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The sun. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916, October 20, 1912, FOURTH SECTION MAGAZINE, Image 44

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Mohammedans Deeply Stirred by Italy's
Invasion of Tripoli and Frances
Operations in Morocco
AT tho time Itttly declared war
against Turkoy and invndud
Tripoli there was vory lltllo
thought Klven to tho wider
Consequences that might flow trom her
action. It was lielleved that with the
landing f tho Italian army In overwhelm
ing font!, Htipported by the guns of a
formidable fleet, there would he no nioro
resistance than could ho ofTered ly tho
malt Ixtdy of Turkish troops left ill the
country, some n,(ki men, and that the
Government at Constantinople would ac
cept tho inevitable and submit to tho loss
of Its outlying African province.
Hut the unexKcted hapened, and not
only did the handful of Turkish troops
under the command of several able officers
put up a Rood resistance hut the desert
tribes moved by the preaching of tho
duty of all Moslems to rally to tho stand
ard of Islam flocked in t honsands from
the interior of the country to light against
the invaders. So it came about that tho
campaign was prolonged from tho ex
pected couple of mouths to over a year,
and time was Riven for what might have
teen only a temporary ebullition of sym
pathy for the Sultan a the Khali? of
Islam to Ix'comc a widespread movement
of solidarity among the followers of the
Prophet all over the world.
The countries that naturally contribute
most lirgely to lliii 1'iipulso of union are.
T is now a long time since the evil
effects which are liable to follow the
interment of the dead in ground
contiguous to that occuniod bv the
ving havo been thoroughly appreciated
by scientists. Without dwelling on na
'ture's processes, it is enough to say that
the germs of typhoid havo been traced to
oemeterios where the dead havo been
placed in the ground to await complete
It is no romoto or imaginary peril that
threatens the inhabitants or territory
which includes a cemetery or tho ordinary
cr old fashioned type. So well is this now
understood that tho interment of the
1 - j
ft w -p . " iuiiv v; uim iii
I : : : :
I apart from tho Turkish Empire, Groat
j Britain, Franco and ItiiusU. It is ostl
1 mated that thoro are not less than 90,
uim.onn: of Mohammedans directly under
llritlsh rule, of whom somo 07,000,000 are
I in India, tho rest being in Africa. Thoso
under Hussla numlor about 10.0oo.ouo,
whllo the French ropublio claims nearly
Add to these tho 10,000,000 of Persians,
3,000,000 Af Khans and tho Jndotormlnato
millions of Mussulmans in tho territories
of China and It will be seen that the holder
of tho Khalifato of Islam obtains tho
recognition of probably not far from
150,000,000 of people as tho head of their
Rut Islamtsm is ovon more than a faith,
it is a brotherhood in which men of all
races and colors meet on. ji rooting of
fraternity in belief in tho One God and
Mohammed as Ills Prophet. To this
brotherhood is now appllo.l tho term of
Pan-Islam, to iudlcito that it is world
wido and embraces tho Moslems of nil
countries, and its nunlfojt r.lon is spoken
of as Pan-Isl.imism; but never before has
the Islamic consciousness been so stlired
as slnco Italy made war on Turkey lust
Throughout llritlsh India and all over
Africa the sentiment of Islamic unliy
has grown to such an extent, that it is
f-iM inn .he atteutiofi of tho Governments
dead is prohibited by law In any ground
insiue mo limits or most civilized com
munities, except under strict safeguard
and in certain old established cemeteries.
Now York city has not been slow in
recognizing and acting upon tho ne
cessities which have arisen in consequence
or its rapidly increasing population. For
something like nair a century it has been
unlawrul to bury tho dead on Manhattan
Island outside or a row oxcepted plots
or in sealed vaults located in accordance
with strict provisions. In tho other
cities now consolidated in tho Greater
Now York simslar nreeniitinns were t.-iUnn
so that throughout the territory included
cities now consolidated n tho nrratnr nfVwvtrst.i.( v.o..i.ii.i' i "" .T . "'""."' "c i '"- y" mir
N'iwVnrk.tn.11 .:"... " . . , V """'"'' " ""iy iieigiiooring territory in ground will ever bo set aside for inter-
so that throughout the terri orv Inclu 1. Is 7 ' v ""'.C " T. ",L " '. . w ' ,a nt'w mentsor the old asl.ion n the Immediate
and entering into the calculations of their
Foreign Offices. In the mosques of India
prayers are offered up for the buccoss
of the Turkish urtns, and many protests
have reached tho India Office in Ixjtidoti
from India against the -attitude of the
llritlsh Government during tho Turko
Italian war; but the weakness of Istamlsm
is lie want of lulitical unity, tho absence
of a (xdltlcal head.
With tho best of good will the Moslems
under other than Mohammedan rulers
cannot enter into lulillcul alliances with
i he Khalif at Constantinople; all they
can afford him is moral supiurt, a poor
equivalent for men and guns, and sums
of money that do not go very far in war.
For that reason tho Moslems of Asia are
looking for a champion who can come to
he rescue of tho threatened Islamic
.Suites, more, especially of Persia, and
they believe they havo found him
in t lie person of the Amir Ilabibullah Khan,
iCIng of Afghanistan. 1
Although the sovereign of a comara
lively small State, the Amir Ilabibullah
enjoys the prestige of being tho only
Independent Moslem ruler in tho world.
;ilrtcoimtry has no public debt with
a foreign commission controlling its
Hiiances; it has a respectablo and fairly
well trained army, it manufactures its
wu rifles, ammunition and guns of the
.tnuller calibres and its inhabitants pos
sess an indomitable spirit of independence
ha', has enabled them to maintain their
freedom against all comers up to now.
When tho Itritlsh and Russian Govern
ments came to an understanding regard
ing Afghanistan and Persia four years
ago the llritlsh mado communication
it tho arrangement to tho Amir, but he
paid no attention to it nor to tho success
ive reminders sent to him sinco and de
clined to be present at tho Durbar when
King George V. was proclaimed Emieror
of India.
Some years ago when the Amir visited
India ho was received with royal honors
and created a very favorable impression
among tho Hindus, whose good will he
gulned by counselling the Mohammedan's
everywhere he went to live in harmony
and good relations with them. On his
return to his own country he started
many reforms. Tho construction of roods
and the establishment of factories and
tho extension of the telegraph system
were among the things to which ho gave
much attention. All concessions asked
for mines and other enterprises by for
eigners were refused and the extension
of tho Indian railways is strictly pro
hibited. An automobile sendee from the
Indian frontier to Kabul, the capital,
has been established and is being extended
to other cities as roads are constructed.
Dut, as might be expected, the Amir
devotes much of his attention to military
matters. With a view to increasing tho
efficiency of his army, which num!ers over
60,000 regulars, he requested tho Turkish
Government about two years ago to lend
him some officers to form a training
school at Kabul for instructors. This
request tho Turkish Government readily
complied with, and quite recently it was
announced that the first class of the
nowly trained instructors had been sent
to tho various military centres to begin
their duties.
To a great extent Afghanistan is a
Belf-contuined country, its 300,000 square
miles of territory producing all tho raw
materials necessary to the wonts of the
people, even for the manufacture of
smokeless powder for the army. The
machinery for the various factories was
imported from Europe and set up by
skilled mechanics, some of them Ger
mans, who were all discharged bo soon
as native and Indian sutwrvisors were
trained. So great Is the jealousy and sus
picion of foreigners among tho Afghans
that none are admitted to tho country
itnoui special permission, and thev are
obliged to leave so soon as their object
has leen accomplished.
During the present year there wero dis
turbances on his eastern frontier in the
Khost Valley, one of the approaches to
Kabul from British India, but by the
exercise of tact and the dismissal of tho
Great Mausoleum on Long Island One Solution of City's Problem of Providing
Sufficient Cemetery Room Crypts in a Concrete Structure to Be Her
metically Sealed Evils of Interments in the Ground Avoided
in the city limits it has been tor a long time
a matter or increasing difficulty to se
cure tho ground space necessary tor the
disposal or the dead in tho ordinary way.
And the restrictions havo been so rigid
that it is no longer possible in this nart
or Now York State to purchaso additional
ground for purposes of interment. It
is several years sinco tho Legislature
official who was tho offending cause
order was restored without bloodshed,
the Amir declaring that Moslems should
not shed the blood of brother Moslems.
In order to cover his frontier as far as
possible from sudden invasion ho per
mitted tho transit through Afghanistan
from tho Persian Gulf and coast of largo
quantities of modern rifles and ammu
nition to arm the border tribes during
the last two years. The British warships
along the Persian and lleluchlstan coast
have now stoped that traffic and the
tribes dccnd on Kabul for their ammu
nition. Fanatically tenacious of their Inde
pendence and attached to their faith, tho
Afghan )coplo are a dangerous propo
sition to tackle, and tho recent events in
Turkey and Persia have, so it is stated,
created a strong sentiment of sympathy
for their distant Moslem brothers and
neighbors nmong them, which is Hkowiso
felt among tho Mussulmans of India In
a high degree.
Stimulus has been given to this feeling
in a variety of ways. The London Timet
recently published what was a decidedly
alarmist letter from a correspondent
in India describing tho ferment caused
by returning pilgrims to tho holy places
of Islam, and by Turkish and Arab trav
ellers who, it npiwars, havo leen seen in
inaia in unusual numlxjrs since the out
break of the Turko-Itallan War. Tho
result has !ecn an extraordinary develop
ment of iMin-Islamism in India and Af
ghanistan, and a great exaltation or tho
prestige or tho Amir, Ilabibullah. The
Amir has not failed n b.. ..,,,,
of the almcst universal nianlf.xitnHnn
of respect paid him, and in a meeting
held In Kabul during tho present year
to express sympathy with the Turk's ho
spoko in no uncertain manner. He
"Italian princesses having voluntarily
left tho ease and comfort or homo are gone
to attend to their wounded and give con
solation to their sick soldiers. We shouid
count ourselves less than women ir we
were to show any lack or promptitude
in coming to the rescue or tho wounded
and to tho aid or the widows and orphans
or the martyrs among our Moslem breth
ren at Tripoli.
'Let me remind von of ihn rM hnt.
ir wo were not given tho privilogo of
rendering physical help to and of co
operating on the iMttlefleld, with our
brethren in tho faith on account of dls
tanco ond great obstacles we can at least
iry 10 commute our mito of money
to tho funds rr.ispH fnr tl... ,i nr k
- .v . ,1, ll luu
wounded and tho survivors or the mar
tyrs. "If tho sight were not deemed
worthy to look rt the race or the be
loved I shall send then the sound or my
cry io me spot wnero tho loved one
"The meritorious work which your
king is exhorting you to do is good ror
you both hero and heror.rter. Even ir
one went begging for tho work or roller
it would not bo deemed bl.-.moworthy.
"Let every one, therefore, contribute
what he or she cr.n i fford without in any
way feeling ashamed of the smallness of
the conlrilititlnn i. it,. i.i.
' "J J") I ,nu lint Willi I
our own hand ond contribute twenty I
uioiisunu rupees or ivr.nul coin from our
private purse,"
Sirdar Ncsrullah Khin i imttini nf 41...
King, then delivernl .-.tit Irrlncr -,i,ir,a i..
t.lL . . ""I. . Ill ,
incn ne apiecii to r.ll tho Moslems of
.iiBnanisian to follow the good example
of his Majesty nr.d join the glorious work
of assisting the Moslems v h
ding their blood in defending their faith
and country." This speech, the report
says, caused CTer.teniotionr r.il tli a inl
and all the princes turned in the direc
tion or uie hanheh r.t Mecca ond prayed
for tho success of tho Turkish
tho glory of Islam. 7ho Amir then led !
in performing tho "Sr.latul Asr" or aiter
noon prayer.
Tho Turks emnloved In dm Tnlilm-
and civil service or tho Arglian Govern
ment men tnanked tho Amir and the
Moslems or Afrliiinlsinn for hol,.
preHsions or sym;.-.thy toward tho Mos
lems oi mruey nnu for tlio money sub-
made it illegal to do this in tho counties only possiblo by securing tho approval
of Queens and Westchester and last year of the authorities. Such approval. It
Mayor Gaynor approved tho act, which may bo said, cannot bo obtained, so
became a law. including Richmond county clearly defined is tho knowledge or the
in the forbidden r?gion. publio in the matter of danger incurred.
.. fv.V. v.. , . i . T aF?7 f I f- . .J'Mi
scribed for the sufferers by the war.
Then a Hindu, who is a Colonel in the
Arghan army, rose and said:
"His Majesty's servant, Dewan Noran
jan Das, who has been eating the salt
or Afghanistan for years past, expresses
his own sentiments as well as the senti
ments of all Hindus who live in Afghan
territory. Our lives and property ore
always' at the service of the King. We
also share tho sorrow of his Majesty on
account of the wur in Tripoli.
"As we r.re, by the grace of God, In a
xsition to render monetary help we
will do so most willingly and will follow
tho noblo o: ..tuple of his M. jesty, for
whose long lifo, health and prosperity we
always prey."
This account or what was probably
the first political meeting that ever was
held in Afghanistan with tho sovereign
presiding is taken from a copy or the
Islamic Fraternity, o paer in tho English
language published in Japan and edited
by Prof. Mohammed Uarakatullah or
tho School or Ianr;uagea in Tokio. The
mu 1 w fWK f -mms tarn
proressor Is a subject or the Begum (No
wab) or Bhopal, the hereditary female
sovereign of that State and a Moham
medan. She is entitled to a saluto of
nineteen guns and stands at the head of
the list of Indian rulers of the second
rank. She went to England for King
George's coronation and before return
ing to India paid a prolonged visit to
Constantinople and made the pilgrimage
to Mecca.
Owing to the decidedly anti-British
tone of the Islamic Fraternity its circula
tion was forbidden in India on tho ground
that it promoted sedition and it has been
reported from Japan that its suppression
wasdemanded by tho British Ambassador.
In Japan the proselytizing efforts of Prof.
Uarakatullah seem to have met with
some small measure of success, he having
recently received into tho brotherhood
of Islam Baron Hatano, his wife and an
other.Japanese. Sinco his conversion tho Baron has
started a monthly paper called Ei-Inlam,
published in tho Japanese langnage, and
side tho limits of the 8tate of New York.
Meantime, tho problem or how to dis
lose properly or the remains or the doad
is increasing in difficulty. The annual
interments ten years ago from New York
city ulone were about 60,000 in number.
Now there are about 80,000 yearly. And
some years rrom now, according to tho
present rate or tho growth or tho com
munity, there will bo hardly less than
loo.oiio interments yearly.
Tho space in tho estahlishnri eemntertea
is rapidly being filled up. In many or
these cemeteries the rrnnnrl la ,,Unn,i,.
crowded and tho limit or accommodation
in an or mem will soon be reached. There
efforts ore being made to got into touch
with the Chinese Mussulmans, who are
estimated at sixty millions.which would
seem to be an exaggeration of their num
bers. For tho moment the Moslems of Africa,
owing to their want of cohesion, educa
tion and organization, are not a dangerous
political or military force. That may
come later, but the compact and com
paratively advanced body of Moham
medans or Asia .possessing a certain
political consciousness military organiza
tions and caable leaders are in adifTcrent
category and must bo taken into ac
count. Although the Persians belong to a
branch or Islam differing from tho vast
majority proiessing the raith a chord
of sympathy with them is running tlirough
all the other Mohammedan communities.
The destruction of the great shrine at
Meshed by tho Russian bombardment
and tho horrors perpetrated nt Tabriz
on tho entry of tho Hussion troops havo
been heard of all over Asia and the re
action is now being seen in Turkey and
niiiiuuiuiwMi, wuere mo possession of
ormed forces stirs their populations to
resist the aggressions of CI
'firistlan States.
is therefore a serious question confronting
tho authorities as to wJm it will be pos
sible to do in another decode. An obvious
expedient would bo to securo space la
the neighboring States of Now Jersey
and Connecticut, but it is realized that no
such acquisition is lively to bo accom
plished, since tho peoplo of thoso States
are fully as conversant with tho object iom
involved as are tho peoplo or New Yor.v
Cremation or the dead has been pro
posed as a rational solution or tho diffi
culty, and it is well known that crema
tories are established in certain accessible
spots when satisractory service of this
Continued on Twelfth rage.

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