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The sun. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916, March 03, 1912, SECOND SECTION, Image 29

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Astronomy for Ycung People.
Reynard Fox tM so surprised at the)
midden and savage attack of tho Robber
Kitten that he almost fell over backward.
TawB up!' howled the Ilobber Kitten.
Now tako yourself o(T, Reynard Fox,
and remember that I am the guardian
of these children and the black lien until
they nro safely out of the woods. You
had better find business elsewhere."
Reynard Fox backed away on his hind
legs with his front paws held Straight up, i
th Robber Kitten snarling and spitting
ntter him, and finally took to his heels
nod galloped away and was not seen
The Robber Kitten stayed with them
until they were nearly out of the woods,
but when the trees began to get thinner
h came down to tho ground and said:
"Now, Rob and Charlotte and Mrs.
lilack Hen, I must leave you and go back
into the deep woods. Always remember
jour friend the Robber Kitten.
They told him how thankful they were
to him for the care he had taken of them
And solemnly shook him by the paw, and
he shook the black hen's claw and they
laid they never would forget Win.
I The Robber Kitten scrambled up a
' tre trunk and the travellers soon came
out of the woods at exactly the same
Perhaps you have noticed that, after
Ton have had a good cry about something
you always want to blow your nose, 'but
did it ever occur to you that tills was
V bocauso many of tho tears had somehow
1 run down the inside of your head Into
your none instead of down the autsldo
. on your cheeks?
Very few persons know that their tears
are always flowing, clthough they do not
W them by lotting them run down the
outside of their faces anil making their
A 'yes roil Kvery time you wink you
iron n tiny tear into the lower eyelid,
alilng tho eyeball with It on the way
down After it has sponged the eye off
Weir It runs off into the nose through
flnv hole near tho inner corner of the
're w'.ijob la called the tear duot.
W on you start to howl because you
thin you are hurt tho tears come so
far dun thiH little duct cannot carry
th'ii off, to they overflow on the fuce
arrt i Kheil them, which shows that tho
.tr i ooks use the. correct expression
wtif r, i:ir.. Hnv nnr eyp9 overflowed witn
V"1. , .
i f I'ncii eye nnu lowara me outer
, S'do m.ojv m n nttlo gland that Is always
l""-j limiting tears so as to bo ready for
iiw. nri illn(, jMst nB ft locomotive is al
rt v .iluiig compressed air ready for
'! In p.. UI hraken. The moment tho
t 'eifginphH its inessugo to the brain
ihv i. eyeii-iH is it little dry or that
ir ,t ppn-k or dunt on it, wink goes
iH .-i-o'ni anil down comes a little tear
er i k, oyn nicftiy washed off aguin
OfJ n Inula and clear ob ever.
place they had gone In. Thoy found
that it was spring and the snow was all
gone and tho gross beginning to turn
As they came along Rail Fenco row
they saw Mrs. Cottontail sitting at the
door of her house knitting and Mr. Chip
munk frisked joyously on the top rail
playing Iwll with a nut. Mrs. Black
lien ran to see about her little cottage
and found that it was In perfect order.
She sighed with pleosuro and relief that
her adventures were over and said:
"I think to-morrow or (next day I'll
begin housekeeping."
Rob and Charlotto began to wonder
for the first time if their father and
mother had not missed them and they
ran as hard as thoy could to their house.
When their parents Baw them they wept
for joy bocauso they had thought the
children were lost for ever.
"Oh, mother and father." said Rob and
Charlotte at the same time, "you need
never fret about being poor again because
now we will always have enough to eat,"
and then they told all their adventures
and bow the black hen had gone with
them all tho way.
Just at this moment the black hen
came In the door.
"Yos," said she, "we have been through
many perils together, but now that I
have brought the children home safely
I am going to sottlo down and go to '
housekeeping to-morrow."
2 m It
as soon
& left 2
Here is the correct reading of the non
sense rhyme printed last week. The
words or syllables indicated by a device
of any kind being placed in brackets.
A boy that was sail lng an aero (plane.l
Got (al most on Itop of a churchj
with a (vane,
When he lought to) go (higher,
All the can van caught (nro,
So now the boy sleeps by the church
In the lane.
Several of those who sent In answers
were all right except In the third line,
which they rendered, "When he nought
to go up." This Is a syllable short of
th number required for the correct
metre and docs not rhyme with "lire."
Jingles In which the two llret lines rhyme
and the not two have a different rhyme,
th'i fifth line rhyming with tho Unit and
second, are iwunlly called limericks.
The metro in tho tlrst, second and hint
lines must ngree, while the fourth uud
fifth have their own, but they must agree
with' each other.
Good readingH were sent in by 8anu!i
Wood, Com A. Pclham, Alloo Bubcock,
Franklin Wilson, James O. Vedder, Rose
mary Kellog, K. Rol)erta Brldgman,
Barbara 0. Frost, Thoodoro Baumolster,
Will Martin Parcis, Norman Cahn, Holon
Q, Adams, John F. riummor, Jr., Char
lotte Booth Burr, Helon Boorbower,
Jane Klklns, F.thel Elklns, Anna Reardon,
Emma Root Deacon,- Horuoo A. tawis,
Kthel Hurt, Charles T. Emmett, Violot
M. Ilollowny, Lillian Voorhees. George
B. Purkcr, Bebsin M, Ray, Thomas Good
win, Jr., Dorothy M. Baldwin, Beatrico J.
Foley, Margaret D. Cobb und Hugonle F.
Burke. .
2 play
2 HI
On the rocky shore of the Klsogawa
lies a tittlo Japanese hamlet whose quaint
low roofed houses, more like grownup
bamboo bird cages .than anything else,
overlook tho hurrying river. In tills
little village several centuries ago there
lived a fisher boy named Urashima, about
whom this talo has been handed down
from father to son until tho present day.
The villagers supported themselves
by growing'rice in tho terraces that rose
one above another up tho hillsides or by
fishing either with nets or with bamboo
traps set across the river. Somotimes
the more enterprising villagers went
down the river to tho Bay of Owarl to
exchange the products of their hillsides
wlth'that of the shore villages, or if thoy
were fishers to fish In tho waters of the
bay: but beyond that none of them had
ever gone. '
As Urashima grew up he was forever
asking of his father and mother, and when
they could not answer of the neighbors,
what lay out beyond'the laud and the bay.
And they would all tell him of this and
that, of talcs thoy had heard of straugo
creatures that lived in tho sea and rumors
of strange islands, but one after another
they had to admit that none of them had I
seen these things for himself and they '
could not tell him whether they were .
II.. . . U T T 1. 1 .1 , . . I
i fit it u (7 ui nut. , vi u i itniiiiiiu ucin
mined that as soon as he had grown to be
a man and had a boat of his own he would
journey out beyond all tho breakers
to the great ocean and see for himself
whether all these wonders were true.
Time passed and Urashtma worked hard
In the rfco fields and with his father's nets,
and the day enmo at last when he could
push out into tho foaming river a boat of
his own. Then he went to his father and
mother and asked them for food and water
for soven days, for ho was going out Into
the'ocean to fish. '
His old father and mother, weeping
and holding fast to his kimono, begged
him to go no further than the bay; but
he would not listen to them and at last
thoy dried their tears and helped him to
provision hla-boat with rice and dried
fish and a jar of water enough to lasthlm
for seven dayB. Urashlma throw his
brown nets Into tho bow and set his boat
with a current of the river that bore him
swiftly out of sight of the village and
toward the ocean.
The current of the river was with Ura-
shlma's inclination and so also were the
tides of the bay which took him from
the river and hurried him on toward the
ocean. Urashlma rowed steadily in his
eagerness to satisfy his curiosity as to
what lay beyond and by nightfall ho had
crossed the t href hold of )he ocean and his
llttlo boat lay In its power.
Suddenly ids boat began to move more
rapidly than before; faster and faster
It went out into the ocean. The oars
in his-huud snapped back against the
sides of the boat and the water, rushing
back from the bow, tore them from his
grasp with such force that Urashtma was
thrown to tho bottom of the boat whero ho
lay unconscious for a long tine,
When he recovered It was night. He
There are people who tell you that
I everything in tho body Is changed every
seven years and that there Is no part of it
' which was thero seven years ago. This
does not mean that we slouch the whole
thing oJT at once, as a snake does its skin
or a deer its antlers, but simply that
the Innumerable, and tiny atoms which
are used up by tho dally wear and tear
aro replaced by fresh atoms supplied by
our food and drink, which keeps the body
going, just as coal and water keep the
steam engino nt work.
But these changes are so minute and
gradual that tho form of the body remains
the same, although such things as scars
take a long time to dixnpear ami Borne
times they remain for life, although they
always lose a grout deal of their pronil
i T mmw T
''.'Tft'i S lu''jtt"' Jr iTEJMaWaaKL ;;:3rv-i.... . ,
sat up, rubbed his head and took a drink
of water from the earthen jar. Then ho
looked about him.
At first his eyes oould discern nothing
In tho darkness around him, but by and
by ho made out in the distance a tiny red
light on the water. Ills boat was still
travelling rapidly and he was soon abreast
of it. It was a little red lantern, round
like an autumn moon and glowing with a
faery light as it lifted and dipped with the
wave on which It rode. And thero were
more of them and more a thousand rid
ing on tho waves rising and falling, sway-
lng and gliding with the undulation of the
water. And In the midst of them Ura
shiraa's boat ceased moving and lay In
the waves rocking gently.
Urashima clung to the sides, terrified
and scarcely believing what he saw.
And while ho stared there rose out of the
water beforo him n maiden so beautiful
and so pale that Urashima could think
only of tho tiny, delicato shells that ono
of the villagers hud once brought back
to Nezame from the seashore.
Her llfllr U'lR vnrv lil.'mli- nn,l (.1 ltnAil
- - r, - i
with the drops of water; tho coral onia-'
ments sho wore In it wero of a curious ,
design und of their faint, exquisite color
was her tiny mouth. Her kimono, dyed
with the changing purples of tho deep
seas, was girdled by an obi fashioned
from tho silver bands with which tho
moon guides the waves.
After a moment's silence she lifted 1
one of the red lanterns from the water
and lient forward, holding It toward
Urashima a face. Then sho spoke in a
voice that was high and swcot like the
smallest silver gong in the temple:
"Come with me to my father. You
are chosen for my husband." !
Now Urashima was but a poor fisher
bpyWid he could see that tho maiden
was a fairy princess, so ho made a deep
obeisnnco, trying to toll her that what
she wished could not bo possible. But
the maiden's only answer was to touch
him on the forehead and at once Ura
shima forgot everything; forgot that
ho was a humble fisher boy; forgot his
journey; forgot tho little river village of
Nezame and his old parents waiting for
htm on the rocky beach.
The soa princess held out her hand and
Urashima stepped out of his boat and
clasped It in his and together they sank
down into the purplo depths of the sea
to the hidden green Island of the Sea
Here Urashima dwelt, living the life
of a soa man and helping tho Hea King
to rulo his domain. Ho advised tho
flshos what waters to seek; he condemned
the waves to chains for destroying a
fleet of junks in1 their rough play. Ife
lived in a a!aco built from one great
luminous pearl and got upon liods of
tho finest sea moss; the gleaming sea
serpents were his slaves. And in all
this powor and luxury the boautiful
Sea Princess was his companion.
For a long time Urashima never oven
thought of his homo or his father and
mother. Then, .one day, down through
the waves floated a brown flsli net, and
You may have noticed that If you cut
your finger lightly It will soon heal up
and the scar will soon disappear, just as
the marks of a superficial burn will gradu
ally go away; but if the cut is deep the
Bear remains. This Is because It went
down to what is called tho true skin.
Any cuts, stains or burns on the outer
skin are gradually punned up and worn or
washed off, Just as the hair on tho back
of your hand wears off without your
outting It and grows again, but anything
that goes down to the true skin, like tattoo
marks, always remains,
Now that they are talking of having
a department for stammerers under
the management of tho Board of Educa
tion, some people are wondering what
Urashlma remembered once more the
brown net that had been in his boat,
and the day ho had set out from the little
inland village.
Ho went to, his wife.
"It is three years now since I have seen
my father and mother," he said, "and
the not that I brought away in my boat
belongs to my father. I must go back
to Nezame and return It to him lest he
should bo in need of It."
The Sea Princess wept bitterly and
begged him not to go back, but he, could
think of nothing else, and when ho prom-
lsed that he would return to her as soon
as he had given his father the nel she let
him go. But before he left the sea palace
sho placed in his hands a silver box em
bossed with silver dolphins and very
"This you must on no aocount open
while you are away from me," she com
manded htm: and then sho took him un
through the water to where his boat
awaited him just as ho hod left it. sur
rounded, as lar as eye couia rcacn, by
the red lontorns
No sooner had Urashima Beated himself
in tils boat than lie fell into a decn sleen
from which he did not awaken until he
found himself on tho rock from which
lie had embarked on his journey of dis
covery. Ho looked around him. Up the hills
tho rico fields climbed in green terraces;
beyond rose Koma-ga-take, shaped like
a saddle ami unlike any otner mountain;
on either hide, of him the familiar sharjes
of the river rocks thrust out of the curling
water; beforo him along the river bank
the bamboo houses luy under a soft drift
oi cnerry peiais.
But where was his father's house,
with its low, brown eaves und tho vellow
squures of tho sliding screens? Where
were the little lanes down which he had
wandered as a boy? Tho houses were
strange to him, tho outlines of tho village
wholly altered; and nmong the people
who now flocked out to stare at him there
was not ono faco that he had ever seen
When ho asked thorn what had become
of his pnronts they shook their heads.
They had not even heard of them. But
at last a very old man was found who re
called having heard of the old fisherman
from his grandfather. The old father
and mother had died of grief, he said,
whenthoir son, who had journeyed out to
the ocean, failed to return on the seventh
day as he had promised. But that, he
concluded, was all of 300 years aso.
Then Urashima knew he was under some
enchantment and at first he raged with
crrief and despair. And then suddenly
he thoucht of tho sliver box the Sea
Princess had given him. Surely in It he
wouiu una soma cunrm to uesrroy tne
snell and restore tho villaco to lis old
form, with his father and mother waiting
on i u noacn 10 greet, nun.
lie opened the box. At first he could
see nothing lnit: thenasllvermlst.falnlv
seen, detached itself from its prison and
iiouteu away uown me- river toward tne
For a moment Urashima gazed after It
ana men turuou nis eyes toward tne
villano. There -was no chance in it! It
wuh us he hud found it. But lie .himself
whs changing.
HoVould feel the wrinkles of age gather
In his faco; as his knees bent weakly under
him his hair, once raven black, fell about
him in long white locks; then he sank
to tho ground, his velce. strength, eye
sight failing him as tho .100 years he had
been living under tho e'nehnntment of
the Sea Princess took their toll of him.
. will be taken as the limit which shall
1 mark a stammerer from a person who
has only an occasional' stutter on certain
, words.
! If anything of the kind Is done it is
( probable that sotno learned doctors will
I doviso a systom of tests for the powers
j of speech, just as they do now for the
powers of sight. Some day wo may
fseo children-asked to stand up and repeat
I something like this:
She tells aea shells on the sea shore.
The shells she sells are ses shells, I'm sure,
o It she sells sea shells on the sea shore,
Thca I 'pi sure she sells sea shore shells.
Hero is another one that should prove
an excellent test, of a smooth running.
Klmbo Kemble kicked his kinsman's kettle.
Iltil Klmbo Kemble kick his kinsman's keltic T
If Klmbo Kemble kicked his kinsman's kettle,
Where's the klntmsn's kcllls thai Klmbo Kemble
If you have mastered the principlo of
the vemler, you will see that it enables us
to read the fractions of a space by an arti
ficial magnification of the space. Instead
of dividing on eighth of on inch into eight
parts, your llttlo cardboard vernier di
vided seven-eighths into eight parta.
Instead of dividing the twentieth part of
an inch on a surveyor's transit into souths
of inches, wldch it would l Impossiblo
for tho eye to count, even with a magnify
ing glass, the vornler dlvidos nine-twentieths
into ten parts and enables its to
read down to the 200th part of an inch
with comparative ease.
Rut thero is a limit to the powers of tho
vernier, because when tho linos got too
dose together in minute dimensions, it is
difficult to tell which of two or three lines
is the one opposite tho line on tho main
scale. This drives us to invent something
that will extend the range of our power
to read fractions Jf we wish (o measure
angles with the aocuracy required by
modem astronomy.
The next step is the screw. If you will
take a common wood screw and follow
the thread round, you will find that there
is only one thread, and tho distanoo It
travels with each revolution is called Its
Fio. 1.
For every oompleto turn of the screw
driver the screw in into tho wood the
distance of Its pitch, moving in. the direc
tion of the arrow, until finally it disap
pears Into the wood at A.
But now let us put a piece of iron, B,
back of our block of wood, A, and at the
same time prevent the wood from turning
with the screw.
Fio. 2.
Instead of the screw moving In the dl
rection of the arrow, as in figure 1, It
remains stationary and the wood advances
toward the head of the screw. With
each, turn .of the screw the piece of wood
advances the distance of the pitch of that
While this may seem simple and ob
vious' enough and was kpfown to me
chanic for thousands of years, it Is only
In comparatively recent times that tho
principle has been appded to the meas
urement 'of minute distances in a tool
which is called a micrometer.
Micrometer means, capable of measur
ing a micron, which Is 1,000,000th of a
meter, or about the 26,000th part of an
inch. Dr. A. A. Michelson, former presi
dent. of the American Association for the
Advancement of Science, tells us that it
takes about two weeks to mako a screw
that will measure as close as that., but
they have succeeded in ruling 25,000
lines to the inch on glass with a diamond
which was advanced one line at a time
by just suoh a screw.
The principle on which the screw works
in a micrometer is this: Suppose that
instead of an ordinary wood screw such
as carpenters use you had one a triflo
more than three Inches In diameter so
as to get a circumference of exactly ten
inches and that this Bcrew was held firmly
centred between two blocks, one at each
end, such as A and B in Fig. 3, with C
travelling on the thread.
Fio. 3.
If we lay off the ten inch circumference
next to the block A, dividing It into tenths
of inches, we can tell when we havo moved
the screw 100th of a turn to the right
- m m
1. Behead and find a change.
2. Behead and you will hive added long stick, and add a preposition.
3. Behead and he tells you how he feels.
4. Behead and learn where the Irish farmer is. f
5. Behead and find In what place soldiers stand. r"
6. Behead twice and find a city in Italy.
7.. Behead and find the fiery headed one. r
The answers to above will be printed in The Sunday Son March 10.
Among the many ways In which one may
make a rebus none Is more common
than in the use of a single letter or a figure
to represent a whole word. A number
of clever verses may bo written on this
nlan without making them too ailllouu.
Somo are bo simplo, in fact, that they can
bo read as easily as if tho full words were
there. Here Is one:
The old lady praises her TT
The Chinaman praises his Q.
The gardener praltes his turnips and IT,
nut I praise U,
, The mariner loveth the CC,
The bagatelle player hla Q,
The husbandman loveth his cattle and nil,
But 1 love U.
The foolish havs need of the YY,
The actor man needeth his Q,
The pilot hatb need of two excellent II, ,
llul I need U.
The hunter tie seeketh the JJ.
The shepherd he seeketh hi If,
The college boys seek for their Dual 0. A A.,
, 1st I C Q.
or left, and If wo put a vernier at D wo
could read It to I.OOOths.
If tho pitch of tho screw Is a tenth of
an inch and we turn it 1,000th of an inch
to tho right wo must havo caused the
block C to move ono 10,00,1th of an Inch
toward A. Aguin, if we put it piece, of
metal in tho spaco between. C and B and
closo tire .block C ngnlliHt It, wn run
measuro tho oxaot thickness or mat piccn
of metal If we count tho turns of tho
scrow necessary to closo tho spaco ind
note the fractions on tho vernier nt D.
This is done in alt astronomical instru
ments and any boy muy seo tho principle
at work in any machine shop or ho may
look at the tool in any good hardware
store. Hero Is a picture of It:
.Fin. 4.
The thread of tho screw Is inside the
part A and as tho milled head B Is turned
the Instrument opens at. G to admit the
material '.to be measured. Tho screw
being turned llrmly against tho material
I), tho machinist reads tho scale on the
stationary barrel at E, which Is the pitch
of tho crew,i40 to the inch. On tho re
volving barrel nt F Is a scale, dividing tho
circumference into 25 parts, so that wo
can measure, tho ZSth part of tho tilth
of an inch, or tho f.oooth. Hcalo V. shows
the number of revolutions, F shows tho
The astronomer uses this principle
In a very delicato instrument known as
a hcllometer. so called because it Is used
to measure tho width of the sun. It was
with the assistance of this instrument
that Bcsscl discovered the distance of the
first llxed star over measured, known us
81 Cygnl, in the Swan.
The hcllometer Is a telescope in which
the object glass Is divided exactly in the
middle, as in Fig. 0.
Fia. 5. Fia. 0.
Tho right hand piece, B, Ib controlled by
a micrometer scrow, so that it can be
slipped sideways relatively to tho part ,
as in Fig. 0. ThiB instrument is turned
on the sun, with the proper glass to pro
tect the eyes.
Prof. David Todd gives a very Interest
ing view of the three images of tho sun
in the process of measuring its width
with the heilometer.
Fio. 7.
When the two parts of the object glas
nre in place and tho micrometer reads
zero the sun Is a 'single perfect dink. As
we begin to turn thn'screw of tho microm
eter tho part B moves and with it a com
plete Imugo of tho sun moves. We pro
ceed to turn the screw until tho two sep
arate, images of tho sun are exactly
touching, ono aJSovo tho other. By read
ing tho vernier of the instrument wo find
the exact distance wo have moved tho
object glass B from Its original position.
If you havo a fancy for figure- und
want to realize ,tho amazing neeuracy of
astronomical observations just take a
pencil and paper and 'calculate how fur
o!T a golf ball, which is 1' - inches in diam
eter, would be If It wcro on tho edge of
a cirole und you had un Instrument that
could make this inelie equal to the
25,000th part of ii Hvcbiul of arc. und still
measuro it. Remember tint thero urn
no seconds in u minute, c.u niiiiules in u
degree and S'O degrees in your circle.
One of Many Curious Names of Streets
In I'lttsburg.
Dospito Pittsburg's deep bluo Presby
t;rianlam Success street lords it sig
nificantly over Its humblo little nolghboi ,
Sunday alley. With a touch of something
like pathos Croesus alley runs along tlio
Pennsylvania Railroad tracks in one of
tho niost abjectly wretched parts of the
A street named Hefugo runs curiously
euough out of a street culled Ketchum.
In another part of the town Dream alley
leans familiarly up against Abstrac!
avenue, and both flow nearly togother
iuto a road known as Harmony.
This principle of harmony is employed
even mora frequently than that of con
trast, as whoo an avenue grossly called
Fat ham leads obligingly closo to another
named Boverage, which in turn is for
tunately well within tho reuch of a
humble brothorculled Dry Covo.
But tho very best instance of liarmonlo
naming, uncording to th'e Metropolitan,
Is In u quarter where tho Industrial acol
drnt is ono of the commonest things in
life, and whore, accordingly, rtibb alley,
Khudoland uvcnuo and Wing alley clierr
fully cooxist with Mubio, Auli und Crown'
JfcAg 1

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