OCR Interpretation


The sun. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916, June 01, 1913, FOURTH SECTION PICTORIAL MAGAZINE, Image 43

Image and text provided by The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundation

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030272/1913-06-01/ed-1/seq-43/

What is OCR?


Thumbnail for 11

11
" T
i .'1'
J-3
Mm.? 1 Vi
- A 'ill
JIMIAtl. .V At.
1 'V'J
. -", ;
"I-M ' . . 'WV!Ul'
V
7ipa. 'District tn
HOW WE MAKE AN EMPIRE
oe 7Ve3 2 w!r 'HR J lUwfM . .MHMflf -Tasc-o-s or Wative louse Qoais on
i&ect in Jtfania VPBP M' HBftflP ifi Pas t GiVer. Mam I a
7 Carromaf a one
'Public Ve A tele a
Wonders Wrought in Philippines in a
Decade Review of Work of Civili
zation Done by Americans
Staple Government Established, Schools
Opened, Prison System Introduced
and Prosperity Given Islanders
mi the question of the future of the Philippine in under discussion. It
i 'nrv f interest to review the result no fur achieved by Americans in
i r'unrnt of the island. The information i:iven in the following article
' fniiit ojjicial source and it intended merely to present a picture of
i audition in the Philippines.
T
. American !m-pisUn t tho
i 'li'llilne Inlands has !een im
INputfil for eleven years,
l'rlor to that a considerable
n "f the population, under the
' ,p of Autllnnldo, had nusht to
a ripui'llc undfr native rule.
U' he rapt tin of Aiuiinaldo came the
' hi-nlnnlni; of tl- tlrct s-erlous tin
rtuUIni; of the Ameikan people In the
vuy of foreign lu'.onlzatlon. A careful
inslderatlnn of what has been accom-.-hed
In n single decade Is of Interest
,i time when It Is seriously proposed
many Americans to abandon the
tl; and leave the Philippines to work
rhi ir own salvation.
T.n years aco we hail an army of
" men stationed there. To-day It
tirs lO.nno. The maintenance of
rmy Is the only Item of expense In
Philippines which Is defrayed by the
1 States 0o eminent. Outs.de of
l.o entire cost of the development
'. I ik iif en accompiisnea nas oeen
' v the Philippine local Kovem
. t!..Lh Is tlnanclally self-sustaln-"1
by private capital. The state
.! , n-ntly made that the Phtllp-tili-s
are nialntalnetl by tin
, i'.h at a co.t of many mill
.i nl'y was recently character-Pr--Ment
Taft as "one of tlm'
. !. p patently cannut be stamped
' jinnlnu of the present een
:t 'inn Islands Ki oiiped In the
:. tth!p.lao were In a con
.!.v to be called chaotic. The
i i. w.ii heteroKcneous. A large
i of the Islands were, divided
i f s.ivaKes ami setnl-saviiues.
fuse were constantly at war
' msehes. The country was
; I. i nly n small fracton of
1 resources had been drawn
i. 'o-e prev.t.ls over practically
territory. t!ood will on the
nitlve population toward
Mneiu Is almiHt universal,
.n a denree never before
f i- already assured. All this
' American enterprise,
i if .-elf-Kovernment has been
under the .sunervlslon of
i its officials. This Kovem
n fairly wood working order
,1'imlse of becoming entirely
i 'ho requirements of the
: t!e time ever comes when
mis of the Islands shall be
tmintaln national existence
without the fostering care of a strong
nation.
The Legislature consists of an upper
and a lower house the Commission and
the Assembly. The Commission is a
body of nine men. live of whom are
Americans and four are I'illpUuw. The
members of the Commission are ap
pointed by the President of the t'n.ted
States with the concurrence of the S.-n-.ite.
The Commission ban the sole power
if legii-latlng for the non.Chrl"t:an pr iv
Inees, which are Inhabited elmlly by
pagans and Mohammedans. It acts sub
ject to the approval of the Congre.s
of the I'nited States, as does also the
Assembly.
The Assembly consi-ts of eighty-one
members, ll Filipinos an 1 all elected
for terms of four years nil a suffrage
basis which gives a vote to any male
"3 years old who can read and write
F.nglish or Spanish, who owns or pays
taxes on property to a certain fixed
amount, or who held niutneipil otfiee
under the Spanish novernnnnt. The
powers of the Assembly are such as
are usual with the lower house of any
legislature excepting the excluslv- right
to originate money bllK
There are three grades of courts la
the Judiciary, the Supreme Court. Courts
of First Instance and miinli lpil or Jus
tice of the peace courts.
There are seven Justices of the Sti.
preme Court, the Chief .liistice being
a Filipino. All are appointed by the
President of the I'nited States. There
are eighteen Courts of First Instance,
with twenty-four Judges, one-half being
Filipinos.
There nr. thirty-one Christian and
j-even non-Cbrlr,tian provinces In the
Lob or a fo rv
Trfanita
Philippines. In each of the former
there is a provincial board with lim
ited legislation and executive powers.
The members of these boards are mostly
Filipinos. A still further stib-dil-ion
of the Government con!rts of muniW
pal count-. Is, haWng charge of strl. tly
local matters, such as 1.. n-es and the
maintenance of byroads. Of these coun
cils there ale m ore than fl him-lted
The c.ty of M ml a Is g iseni'-.l by ,i
inun.elpal board modelled after 'lv com
mission that has authority In the Dis
trict of Columbia.
In the seen non-Christian provinces
there are governors appoint! d bv the
Clovernor-Oin ral, but the forms of
local goMTnnient ary accoidtm: i d.f
fcteiit coudii.ons
The chief executive of -he Phi lp.
pities is. of roui.-e, the lioel llor-( ieu-
eral. The force lelled upon to main
tain order outside of the teular army
of the Fn.tcd States Is the Philippine
Coiist.ilml.ii y.
TliV. Is a body of betwe. n 1.000 and
j.ooo iifil. rrs and men. The ottkers
are nioM v Aiturlcans. 'I'll- enlists!
men are all Filipinos,
For a time af'er its format, in the
constabulary was ehlelty occupied in
toimg oi,. r from tln chaotic con
ditions thut ulit luied .is a result of in
sut tee tlorri wh.ih iv. re rife i dozen
years ago. There wis much hric.ind
iii and no sm ill t- mlency to lapse tlt,,
savagery under the d unlii itlon of petty
local tyrants. Tlu-e troubles are now
over excepting In one or two localities,
wh-n the least ami liable of the natives
still perstt-t in waging war of no .. re
fill mldnhle desci ptlon, and the chief
duties of the constabulary now eon-
"Firs r "Pfi il ipp inc
y7si s cm bit
slt in patrolling the rural districts and
in maintaining ipiarautlues where dis
ease becomes epidemic".
A Flgnlllcant fact rhowlng the change,
that lias been brought about largely
through the operation of the constab
ulary Is that it is now site for any
ttaeller to .sit any of the i u il 1
i ml most of the uncivilized por
t.oiis of the .sland. aline .ml un
it med.
The genertl supervision of the en
Ute system of material Improvements
which has been inaugurated by the
new Ciovet niiicnt Is vested In the Hu-t.-au
of Public Works. Possibly the
most Immediately noticeable of these
manv Improvements N that of the nad
system, which h.io b.-ell developed t i
-noli an extent that motorcycles and
uitoiiioliile now travel In great num
b. is over nearly the whole of the isl
and of Luzon.
Fp to I'jur the only resource of those,
who dreaded with tei- in to use the only
irlnk.ng wat. r that was available wis
;ti Its d.-tlllatlon or in the substitution
of Imported bottled waters. Americans
li.ivo since provided a supply of per
drinking water by means of a svsteiu of
iites.au Us. This was begun In lWi
with the cons'riu t.on of two wells ,nii
has been followed up so dillgentlv that
thete aie now s.mie s, bundle,! of
them In operilion In the islands. Their
v ilue Is appir-ut when It s noieil th.it
death late has fallen off remarkably
n all the localities n winch thee wells
are situated, and In some places In
which the supply they yield is abund
ant, the betterment has amounted to 's
much as r.n p.-r cent This conserva
tion of human life s a direct result of
American energy and Intelllgonce.
Akin to the subject of drinking water
Is that of Irrigation. Preliminary work
Is In progress which will ultimately
bring more than a million acres of Hud
Into a vastly Improved condition And
In addition to this survevs are helnj
made of works which will bring th i-
t.re central valley of Luzon fr an Ma
nila to Dagupan under irrigation.
Great numbers of mis. el.,itie,ius vroj
ids have le en undet t iken. Among
these may be mentioned the excellent
modern sys'ctn of water supply and
sewerage already completed In the city
of Manila; the similar system In con
struction in Cebu and others In oth r
towns; the protection of lowland set
tlements from the perils of ilood; a
commencenifnt of vvotks looking to the
utilization of the nbunduu water power
which exists In various p.uts of tie
Islands, and the beginn.ng of a system
of automobile transportation which. It
Is expected will be taken up and de
veloped by private enterprise.
A system of public Instruction has
been developed, on whlf li the Philippine
'lov eminent spends more tiionev than
It does on any other bran, h of its ,vork
Hid which has produced already a
marked change In the condition of the
people. The system einlirae os not only
the schools throughout the territory In
which book education Is given, with the
addition of manual training of the
.voting, but also important trade schools
in the city of Manila.
Ilefore the present Government was
fairly established American military
commanders opened about one thousand
dllfeient schools In vnt Ion places, de
tailing soldiers from our army to net as
teachers, and securing when possible
the nld of native teachers. When the
civil government superseded the mili
tary In 1900 one of the fltvt steps taken
In its organization was the planning of
a comprehensive school system, entirely
free from Church supervision. This
exists to-dayi distinct and separate from
the schools maintained by the Church.
The entire territory was divided Into
districts, corresponding generally with
the provincial division, and American
teachers were brought from the United
States, the F.nglish language being
adupted by the Filipinos as tho ofllclal
medium of Instruction.
The beginning of actual operations
was almo-t of a character to be called
P'oneer work. It was a fact that In
uunieioiis Instances the teachers who
were Imported built their own fchool
houses made their own benches and
I 1 ;l 1 li 1 1 f Nllcti children mm tln.e were ;ililn
to gather In for the tlrst few months
w thoilt books, slates or maps. School
material, howwor, was Imported as
rapidly as possible' and distributed with
final despatch until In a comparatively
short time the system was In gooel
working order.
To-day there are nearly 700 American
and more than a thousand Filipino
teachers paid frun the Insular treas
ury, .while there are more than 7.000
Filipino teachers emplojcd by the
irlmis munlclpalltli-. There are In the
islands upward of 1.100 public scli-ml
of the ordinary type, with a total an
nual attendance of o l'). t?3 pupils and an
average' monthly enrolment of 41t!,SS9.
of whom UTS.HO'i are boys and JCS.IIO
ate ultis.
Fif'een of the Intermediate schools
are orgenizod as trade schools on a
commercial basis, twenty. live are man
ual training schools ami live are farm
ing schools where practical Instruction
in si'ientiilc agriculture is given. In
the higher schools this ttalning Is con
tinued to a point at which the pupils
bei'onie trained apprentices in various
lines of Industry In which they are tltte d
to earn a comfortable living. As an
7eor
Mnfa
example more than U'.OO', boys are al
ready well schooled In the use of car
pentering tools.
Ueyond this are the normal school
in Manila, at which there Is an average)
monthly attendance of 773 pupils; a
school of commerce with and a
school for the deaf and blind with
twenty. six pupils. And at tho summit
of the school system Is the University
of tho Philippines, consisting of six col
leges and a school of line arts, with
various preparatory schools, all having
a total enrolment of 1,449 students,
A system of penology has been (.
tabPshed which ranks among the most
advanced In existence. Tho theory on
which the system Is founded Is avow
edly and entirely corrective and not
punitive. N'o prisoner excepting thoso
condemned to death Is deprived of tho
rights of a free citizen with the slnglj
exception of his liberty, and even at
that he enjoys a restricted measure.
The P. iireau of Prisons has charge of
two institutions ami has under super
vision nearly 7,000 prisoners of all
grades-. The local prison, so-called,
in Manila. Is the nilibid and the penal
colony of the Government Is situated
on the Island of Palawan. In addition
there are thirty-four provincial prisons
situated at tho capitals of the various
provinces.
In Hilibld there are no cells. There,
Is no corporal punishment of any kind.
There are no stripes of disgrace Im
posed upon any prisoner excepting for
misconduct, nor any punishment e
cepting after the trial before one of
the principal officers of the prison for
such misconduct.
The prisoner -who Is sentenced to Pill
bid Is tlrst sent for a number of day
to the quarantine hospital, '"here lies
is examined and watched by the phvsl.
clan In charge till his general condi
tion Is ascertained. Then for a month
or so lie is trained In the awkward
snuad and drilled physically and men
tally while ho Is learning the rules to
which ho Is subject and the privileges
which he can enjoy if his conduct en
titles him to them. Having thus be. u
made familiar with the routine of th"
place and with the various trades and
industries In which he can be trained
he Is allowed to choose the trade which
he desires to learn and Is entered In
the shop assigned to one of the brigades
Into which the prison population Is dl
vlded. Rach brigade consists of ap
proximately 225 prisoners.
Thereafter the life of the prisoner Is
In most respects whatever he chooses
to make of it. He may talk freely with
his mates, play games, read or study at
his pleasure outside of the hours de
voted to work and sleep. There Is no
guard stationed nearer to him than
those on tho outer walls of tin; prison,
which Is an enclosure covering about
twenty acres. He lives In .i large, ward
s . ,,..'.-- yr- . ---- JBucfetni)
M 11' Ji- f t . ,iJl
5irc.i t in San jWicftoiao , Wantio
Clasa in "Bioogi, Normal 5cioo, 7Waruta.
UVCV.

xml | txt