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" T i .'1' J-3 Mm.? 1 Vi - A 'ill JIMIAtl. .V At. 1 'V'J . -", ; "I-M ' . . 'WV!Ul' V 7ipa. 'District tn HOW WE MAKE AN EMPIRE oe 7Ve3 2 w!r 'HR J lUwfM . .MHMflf -Tasc-o-s or Wative louse Qoais on i&ect in Jtfania VPBP M' HBftflP ifi Pas t GiVer. Mam I a 7 Carromaf a one 'Public Ve A tele a Wonders Wrought in Philippines in a Decade Review of Work of Civili zation Done by Americans Staple Government Established, Schools Opened, Prison System Introduced and Prosperity Given Islanders mi the question of the future of the Philippine in under discussion. It i 'nrv f interest to review the result no fur achieved by Americans in i r'unrnt of the island. The information i:iven in the following article ' fniiit ojjicial source and it intended merely to present a picture of i audition in the Philippines. T . American !m-pisUn t tho i 'li'llilne Inlands has !een im INputfil for eleven years, l'rlor to that a considerable n "f the population, under the ' ,p of Autllnnldo, had nusht to a ripui'llc undfr native rule. U' he rapt tin of Aiuiinaldo came the ' hi-nlnnlni; of tl- tlrct s-erlous tin rtuUIni; of the Ameikan people In the vuy of foreign lu'.onlzatlon. A careful inslderatlnn of what has been accom-.-hed In n single decade Is of Interest ,i time when It Is seriously proposed many Americans to abandon the tl; and leave the Philippines to work rhi ir own salvation. T.n years aco we hail an army of " men stationed there. To-day It tirs lO.nno. The maintenance of rmy Is the only Item of expense In Philippines which Is defrayed by the 1 States 0o eminent. Outs.de of l.o entire cost of the development '. I ik iif en accompiisnea nas oeen ' v the Philippine local Kovem . t!..Lh Is tlnanclally self-sustaln-"1 by private capital. The state .! , n-ntly made that the Phtllp-tili-s are nialntalnetl by tin , i'.h at a co.t of many mill .i nl'y was recently character-Pr--Ment Taft as "one of tlm' . !. p patently cannut be stamped ' jinnlnu of the present een :t 'inn Islands Ki oiiped In the :. tth!p.lao were In a con .!.v to be called chaotic. The i i. w.ii heteroKcneous. A large i of the Islands were, divided i f s.ivaKes ami setnl-saviiues. fuse were constantly at war ' msehes. The country was ; I. i nly n small fracton of 1 resources had been drawn i. 'o-e prev.t.ls over practically territory. t!ood will on the nitlve population toward Mneiu Is almiHt universal, .n a denree never before f i- already assured. All this ' American enterprise, i if .-elf-Kovernment has been under the .sunervlslon of i its officials. This Kovem n fairly wood working order ,1'imlse of becoming entirely i 'ho requirements of the : t!e time ever comes when mis of the Islands shall be tmintaln national existence without the fostering care of a strong nation. The Legislature consists of an upper and a lower house the Commission and the Assembly. The Commission is a body of nine men. live of whom are Americans and four are I'illpUuw. The members of the Commission are ap pointed by the President of the t'n.ted States with the concurrence of the S.-n-.ite. The Commission ban the sole power if legii-latlng for the non.Chrl"t:an pr iv Inees, which are Inhabited elmlly by pagans and Mohammedans. It acts sub ject to the approval of the Congre.s of the I'nited States, as does also the Assembly. The Assembly consi-ts of eighty-one members, ll Filipinos an 1 all elected for terms of four years nil a suffrage basis which gives a vote to any male "3 years old who can read and write F.nglish or Spanish, who owns or pays taxes on property to a certain fixed amount, or who held niutneipil otfiee under the Spanish novernnnnt. The powers of the Assembly are such as are usual with the lower house of any legislature excepting the excluslv- right to originate money bllK There are three grades of courts la the Judiciary, the Supreme Court. Courts of First Instance and miinli lpil or Jus tice of the peace courts. There are seven Justices of the Sti. preme Court, the Chief .liistice being a Filipino. All are appointed by the President of the I'nited States. There are eighteen Courts of First Instance, with twenty-four Judges, one-half being Filipinos. There nr. thirty-one Christian and j-even non-Cbrlr,tian provinces In the Lob or a fo rv Trfanita Philippines. In each of the former there is a provincial board with lim ited legislation and executive powers. The members of these boards are mostly Filipinos. A still further stib-dil-ion of the Government con!rts of muniW pal count-. Is, haWng charge of strl. tly local matters, such as 1.. n-es and the maintenance of byroads. Of these coun cils there ale m ore than fl him-lted The c.ty of M ml a Is g iseni'-.l by ,i inun.elpal board modelled after 'lv com mission that has authority In the Dis trict of Columbia. In the seen non-Christian provinces there are governors appoint! d bv the Clovernor-Oin ral, but the forms of local goMTnnient ary accoidtm: i d.f fcteiit coudii.ons The chief executive of -he Phi lp. pities is. of roui.-e, the lioel llor-( ieu- eral. The force lelled upon to main tain order outside of the teular army of the Fn.tcd States Is the Philippine Coiist.ilml.ii y. TliV. Is a body of betwe. n 1.000 and j.ooo iifil. rrs and men. The ottkers are nioM v Aiturlcans. 'I'll- enlists! men are all Filipinos, For a time af'er its format, in the constabulary was ehlelty occupied in toimg oi,. r from tln chaotic con ditions thut ulit luied .is a result of in sut tee tlorri wh.ih iv. re rife i dozen years ago. There wis much hric.ind iii and no sm ill t- mlency to lapse tlt,, savagery under the d unlii itlon of petty local tyrants. Tlu-e troubles are now over excepting In one or two localities, wh-n the least ami liable of the natives still perstt-t in waging war of no .. re fill mldnhle desci ptlon, and the chief duties of the constabulary now eon- "Firs r "Pfi il ipp inc y7si s cm bit slt in patrolling the rural districts and in maintaining ipiarautlues where dis ease becomes epidemic". A Flgnlllcant fact rhowlng the change, that lias been brought about largely through the operation of the constab ulary Is that it is now site for any ttaeller to .sit any of the i u il 1 i ml most of the uncivilized por t.oiis of the .sland. aline .ml un it med. The genertl supervision of the en Ute system of material Improvements which has been inaugurated by the new Ciovet niiicnt Is vested In the Hu-t.-au of Public Works. Possibly the most Immediately noticeable of these manv Improvements N that of the nad system, which h.io b.-ell developed t i -noli an extent that motorcycles and uitoiiioliile now travel In great num b. is over nearly the whole of the isl and of Luzon. Fp to I'jur the only resource of those, who dreaded with tei- in to use the only irlnk.ng wat. r that was available wis ;ti Its d.-tlllatlon or in the substitution of Imported bottled waters. Americans li.ivo since provided a supply of per drinking water by means of a svsteiu of iites.au Us. This was begun In lWi with the cons'riu t.on of two wells ,nii has been followed up so dillgentlv that thete aie now s.mie s, bundle,! of them In operilion In the islands. Their v ilue Is appir-ut when It s noieil th.it death late has fallen off remarkably n all the localities n winch thee wells are situated, and In some places In which the supply they yield is abund ant, the betterment has amounted to 's much as r.n p.-r cent This conserva tion of human life s a direct result of American energy and Intelllgonce. Akin to the subject of drinking water Is that of Irrigation. Preliminary work Is In progress which will ultimately bring more than a million acres of Hud Into a vastly Improved condition And In addition to this survevs are helnj made of works which will bring th i- t.re central valley of Luzon fr an Ma nila to Dagupan under irrigation. Great numbers of mis. el.,itie,ius vroj ids have le en undet t iken. Among these may be mentioned the excellent modern sys'ctn of water supply and sewerage already completed In the city of Manila; the similar system In con struction in Cebu and others In oth r towns; the protection of lowland set tlements from the perils of ilood; a commencenifnt of vvotks looking to the utilization of the nbunduu water power which exists In various p.uts of tie Islands, and the beginn.ng of a system of automobile transportation which. It Is expected will be taken up and de veloped by private enterprise. A system of public Instruction has been developed, on whlf li the Philippine 'lov eminent spends more tiionev than It does on any other bran, h of its ,vork Hid which has produced already a marked change In the condition of the people. The system einlirae os not only the schools throughout the territory In which book education Is given, with the addition of manual training of the .voting, but also important trade schools in the city of Manila. Ilefore the present Government was fairly established American military commanders opened about one thousand dllfeient schools In vnt Ion places, de tailing soldiers from our army to net as teachers, and securing when possible the nld of native teachers. When the civil government superseded the mili tary In 1900 one of the fltvt steps taken In its organization was the planning of a comprehensive school system, entirely free from Church supervision. This exists to-dayi distinct and separate from the schools maintained by the Church. The entire territory was divided Into districts, corresponding generally with the provincial division, and American teachers were brought from the United States, the F.nglish language being adupted by the Filipinos as tho ofllclal medium of Instruction. The beginning of actual operations was almo-t of a character to be called P'oneer work. It was a fact that In uunieioiis Instances the teachers who were Imported built their own fchool houses made their own benches and I 1 ;l 1 li 1 1 f Nllcti children mm tln.e were ;ililn to gather In for the tlrst few months w thoilt books, slates or maps. School material, howwor, was Imported as rapidly as possible' and distributed with final despatch until In a comparatively short time the system was In gooel working order. To-day there are nearly 700 American and more than a thousand Filipino teachers paid frun the Insular treas ury, .while there are more than 7.000 Filipino teachers emplojcd by the irlmis munlclpalltli-. There are In the islands upward of 1.100 public scli-ml of the ordinary type, with a total an nual attendance of o l'). t?3 pupils and an average' monthly enrolment of 41t!,SS9. of whom UTS.HO'i are boys and JCS.IIO ate ultis. Fif'een of the Intermediate schools are orgenizod as trade schools on a commercial basis, twenty. live are man ual training schools ami live are farm ing schools where practical Instruction in si'ientiilc agriculture is given. In the higher schools this ttalning Is con tinued to a point at which the pupils bei'onie trained apprentices in various lines of Industry In which they are tltte d to earn a comfortable living. As an 7eor Mnfa example more than U'.OO', boys are al ready well schooled In the use of car pentering tools. Ueyond this are the normal school in Manila, at which there Is an average) monthly attendance of 773 pupils; a school of commerce with and a school for the deaf and blind with twenty. six pupils. And at tho summit of the school system Is the University of tho Philippines, consisting of six col leges and a school of line arts, with various preparatory schools, all having a total enrolment of 1,449 students, A system of penology has been (. tabPshed which ranks among the most advanced In existence. Tho theory on which the system Is founded Is avow edly and entirely corrective and not punitive. N'o prisoner excepting thoso condemned to death Is deprived of tho rights of a free citizen with the slnglj exception of his liberty, and even at that he enjoys a restricted measure. The P. iireau of Prisons has charge of two institutions ami has under super vision nearly 7,000 prisoners of all grades-. The local prison, so-called, in Manila. Is the nilibid and the penal colony of the Government Is situated on the Island of Palawan. In addition there are thirty-four provincial prisons situated at tho capitals of the various provinces. In Hilibld there are no cells. There, Is no corporal punishment of any kind. There are no stripes of disgrace Im posed upon any prisoner excepting for misconduct, nor any punishment e cepting after the trial before one of the principal officers of the prison for such misconduct. The prisoner -who Is sentenced to Pill bid Is tlrst sent for a number of day to the quarantine hospital, '"here lies is examined and watched by the phvsl. clan In charge till his general condi tion Is ascertained. Then for a month or so lie is trained In the awkward snuad and drilled physically and men tally while ho Is learning the rules to which ho Is subject and the privileges which he can enjoy if his conduct en titles him to them. Having thus be. u made familiar with the routine of th" place and with the various trades and industries In which he can be trained he Is allowed to choose the trade which he desires to learn and Is entered In the shop assigned to one of the brigades Into which the prison population Is dl vlded. Rach brigade consists of ap proximately 225 prisoners. Thereafter the life of the prisoner Is In most respects whatever he chooses to make of it. He may talk freely with his mates, play games, read or study at his pleasure outside of the hours de voted to work and sleep. There Is no guard stationed nearer to him than those on tho outer walls of tin; prison, which Is an enclosure covering about twenty acres. He lives In .i large, ward s . ,,..'.-- yr- . ---- JBucfetni) M 11' Ji- f t . ,iJl 5irc.i t in San jWicftoiao , Wantio Clasa in "Bioogi, Normal 5cioo, 7Waruta. UVCV.