Newspaper Page Text
THE SUN, SUNDAY, APRIL 28, 1912.
VIKING DISCOVERY OF AMERICA CALLED A MYTH 12 Dr. Nansen Rejects Tales Told in Sagas of Leif Ericsson's Voyages and Wineland the Good JUST ns the mm goes down in the western seu llicro flashes upon lit" comprehending eyo of children nnd of child men n vision of a wonder geography of Uio distant west, the object of all desire. For one fleeting blissful glance it in given to the, child to nee the bright lands which nro not of thin earth nor yet entirely beyond hope. Here is darkness mid the night, there Is the land of brilliant wins, a bath of color. Hero Is want, yonder grow the fruits of tho soil in lavish abundance, Out over tho sea i-dge life drifts sweet In idleness, to-day man has tolled upon tho ungrateful soil unci to-mon ow he must wako to toil again. Seen with hope In a flash of the setting nun lie the Kortunate Isles at tho further i-dge of the ocean stream, tho Gardens of the Hesperldes, Avulon with Its apple orchards, Hy-llrasall, tho Isle or St. Hran ilnn, th,o Tlr-nan-Og. Such fables of the past ore instinct with life. Geography docs not all at once wipe out th1 stories which have been handed down at the sunset hour, belief The Viking ship from Oscberg near Tonsberg (ninth century) ,Ul pictum rovvrivhitd bu Frrdenclt .1, Stokr Comiani ) isslow to yield to reason and to knowledge. In the modern times when the maps are tilled with facts definitely ascertained und set In mathematical order tho ancient stories linger and call for other t-ort of explanation They pa into the category of folk myth. Some (-Indent" gather them eagerly and create a science of folk lore. Other students cling to them us in some sort a dim hUtorical record; they hold them as an obK-uro record of a past and strive to save from each the kernel of fact about which the accretion of fancy has obscured the event 'I heirs is per haps tho le-s grateful task, for one does not eat n cherry Tor the pit or this latter order is the work which Ir. Fritjof Nan-en has iHTformed in the analysis of the northern tales of tho dis covery of Wineland the Good, From tho my t)i of the sagas he tries to save a cen tral fact, namely that brave Norsemen in icy seas did discover the continent of America nearly live centuries before Columbus sailed over the edge or the Conception of Northern and Western Lands in Norse Literature. western sea, hpfore Cabot and the Cor tereals really found the great continent which bars torver the road to Cathay. All that Is to be known ubout Wineland the Good, all that the gleemun sang about that fertile wonderland, about Helluland which lay hard by, about Marklond, with its forests, about Furdhustrandlr of tho marvel strands, about II vitrumunnaland, where strange white men lived overy mention which has been preserved in the records of the past has been gathered by Dr. Nansen in his work "In Northern Mists" (Frederick A Stokeji Company). He has subjected this material to careful study, he has cut away the trimming of rud" poetry, he has excised tho contribu tions of recognizable myth, he has strug gled hard to preserve to tho credit of his Norsemen ancestors a central fact that tli Vikings in their long ships did suc ceed in reaching America. Of this ono fact of discovery he thinks there can bo no doubt. Runic Stone a Forgery. 'I his Is a theme over which American ists once fought with norltnony and the many pages of many volumes did not suf fice to contain it nil, Iu general the Scan dinavian authorities lipid Columbus and Cabot for nto comers to a land long know , Geographers iu this country were equally keen In pointing out that none of the descriptions iu the sagas coul be made to fit the known conditions of the climate of the Atlantlo seaboard. Yet tho Viking discovery found sufficient adherents hern to wurrunt tho erection of a slat 10 to Leif F.ricson, Conflrmn no was nought In the skeleton in armor and Newport's old mill, iu the ltunlo in scriptions of the Dighton rock. A generation ago these details were the theme of healed controversy. They had their adherents and their opponents, Fierce battles were fought In monographs und it was caueit unpatnotio to avoid t.ikingouebidenrthoothcr. Vet Dr Nanse n does not so much as mention them. They have vanished Iu the rubbish heap us unworthy of consideration. Hut one of these Nmericiu evidences comes Into his nnrrative, that only because it is modern. Of this he says "Soin years ago it was asserted that a atoiiu with a ltunlo inscription had been found In Minnesota, the to-called Ken sington atone. On thia Is narrated a Journey of eight Swedes and twenty-two Norwegians from Wineland an far as the country west of the Great Lakes. But by its Runes and its linguistic form this inscription betrays itself clearly an a modern forgery which lias no interest for us." It is quito clear then that whatever is to be known about Wineland must be derived from the sagas and the ancient chronicles. Of those lands of tho western sea which it was long sought to establish on the American continent Wineland is first known in 1070, just four years after Will iam of Normandy made England his by conquest at Senlao. Marklund, Ilellu land and Furdhustrandlr come into knowledge only in the thirteenth century. Yet they are described when made, known; the earliest mention of Wineland In the pages of Adam of Bremen Is very brief: "Moreover, he mentioned yet another island, which had tieen discovered by many In that ocean, and which is called Wineland because vines grow there ofi themselves and givo tho noblest wine. And that there is ulmndance of unsown corn we have obtained certain knowledge, I not by fabulous supposition, but from ' trustworthy information or the Danes." Voyages of Leif Ericsson. Arter this introduction Wineland is seldom mentioned, n mere introduction of its name, in Are Frodo's "Islcudiuga bok" and In the "liiindnaniabok." Kven tho "Kristni-saga" (before 1;I and the' lleimskringla increase tho knowledge only by the statement that Ieif the Lucky found Wineland the Good. In the"F.yr-byggjn-snga" (about 1250) the added detail is only to the cfTect that "Snorre went with Karlso no to Wlucland Uie Good and when they fought with tho Skru-lings there in Wineland, Snnrro's sou Thor brand fell in the fight " The fuller information logins with the saga of Krlo tho Ited, written about 1270, certainly not later than 1300. In this narrative Lcir, the son or Kric, sailed In 099 rrom Greenland tor Norway, was driven by gales to the Hebrides and there passed the summer awaiting a fair wind. Com ing at last to Norway, ho snt tho winter at Nldnros in the court of King Olaf Trygvasson and Iwjcame converted to Christianity. Early In the spring of 1000 he set sail from Norway bound toward his home in Oreenland. Hut he lost his way and drifted about until he cams to lands of which ho hud no suspicion. Here were self-sown Molds of wheat and trees named "mosurr." so large that they were used as house beams. This was Wineland the Good. Still voyaging, Llf found and rescued men on a wreck and took them home with him to Brattalid Intheautumn, and there Introduced Christianity, and for' mis reason ne was canen nen me uiiOKy. In 1003 Eric the Bed and Ielf the Lucky AMERICAN Continued from Elrrtnlh Page. and only consider It as a luxury, as a nice pastime. Furthermore, every real artist Is a burn aristocrat, who always raises a proud wall between the I'hllls- tines and himself. To an artist the matlc art can only he saved by reper democratlc doctrine of universal equal- , tolro playhouses like tho New Theatre, lty Is preposterous. j but society must of course take up the "Finally, Americans ore not willing i playhouse and help It financially as It to go to uny sacrifice for art's cake. ' helps the Opera House." The Idea of u young Yankee bearing willingly the life of privation which Is tho llfo of many a young French or German poet would appear simply pre posterous. "The young man of the I'nlted States who possesses poetic gifts tukes up Journalism and dabbles In versification as a side line. If ho does not silenced In ono literary linn of wolk he tries an other. He would never dream of going against the dictates of the majority, If ho has something new, original to say he will be careful not to frighten his public, hut to preparo his public for It gradually, "The poet, the musician, the painter must be gentlemen llrst with perfectly normal thoughts und normal manners. It Is Interesting to see so-called bn liemlun clubs meeting at expensive hotels. Thero cannot be any real ho hemlans In America, for there are no real enfes In the Kuropeun sense of the word. "It Is very seldom that the lower classes of the population produce ar tists, especially literary men. Still It Is Interesting to note that one of the few young playwrlKhts who have succeeded In freeing themselves of tho usual prudery and conventionality and In pre-; senttng modern problems on the stage, Ibigemi Walter, was ac tually near starving before he made a reputation, "Whoever knows tho Kngltah stage knows the American stage except that things aro u little worse In America. "Actors, however good they may be, become stultified by the kjbIbiii which assisted In fitting out an expedition in three ships to the new land, but tbey re mained at home. The leaders were Thor flnn Karlsevuo and Snorro Thorbrandsson on one ship, lljarno Grlmolfsson and rhorhall Gatnlason on the second, and Thorvard and Thorhall on the third. After leaving Greenland and the Isles of Hoars the voyage made its first landrail In Uellulahd, with large flat stones and white foxes; next In Maryland, with great forests and many beasts, then in Furd hustrandlr. It has !een sought to iden tify these three places in Iabrador, in Newfoundland and in Cape Breton. Thenco the expedition held to warn the south to a land cut up with bays, and two messengers who could run swifter than deer woro sent into the country to explore. They returned with grapes and solf-sowy wheat. Somewhat further along they wintered In a buy and supplies run short. Tho pious prayed for food and had nono. Thorhall, the hunter, who was a heathen, held n conjuration with Thnr, and a little later a whalo came ashore and gave them food, but nil were taken sick, this because of the traffic with tho heathen god, Soon Kayik Fishers and a Woman's Boat ("umiak"). Greenlander. they made a miraculous take or fish and were preserved. Fought the Skraelings. In the spring of 1004 Thorhall leTt them and turned homeward, was driven to tho coast or Ireland and was made a slave until his death. But Rarlsovne and Iljarne sailed southward a long time until they came to a river which flowed down from the interior into a lake and thence into the sea. Hero were fields of wheat self-sown and vines on all the heights, fish in all tho streams and abundnnce of wild animals for food. All went well during the summer, but there was a scare from wild men, the first seen. Nino hide boats came Into their bay with much waving of poles In the way I of tho sun. The Norsemen showed u white shield in token of peace and Die Mrungers came nshoro. They were small men and ugly, and they hud ugly hair on their heads; their eyes were big and they were broad across the cheeks. This was the winter camp, a very com fortable one, since no mow fell and the cattle wero out at pasture. In the spring of ions tlw Skrndlngs returned in great numbers. At flr-t their intercourse was peaceful and a market was set up. The liellowing of an o scared the wild' men away. Three weeks later they came I The Rock Hvitserk and Fight twok In force, the poles In their boats wero now waved wlddershlns, the at tack was threatening and the Norsomen took red shields and advanced to the com bat. The Skradings had catapults apd tnrew stones and a great blue ball which made an uirlv nolnn when it rnmn Hnwn Karlsovne's men took to flight, but tho pursuit was stayed by a woman. Freydis of name, who picked up tho sword of VIEWS OF VERSATILE GERMAN ARTIST makes them play all their life If not the same part at least very similar parts. They must possess an extraor dinary Intellectual and physical re servo strength not to succumb to anaemia or fatty degeneration. Urn- Church, Schools, Politics. A chapter on "Things Germany Can I.earn from America" begins with the statement that Germany has already learned too ninny had things from ttit. GREAT SNAKE "I was sitting on tho gallery of the llttlo hotel in one of tho very driest of the dry towns in thn dry belt of North Caro lina," said a Now York trotter about the country, "when u lank and thirsty look ing not I vo came st rolling wonrlly along the road, sat down on a plno st unip that sorved ns u horse block for tho hotel, mopped his faro, and after a scrutinizing glanoe or two at the surroundings addressed mo und said; "'Do you know, sub, that these prohibi tion folks aro putting tho axo to the very roots of the tree of pussnnal liberty, down h'yuh in No'th t u'linu, sub?' "I Mild I hoped it wasn't quito as bad us that "'Sho'ly, suhl SJio'lyl' insisted the native, 'And they'vo struck tho blow in the Cheat Inir Creek nreoinct. suh. the garden sot of No'th Ca'linu, ami my ' home, suh! 1 "'The blow had mlchtv nenr fell whon it como to puss that you dasn't give yorn neighbor or tho wayfaring man a re fresher nut of yoro bottle without tho jail staring you in the face, sidi, kase you was breaking tlio law, und they kept their oyo ou you so close; and yet, when Capt. Eskimos playing bill with Stuffed Seil. Wood cut of Fairy Tale engraved by Native Greenland er. Thorbrand Hnorrason, who lay dead, and drove the Skrmllngs to their boats. The Norsemen lost two, the Skrndlngs four in this combat. ' Woodcut drawn by Native There was further exploration In this summer and u winter camp in the same favored spot. Iu the summer of 1006 the expedition bore north and eventually reached Greenland after a variety of adventures, including the taking of two hkradlng children whom they brought back with them to Kric the lied. In a much condensed form this is the narrative upon which rests tho claim of the northern rovers to tho discovery of this continent. With tho growth of a new science of Investigation of the records of the past It has liecomo possible to subject suoh a record as this to intelligent examination. Formerly the attitude of scholarship was to lop off one improbability ufter another but to hold that each had some kernel or fact. In this narrative the Skni'lings are inconsistent- with them selves; the former students wero content to remove the inconsistencies as so many excrescences but to hold to the Ixilief that tho Norsemen did see Skra-llngs and came into conflict with them. The courses of the voyage aro inconsistent, but former scholars considered the In consistencies us later additions when knowledge had receded. They believed 'in the successive landfalls In Helluland, Marklaud, Furdhustrandlr. The names of the adventurers are so clearly given with a Greenland Pygmy. as to make for verisimilitude Erlo tho Bed, Leif the Lucky, Karlsovne, Snorre, Bjarne, Freydis. It is hard to conceive tliat a fable oould havo suoh a list of fam ilies and friends. The Myth of Wineland. But Dr. Nansen with great skill sets all of these elements into the place proper to each. He proves that not one of them United States, such as the speed mania, the worship of large figures, the snob bishness of moneyed people, tho level ing down of culture, tho craze for me chanical appliances, etc. It continues, however, In a more flattering tone: "In one respect ut least Germany has much to learn from the i'nlted States. That Is as regards tho church nnil school system. We Germans will remain a backward nation as long as the separation of Church and State Isn't an accomplished fact, as long as a German can be socially ostracised and kept out of employment on nccuunt of his religious convictions. We will not be leaders. In culture ho long ns a Ger KILLED, NO " MORE - ANTIDOTE Bill Junkln come 'joggln' into my house from up tho creek ono day, his eyes all blazing and he in a raging fever, and hooted to mo that a big moccasin snake had bit him, they didn't have tho heart to luy the law onto me for unhiding my bottle nnd oiirilig half a pint or so into ('apt. Bill to nntldoto that snake plzen. I'll say that for 'em. "Thatldoggon moccasin snake had been lurking round Capt. Bill's for more than a long time and I guess maybe it wasn't more than two days ufter Capt. Bill had como running in to get cured of that snake bite when I'm banned if thn moccasin didn't ixiunco on him another timet In ho came, hooting again, and human nature wasn't going to son him curl up into fits and dio just hecuuso tho law wan against passing out tho bottle that had antidote in it, and I passed it out to Capt. Bill and sent him home rejoicing. " 'Twico more after that Capt. Bill got bit by that lurking and vindictive mocca sin snake und cainn dashing in for to get cured. Then yesterday he came in again, 'I noticed he looked discouraged, and I said thut snake is shorn keeping ('apt, Joe mighty busy, Inhibition folks was is historic in connection with a discovery of America by his forefathers 000 years ago. It is much in itself, it speaks vol umes for the scientllo conscience, that a man of the northland should wipe from the record all those beliefs of which the Scandinavians havo been the most earnest upholders and the most zealous advocates. That which gave Wineland its name is that which destroys Its existence as a habitation. In every account it is made to appear that in this western land of the sea the grape grew in abundance, that the wine was good, that wheat grew without the labor of the tiller of the soil. Dealing first with the former belief that Wineland was some part of tho At lantic seaboard of America, Nansen shows how with better information as to the producta of the seaboard Statos suc cessive identifications have sought to shove Wineland more and more to the south, from Labrador by way of New foundland to Nova Scotia, to Mount Desert, to Cape Cod, to Narragansett Bay, all in the hope of bringing it to a point where the grape and wheat might grow. Only twenty years ago Wineland was linked with that other American mystery, Norumbega; its place was identified with the Charles River in Massachusetts near Waltham, and a tower was reared in commemoration. Nansen shows that nt the most southern stretch of the coast which it is at all possible to associate with Thorflnn K arise, me' s voyage the only grape is the small and llttlo ap petizing fox grape, and that even If there were any who understood the making of wine, the sour wine derived from this wild grapo would fall far short of such per fection as should impress it upon the voyagers whom the sagas commemorate. Nor is this destructive criticism all that Dr. Nansen brings to bear upon this most determining characteristic of Wine land the Good. Ho nimmnges the tra ditions of the remotest past in the be ginnings of Mediterranean culture, and with rich result. He shows how the primitive people set the eye cf faith upon a land in the western sea when the weather was serene In Wineland no snow fell and the cattle pastured in tho fields tho whole winter long where the grapo abounded and wine was for every man to drink, where the wheat grew in unfilled fields and toll for bread was tho lot of uone. The evidence Is conclusive that Wineland is no more than the Fortunate Isles of , Homan myth. Med lie va I confirmation 1 of this explanation is found in one of the maim iu which Wineland is set down as a northern prolongation or tho Fortunate I ll.,o l,i ll.n tt-nroi on ff . ,,f Africa. Tho Sknvlings in these studies cease to ls American Indians or Kskimo. They are no more than the trolls of tho northern mythology. Tho whale, which tho heathen Thorhall the Hunter, secured for the I famishing party by working muglc with the "redbeurded" one, is the great fish of St. Brandon's voyage on which his companions fed miraculously. It is quite likely that this is from an Oriental source; perhaps the case or Jonah turned end for end toward better comprehensihllity Origin of the Sagas. A wholly Norwegian contribution is the description of the landing at Straumsey on tne way to wineland, wnere the eggs of birds woro so thick that one could notfwestern F.uropo was in darkness set tho foot between them applicable enough in tho proper season to the north- em skerries, but impossible in autumn, in which season they are introduced in Karlsovne's voyage. Tho runners, faster than the swift deer, man father, who refuses to turn hlsjstnntly experimenting children over to the representatives of leal' methods, n thine Chrlstlanlty, can be haled Into the ponce couri, ami so ion as atinerenco to a form of religion recognized by the Government is a necessary condl- lion for appointment to any public The descendants of the original Van "'N""' , , L kees, thnt Is of the first Immigrants In a country which enjoys unllm-1 from tho llrltlsh Isles, nro not verv ... ..... 1 .... . ...... ,, , I r urn ii.'cooiii ui iiuiiiKiii, K'llKl.llls llie la bound to be richer than It Is In our country. "In regard to school management we have much to learn for It Is natural that n nation which Is youth Itself should know well how to. treat youth. Furthermore, the Americans ore con- standing around there thick, and watch ing nut, but they didn't seem to care, so I said to Capt. Bill: " ' "Well, Captain," I said, "I seo yore bit again. Come and get your antidote," " ' "Colonel," says ho, "I ain't bit, and thero am t no use! says pore Capt. Bill, and ho was moaning. " ' "Ain't bit?" said I, reeling sorry for Capt. Bill. " ' "No," says he, wailing sad to hear. "I ain't bit. They've done gone and killed tho moccasin snake, suhl" "The native paused, mopped his head again, and shaking it mournfully, said: " 'Ikying tho axo to tho very roots of pussonal liberty, suh, these prohibition folks aro, suh, down h'yuh In No'th Ca'lina, and they've struck the blow in tho Cheating Creek precinct, tho garden spot of No'th Ca'lina and my home, suh!' Do you reckon, suh, they'vo took to swinging t ho axo into them roots around h'yuh, suh, so deep that it won't be am use for a man to hope for being nntidoteii ir ho goes out and gets bit by a moccasin snake, suh?' "I was obliged to tell the native that I was afraid such was tho situation around there, and he got down off of the stump and weut on his way,' But He Does Hold That Unknown Norsemen May Have Reached New World Long Before Columbus who go out in' advance to And Wineland and return with grapes and wheat, are but loosely patched Into the narrative. The episode Is without purpose They are gone the three days which Is tho char acteristic chronology of these legends; they return, much as did tho spies, with grapes from Esheol. The promised land Is proved to be near, yet tho Norsemen took no steps toward the goal. It was not for a year that they reached Wineland. Thero is reason to associato these swift runners with familiar myths of Thor. Nor aro tho runners tho only connec tion with the Thundorer, It has boon noted that the names of tho adventurers aro given with great precision to add verslniilltudotothe narrative. The woman Froydis, who turned defeat Into victory and drove tho Skrndlngn, has a name which nowhore else appears in all Ice landic literature, but compounds of Frey are frequent In mythical names of the northland. Vet if tho list of the Icelandic Representation of Northern and Another by Sigurd names of men bo examined Thorvnld and Thorfinn, Snorro Thorbrandson and Thorhall Gatnlason and a dozen more in like composition, it is not difficult to seo in this saga a reminiscenco of tho conflict Iwtwenn older paganism and newly brought Christianity, with Thor fighting the Lattltsof Odin and Vnlhnlli. It is not onough to show a similarity subsisting tietwnun tho myths of tho saga of 1-rio tho Hod and tlwso of tho Mediterranean und tho high north. They might bo the result of indeondent do vclopment. for man in the childhood of his culture is capabfe of but fow ideas, 'oven as are children. Dr. Nansen is at ! pains to point out how tho colportago of this myth material might hnvo ln brought to pass. For the Mediterranean myth cycle he ' shows that in the Wineland saga there ' appears no morn than in Isidore . Hispalonsis, and this author had tho widest currency in tho north in the dark est period of the early Middle Ages. The northern myths wero treasured in Ico land and Ireland, two communities in frequent and intimate relations and each the seat of an educated culture when The result of this careful dissection which Dr. Nanbon has given to tiiis story of western lands is tho convincing proof that in every particular it is a complex oi mytns derived rrom tnuny sources. that Its central themo is tho ancient fable with pedagogl which our so- called progressive theorbts huven't done for uges. "There Is another thing Vnnkees can teach US .the use of t.nlittrnl tinirnr ... ' " perlor In numbers to the German Immi grants, nnd still their political suprem acy hns never been contested. The Yankees have shown n decided genius for colonization and statesmanlike or ganization, while the Germans haven't even been able to retain control of tho various communities they have founded. Now und then we tlnd a German Mayor, but he has forgotten his mother tongue and owes bis political Importance to Ynnkeo bosses. "This political Itnpotency of the-Ger-mnn comes probably from tho fact that when the bulk of the German Immigra tion reached the American shores Ger many, as n country, hud no political life, while the Kngllsh Immigrants brought with them a certain familiarity with parliamentary life. "In February. 1902. a New York club Undered to I'rlnce Henry of Prussia a banquet, In thn course of which a list of the guests wns presented to his High ness on n gold charger. That list wns supposed to symbolize the head nnd brains of the United States. Wo notice that only captains of Industry were In cluded In the list, and that there was no poet, urtlst or philosopher present. Will tho dny come In Germany when a Kulscr will dance before his nation a ('.a nee of the Beven veils, shedding one by one tho veils of prejudice, and after ward demand Hint the heud of Germany bu brought to him on a gold t-hnrgcr? The charger may not bo of pure gold, us It wos In the country of lnex Imusllblu natural resources, but the heud will cerlnlnly be there'" With this whimsical prediction the Uuron closes his book. of the Fortunate Islands, that, nrrcm this woof is woven a warp of myth from many sources with cureless disregard of the pattern of tho whole. It is all Nephelococcygla, it is Cloud-cuckoo land, it can be adjusted to tho netwotk of geographical coordinates no more thin the voyages of Ulysess or the search of tho Golden Fleece. Whot credit then remains in the destruction of the saga which mav te. fleet honor on the early Norso voyager, whether he le Mt tho Lucky or Thorfinn KarlsevnoV If not Wineland what did one or other or these fleets discover? Did any Viking reach America at all Vikings Did Come Here. Dr. Nansen discards everything hut his belief in the discovery of some part of this continent by the long ship of some Viking rover. In the tangle or fable hi segregates a few incidents which to him seem to rent on fact. One of these is the 1 Western Lands as Connected with One Stefanson, 1570. open market with tho wild men of Wine land. Here the saga runs' Then they set up shields nnd held a market, and the ieoplo wanted most to buy red cloth; they aUo wanted to buy swords and spears, but this was forbidden by Karlsevne nnd Snorro. Tho Skrp linci gave them untanned skins in exchatup for the clotji." Tills in?ident nnd the combat which followed seem, in Nnnson's judgment, to refer to something that nctually took place. It seems to lie quito clear that the Norcsemen iu Greenland could never have any memory of defeat nt the h.iniN of the peaceful Kskimo. Tho most feasible cvplanntton is that it is a reference to Fight with Mythical Creatures, in Icelandic MS. Irrm some meeting in America with a war like people, therefore nt some point along tho coast south of the Kskimo commu nities in Uibrndor. Ano'hci' grouping of incidents which seems to rsveal n knowledge of Amcica at flist hand lies in the brief but note worthy classification of the three land falls in order, treeless and rooky Hellu land. well wooded Murkland, fertile Wiac land. It is in just such order of des Tui tion that geography knows Labrador, Newfoundland and uncertain regions of the coast further south nnd west. The most convincing eviden,o comes unexpectedly In tho Icelandic aimiU nftcr the saga period In 1317 u storm driven ship rrom Greenland bound for Marklaud put Into Iceland for succor This is evidence that such voyages eie made before tho extinction of the Nnrss settlements in Greenland. The object was plain; wood was worth n voy.ise no matter what its length and no matter what its perils. This ship diverted frim tho Marklaud voyage is tho lat reovd of thn Greenland settlements. Arrived In Iceland In 1317 the ship remained over winter; in 1318 it voyaged to Norway in order to find Its way back to Greenland, for those ancient seamen knew no way on tho sea from Iceland to their home. There was a seven year de lay in Norway, Tor tho royal truding slilP did not set out until 13X5, tho last voyage of tho sort that was made, and after that voyage nothing is known or the dec.iy or tho settlements save such memorial as may be read In tho ruins or runn-leadi and churches still to bo discerned along thn coasts Ono tnoro argument remains, the nrgu ment based upon tho similarity of th" Indian game of lacrosse with the ancient Norso "knuttleikr." Thus is Wineland the Good, with It' loud, howling Skrii'lings, carted awav to tho lumber room or antiquities w ill many another s't'ory thnt once held i'1" faith of tho world. Nothing iciiuun save thn possibility thnt Norsemen did visit thn American continent If really did reach tills continent thev I- ft for geography no benefit of their km l edge. Upon this land they corfei '"I no benefit of their spiritual or of l i"r t4-mpor.ll store uules.4 the lutrodli 1 ' of a wholesome goJiie I mi tuna rcgaid"!