Uon has been adopted
United States S 1te by Mexico M dco by Colombl Colomblby ClombLaI ColombLby
I by Switaerlnncl and by the now AuRtrnlUCommonwMllh AuRtrnlU AlitrnllllnCommonMIU AustraliaComnionweanIth
CommonwMllh in all of which the con conponont componmt conponcnt
ponont States SIt are ro conmilted tho UnIte UnlUStates UnIteStates 1 1S
States S 1tM requiring a threefourths majority irmjorilof
of States S 1te whllo Switzerland Austmll Austmllnnd AURtnl1aond Austnttiand
and Mexico require only n l bare > are majority majorityTho n1aJorltThe majorityThe
The fourth plan is l to refer amendment amendmentto
to tho direct vote ote of tho people Thmethod Tbmethod Th Thlmcthod
method prevail In Switzerland Bw1tz rland and i iAustralia In InAU IAustralia
AU Australia trnUa both of which require for alter altertlons alteraI alterstinne
tlons in the fundamental instrument i imajority Imajority a amajority
I majority of the electors voting otln as wo woas wnll wnlla weas
as a majority of tho State It prevail prevailnlso pron18I prevaila1o
nlso In the several States of tho United UnltoStates UnitedStattS UniteStates
I States with very rare exceptions el pUon8 It wa wareputedly WQI WQIp48t Warepeatedly
reputedly p48t < lIy employed l In Franco during th thfirst the theI tlifirst
I first revolution nnd again under the nam aiimof namof namoof
of plebiscite by Louis Napoleon under th thsecond tho thoIlOOnd tinsecond
second empire Of all Conutltutlons tlui tluiwiden tlt tltwhich tiunwhich
which is mortt m t rigid or in other word wordmost wordmot won wonmost
most difficult to change is that of th thUnited tho tholTnil tttUnited
United lTnil < 1 States Mr Bryco rro reminds us that tlmIt thatIt thinIt
It has in fact never lxH hln > n amended nine fllnco111Y gino18ot
111Y 1803 except oXc < pt thrice l bct between twe ltJn < in IBM and 1870 1870Immediately 18iOImmtocilatel 18Ommnedliately
Immediately after and in consequence o othe of ofthe othe
the Civil War and then under condition conditioniMitlrely conditionrlltIroly conditionntiruly
iMitlrely abnormal because l utO so some mo Stattsore Statei Stateiwere Stal StalCro
were Cro under military dumMr duress du duIr duressMr
Mr Ir Bryco predicts In conclusion tho thoprovalenertof thorrral theirevalencoof
rrral provalenertof of the tll rigid typo of Constitution ConstitutionNo
No 0 country now no pohjwvdnc a rigid ri ld C COliIll COliIllI Cotistiutica n ll llution
I utica seems m likely to clinngo It for a flex flexiii
11 1 1 > 1 one The Th footstep aw nr all the othoi othorn othoiwny
wny cii n Flexible Conutltutlons hftvn hM l twem twemtinted > eet eettinted 11 11I
I tinted Into rigid n hl ones 011 No o rigid ono had hadonrue 111hooorne bajaaoriio
hooorne onrue > floxlble though thOlllthIHhnl MirhapM wn w vhnuU vhnuUxopt lholliolI shouuttht
I xopt tha tht CAMU of tho Italian Statute StatutoEven Hlatllton StatuteEten
Even n those tho who oomplaln uf the undtir undtirMniotrvntUm UIIIJuconrntLoIII iiiidttiomiawrvathiumi
MniotrvntUm of I thn Unit Lniteei tI1 < < d StaUw Count Conlltudon Cnstiution i iution
ution tie not propone pro OfIn > to Abolish 1Ib < IIiKh that Con Contitutlon Conlltutlon ContIIUtlon
titutlon altogt altogether > ther nor to plow Ia it at the theinercy theNCY
inercy NCY of Congrt omtgnisa ong but merely 1111 to espung espungrtrtnln llIoe llIoetrtl puiniertnln
rtrtnln lI parts of It M 1 W H 11Thi HThr IIThl
Thr Klirrtiro KlirrtiroNotwitlkitanding l ihrrtlrnSotwlthflUldinl Sirrbmootsithisfanding
Notwitlkitanding the whit distribution dlstributloiif III trlhulinn trlhulinnot
ot if f knowledge regarding African Afrl n g ograph RIlmphr RIlmphrI geogmpititidn ographitliln
itliln this lla last quarter of n ivntury itiiry it 1 1irol la laIlrolblll ii iititiltiLtIe
I Ilrolblll irol titiltiLtIe > ablA thAt not inn 011 < nad noader adnr r In tn Ill I Ihou Ihouand itoitand hOIland
and bus ever Ir heard ii arui of I the th IntenMlng an anrultful and IIndI andruittul <
I rultful region which hleh is I di dol111I < cril < < l In a Large Lirgtavo LargeIAYO irK < I IOotlO
OotlO > tavo volume olulII of sommu XIIIIH 111 3V 3 IUK entitle entitlehr nmltlilrh I
TAl rh hr tihirbro end lit I Ilintrrtand by T J Jlu JALLJIHIIIIIIC JILuemmafla
ALLJIHIIIIIIC lu > Hll > oit MaomllUiiK Till in I a rwon rwonif roomil roomilif 1 1of
of if th t hs asliativ oliMTvatloiM hose math by Ihn I be lull aullxi aullxiU lilllllrIn isis isisii
In U Ihn Ih dlKiluirgn dlollllr of hl diltl04 tlull UK IlrltUli IlrltUlilslri trlllhI liritisliijstijij
I ItIlrI1 lslri l CommlMloner of hhnrbro dull dulfhiilt tiutlyi tiutlyiehtiiphi
1 fhiilt hlfl lrnu 1111111 irnltoas4 4 > 4 < d upon him ronw IIIX stun MX 4 IM 11UNllld 11UNllldmil I hituastiulnut > UWIIK UWIIKnllrt
mil nllrt nut of liMvd tt llofoni I fr nuiridiiK suite Kintwh tlll < iii iiilie < I Ij
j th h lie iw attil striking at Ihliign wliiih I Is > In Inu lee 1110to leea
to u a tell it us s o lxHiUI > Iltlll Mrtnl out ul what wtintiliirbr hltt 11 11thr ihw ihwleirbnua
thr iliirbr ami II in UliitorUiMl intMit I Iuay 11 11MA ItI
MA uay I Im I wnll I Iw u UKUI a ti > SIttifi H rt IHMMH IHMMHu 1 1Iii
Iii u Kuucr juera4iy > iy I > > iP > r Mlm iitf IIH a1hlh uiMMituii uiMMituiiihleh MIIOtItiAII
ihleh I tush Mr > lr AtlilrtiU n 101 lflhtiI4 < lal44 in I ft iH44if 3fEIy 3fEIyLi f fI < 4if 4ifIKIMIUIMM
I I Li IKIMIUIMM 11161 irulIwuc m ntllHin In limit HniAll HniAllliuut IIn4I111t hhesIssliaStout
Stout t HM II ah4 4 Ht4t uf bu I I41t Iii hiliur V i5 u ul 5Db 5Dbltiws1
l ltiws1 41t lH > I1 > li4ii at Old lnklNil s Mttiii 1 a 1 you UU Itull ItullIJnll II itui P PtwIi
1 IJnll ho I 5ulaJi UIIUMI 1111 yii ullMi tilt H ttlk lk 11 MI III IIINn ulini u uKuril
Nn Kuril ini I Ins MIIIM HIM anti tf 1 Leik < k sgdei K lt ut itottstItitiiP Hui ila ilafturiMMiit 111 111IIn >
fturiMMiit IIn jJs IU n iHtwurk ito iiMil 100 n ii44Mb nwHt III
wHt 44Mb 111 II lliirloiiil IIJ IHI Iy u IUiit I IkISI4I > ii i4Hf s4ijMill i4HfUUI n nJ >
Mill J lu 11 Il Ittoi4 tl4 Hf UW MM4I4U wui Mku II Inut InutII I II a4u4
I JUJII u4 Ib4lIiWiJ trI11 Ibta ta4 I jti wi 4 AtP AtPa A AJ
J II 0 llUtllf snaIl U IIf lf 1aM kill killHi thu htMstiaw I ItW
tW I tslMsir MD1 1 MStn IMutis Sa SaJul
11 51 SLot 1 sutMd sutMdSi a aIle
Si Miii Ile tiItilw 10 ii 4Kdig tt i t4 A At i iPt4i
Pt4i wity i4lit t rui uW uWHI I itMlms itMlmsN
114 15w ls 1 1 I lb lbs11
s11 m5r hf 1 Timitsa4 Di4 Di4iii 11 111IfWIt
iii imtut Jie ii I4 a aad
ad b MSi 1IfWIt 1IfWIttat i I III
II 19w a4 6m4
Ii tat hi It a M uS oW oWntl lJsti lJstiMu
ntl Mu ehie II 4 id Ii Ii11S
11S Ml 4 i5aita IMU e6tI > i w I it i i aI 4tfA
I is = Mqu SI i e 4 a Im Im11IJrum 4tfAtit tit titI titwi
11IJrum I a 15 I Ibi
bi II im sea seab
b wi 4 ii I jsa5 jsa5m tII w wr
m M MI
It 111 I Jbsio iiI iiIti
ti l W Iu IuI Iuti
ti 011 a Ito 4 M Mi
i N e f1 f1j f1H7 m im imdi
di j IrnaMd d i 4 4z
H7 z 11 Wim
j lIimi
1 11 1 IILLLt r rJ rJd l 4 tii1 tii1im
J im tt f4 f4a
Jd I J a imi ad im lbv l lLl4
Ll4 11 11i
i 11 A Ibu oil Sb 4 4w
w 4isa si to a aa
a 11i l lII
II dsp 11 4 a
0 11iij 55 a iii i id
d Nd p a I me meTi oil oilTw
Tw sa tit titIII 4 4mu
mu lb I
III lb a u uNSiw4t
NSiw4t 4 Iss 40abl4 Cs CsI
I i s shtI11 tI tIJ
J htI11 4 4 4IF p
4 I t IF Ni4t Ni4ttvUtt t w wf
f tvUtt rer 1fv If Ifw1 1 1asisJ
w1 asisJ 1 e es ox L J aj I
It ItIt U ninety miles by tea from FrcotoATho FrcotoA lrcctornTho Frcetoirho
Tho arm of the sea between n Sherbro n ntho nnd nndtho itthe
tho mainland Is locally called tho ShcM ShcMRiver Shetbro ShetbroRhcr ShotlRiver
River Beyond the lowlylng coast cooatthe coastthe of ofthe
the mainland U l a spacious rectangu rectanguregion rcctanaulor rcctanaulorregion rectanguregion
region known as tho Jllntertaml IinterIand wh whwithin whloh whlohwithIn whiwithin
within the lost few years tnlll has been I n mad modiBritish madlinitish 11 11Drltl
British Drltl h protectorate and divided Into fl fldLitricts flvo flvodLtrlcts fdistricts
districts Tho trading centre ntre of the pi pitectorato pro protectorato ptectorato
tectorato Is tho district of Sherbro whl whlIs which wit
18 n port of entry on try Oceangoing steam stcomieomo steamconno tcamofll tcamofllcomo
como to It from Liverpool and tho Contlnc Contlncof Contlnont Contlnontor Continof
of Huropo to deliver dell VOl cargo and rccol rccolproduce rocolvo rocolvoproducc recolproduce
produce Shorhro has the great natu natuand natUand Jilltuml Jilltumland
and commercial advantage of being I beingcessiblo t tcesslble ne neCCIIlblu
cesslble tho year Ir round Its Europe Europeand European Europeanalld Europeand
and native tncrclmntH are consequent consequentnot conllt > quontl quontlnot
not compell i to keep tho enormous etoc etocof 8tocks 8tocksot stocof
of mcrchandbo and pro lroduco < luco that won wonbo would wouldbo tvoiho
bo necetisary wero their oBtabllshmei estahllwhinlesupon oBtabllshmeiupon Itnl > lI hmonts hmontsullOn
upon n surfbeaten const where nhlpmcIs nhlpmc
Is possible J only at certain seasons HcasonsA HCMonA
A word worrlllhouid should bo sold a d about the more recohistory rocont roconthilltor morehIstory
history hilltor of British expansion In this quart quartTho quartor quartorTho quadTIm
Tho first great rcat extension of territory territorythe In Intho
the Slurrn U IotJllo > oiio colony began In 1800 wi witho WItIm th ththo
tho cession of the Sherbro by b tho nati natichiefs naUe naUechletll natichiefs
chiefs In 1883 the chief ceded for Inc flscpurposes fiscal fiscalpurposes Incpurposes
purposes only onl tho remainder of tho so soboard IlOO IlOOboard soheart
board as far as tho Mnno Ulver whit whldclltnlU wblch wblchdollrnlt whitdelimits <
delimits tho British and Lll Llherlan > erlan ten tentorioH terrl terrltoOII terntonlea
torioH Although however tho English Englhnow Englishnow Engilnow
now possessed poIl CIll 1 tld tills coast line It wan more morea morely morelyn
a fringe nn aj they tho prmnically had no juridiction juri jurisdiction jundiction
diction Inland Beyond tIme fringe tl tlcountry tho thocountry tIcountry
country to which tho general terraMonditanci term termMundlland of ofMondlland <
Mundlland Is given was ruled entirely I Inative by bynatlo Inative
native chiefs who wore continually carr carrIng carry carryIng earnlog
Ing on War with each other principal principalfor prl1clplIllyfor
for or tho purpose of share Ia 0 raiding Th Thraldlni This Thisl11Jdlnl Tbraiding
raiding not only onl devastated the countr countrbut country countryhut countrhut
hut provente < i the growth of trade tra o antconsequently ant antconsequently and andcol1SCquentl
consequently of revenue 03 a when wa wawas wawits ar
was 11 going on the natives could nelthcbring neither neitherbring nelthebring
bring down produce nor venture to tak takImported tako takoImported takimported
Imported goods Inland Such a state statethingH of ofthlnlt C Cthings
things > called for British Intervention nm nmduring and andrlurlnlt antludng
during the admInistration admlnl trntln of Sir J S Ha Hait lIay lIayIt Hait
it was 38 resolved < 1 to adopt aforwnrd n forward polio polioBy po1ley1Iy pcilicIiy
By 1K 1i1 > 9 a BritUh protectorate pro tectorate was pn pnclaimed procll1rnld praclairnol
claimed over an extensive oxton lvo quadrllaterihinterland quadrilateral quadrilateralhllltrIAnd quadnihaterihinterland
hinterland tho frontloru of which hlch ha had < l boo boodutormlnod booll boolldotormlntJd beedotonzninied
dutormlnod by b an AngloFrench boundar boundaroonimlsHlon boundarcommllon boundercommission
commission Tlio protectorate ordlnancbrought ordlnanc onlloancohrought onilmiancbrought
brought about great reforms rotor In the ho romoviof romovi romoviof romoal romoalat
of oipre oJ1prest olipretodomi < nlon lon in the administration o ojustice ot otjustlro ojustice
justice to tho hinterland folk amid in th thabolition tho thoabolltlo tinabolition
abolition of hlavory and aJIIllt it also stimulatetho stimulate sthnu1otedtho
tho people poo1 > > lo to work and develop tho ro rosources rotOurce rosources
sources of their country Naturally how however howevor hoiever
ever by its It introduction of moral principleand principle IrlncJpllsanel vrindplsand
and tho th breaking up of many native cus customs customs customs
toms repugnant to civilized idcao th thprotectorate tho thoprotectorato timprotectorate
protectorate was distasteful to oertalipentons certain certainpClIIOns oertaitpersona
persona who had profited by tho old stat stntof 8tatoot statof
of tiling In the end of April 1893 1893tho 1893thodlfcolltcnt tin tindiscontent tbdiscontent
discontent of tho th chiefs chlt > f8 culminated in ingeneral iiigeneral a ageneml
general rising and tho massacre of a goo gooimany good goodmany goomany
many people both white and black I IEngland In InEnglnnel Ii IiEngland
England tint insurrection was quite com comnionly oommonl remnionly
nionly monl attributed to tho Interposition of i ihut a ahut ihut
hut tax but In tho judgment jllJgm nt of Mr Ir All Alldridge Alldrldgl Alldnidge
dridge who was wa an eyewItness It was u du duto duo duoto duto
to tho abolition of slavery slaveryThe slaveryThe
The rebellion was 88 finally put down an anthere and andthern antthere
there has since been a revival Inl of prospcrit prospcritIn
In n the protectorate In 1000 our author nuthowont authorInt autlmowent
wont Int through tho disaffected parts of tin tinSherbro tho thoSherbro tbherbmo
Sherbro district and Ito testifies that N Nrapid 10 10rallrt s saplti
rapid hind been tho work of the people li Iseeonstructlng lieconetructlng In Inrrconetructlnlt
econetructlng their towns to Ill S and village villagehit villageshiitt lIaR8 lIaR8thnt
hit unless IInl ono had known as a fact tint thnho tht thtIho tintho
Iho ho places had been demolished ono coulcmanily coulc coulcmrdly couldhnrdl
hnrdl mrdly hnvo l believed > that such d dlllinle dlllinletlon tittruclint > stnie stnieJon
Jon Could have hn taken plnce Indeed < the theexports thnslortll tinxporls
exports of palm kernels knl l the pninclpaxport princlpa princlpaxport prlncll1I1Cxport
xport staple from Sherbro for tho year yearallowing yearollowinig 6I1r 6I1rlollowlng
allowing tho rising were larger than they theymd theyhart theytad
hart md lx been > en for sonic mo years Mfa before reaolilng reaolilngthey rel1OhlnltIU reaoimingthey
IU they did 13553 tons ton Moreover In the thaiherbrn thoIlwrhro theilterlaro
iherbrn district tho first collection of tho tholow thoIIOW Citelow
low HoUhO ircu Tax began on tho 1st of Oc Ocolnr Dctolr Ocoler
olnr IDS and Mr Ir Alldridgo had collected collectedtthtout < < l lvlthottt 1 1wlthollt
vlthottt tho th least difficulty alx about > ut a thlnlif thlnl
01 if the th wholo bolo sum urn levied before ho left for forEngland lorIlIglnlld fornglantd
England on tho 27th 71h of that month He liexprsses Hexpn U UlII
lII > xpn xprsses < ithoti the conviction that the maweii maweiiif 111
01 if thu p plllo < Miplo were not opporuxl to BriUnh BriUnhitle llriUllhrill Ihritiiilimile
rill mile but I lIt that when coercion was brought broughto
to o bi lsnr > nr upon them thoml by > tlm tim chiefs they thl worn wornompllivl nirecutupehled ro rocOIII
cOIII ompllivl > litd tornpornrily tUI II urnrJl > to yield yieldNow iltl iltlItw
Now Itw let un glance Innr at tie Indigenous andultivateel and andultivftNd andclllthnt1
ultivftNd products cif it till this little known knownIgion knonrrioll knownigioft
Igion of Went Africa and alhoat alto 0 at the native nativeiiduMriPM IIIlUO1IIIIu nativemiiiustnies
1IIIIu iiduMriPM trt whleh t hith however will iII not dcliiln dcliilnm
1111 m I long lltnittxl as they tit virtually trtuall am IIr to toho lotho toho
tho ho making of cotton cloth and of pottery potteryly I uttlrylIy >
lIy ly far the moot Imjvortojit indlgeiuiUH indlgeiuiUHn IlIdhIIIUIIIIprUdUltlUlI Inmdlgammuuiselutitii
prUdUltlUlI > n Iuctiiii Ixtth In quuittlty and value In Inhe I Ilie
the he oil palm 011111 Nut ot only 0111 Is I the Iron tr mot motnth motwilh snotitCh
nth everywhere Irwl but I lIt lu oino place It Itiiriim ItIrlll IteltON
Irlll eltON great fi fereots > rn l Cleat are practically praetlcMllyiiexhauMiblti IlraotlcltllyIIIdaItItI practicallyeahaustiIit
iiexhauMiblti Tlw fI fruit of thin Chit in Ir gas It I th thHilm thll tinilmmi
Hilm piiinb outs which n wfliieljiis iiiftlin H weighs Igha over overoMHitivii overiilittit
oMHitivii 111 IMIII HIIMI > wJ UJH oootailiii in hearty heartyighit arly arlyighl
ighl huiMlii IlIlIIell1 stilt A tree will 111 produrn produrniglit prClllllrtKht iiriunoIghit
iglit or r nit Idbll if I UH tlte M oiiinlio ml 1 ho jiiiu jiiiuin 1111111i 111 111I
I in i IHM nil rlHm rll kliuiiltttiiMiiiiilx ili IJ mlny y fan fanM IalI 411
I M 1 tin II UIM I hI Illib < M UIIH 111 II yiNir ear r Wlwii ri ill > e lh lhillU tIt tIttolll Ci Cilii
tolll illU lii H 11 r Mil II I fUIlj UIIKM H l lintram 11111 lilihi Ilicy flu fluittlH irs1ll5
ittlH rl 111 HW I hits I KUM guthaI H I1 limy Iltll t h4i yn44l 10401 JHUo JHUoIMNl tti ttiI Ii Iior
or I II Ih t u1 iIi n ii 1 lmlflt Jill allllll allllllIIIt utithijiii
IMNl ii Ill4lll IIIt lit IIW 1 Ii IBHIlIt sstI 11 It IIHU a tell M ItOfl IilJuraII ItOflliiik
II liiik I 111 HI4IH I uM sit tlix tI liii Iui4 I 11114i 4 ul HIM tI Iiwtlw 10 lei Hull Hullruwri u thatFuwit
ruwri rIIIt IM > v try > ry Itipuf ip f I tiff In u I i llw n ih ititlliiic ititlliiicf 111 111II
f I lltr II I viiitb > < iN4 < it N stark urk tit klU 1ll iiSlIC OuHltf OuHltflltv 1 1I1f
I1f SlIC l a 1 I fs si I fa I
11 wSel 1 1k cue tk IIMI isitII tof
1 III i4tj letijii 101 1 lltv inn innll 1 I > ititioat4 e It t4Ims4
Ims4 IttI 11 b11t144 I Sm I w4osI If a aIn I
In ll f al IasI > UI 1 III 11w MMMI iMHJ sitiMa4le 4l < li Ito ll himI himII l lMlU
1 I a Sminas 1 IJoI w II i5tat HiUt
tat ii 1 1 Mm h a imi I gUag gUagilwlS I II
ilwlS 1111 AI Lu Si M A MIt 055uI U htoi Ih1I htoi1ohet1C
I 1ohet1C tl ho n44sj sh Ittll ii Ita ItatIIIl bswi bswitI
tIIIl tI Ia Ii 01 wIsh i A A1t1 t uaMi 00
MlU 1t1 IMV UMI ul i I U lit litl uMa t4q II IIv ut jit jitI
I Iim i4 icto IjI i ti dt h hN1t
N1t 51SIssilitidtitimti v lit ih ihiIN4iikIip 1
iIN4iikIip 1 ilp II III III ul11
l11 l HT MIdloi 4M tt4 M Mpuir d I ii iii
i S puir lu IjfMfc I INI INIjr mm Mu
54 jr llw > 4i d 1 1J llufl ha llw llwll l 4iw 5 M Mi
J i a 111 timis 114 Ie 4 4 f
4 Sd5 4 ls4 s s1i 1 1Itt
1i id Iltaal ll Ml tM tMI 11 > i idI
dI Itt l S iiL II atl ii I IM4 N4s 14 14l4h 1 1I
4 141i15 ii 4a aS it ft Sm
114 s Lt u uM ur
I itI II tot 61 I
1 r 114VI
I f e I I II I I II IIe
I I b ti4 14 14I
I cs Ie S oJ 0 Il 1 i iSM I IJ
I If Ij
4 1 1if
f if 1z a am11
j m11 m11i4
4 4r
i4 Iss Issr
r r
r Ii
a 4 0 4 4r 4I Ss
s 4 4b
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1 5 5Ii I
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p > a44 > l4h I l i4 gq
4 Wd l s
9 I I II Ia N
a L C 0 l Z J
Thon drunk qulto fresllt fresll fresh It is sweet t and andpleasant andploaaant em empleasant
pleasant with a frothy froth head resembling resemblingginger rcscmbUnRttlnger resernblia resernbliagInger
ginger beer After standing and ferment fermenting rermentIng feninnting ¬
ing lt its strength la greatly increased and andIt RndIt anjit
It Linen has an acrid flavor Tho palm jwlmtree Intlsntree palmtroo
tree U none the worse 01lO for yielding to man manits nAilIII IflAltIts
its oil and Its It wino If on the other < r hand handthe tnlldthe handtue
the cabbage bo out off the tree dies Ties Th6cabbage 1h 1honhbago Tiescabbage
cabbage U I the bulbous core within they tliohonu thoI they1101w
honu of tho troo When trimmed and nndboiled lndlIolloci andboiled
boiled it la a solid yellow block resembling lCI mosemnbljiioin
I In texture nnd taste nato tho ordinary pannip panniptho pOlJoni pOlJonitho lurnitthe
tho narrow nock being especially delicious deliciousand 11Iliclounnd leliciousand
and melting rne1tin away In Cite th mouth wlthtlie wlthtlieflavor with II IIl1aor the theflavor
flavor of Cite finest f1nl t asparagus asparagusA
A romarknblo natural production In the theShcrbro theShmenhro he heSherhro
Shcrbro Id the kola nut which Is l exported exportedas exporce exporceas
as n commercial article to tho IInohlIIlId lamliU lamliUnnd han1miand
and the Senegal whore it commands comman s a avrire high highprice hllthIJrloo
price It has wo are told a very cry hitter hittertaote hitterInllto bittertaste
taste and nlldlt Is considered by tho native a apreventive 1preentlvo apreventlvo
preventive of thirst t When undertaking IIndlnaklnltlong umneicnhakinglong
long journeys into the Interior thoy Cite rnrry rnrrythin rnrrythl carrytitle
thin thl nut with them for that purpose It U italso Unlso
also said to prevent uovcnt sleep and nm consequently con > lutIIII lutIIIIl
is l in request roquo t among watchman walch men Tho tin irnportanco 1mportoncu tinIortanco
portanco of the kola Industry Industr which Is en entirely Intlrrl r rlIrely ¬
tirely tlrrl In tho hands of women is Indicated Indinnmelby Indicatedby IlIdl 1t < 1 1hy
by the fact that tho valuu of the nuts ex exixjrtod 01flOrtNI ezported
ixjrtod ported from tho colony of Sierra nn nnn LoonIn > i > v > ni niin
in flOrtNI n 1SW I W exceeded 307000 A single sln l > kola kolatree colat kol koltree
tree t will lxinr yearly n crop worth orth J10 110rite J10Tin SlOrhl
Tin rubber vine Is found throughout throughoutthe
the Mendl country wherever where vcr vegetation vegetationli
li I big and tall It attains n great height heightMr hefhlI heightMm
Mr I Alldridgo has ncn 8 n It as thick as n tiiieto thiea thieato thrlto
to four inches in diameter although as a arule arulo arule
rule tho Mom is only about an inch and a aquarter 1qunrtor aquarter
quarter thick Our author found on viit viititiR tlttlug jI jIIlIg
lug Upper Mendi Mendllhat that tho people know kno noth nothing MthIng flit hi hiing ¬
ing about tho proportion of nilil nlhlMrhut rlUt wt wtr wtrInllllUl1r were werefamtililnr > r rfamiliar
familiar with the vine Ino and wero aware that thatif IhatIt thnttif
if they tho mado on Incision In it a milky milk fluid fluidwould fiuldwould fluidwould
would ooze out Only a very cry small R1I pro proportion proportion proportion ¬
portion of the rubber exported export d from the thacolony thelOlony thecolony
colony of Sierra Si rra I lono < eono come 8 from Sherbro Sherbroalthough Sherhrallhough Sherbroalthough
although the vino 1110 la plentiful Jlentlful all through throughMendl lhrouhMendl throughMondi
Mendl Land Mr Ir Alidrldge A l rldg thinks tl llks that thattho thattho thattime
tho natives of Sherbro Hinterland IIIutt > rland ought oughtto
to IH encouraged encourtl od by tho merchants to todevelop todeelop todevelop
develop the rubber trade Ho points outIliaC out outthat outthat
that a native load of palm kernels carried carrieddown cnrrJtddown cardeddown
down from tho nearer centres of production productionbrings productionbrlllKs productionbrimng
brings tho carriersonly oorrler nly a dollar A nlml nlmllar 81011Ior sinillan
lan weight In rubber at 25 cents a poundwotihl pound poundwould poundllould
would be worth 10 20 to the carrier carrierParsing carrlorPM8lng carrierPassing
Parsing to the fruits of tho country we welearn WIIloorn tv5learn
learn that tho banana Is not strictly speak speaking FpeakIllg speakIng ¬
ing Indigenous In the Sherbro but Its Itsplanted 1111culthntlon itscultivation
cultivation costs practically nothing Once OnroplalltNI Onceplanted
planted it goes on reproducing Itself and andrequires RIIIIrequires antirequires
requires no attention from man The Theprosont Thepront Thepresent
present local price of a bunch containing
180 banana Is ii 12 cents The kindred but butcoarser hutconJbtr iutcoarser
coarser food known as tho plantain Is much muchused muchUIeII muchuuieci
used on tho ooo OOMt t as a II a vegetable t gltablo The Thaplneapplo Theplneappl TheIineapple
plneapplo Is indigenous in the tll Shcrbro Shcrbroand 8hlrl Sherhroand > ro roond
and grows rows absolutely wild The plants are aremay arevery
very 01 large and ROmet sonietimee Imee four or he pin pinmay place placemay
may l be e iocn soon upon one stalk For 8 oour cents centsour II IIour
our author hu bought two dozen pine pineapples pin pinnppleil pineapples ¬
apples many of which he Bays might have havebeen ha habeCn havebeensoltifromn25Oto
been beensoltifromn25Oto sold oltlfromS260to from 250 to t3 3 apiece in England Englandcould Bngl1ndcould Englandcould
could they tho have been transported transport 1 in their theirripe thllrrlpo theirnipo
ripe condition Another prolific fruit In tatho Inthe intimti
the Sherbro U the cocoanut The palm palmwhich palmwhich palmwhich
which produces it grows anywhere near nearthe 111111UO smearLimo
the sea The cocoanut U used for or local localconsumption keelcoiisumptlomi IcalcomUmptJoli
consumption but tho natives do not MHMH MHMHto rseminto rn rnto
to bo aware that copra copratho the sundried flesh fleshof fihot fiohDf
of the nut nutmight might easily llnsil l be > o prepnr d and nndshipped andhlppOO anddifppcd
shipped Mangoes are very fry plentiful and andilellciou ali aidlelicious < I IdelicloW
ilellciou In the Lower Sherbro and our ourauthor ourautJlor ourauthor
author once succeeded In getting some someto OllieI
to o England in fine condition Among tho thoremalnng thoremaInIng Citeema1nnig
remaInIng fruits may bo named sweet ami amilitter ondblttcr and anditter
litter oranges limes guavas curium cuchtittnpudillai cuchuIIIpdllla curiumapssiihha
tnpudillai grunadilUs melons pourHop pourHopvupaus lIOurjpUPUII soursopPupaus
vupaus rough skinned plums and tho thoilllgator thoftl1lgalor thtotlilgator
illlgator or avocado pair which can hardly hardlycalled hallIyhJ
hJ it > called a fruIt as It w Lt In reality rcallt mucti muctinoro muctl1I0ro niuctinone
none of a vegetable vegetableTho tcgetablelhie lgetabllTho
Tho cultivation of rice throughout the thoiherbro theSherhro theberhro
iherbro and lt itt Hinterland U of juiramourl juiramourlmportnncn IIRmmounttmporlllIlCII PritnnOUutmportiulce
mportnncn ns It forms ono on of tilt staplu stapluirticio RtnllartlclM stajikirtlcles
irticio of food Owing to tho primitive primitivevay iriniitlvuray
ray 0 In which it Is cleaned mot of 0 It dcxn dcxnlot do donot Itsstot
lot look OR white hlte a IIA that imiortod from fromndia frommba rOlu rOluIndln
mba or America but our author iou > the theilglieot lloehlpIIIfIt themlgimcst
ilglieot opinion of its nutritive qualities qualitltMIP qll8l1t1 qll8l1t1II
II IP h xnys AAII OfJn1on that t lilt whiJa wll J he lit u > cannot look at Irn Irnn 111l liiitermed
> termed rice bo InmrL1hly lans hum African rle rleon nc ncfl
l on > n his tftbleand Jwirtnkw lIIrtnkltH of It with rnjoy rnjoyiicnt nju nju1IIlIt njaytent
tent Another food staple U the root rootnown rootknown rootflown
known flown nn oohnava tvlH t It Is wo W we learn excwd excwdicly txceoiigly
11111 icly nutritious and may illS Iw J eaten 1t n either eitheroiled Iltlrhoillod
oiled roasted 01111 1 or in the raw state Cotton Cottoni Cot Ion
18 i grown all over the Mendl country counl hut It Iti ItIs
Is i I only onl used locally In the manufacture IJf IJfclOlh tifoth > f floth
clOlh loth A specimen of It I cent nt to Liverx Lhlool LhloolWM > ol olns
WM ns pronounced of good quality nnd worth worthbout worthnboUl worthbout
bout 1 12 cent per pound I ound > AH A a matter of ofict oflat oftet
lat ict nn cotton Is exported from Hherbro Hherbroliouxh Hlllrhrntholllth Stmerlirtoughs
liouxh It might U 1 isi grown on n great rcaU rcaUTho pcaltTim pealtTime
Tim principal Industry Indulr among the Mendl Mendleopln MezolieaPI IlllillItIOpl
ItIOpl eopln IH the weaving of cotton into Inl cloth clothlie clothTh clothmc
Th lie mc texture IcstU of this th cloth In I very r durable durablend dWnhlJlnd tlumaliieri
Jlnd nd ri tho colors Ior Uing nil vegetable djs djstain dItnlll destaimt
tain their brightness no matter how howfton hownllln howrten
nllln fton washed Thin Thl cloth is mode upon n itrirnlttso nrirnltlvo 0Irimlth
Irimlth rirnltlvo native loom In long strips only onlyf onlyfew
n f lAw w Inches In width Than 11 strips trip are sewn sewnRether CwntOItthr sewnmgethr
tOItthr Rether nod mado up upinto Into cloths clot and gowns gownsIr ItonIr
Ir Alldridgo U sure that If the throe < clothian cloths clothsore clothsurn
ore ian known In England Jon land thoy thic would Ui Uippn 1 1RPpnllnlt1 1w 1wpreciatasi
RPpnllnlt1 ppn > clnte < l and UMH used especially pt 1ally for par porftrw pertns
1111 ftrw tns and other oth r hangings The w weaviId weaviIdr avlrg avlrgF
01 F tvitron rn cloth Is entirely in this th hands otIlmt n nIMI of of1IIIInthe
IMI tho womens port PArt ceasing III with the tlo3tt4ry tI4ttlllll theimtmtlng
1IIIInthe tlllll imtmtlng It l1li01 pinnng Innrnlt flit llu clnlt of offttr citotter
otter 3tt4ry U another extenslvn ztens1 industry In Inhn Inin
fttr hn 10 tipper section 10 of thai tb Hinterland whets wliersn w11rlltill
till n tinopla I ° PI ° nre R Inn mainly deriendent upon n nvninido nt na naveitnidn
t vninido things for their th r domestfo ut Uteri UtlIlU Uteriit n nU
lU U It apr aptovo ni tliat lar Wit i 110 > ° ot an and d l IIIJ Iola Iolar U Uan
01 r an n eiwllHit el IIlfOCII1l 1lIt quality Ilut lty are an manui manufactured manutllcturwttIlIlrh manufacturedtoUghi ctur d4 d4cpt
tIlIlrh tJlf Ia no much rh thing a is a aCIt h1 h1iclt
iclt CIt In in motion lII < tlon by M steam im jowcr jowcrct and In IntWI iiilet
tWI ct tb no inIsrit in l loOm ni anpllanom a > IIIAn to aMUt inorl in IhWlIrJ tt tttails
WlIrJ orl tails < n All that UH tI t tnative lAth atl t hotter lm Iw is islab 111lah tostab
stab lab nf wfMHl III on whlelt w water tor U Oirowii Oirowiiiw tJlrO1IfllIW
fllIW iw niKl isi then t 111 Llpeim > > n this titl wet It Jab tU tUuy tl tllif mlor
tli UIII hand handxl haMAll harshst
uy U I e4Hntly volvwl by
All lif xl U I HMMI 1 tniii trssisfnmird I1Ilunll foniied Into a shapslv shapslvwi lisr 111111 r rnw
nw wi T This > iw lndu Industry uy u intlrely In UM Ut bands baifUTotrl hllll hlllltll bandsr
tll r
tllTn Totrl Tn I wI wiqi i K ettelit mii u t eatinlrwilljimjtri rallntIln pnsetit pnsetitI tItttit tItttitI tl l lIklrilir
I qlu I IIUI141 of f tl Cbs Hhlrt HhartsneI Mi Milkhnilv 1 1AIIotIIf
Iklrilir MIVB sat IliaC this th MniuiU 1111 barn ha llo tI tI1 tiaI
1 KlilirffMliH 1 llf I Mll ull ll ftt fttif eletIi 11 11I
I Ii if M H ttdf II r IUH Kiitof I Infiinnnl dim H I at atI itI t tl
I l ii I unify Y liter Ih wa was JIII li r rt mw IesI r i iMI Ye I Iat
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III I li I ittlkMK 4 f slav 4 vi i lids liU hpf H 4 I ITl III
II 4 I t4 hail a say 1tll muSt ltIi d 1 po poI s sI
I I hIt rlll may 11 Inst 1 et etes rot rotIiJlIottI
es am IiJlIottI aNd ItAt eats Ilstilaag lit l lI
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