Newspaper Page Text
THE SUN, SUNDAY, APRIL 28, 1912,
ENGLISH SUFFRAGETTES FIGHT HARD SIX YEARS I I I I 1 is Rill I II WOMAN'S SOCML AArO Tot.irCAL trwotr. Defeated Again and Again They Have Constantly Returned to the Attack Predicted That Window Smash ing and Parades Will Continue Until i,ooo Are Put in Jail rending. It was hoped, however, that tho conciliation bill would provo nil exemp tion to the rulo. ThlHblll.ito called boiMUso It' wns tho result of a compromise among tho various suffrage organizations of (Iroat Britain and sovoral factions In Par liament, provided for tho extension of the occupation franchise to women, every womnn who occupied a hottso or tenomont and kopt in custody for four days during widen she again tried tho hunger strike Nothing was said about her weak kut on this occasion, but she was suddniily released without any reason being given for the action. Mow than 800 women have now gono to prison for tho purpose of proving to tho Government mat, me sun r ago move- I Ilrrj I ... m t ... a -.1 L. n Inlin Mnff (i tltnrn fuH I on which taxes were paid Tor tho ronei mem is iienm.-. - uiiwiiii.li I The' he treated academically. Those who have hill would have enfranchised chiefly self supporting widows and spinsters. None or tho HUtTraglsls was specially in favor nf It. hut thev areatly preferred It to no bill at all, and when Christabel Pankhurst .mUQmKKmZA V HEI IfViiitf VHVlKJllliK!K9Vrii9iH B after the great coronation procession - Bffni . i'Fll B' N ; VF JMTliK3DM"H June IT, toil, in which both militant and 'AS W 71 K If i v 'A. vS' MKR3BVViCH conservative suffraglsta took part, that i" MKlyiM I H Jlift "ifJM St' , , 17 ISBBH Mr. Asquith had promised thit every 'jV H iL JIHfV V- WB a 4ruw waR Proclaimed by mlll- flf !? Ei fMiV -tf fat M a, t Hf ber 2t. when after nn announcement by 1 M V:j ffiH fL I HV v Asquith of his Intention of bringing imp i iiiWmm i mmmm a studied tho development of tho campaign olosely say that the March demonstrations marked a sharp change in tactics on th part of tho loadors and that it was prob nhlv a realization of this on the part of Albert Hall meeting held ' the Government that lay at the bottom 01 tne lncroaseu ovvvihj w i"o ijuuidu ment meted out to oil who took port In tho raids. During the first five years of the struggle waged by the Women's Boclal and Political Union Mm. Ponkhursfn slogan was "You shall do us justice or you shall do us violence." Only Pauiedy Resisted. The suffragettes during that periol offered only passive resistance to all at SV . OrSlJ VS SVr' rr " IT is just one month ago to-day that the Houw of Common rejected by a vote or VX2 to ,.iis ii woman surTraRo bill, popularly known as the ron ciliation bill, which woukl have con ferred parliamentary rrancwo upon about. l.OW.ono women taxpayers Oreut Uritain. Tlie defeat marked the end or a six years' utretiuous campaign on the part of tho Women's Korial and Political Union, from whoco ranks havo been re cruited the bands of suffragettes who heckled candidates at political meetings, fought with policemen who prevented them from entering Government build ings and the houes of Cabinet ministers, served many terms In prUon for the sake of the cause, and an a grand climax broke thousands of dollars worth of plate glass in the windows of Iiondoii's fat-hionablo chops during the flrbt week of March. None of the militant loaders, however, waa present when the division was taken on tho bill. Mrs. Pankhurst. president or the union, and Mr. and Mrs. Pethlck Uwrence, editors or its official organ. Vofes (or TVomfa, were in jail waiting tnul on a charge of conspiracy in connection with the window breaking episode, whilo Christabel Pankhurst, frequently called the Jeanne d'Aro of the movement, was hiding from Scotland Yard detectives who held a warrant Tor her nrrest on a similar charge. Many friends of the cauw joined with the women who were arrested for smash iiiK gla--K. Mr Xangnill after expressing his entire yiiiputliy with the window breakers said: "We have heard a good deal of the damace to nroierty. Hut there is spirit- f ual property far more preoiou than plate flas and lar ies repiaceanie mere is the respert for law and order and tho ma jesty of the law, tho slowly gathered ac quisitions of civilization. It is nn asset of the state that prisoner shall Iks held in contempt and statesmen in reverence. It is an injur' to the stato when prisoners are held in reverence and statesmen in contempt. And by tens or thousands or women Halloway is now held in more honor than Downing Street. Tens or thousand or women look on the state as an enemy to 1" thwarted. Tens or thou sands of women would shelter a refugee from justiro. Tens of thousands or 1 women refused to fill up their census papers nnd tho state dared not take ac tion. It is the negation or government. ' The responsibility Tor this disastrous sit uation lies on the shoulders of Mr. Asquith, that political lialf breed who Is neither true 'Tory nor true I.llwral." Glass Breaking a Symbol. Mr Xnngwill went on to explain that the breaking of glass by the suffragettes was merely a symbol, None of them wanted to injure the shopkeepers. The windows of Die hitler wen. broken ns thev mieht h.. I iv slielk In time of wnr. The whole i "f their followers nr.tr lw. R.i!,t. cna tint nntlnl to the sum Clirlstabol's hiding discovered and i rested. Chri.stnbol Is ' tho Idol of thousands of militants, who stand ready to obey her slightest nod and who quote her lightest word I ns the utterance of a fane. And Chris tabel never falters In her purpose, cither the ethics or the expediency of the latest phase of militancy. They contend that while heckling nnd peti tioning nnd attempt at forcing their way Into the presenco of officials who ,11,1 tint tvnnt in see them were all per fectly excusable political methods on 1 never hints nt compromise. ,V, .f thnoa tvlin u'm itevntlnir ! "We dwfV the CioVOmlllent themselves to the emancipation of their 1 stupid and brutal attempt to wear out nml the hunter sir ke ty neiny nmi 10 swm.i ....i .v ri'.v, countrywomen ono of the nohlest forms of martyrdom ever Invented, the destruction of private property belongs In altogether a differ ent category nnd thnt those who hi.ve ordered nny such action have given the tradesmen genuine cause for grievance. tho Government a plausible excuso for tguorlng their demands nnd mettng out to them severe punishment and the ant Is nn opportunity to say thnt they have demonstrated their unfitness for the vote. women's demand for politUul freedom. reform bill which provides for man hood sun-race, and to which tho Govern- ' ment has promised to permit a woman sudrago amendment to Do naueu. ine siitTraitettps maintain that the same forces which would inevitably have de in a manhood suffrage bill 200 women were arrested for breaking the windows of publio buildings. The militants defend their tactics on the ground that. since sixty years of ! rjetlllonlmr and other "constitutional he wrote ill the letter wluch shecoidrUetl lrovwl tllHroncjUat,on l)iu hn(J jt come to methods on the part or the conservatlxo to send t i tho Albert Halt meeting Iron; . -. . r ndill woui operate to dereot suffragists.of whom Mrs. Mlllicent Fawcett such uti amendment. Is now tho loader.'had been or no avail It They point out that the Nationalists behooved tho progressives to respond w'io would l constrained to voto for n to tho oft repeated challenge, to women M..v..nm..nt wnmnn Riiffrnffe bill In order , to nrovo that they wanted the vote. In lune. 1808. they ImU the largest her mysterious hiding plare. "They will tar the stars from tho sky berorn they ivlll break the spirit of the women ol thU c.untrv What are w.t lighting for? Not for sympathy, not for pledges I'"' to kCPp the Mlxral party in power for the J for second readings, not for f"""' ' s,,, f ii,,, 10mo rule bill would lo undor I it not for so called opportunities weun no ,norrt 0i,iK,uion to vote Tor an amond tlghting Tor the vote and nothing less n ,roUglit In by a private momber than the Vote. Therefore until a measure . tj . hn(j lieeu t() Hlli)port the con- givhig equal voting rights to women is cIlilltion jj ;0 pn.uro would le put vchn onnosel it in saving that the it took to guard Winston Churchill in violence or tho recent demonstrations Belfast nor to one hour of the coal strike, hid antagonized some members or Par- and broken glass wasn't much r.nyway liament and thereby killed the bill, but tho compared with the broken promises or suffragettes retorted that they itmn t Mr. Asqullli and tne broken lives ot tne care a ng anoui tne nm, wnuu mu debate was going on in the house Annie Kenney, the rnctory girl who helped Christabel Pankhurat initiatn militancy in Manchester in the autumn or 1005, waa presiding over a meeting in Albert Hall nt whicli t.V),000 was raised Tor a war fund, Mr. and Mrs. Pethlck Law rence were released from custody in time to put in nn appearance on the ' platform while the speeches were in ' progress nnd Israel 7angwill, Elizabeth i Robins, author of "Tho Convert. "Annie Beeant and soveral others eulogized ! suffragette martyrs. After exhorting , them to keep rliiht on working according , committing to the methods they hail been pursuing, he added that it was not on their tactics thnt the certainty of their triumph rested, hut on the justice of their cause, "This is the answer," he said, "tothe fre quent Tear that any fnddlnt hereafter may find precedent in your violence. Fad dists aro doomed by their own folly. Your the nlr. Mrs. Pnnkhurst and Mr. and Mrs. I.awrenco are out on ball, but are under bonds not to Instigate nny public demonstration on tho part before their trial, place Ih still un known, nnd Mrs. Tuke, who was Mrs. 1'aukhur.st's companion In the window smashing brigade, Is In such wretched henlth thnt tho Magistrate In the How street police court alleged her physical condition ns onu of tho reasons for not her to trial on n charge in tne meantime urn Buiimse suua- .,Ulaii.. ou the statute book, we as selt-,tw, ,. ...i,.-,,, memlien. l.v the rnrtv tlon Is politically very much up In rf,.P(..tine women cannot and will not be ..lriQ , ,.,., ,h n,-,lKiir. thev sav at peace with the Government." I umj of ,.0ur.sn tho Tory memlwrs who would have voted for a limited rranchise for women could not lie expected to sup port a bill for universal suffrage. They do not hesitate to state, in fact, that they The militants declare that it has been intimated to them that ir they will promise to ho good the Government will with draw the charge of conspiracy against the leaders, and will even releuse the women who nre sering terms In jail for their part in the reopnt raid Faithful to the spirit of the Pankhurst ultimatum, however, they declare that there can be no peace without honor, and so the eighty live suffragettes who are serving terms of from three to six months in Ilotloway. of conspiracy. It is hardly likely that Aylesbury or Wluson Green have no without tho leadership ot nny of these immediate prospect of freedom officers tho suffragettes will undertake I any Important militant action. They 1 Many Forces Against Hill. mass meeting ever held In Hyde Park, it being estimated that 100,000 persona were assembled there at one time. They assert that a9 n result of their interference In by-elections more than forty Liberal candidates wore defeated in 1908 und about tho same number in 1910. It wns admitted by ixditiclnna that no election could le held anywhere in Kttg hiiul or Scotland without reckoning with Mrs. Pankhurst. The following year they refused to submit to the restrictions f .DRUM-MA f CM OT TMrLONDOArSuFFAAGI5TJ will never again havo any faith in any i imposed upon third class prisoners In suffrage bill introduced by u private mem 1st no matter what facilities nro prom isod for it by the Government, and the history of such bills would seem to justify them in their attitude. When Gladstotio Introduced the bill enfranchising farm laborers in 1884 the suffragists besought him to add H Oov , eminent amendment for votes Tor women I lie refused nnd said that the Government llolloway Jail and in order to gain their point tried tho "hunger strike." They were then subjected to forcible foedlng, a process which endangered the lives of several of them and made many others very 111. Started Out of Prison. One of the first to attempt to slarvo herself out of prison was Lady Constance Lytton, who wns quickly released on the hint darkly thnt their previous demon. , stratlons were but child's play compared 1 to thnso which will be seen In the near future, but many of them confess that j would disclaim all responsibility for the report of the prison doctor that she hud invincibility lies in the unreason of your i they are somewhat nervous about the opponents." 'outcome of the l'ankhurst-l.uwrenre There are those, however, who do not trial, to say nothing of their anxiety agree with Mr. Zangwlll regarding lest the elusive Christabel should be It is difficult, however, to imagine any bill if n privnto momber's amendment possible way In which they could force j was carried. Ho consented to tho Intro the Government to bring In a woman t ductlon of a private bill in 1S8S, but nr suffrage hill for some lime to come. The j ranged that it should never come up for home rule bill and the WeUh disestablish-, discussion. tnent bill will occupy the remainder of. A similar fato attended many succeed tho present session undoubtedly, oven ' lug bills, none or which was voted down, a weak heart, tearing that she waa being more leniently dealt with than most or hor re! low prisoners Ixicause ot her social position Uidy Constance as sumed a disguise and as Jane Wurton led a procession of men in Liverpool to pro test against the treatment of tho suf to the exclusion of Lloyd George's pet j but none of which camo up Tor the third j fragettos in prison. She was arrested j SPREAD OF WOMAN SUFFRAGE THROUGHOUT ENTIRE CIVILIZED WORLD When the first woman suffrage con-. ention was held in Heneca Fnlls in 1NI women had no sort of political franchise in any part of the world except in the State or Kentucky, where tax imying widows and spinsters had sohool suffrage, To-day women may voto on precisely the same terms o men in Australia. Fin land, Norway, New Zealand, the Republic ef China, tho Isle or Man and six or tho United States. They have municipal suffrage in Great Uritain, Sweden, Ice land, Denmark, the Transvaal, Servla, the province of Baroda, in India, and the .State of Kansas and may vote by proxy for municipal officers in IJohemla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, while they have suffrage in trades councils in Germany, France, Italy and Belgium; ecclesias tical suffrage In Switzerland and somo form of school or taxpayers' suffrage in various porta or the United States. The latest group or women to bo en franchised are those of the first Aslatlo republic Chinese women have had tho ballot for only n few weeks, but during that time they havo learned to use it with a facility equaltothat of the men, to whom it is just now as new a tool, Yik Yuan Yin has been olocted member or Parlia ment. The Provincial Assembly or Can ton has ten representatives, American born Chinewo women have been voting in California, und many Chinese women in this city havo become so enthuiastlo over politics that they have eignllied their In tention of marching In Saturday's purudo The earliet recognition or political equality between the sexes was in Sweden, where taxpaying widows nnd sp.nsters have had municipal frunrhlse since ititi'J, The hecoud was in Bohemia, Women who are over twenty-rour years of age and pay taxes and ull women or the learned professions havo been allowed to vote by proxy in ull of its municipulitiea except Piagiio and Libeicu sincu Ihil l They am al-o allowed to oln in the sainn way for members of the Diet of Bohemia, and are themselves eligible for election to that body They lme not the right to vote for representatives to the Central Parliament of Austria. Tho Bohemian Liberals have started a movement for universal suffrage, but tho Government at Vienna proposes to confer full franchise nn all men and to ignoro CAttf&E CHAPMAN CATT. even thohtt taxpaying women who havo the municipal vote, Tim Bohemian suf rrago committee, of which Miss Tiuuovu is president, me piotestiug against this measure, and the Liberal us well as tho Ijibor, the Progressive and tho Clerical purties are assisting in orgaulalloii work among women of all rlasse. It was in the United States, however,) the country of the pioneer workers ror women's rights, that the rull suffrage wns i (Irst conferred upon women. Tho llrst legislative council of Wyoming, after ils organization asji Territory, passed in t sou a bill giving women the right to vote upon the same terms as men and making them eligible to nil elective offices, nnd when Wyoming became a Stato in IWi oqunl siiffrngo was made n part of its Constitution. The latest move lu the dliectlon of le moving sex disability in fiolltical matters hns conio from eastern Asia, and in all likelihood tho not will come from north ern Europe. The Government bill pro viding for tho granting of parliamentary suffrage to women which is now under debate in the lower house ha- tho hearty support' of the King, and is rec-lvlng the most favorable consideration, I,c.idiiig suffragists in this country nro so suro it will pass that they say nlthough the news will cause great reoicing when it comes it will create but little excitement. leaving England and tho United States out of consideration, the country which possesses nt present the most interesting possibilities from the point of view of the suffragists is Portugal. It is impossible to predict with any degree of certainty the outcome of tho numerous complica tions in which the various political fac tions havo involved it. but the Government now in power seems not at all unfavorable to tho extension of tho ballot to women. Last year Carolina Aligelo, a physician. noticed that the new constitution did not forbid women to vote, and so she at tempted to register. When she was not permitted to do so she carried her case through several courts and received from the highest u decision in her favor, uud duly voted on election day. Tho Presi dent of tint repiibliu and three of the most prominent members or the Cubiuet are known to be lu favor of woman suf. f rage, uud Dr. Alexunder Bruga, u mem ber of Parliament, recently introduced Into that body u bill on woman V i IkIiIn, There is a flourishing woman suffrage association In Portugal which publishes a newspaper. Mine. t'u.stro Gsorlo, one of the leaders of the movement, is the editor The Parliamentary Commission in Bomo Italians, ami the Church is unfavorable women to obtain political rights lias to it. The Mayor of Home, on the other j increased tremendously during tho past hand. Is an enthusiastic) advocate of decade. When the first international woman suffrage, and deputies Luzznti, j conference wns held in the city or Wnsh' I.ucifcro and Mirabelli nre doing their utmost to further tho causo, ns is also ington in 1002, there were nationul or ganizations in only flvo countries -tho tucks made upon them and made no at tempt whatever to injure either. the pe sons or the property of their opponent except an occasional breaking of h win dow in order to effect an entrance for some message to a Cabinet Minister written on a paper wrapped around a stone. After the March raids, however. they talked freely of tho possibility of tt: blowing up of Government buildings, and one hysterical woman actually set fire to u heap or shavings lu the post office after closing hour. That theso threats wen taken seriously is evidenced by the fact thut the stute apartments at Buckingham Palace and Hampton Court were closed to tho publio for days and thut speci.d guards were put around the British Mu seum, while an exhibition of valuable paintings at the Boyal Academy was sus pended indefinitely. To all questions as to what thoy expect to gain by an attack upon tradesmen or art treasures the militants reply thut the only way to break through the crass indifference of the middle class man is to attack his pocket book, and they reiterate their Intention of continuing such attacks until at least a thousand women shall havo been sent to prison because of their protest against what the Pankhurct fol lowers term Mr. Asquith' treachery. In tho meantime Parliament has ap parently forgotten all about suffrage bills of all varieties, either for men or women. SUFFRAGISTS Or.INDIA . bus approved a bill giving the franchise to ull women of "J.'i possessing certain prop erty and educational qimlillcutloim. There is, however, counidcruhlo opposition to audi a measure among cousei-vutivo .Signer Ualllnl, M. P., who introduced two years a go in I ho Chamber or Depu ties a bill providln;: for municipal uuf fragu for women. Thu world movement on the port of United States, Great Britain, Am-tralia, Korwuy und the Netherlands. Two years luter, when tho congress met lu Berlin, and tho Intoruatfonal Woman Suffrage Alliance was organised, Canada, Germany, Denmark and Sweden sont delegates. At tho convention of tho alliance held last year In Stockholm twenty-seven national auxiliary associations were represented, besides correspondence groups in two additional countries, while men's leagues from flvo countries, England, Hungary Holland, Sweden nnd the United States, sent fraternal delegates. A Men's Inter national League, of which Sir John Cockhurn, K. C. M. 0 ex-Premier of South Australia is president; Ferdinand Kuissnn, M. P. or France, vice-president, and W. A. K. Mnnsreldt or Holland secre tary, iB arranging a meeting to take ptoce in Iiondon next rail. Mrs. Carrie Chapman Cutt, president of the International Alliance, sailed for Soutli Africa a few weeks after the ol(s" of the congress nt Stockholm, and I milking a tour of the world lu company with Dr. Aictta H. Jacobs, president of tho Suffrage Association of the Nether lands in the Interest or the cause, lu a series or loiters received by Miss Mart' Garrett Huy, Mrs. Catt tells of enthusi astic receptions in nil the places sh. visits, and deolares that women of all races seem to l tremendously Interested in their own political emancipation. ... South Africa she spoko at forty-seven meetltiRB in twenty different towns. Pro ceeding up thu oast coast of Port Said, she took ii trip through the Holy Uuvl, and Bpoke nt several meetings in Jerusa lem. In Cairo, where she stayed a montti, Uio women becanio very enthusiabtlc ovr j suffrage, nnd n committee was formed After a wceK in v-oiomuo sic wem -to India, whero riie succeeded in start ii'K suffrage organizations in Calcutta and Bombay. Sho Ib now touring the Island of Java In a motor cur, and expects to return by way of Hongkong, the Philip pines and Japan. Buffragists have recently been very active in llussia, Turkey and Franco. The French newspapers aro generally in favor of extending municipal hUffM?. to women, nnd many of them uirrya woman suffrage department.