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THE SUN, SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 7, 1913.
MAGIC OF MODERN METHODS TURNS BARREN WASTES OF THE WEST INTO GREAT APPLE BELT TO i w ra v. si BsiaBB Miss Lorena Wade -Colorado's THE great fruit belt of the world has been slipping to the West for several years. This is par ticularly true of the apple crop. To-day King Apple is securely In trenched west of the Mississippi River. Ti.e .hunter la due not alone to fhe wonderful growth of orchards In the last twenty years but also to the fact that Western orchardists have been inick to adopt the latest Ideas in han dling and marketing fruit. In fact, the mere raising of fruit Is of minor im portance In the eyes of the modern or clmrdist. The questions of picking, packing, cooling and marketing are the factors that count most. A majority of the failures in the fruit business are due to neglect of these points, and It will be found that the fruit kings of the West have succeeded as much from tin Ir shrewdness as business men Ih. ir ability as apple raisers. The year 1912 was marked by a etrioui shortage in the apple crop of Kur. Climatic conditions were bad In this country, but so many young ami vigorous orchards were Just com ing Into bearing in the West that the crop was nearly normal. The total ' appk crop of the United States for the year s officially estimated at 39,000,000 barrels, against 36,665.000 In 1911. Ac oording to the census of 1910 there were Army of Students Earning Money IT is customary to call the summer i i'Ii- in which the college student i- at liberty the vacation period. Il really isn't anything of the kind , 'or many American students It might better be culled the labor period, for it during these mouths that the student Wit), a love of independence seeks em ployment whereby he may pay his col lege gxicuiei for the following year. And in many cases his work is of the aardi it kind They nuke B formidable army of workers, i ins., students, and they are Mgsgwl In all kinds of industries They The less lucky Sflj BLfl:' V; u M mmmmmmnm sasH ijLVbMI m r I I H U liui 1'. s r' saTanm w jjjj isssss j Ifl Tfl 1 SSBSBSbVT sC I "B iSSBSBSBSBsJ' BsSSBsfil if VB 65,792.000 bearing apple trees in Amer ican orchards. The fruit raisers of California have taught valuable lessons to orchardists all over the world. They have shown the value of Intensive agriculture and of singleness of purpose In fruit raising. Like the Callfornian. the orchardist of the Rocky Mountain States Is a fruit raiser to the exclusion of nil other products. He makes fruit raising a specialty, wtnereas the old time orchard, dear to memory, was only a side issue on the farm. If the farmer could span time from his other crops he attended to picking and shipping, but generally something else interfered, and countless barrels of fine apples were left to rot on the ground. The modern orchard affords u Sharp contrast. Perhaps it is a small tract of five or ten acres, all In Jonathans, Wlnesaps or another of the fancy growths that Hiave proved so popular In recent years. In the comparatively warm Irrigated countries the trees are from thirty-three to thirty-five feet apart, as against forty feet In New York State and other fruit growing localities where apple trees attain their largest growth and live longest. In the fruit growing localities of the Nort'hwest the trees are placed even closer together, affording self-protection against the steady winds. Much at tention is paid to the care of the soil roll up their sleeves, abandon all aca demic pride and set to work at anything that will bring them a fair return. In every part of the country they may be Been working as tutors, salesmen, canvassers, waiters, laborers, baggage men, motormen, conductors, and with very few exceptions they make good at anything they undertake. In these ef forts they are greatly assisted by the employment bureaus which are a fea ture of every large college. Nowadays a poor young man may commence his university education with "no gold in bis coffer" and yet feel reasonably cer- serve M writers. between trees, and In late yearn it tins been the custom to grow Canada peas, cow peas or mime other leguminous crop In the orchard to restore the nltro Ken to the soil. One of she chief reasons why fruit raising In Irrigated regions has proved ao successful Is the fact that the lack of rainfall makes the destruction of Insect pests a matter of certainty. Spraying la one of the Western or chardlst'a regular tasks. On some of the big fruit ranches of the West It Is no uncommon thing to see a dozen spraying wagons lined .up In the or chard fighting Insects that threaten to destroy the crop. Spraying wtoere there Is little rainfall is far more effective than In a region where a ahower Is apt to undo nil the orchardlst's hard work In a few hours. The spraying Is gen erally done with self-boiled Ume-t phur and lead arsenate for the fungus diseases and insect pests that threaten the life of apple and peach. rrunlng la another matter thnt la never neglected on the up to date or chard. In pruning It Is aimed to se cure a low head and wide branches even about the trunk. Pruning season Is a busy time In the great orchard dis tricts, and an army of men are kepi busy for many weeks trimming the trees in order to get them Into perfect bearing form. The story of some of the early West- iiW -faprpWgyS ssH ?nj IfYffll BM Ik - 'assMLsS I SJbIIbK Assise! 111 LHr,.iijHi Bevm f mj Ps jrfar aMiiPl W i LMMiBsWJBniLBsiMBLinLLLMdLML w - w LsWLfe. jgg?r4 ern orchards reads like romance. An excellent example Is found in the cele brated Ashenfelder orchard of several hundred acres near Montrose, Col. Twenty years ago title mesa on which this orchard stands was barren, save for sagebrush. Nobody had any Idea that fruit could be raised in the Un- I Thousands of Young Men Are Conductors, Motormen and Tutors and Putting Aside Their Earnings for Use During Coming Term tain that he will come through without much difficulty. Perhaps one of the softest jobs is that of the Princeton man who offers to guess your weight within three pounds or weigh you free at Coney Island. He does a thriving business, which is greatly stim ulated by a quick sense of humor and an abundance of tact . Any man who can run a business of this The railway companies welcome the college student. Wonderful Growth of Industry Due to Scientific Means Employed by Orchardists -Constant Care to Keep Trees in Good Condition and to Deliver Fruit to Consumer in Height of Perfection The M Apple Queen of Colorado" compahgre Valley. The land was not even taken up for settlement until John Ashenfelder, who operated a mule pack train to the mining camp of Ouray, in the Ran Juan Mountains, selected the mesa as a place to grass hla worn out stock. Out of curiosity Mr. Ashenfelder planted a few apple trees. The results astonished him, and the mule pasture speedily developed Into one of the larg est and finest orchards In the West. The Government has spent millions of dollars turning the waters of the Gunnison River through a tunnel Into the I'neotnpahgre Vulley to water fruit lands adjoining the Ashenrclder orchard and the land which was thought to be worthless for anything but graxlng has soared to phenomenal values. An army of ni a are employed In the Ashenfelder orchard spraying, pruning and irri gating. Hundreds of pickers and pack ers are employed In harvest time. Countless boxes of apples are shipped from the rancn. besides peaehe, pears and apricots, and the land which was used as a mule pasture has become one of the show places of the Itocky Moun tain fruit country. The problem of getting harvest help in the fruit regions Is a serious one. Frosts generally come early and there Packing apples the must be no delay in getting the fruit in storage. It Is by no means uncommon for schools to be dismissed and church congregations excused In Grand Junc tion, Palisade and other western slope fruit centres of Colorado in order that fruit may be gathered In time. In Canon City, where the Colorado State to Pay the Working During Their Vacations as Waiters, Street Car kind successfully deserves to wind up in the diplomatic service. This student's income is derived chiefly from oliesr ladies whose weight he wilfully and craftily underguessts. Under ordinary circumstances this would mean the loss of 5 cents, but the fact is that his failure is generally rewarded. A woman comes along who must weigh ut least isu pounds I hediploui.it guesses penitentiary is located, the warden lias even turned his "trusties" Into neigh boring orchards when a heavy frost Im pended In order to expedite the work of saving the fruit. The last spring frosts that visit the high plateau region of the Western fruit country are the bane of the orehardlst. In order to combat these frosts much attention has been paid to orchard heat ing In late years. Various makes of orchard heaters are used, some of them burning oil and others coal. A call to the orchards In the spring is sent out by the ever vigilant Weather Bureau when frost Impends. Business men close their stores and children Mock from the schools to help. The entire valley is alight by nightfall und Is a sight never to be forgotten. It is the general opinion of fruit rais ers in the West that orchurd heating has passed the experimental stage and has proved Its value past all doubt. The temperature in an orchard can be raised several degrees, according to the num ber of heaters used. B is no small task to keep an orchard full of heaters ulluht. and where frost has threatened for sev eral successive nights the strain on fruit raisers is great, lint those who have heated their or. hards have had their reward in good crops, while neighbors "Western way." who scoffed at the idea have scored total failures. After a good harvest in any Western fruit raising community there is u time of rejoicing. Generally there Is a local fruit fair and a fruit queen is chosen from among the pretty girls of the sur rounding countryside. These fruit Coming Year's Expenses her weight at 141, and when she takes her seat iu the swinging chair he so con trives 'liat the scales show only MM pounds. If she is with an admirer the result is a voluntary fee of perhaps a quarter. It is at the seashore and the summer resorts generally that the student worker is particularly in evidence A favorite scheme is for a number of students who A Princeton man who guesses your weight at Coney Island. queens from the various apple raising communities attend the big apple show, which Is generally held In the State me tropolis, and there is lively balloting for the supremo favorite. The present apple queen of Colorado is Miss LoTSM Wude, from the I'uonla fruit district on the western slope. She was winner in an exciting voting con test at the Denver apple show, with rlvuls from Canon City and other fruit raising districts. Nursery Inspection is playing a big part In raising the standard of fruit in the United States. There are forty-six States with nursery Inspection, general or county officers inspecting all nursery stock once or twice a yeur. In 1SS1 there were only four States with this sort of Inspection The discovery of the San Jose scale in 1KS3 led to a plan of having all nur sery stock shipped under certificates. These certificates are recognized in all Statis that have stock Inspection. In some States the nurseryman must file his certificate before selling. In others, all stock must be fumigated before being sold or shipped. It Is recognized that his country has Inefficient plant quar antine regulations, but the danger of importing diseased trees Is minimized by the severe local stock inspection winch has grown up in recent years in nearly all fruit raising States, The revolutionary changes in picking and handling fruit have ull come from California, whose model fruit growers' exchange handles 14.000.000 boxes of citrus fruits with a minimum of loss. The United states Government if now are musicians to organise an orchestra and seek engagements iu a summer hotel. This, sort of employment is well paid ami a college orchestra is always very popular. The result is a well spent summer ami a tidy bit of money saved. Others who are less lucky htvimw wait ers, clerks, vorters and bellboys, At Brighton Reach there are a score of men from Yale and Cornell and other colleges, athletes most of them, who work as life savers. Miuiy of them have fine records and they are generally to be seen surrounded by ad mi ring young girls. The pay in this service is not great, but Many athletes find employment with the life guards. engaged In an exhaustive Investlgatio of the best methods of handling fruits from tree to murket. Prompt and efficient precoollng if recognised as one of the best methods of securing n minimum of decay anl deterioration. Precoollng plants have been erected at great expense by ship ping associations and by railroads. Through a vacuum process the natural heat of the freshly picked fruit is re moved, bringing the fruit from core ts surface to the exact temperature of ths refrigerator car. Most of the fruit raisers belong is local associations and must obey Strict rules as to grading and packing. Triors is no more shipping of Inferior fruit as first class and no more rough handling on the trees or In transit to the storage plants. Every detail of the apple's prog ress from the tree to the wholesaler is watched closely, and the motto of on of the biggest fruit associations in the West Is: "Yotl can eut our applet In the dark." Any IkiX of apples that Is not up to grade will be replaced by the as sociation in the locality where It is sold, and the fruit raiser who shipped the inferior fruit is subject to a fine. These are some of the things that have in trenched King Apple so securely on bit throne in the West. Hobble Skirt Furnishes New est Railroad Danger FiR several years women passen gers on street cars and rail road cars throughout the coun try have been objecting to the high steps, asserting not only that they make it difficult to get on or off cars but nls.i that they are a source of danger, particularly In the case of young children and elderly women. Now the railroad companies have started a back fire which may vl' not nsuit in iyi -'"'' 'complaints yf iu 'inn. The street car com panies have not as yet followed the ex ample of the railroads. A few days ago the Pennsylvania Railroad declared that many accidents to Women White entering or leaving its cars were directly due to hobble skirts and high heels. The injuries sustained have ranged, from slight cuts and sprains to broken bones. A new order, which is posted on the trainmen's bulletin boards at all points on the main lino of the Pennsylvania mad, directs conductors and brakemen to make particular note of the style oi skirt and the height of bed worn by any worn. in passenger who may slip on the steps of a car either while enter ing or leaving, while her probable age ami the attending circumstances of the accident are to be recorded also. No insistence is made upon ascertaining the exact age of the passenger, These data are to be Immedlatelj forwarded to designated officials of the company, who an- to place them on Die for future reference if complaint is made to t lie company by the passenger injured. Al ready a number of such report! have been receive.! by the company n( us New York. West Philadelphia, Altoona and Wilmington offices. "If women passengers on the Penn sylvania Railroad Insist on wearing such mantraps. ..r rather womentraps, as hobble skirts and high heels they cannot hold this company responsible for accldl nts which may happen to them." said an official of the company. "Aside from the question of whether the car steps are too high, which we deny a the case, women passenger! who wear such contrivance! are, w think, guilty of contributory negli gence, and We believe the courts will so bold." Even a tombstone will say good thing! of u fellow when he's down. Better to have loved a short girl than never to have loved a tall. in College the work lias the merit of affording plenty of open air sport Perhgp! the largest percentage of students take to selling books. These men earn their title of II. A. before they actually complete their course. In this case, however i the it. A. docs not stand for bachelor of arts, but for book ugent. The earnings of college men vary. As a rule their income fur the summer months amounts to about t'.'iKi, though many (kiss this mark. One, t'olumbia student hung up an enviable record not long ago when for fourteen weeks work he showed earnings aggregating usi tJJ,