Newspaper Page Text
THE SUN, SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 2, 1913. SOME NEW BOOKS. rtmrlm I'.llol .Norton. During Ms tln-t Ititf Ciiaiii.es NoRTfflf MsliT-tiuis) might have Ki.iot been lairiy iiesuritieil as the American who judgment, coinciding with tho sugges enjoyed tho greatest distinction with 1 Hon Just made, was expressed to (Icorgo tho least to show for It. I'tilesii-wuJavWlnm Curtis In 1861: "There Is but happen to he a Da tit 1st by specialty one man In the country In whom ho has Norton's "bibliography" makes but tluj eiignicst uppcni ici you. i.vru to Dan- tints the translations of tho "Vita , Nuovn and the "Dlvlim Commcdla" i cannot appear epoch making. Kvon to students of architecture the "Stud- les of ( hurch lliiltdltig In the Middle Ages' must .-rem to be no more than, i piece or ir yusuustic; rcsearcn. i'.un - ing, with whatever tact and taste, tin letters of Lowell, the writings of Curtis, tho correspondence of Carlyle and Kmerson Is as far from accounting for Norton's unique standing as tils share in tho editorship of the Xorth American Ucvlew with Lowell. That he was pro fessor of the history of art at Harvard, 1874-9S, says nothing except to his pu pils, since the professorship had no lit erary results of any Importance. What can there have hi'cn about the man, the casiial wayfarer must lie moved to In quire at the mention of his name. The present volumes. Letter of Charles litiot Xnrtnn, telth llio'jraph teal Comment y llli Uaunhtev, Sara Xnrtnn, ami M. .1. De Wolfe llauc Houghton Mltllln Company), form nn attempt to answer this ques tion. The attempt is so successful that nobody who reads them will ever be moved to put the question again. The ohxlnus conjecture Is that Nor ton's failure to leave any adequate memorial of the accomplishments and powers that impressed themselves up on tils friends I due to Ills want of the "literary faculty." That very differ- rim connoisseur oi me oris m me perenrgo of a ISostomati ship nnd It spring of IS.'..-., Is as candid and con Itean N.ish. whose wli in talk did not i occupied 10:' days of the summer oflvlncing as one of Olmsted's own. extend to wit on paper, said that a mj, The voyage Itself Is noteworthy I There Is a good deal of "Cred. I.iw." bv jm o .in ic ioieoo ou o oenumoeu an Ills faculties. Hut the conjecture that this was the rase with Norton, plans- ,,.i.- . in. i, f,ii u ii mm iiiiMim mini ins published work. Is at once dispelled by n perusal or these letters. They nrc admirably written, without the least strain after good writing. The con jecture may still have validity to this extent, that the consciousness of ad ilrrssini; the big. gross public did in truth benumb his faculties, and that It was only In the conllilence of nn In dividual appeal to a correspondent of whose sympathetic Interest lie was be forehand assured that he could behlm-i-elf nnd do hini.-olf Justice with a pen. In that case, as the render of these letters tlmls, he could exercise upon strangers the charm which he exer cised upon his acquaintances. He inuld leave a tecord of himself In his private letters with which that of his published writings cannot be compared, nnd a record of his life and times which Is among the most illuminating of documents for the period, the pccnes and the persons, mostly of gre.iter fame than the letter writer, covered by his observation. I. By birth Charles Kliot Norton was a TSosioiuan r.rahinln, a l'harisee of the ftrailest ,-ect. As with so many more of such, his was an ancestry mainly of tlie ministry of the dwpol. One of them w:w renowned in the seventeenth century as 11 pot upon much the same evidence which about the ame time caused that Wigglesworth to be renowned locally as a poet whose thoughts, rolling on iiwful subjects of damnation ami the dead, impelled him to set them to the measure of a rlga (looii. The ancestral John Norton's Mibjcct was "A l-'uneral Hulogy I ,,!,; or ir - That Patron query: pattern'.') nie, the Truly Hons. Peerless and Matchless Gentlewoman, Mrs. Anne Uradstieet Like the ridiculous ruba-! dub of Wigglesworth, this effort was much overpral.-ed by Muses Colt Tyler, xvho.o overpraise the severer taste of Charles Kliot Norton could not stand, lie writes; "I tlnd in my ancestor's per formanee very slight merit, though It ' gives Indication of formal training In the stiff poetle fashion of the day"; but the enthusiastic historian of American literature Prof. Tyler, who has an eye lor swans, discovers in it "force" and I "beauty," calls it "a sorrowful and stately chant," and even ascribes "po etlc genius" 10 Its author. Anne Hrad- Mreet was herself u poet, which Is In part nu explanation of the Calvin- t istlc. muse's tears, but It was as much below the .esthetic appreciation of Charles Kllot Norton as it was level with n nenousiy iih ir ll were on n poetic parity with the nearly .contemporary ode of lohn Dryden cm Anne Kllligrew, In Mead of being valuable anly as an evi dence if the awful aridity of theocratic Massachusetts. So, all the same, the descent of the Nortons went on through the hungry generations of the colonial time, mel lowing more and more as It came with in the range of tho humanities nnd out of tho range of the "besotted fanati cism," as Hallam calls It, of the primi tive Inluimunitles of the original settle ment. The dlsmalness of the early days 1b nowhere more Impressively in culcated than In an address by Charles JClIot Norton In 1SS1, on the occasion of the i'OOth anniversary of the estab lishment of the church at Hlngham, of which tho ancestral poet was the sec ond pastor, and to which five or six generations of Nortnns belonged. The mellowing of the race hecume strongly evident In Charles Kllot's father, An drews Nor'on, u person of Importance In his day, one of the pundits of Harvnrd nnd of the Divinity School at Cam bridge, where ho quietly connived at the merger of the ancient Calvinism In to Unltarlanlsm. but could not brook "tho introduction of German radicalism Into American theology," an Impatience xt.!ch probably deprives his "great worn" on the genuineness of tho four Ooipels of all interest for modern read me. Also he could not brook the rmllnnl. lin of tho famous address of Kmerson 1 J)o you mean Kmerson, , the Hoclnlnti' preacher?" as Daniel Webster retorted to the Inquiring Carlyle) at tho Divin ity; ho uttacked It anonymously In a newspaper article which Kmerson promptly ascribed to Andrews Norton, "the old tyrant of the Cambridge Par nassus." All the same Charles Kllot m Horn Into a "reading family" In terested In tho things of the mind, and for the llfo he was to lead thc heredity nnd training of his time could not have been better. II. Charles Kliot's own scholastic career was respectable but not brilliant. An enforced alisence from college on ac count of his eyesight interposed a tech nleal objection to his obtaining tho coveted prize of freshman year, but the Kindly president made up for tho loss by giving him a prize of equal value on his own nccoiint. In IS 13 iho wns sent to New York for optical treatment a wm th P-ent .t the wedtlin, j !!. r,',,!!!!"?,"01.!:11?. i'.V11' " . T ,W,,,M, "', ' l1h.n 'best man" of the occasion im In his own judgment of every other, and began an acquaintance wlhlch was to last as hull' n.M Snmner'M life. Vfirton'n iiivn entire confidence, and In him his con- iwicnco Is overweening." This Is much t(lP ,. f Oram's epigram, probably printed before, on hearing that Sumner didn't believe In tho lllblc: "He didn't wr, ... Nnr(on FloUp of hm ln tt ,,.,. t0 tj0Wp on tne occnMon f nH death: ...or Humner! What a sad life tlis vf,mH l0 onp wm iook8 i,n,.ftln the shows of things! Ho Illustrates the difference between bigness and greatness. 1 have a very kindly feeling to his memory. I should like to have more respect for It." Hut the most pungent characterization, as might be expected, was that made by Carlyle to Norton: "The most com pletely nothln' of a mon t)!iat ever crossed my threshold naught whatso ever ln him or of him but wind and vanity." The paternal Andrews had emigrated from Hlugliam to Cambridge, on be coming connected with Harvard and bought tho house at Shady Hill with which his soli's life, In - spite of long periods of travel, was to be more com pletely Identified than with any other place. Hut his "wander years" began Immediately after graduation. Like nil other educated young llostonlans of his 1 1 til 1 1 lint utiinltlrvilK t r of in Pml frit miu of the recognized "professions," he seemed to be destined to business. In In fulfilment of his destiny he took a voy age to India; tho Indian and Chinese trades divided the aristocratic com- I lllerce of Ilnston. He made It as sil - ; mainly for the Immense amount of rending which the young supercargo not 0iy n(i t ult actually got1 tlirniii: i. inrce v aliont inula nnturnllv . hut also Including such strong meat as, the whole of the "Decline nnd Kail." Concerning this there Is a criticism Norton was busy with some scheme transmitted to his father of the nntl- for elevating periodical literature. The Christian chapters which must have Atlantic, the Xorth American, the .Vo pleased tho parent by Its good sensel (Inn, the C'nij011, their namo was legion, and Its orthodoxy; I'nltarlan ortiho- , i.,r the nrnioniration of the life of the doxy, be It well noted. "(Jlbbon, direct ing Ills attack upon the religion mostly by Its abuses, and through the Motions which have been established In Its name, brings the whole weight of his learning nnd sarcasm to bear ngalnst the doctrine of the Trinity. This has been mistaken by the adherents of thnt doctrine as an attack rm the founda tions of the religion; nnd as It Is a doc trine which cannot be defended by revelation, by reason, or by history, the power of the attack upon It has Justly been considered by them as dun- gerous. There Is more of human and modern' I Interest In his observations upon India . Itself. They nre noteworthy for the ; descriptions, rather clear than vivid, of I what befell him from Calcutta tb Delhi 1 and back again. Hut they are still I more noteworthy for the beginnings they betray of his lifelong quest for the , mon Interesting and memorable, and presumably the most excellent of things and persons, mn--t of all of persons. One of the most interesting Is his ac- count, In a letter to Longfellow, of his visit to the "Koyal Poet of Delhi," to whom the American poet had given him an Introduction. He did not miss the Taj Mahal, nor what lie thought 1 the most remarkable and scenic pas sage of the Indian landscniie, "the view; of the Snowy Itange of the Himalayas f.nn, T amlnti. 'I 1.... I .....o .. u ...'lit uiiiuuui, 11 .in mntijn afterward, the towering personalities ,,., i... ..,. !., . iiitii i niui l iiicu linn inn.-!, rii-ii ill b.'.i "I have seen hut one native, whether Tll.,.1.. lll.uln.,.n T. ...... i"'""," .V "TV. , .I' ". : . ..-5-r-.il v ill in. ii.ii, iii.it i i t-rr.-u i I lull one Is my Calcutta friend, llajender Dutt." That he already had his scheme of life laid out Is deduced by the edl- tors from extracts from two of his let- , ters home. One concerned his appli cation to the Sultan for a firman allow ing him to travel In Turkey: "I should be described as having no commercial nlilnn, 1.,., dm.. la. .. .. . I "... .iui,i; un iii.in ,ii leicers, travelling for Information and pleas-1 III-. Hilt n UnA Al.,., f i... i ...Li" .. "7, " ' , " ' 7 111 ,r" " """ - l''"'.B:h.?a?'u?n'p '"' ' B'nK Into the, Kast India trade. inn me inner sig-i,. niflcant extract Is to the cousin In Hos- , ...v, . , , " '.'.'..' '' i .0 1 "T ' ,0.1V"k f,'rwi'r'. ,''. ".1S , , m" W " -oletyV III. It was no doubt a felicity for the HIT me I VOIlIlIT lr.l',.ller (a ml- I.l i . into Kurope not from his raw native land, but from the Immemorial civilisa tion of the Kast. by sea from Rombav to Suez and thence ncross the desert to Cairn and the Pyramids, and from Smyrna to Trlest and Italy, even tliough at Smyrna nu illd have to undergo the barbarltlcn of a Turkish quarantine. In Paris he applied him self at once to seeing people. Perhaps the most noteworthy of them was Lamartlne, to whoso weakness nnd vanities a letter Is devoted. There " ..".i.i- iii" nisi einry i I..,.. . M . . . ' were nine portraits or the poet In the i-uuiii in nnicn ue received the travel- ler, nnd the traveller wns told that In the suite of three rooms there were twenty-two, After the cxpomire of the great republican and poet it Is ratiher depressing to know that Ste. Heuve, In comparing and contrasting him with the other great republican and poet Victor Hugo, remnrked: "Hut, charlatan for charlatan, I prefer Lamartlne." Alfred de Vlgny and Tnoquevllle the young traveller also met. Hut the meet ing thnt meant most to him was his first with George William Curtis on his way homo to write "Nile Notes of a HowadJI," who was shortly to become "dearest George," as Lowell "dearest .lames," who was to be perhaps after I'owp11 - ,mt eerlnlnly after no one else. t,lB "" sympathetic and confidential of nil Norton's coworkers in American literature nnd politics, and who was to "summer hlro" for so many years at Ashfleld. Threo months In London followed the Parisian episode, although" on this visit ho did not have his subsequent luck In people, and seems to havo met no body morn eminent than old Crabbe Iloblnson, of whom readers who know Hagehot's nccoiint will not care to read any other. Of course Loudon wns not lost on thu. "young eyed" eagerness and sensibility of the American. Hut ho had by no means arrived at his ultimata! sureiiess and sanity of appreciation. He I entertnlncd a great admiration for jry Mcneiicr. And thern Is much of iwenty-ono and still more of Hoston in uic report that "everybody sayH that there Is no poet In Kngland to be com pared with Mr. Longfellow." And this Just after reporting that "Tennyson, It Is said, Is lo ho poet laureate slninlv take the place. His new vol- f VT Z1? .&1,mo,,ln,m, ln armory of hlttf .rlcm Ar',1Ur Hallam. excites very dlf- ferent Judgments." Evidently 1850 Is a long way off. There were to bo four more months of the Continent before the return to America, by Switzer land. Munich and Vienna to Italy, , close acquaintance with tho Hrownlngs. of whom, much as other and mostly wnero somo stay at Morenco anil a subsequent travellers have written them, this traveller's .report Is Inter - iij., .... I wUll0Ut perceiving that tho letter The four following years were spent at writer Is striving to Inculcate In hlm home, at Cambridge or the Newport that I self and his correspondents that "eer then was. The most Important human I tain condescension" not In "foreigners" acquisition that the letter writer made , but in the more fortunate and more eiil was that of dough, to whom In his tlvated natives toward the less for rather melancholy American exile cv-i tunate and nlfted thm ,.., erybody of any account seems to have taken, but nobody more warmly than Norton. There are more letters of this period to him than to anybody else. As was almost Inevitable with n. se rious minded American, nnd quite In- ........,.,.,., u r..-. e.u.i niiimra uo.-io- nlan, they are very largely devoted to the question of slavery, of which the 'i'i"nv'aMtii y h WPbstort betraya ' of the cause of freedom had been, quite naturally according to Nor- ton and those who thought with him. ol owed by the like betrayal on the i, v.a,r.:?. .an "r, Z better opportunities than most North- erners to Judge of the practical work- lugs of slavery through a visit to the South Carolina plantation of some New- port friends, the Mlddletons. There hel ... ...'.... if,,,, lull lltlll lllltl.il huw the Institution under Its most bo- uliro unit tuitriiirelmt i,.i.n I'm u with Olmsted after a similar exoe- rlence. ih revolt -w i,. nndi i,im rlence, the result was to convince him I not only that It was bad for the whites aim niacKs nut mat the willies were the chief sufferers. Ills description, In 1 letters to Clooi.li mul l.u,.ll iu tin the way, In these volumes, besides a letter or two to him. attesting that here again Norton's Incessant quest for ih l,..t tw,.i,ln rilt...l In ,. Inobv. m..l It was he who Introduced K. L. ("iodkln 1 to Norton, when, ns was often the case. ('ration, the fir-' art magazine pub lished In this country, both Norton nnd his editors seem to give too much of the credit to W. .1. Stlllman. to whom Its foundation was doubtless due, at the expense of John Durand. afterward to be the translator of Talne. who had at least ns much to do with keeping It alive and up to Its standard. There is no mention of lilm, though of Stllt 111:111 It Is characteristically said: "I have never known any one more ear nest and faithful Iu his desire and search for spiritual Improvement." ! Neither In the T.Os nor later In the war time did Norton's preoccupation wlth slavery prevent his taking Inter est In all the things of the mind. Some of his Judgments of works now forgot ten suggest that young Norton, like Professor Tyler according to old Nor ton, "had nn eye for swans." His view of the debut of Walt Whitman In a letter to Lowell, Is worth quoting. No wonder, he says, that It excites Kmer son' s enthusiasm, "for Walt Whitman has read the 'Dial' and 'Nature" nnd combines the characteristics of a Con cord philosopher with thne of a New York fireman." IV. The two years, 1S55-57, spent in Kuropc were episodical and Interrupt ing to the particular theme of Norton's connection with the politics of the civil war nnd before and after. Hut during the war he stayed at home and did what be could for the cause of the l.'uion. Soothly It was not much. He ws the editor of a body called the New Kngl.ind Loyal Publication Society, of which the purpose was to correct and elevate pub lic opinion, both here ami abroad, re specting the Issues, liut it was a mere tly on the wheel and produced no re sults. The course of events hail forced Massachusetts men 'of Norton's way if1 thlnuiiig into the (iarrlsonlan abolition- ms p....... nnii ", ' ,, " ns It seems now. col ored nnd discolored their views. Hence ' 1 "' t txn . . many curious mlsjudgments ire here recorded. His political "eye for swans" ln()uc,.(1 xrUml Ut miiiie a hero of .lohn v., .., for some time to the .luss,iclius"tts gal- -Wndln,,ly to depredate Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln's refusal to Precipitate the emancipation proclnm, Hon much disgusted him. A domestic cat, he wrote, cannot fulfil the func tions oi a nengiil tiger. "That sure footed mind's unfaltering skill" did not I Impress Norton, nor for that matter! ,, .. . . "'""' uowen. tne autiior or the line, until tliel Bilntirtrl llflll l,nn.n... ....I... .11.. nensnl.l.. lo i.i.ie.iin .hi,.. ii, " " ..... ..... . . iviii they saw the point, like had become had written1 iioiiv OOC1 else. When the conflict plainly Inevitable Norton to Curtis: "I believe that New Kng-i land Is stronger than New1 Africa" an'umn nnyhody else's, better than Ailing- -r than New1 Africa," an' epigram the point of which the grammatlst blunted by Insisting, after the war was over, upon conferring the ' suffrngo on "New Africa" without de.lw,,"i incline to call them the most in- i lay, largely as a means of political edu- cation for the blacks, but mainly by way of suppressing the Southern whites. He wns as Indignant us un- other Sumner or Thai! Stevens at the slowness of Congress In coming to the conclusion, which Congress finally reached, with the results we all know. Statesmanship, political wisdom, was by no means one of the many good gifts the fairies had bestowed upon Norton. This Is clearly enough evl- neiii in tne story lout hy his letters of the civil war nnd reconstruction, i Tho retrospect lo the war with Spain is so much shorter that wo cannot pro nounce with equal confidence upon tho unwisdom of his eourso before and dur ing and after that conflict. Already, however, his denunciation of tho Span ish wnr after we had actually entered on It reads rather queerly, nnd still '. . ,'. ,y ,m,CM 11 "PCl,ur'",on, a more queerly such a declaration ' . , " ,", ""'""mi -una by the overthrow of Spanish rule means either practical unnrchy or the suhstl-, tutlon of the authority of the I'nlted States for that of Spnln." Manifestly nm in wijiiin-iiiuui wan mure or hi siaiesman man 1'roressor Morton or Harvard. It waH Senator Hoar's bitter denunciation of Professor "Norton's general view of the Spanish war, and still more of his Intemperate expression of thnt view, which led to the rupture of the friendly relations tho two had maintained since they were classmates nt Harvard, V. On the wholo It Is pleasant to return i from tho record of Norton's frequently j misdirected and maladroit political ac- tlvltles to that of his labors in his own vocation as an apostle and also an ex-' emplar of "culture," of which he was' often known to complain that lio was a missionary "In partlbus." No man ever took more pains or more conscious i pains to cultivate httaelt Ula friend Lowell, In his most famous and pof slbly his must memorable and durable' poem, makes rhythmical Inquiry how. a poet could ever "tower" If his pas- slons, hopes and fears and his triumphs' and his tears and so forth "kept not I measure with his people." It Is qulto' true, anu tne perception of It docs credit to the democratic Instinct which Lowell had and nf whirl. Vnri.in ...... .t..i,i You cannot read Ave pages together of , tho maturer letirr. in iv.n ..ni,.. rlorltv to the m.i f .i,i.i rlorlty to tho mass of mankind, which Is the very negation of tho democratic spirit. Some might call It the Harvard spirit. Whencesoever It proceeds, and 1 wherever It Is found, It limits the ln - lluence of nn American, and tends to' mnice or mm "a sterile dilettante" It accounts for. If It does not Justify, the destructive wrath of old George Krlsble Hoar, equally a Harvard man. against his classmate and lifelong friend. It was the defect of Norton's quality. The evidences of It in these volumes are so 'numerous as to be LrXZ,"u Tiu- n" Jump at you as you turn the . inilVnU lln ,, ' v ln.n " , I , ,",, , '"?' " , 'ot Cordlnnl. In !, 1 "m " ,1n-u' 1wll.,5h .'C' K , ,0 "mse '', 1,1 t1ha1t lmp , l ,?rf,,,ns .,,f w.e"1,h' i"luentlal , 'l,,m'"' nnl"K was I Muur iu cue i.enceeis. I A"' r ll ,llrlmafi lo 'i-'ipe, """ 'non wrote on return- Ing home: "Tho contrast between America unci Kurope never struck me as rorcllily as It does now. The gran deur of our opportunities Is propor tionate to the Immensity of our de llclencles. I grow perhaps half selfishly, certainly fastidiously, disin clined to work with any Immediate concern for aught but my own culture." This In a letter to Ktiskln In 1ST0: "I must come home and Income a pro fessor lieforo this relmgnnnon rno tin conquered. I am snmetimP inetinprt to think that simply to cultlvnte one-1 ,'" relation of Chicago to the success self Is perhaps the best service an)"' l'r"Jectlon of that southward lead American can render In these days." I 'nK r,Kht "ngle of exploration and terrl "Llko Hornco Walnole f h,,ni,i ,"rlal "enuljjjtion. Tho humorous ap- mv my country exceedingly If jt were not for . . '""my ir It were not J 'inen." Ohv otisly a tier- -on of this temper Is not going to cut much of a figure P-ople. M a "demagogue." He Is much rac as expressed by Lincoln: "The .on: I must love ,1,.. common peop h made so many of them." T detee ii'" ' " common man nnien out nf Norton's ... .n-ii-fi me "Vll. One to Imve been allocution to "Outre-Aler." Vou simply iw uiKP mm ns a ...... ..Miu, iiuiu-iy rnnspfmia . (r.'inm ii ...... superior per-on. nm, (1(,slrous of , still more so. Ami ... . more so. Ami v..t i . .1 And yet how nmph snlll nl rrmln... i. r......i ii mi- .iiiiumee, men i . . ... . ----- xnmi,l wh.nL " le Wabash. From Fort Miami In I ,n"r r00 " l"e ",r n.n" !n."r ,onve!' Included heV .I "! "UB VM ' southeast corner of Lake Michigan "noewwunti: ,wn,"n "PP""' f "P from Paul or-. . "J.. might go up the St. Joseph, then ,n' ..u,m r,vl" r V1'"1"' Am merit In that character as he lived t I;'rm",nr"tn ""'' ,h" U,,per f H-.w far he was removed ffUSlil!1!.' 'f' ""l V nnd Wisconsin rivers either .. . " "V ,r"m "Plngl ti .i " wile d ettante." Ihe testimony of ,he student who nt under h m. having chosen his course" ns ' nn InsplratU is valuable nnd conclusive nn this point Ir.J"""1 "",nB 18 Arthur Sed" I (luonco. dcrlv.wi .... . . - - iun n'n ln- uualntance and even ,, .n'im",P."5: than a generation, and summed up in the " """" ,l ml " was his own life that was his masterpiece." Norton's -wn summation of , ainhltlon? ....in ,n it leuer to Lowell Is- ' see to the Inscription over 'mv If you grave on need only say, He had good iriemis. whom he loved the last three ......,n ,..,K nearly tuiitoIoe,,. tllt what friendships he had, and what a Carlyle ...., i uieni is here. He S.'lVu nf that tilt OnlV lieru.i.ta l. 1....I heard the old man speak of as f they were of his own size were Kmerson and Huskln. To these might be added Tennyson, on the strength of the "Iteml nleences." nnd Norton himself, on the strength of Carlyle's own note hook of 1"T.1. "An amiable, very friendly, sin cere and cultivated Charles Norton, from Hoston, Is here nil winter, and much a favorite with me." Norton on tils side keeps inltlng that Carl vie Is "sympathetic" and lovable, anil' thnt any Impression to the contrary is gatli ered nnd propagated onlv he i,...i. J." 1 """Tstnnd his humor. Of, sllcll Norlnn nnrlf.l.O. . ... 1 ....... ..... . . . ' , .... "- mn. ms eiining of tile correspondence with 1-tiiai Jlersnn and of various other Carlvlennn ' ,n, . . . i" iviintT me poison or iToude !., , .... . . .. "iee lnm' m m"rp ,,mt ,,(r'c will , 10 !,om l,y ,," raIltal reports of Car-i ' ' "lm "er('' ney are Letter , umn, nny"ody else's, better than Ailing- cpi-''""nK even, although some faithful 1 ' co,H navo' 11 seems, quarrelled with t,,mmerce then dreamed of perhaps, hut Norton's notation of tho dialect. One1"'"'1 "dequate conception of Its mag- 'cresting things In these volumes, '"'"'gn thnt is saying a great deal. rale, nothing could be better than carlyle's account of John Stuart Mill nnd "his Mrs. Taylor." Somebody had recommended Mm to her ns a sol- vent or her spiritual doubts. "And so .Mill with great difficulty was brought to see her, and that man. who ud to that time had never so much as looked female creature, not even a cow. In the face, found himself opposite those great darK eyes that were flashing un utterable things while he was dlscours in' the utterable concerning nil sorts of high topics. One would llko to go on quoting In terminably. Hut if you are. the sort of person for whom the book Is meant you must have seen nlready that you have no rocourse but to read It yourself. Assuredly It Is a vindication of the worth whlleness of the life of Charles Kllot Norton, as to which you may havo cherished .lonbts. Also li t iuimimi.K. made, and you very seldom fall to find editorial answers to nny questions the lext of the letters may raise In your mnd, Antiquities of Chlcaico. "Chicago In the Revolution" Is a chap ter heading that holds the eve. It oc curs In Vhlcana anil the Old Xorthtvcat, a "study" (doctor's thesis?) of the evolu tion of the northwestern frontier, 167S to 183B, und history of Kurt Dearborn by Mtui Milton Qpaifb, Ph. D.. pro- feMMor nf tilslorv In thn Lnwlu liiMlltntn of Technology (University of Chicago Press). The origin of Chicago ns fixed tho common understanding would certainly not anledato the establishment of the fort In 1803, and in 1830 the population was short of 100. "ChlcaRo n the Revolution" might be paralleled by "Theodora Roosevelt In tho civil war." Hut Mr. Roosevelt, born In '58, -was, If not engaged In the civil war, - Jnt Wst a recognkable Individual entity nt Ihe time of It; and Chicago ln the seventeenth century was only a name, and In the eighteenth century but little more than that. About the name, however, cluster many associations which, so far as thev ' concern the ordinary reader, may well Ikj condensed Into the compass of a paragraph or two, but which challenge the historian's Instinct for research work and "comparative" delving among divers authorities. Thev call us a young country, hut Into a small span of years we have crowded all the stages ot de velopment, aboriginal, prehistoric nnd mythological, the ages of nnnals and chronicles and the successive experi mental up to final phnfifs of historiog raphy. Chicago has them all. The name Itself Is, transparently, of Indian origin: Chlragoans. who are sur- prlslngly sentimental for so commercial n race, pride themselves on Its nativity, supposedly superior to Imported Vorks nnd Iondons. with n weak kneed "New" In preface. "Checagua" or "Chekakou" may have meant either wild onion or polecat, a somewhat constricted yet not haflling choice, for In the favor of the local etymologists the odor of garlic has prevailed over thnt of skunk; we must have some semblance of elegance ln our explanation of place names. The story of Chicago begins with the development of New lnnce In the sev enteenth century. The French, com ing up the St. Lawrence nnd the (Ireat Lakes, were never satisfied with tho exploitation of the vast and fertile re gions Immediately to hand In tho north of the middle West; they were looking for a waterway to the western ocean, still dreaming of that mythical short cut to the riches of the Indies. The labors of La Salle, .toilet and Mar- jquette. a large part of this record, are Immortal In memory. Their discovery that the southward waterway from the Lakes led to the Oulf Is one of the ro mances of the history of this great con tinent. The subsequent Immuring of the Kncllsh. leading to the French nnd Indian War. decided the racial fate of the continent. These are commonplace 1 observations; less trite Is the story of ' " U?' f ,hP ""me Cn,cllK" m i-enirsi-iii; inoimn ii sioou only ror an Indian meeting place. It was one of the keys of conquest, ns much to the front as Its natural advantages have since brought It in the Industrial bear ing. There were five "keys." A glance at the map explains the situation. The Lakes offered a broad and ensy highway Into the West: from them the problem wns to effect a trans, fer to the tributaries of the Mississippi. The watershed was naturally the de ciding factor. The Ohio offered a water way west from the Alleghanles, the southerly lines of access. From the western enu or i.aKe Krle vovagern corner of the lake the way led up the Chicago River, down tho Des Plnlnes Into the Illinois and through that stream Into the Father of Waters. niiorueti a similar route. In each case the crux of the Journey came at the ' point nf transfer from river to river, the length of portnge varying considerably. This was the heyday of the birchen canoe, whose part In our earlier history the national Government has recently celebrated. At Chicago the distance ranged from zero to fifty miles, nccordlng to the stage of the streams, whether filled to i line - .. i swim nnd cork sinks: when trees hnve in ,in the K-.ml.nV.. i.-rn. ., m.i "o oiuest monarcny nas stopped I ..v. '.. .lie- villi. .1.U ?J'i!1.f"V!1','.' lh" SprinR fV.'""",tM or!prehenslve scope. Where there is depleted In the summer droughts. Jotlet proposed a canal, but for long the only auxiliary to the natural channels of communication wns the use of horses for the portnge. It was not until the early part or the nineteenth century that the project was nwlved. In lS.Vi? work was begun, with great enthusiasm. The population of Chicago was then pronctilng ,000. Twelve vears Inter. when the Illinois nnd Michigan canal was Mulshed. It was 2.VO00. And then Ironic fate got In Its line work: Y.m nlthnut th construction of th csnal the nM imporunri. ,,nr u.o of thc i-hicaeo I i-ori.m net a nou t (0 tmnlnnie Th a! v.iiic- of wlilio rttlometit ounni-d thf il,nh knrll of the fur irnlc. Willi tlir ailrrnt of thf ralltn.iil traile ,m,i rommrn-e .ourht o'lii-r chaniifU nnd othr tnnni of irans piirmtlan, Th v.itrrn.iya lot thflr old Impori.inrc. ,,n, ih.- vhirHK l'nrtnce piinm.,! Inlo lil.iory. Kre thu iimr. honker, the ! . ."""' ""rn "n" "" 1. 1' ii n m irvp noii.i onnordin tt... 1 , ' The tirofnssnr ooo.no ...... -- ,..,- looaeil the chance for an interesting! Paragraph about the present day Lakes ... ..... ... ..... "' "" """ '"iiy oui ne sp ns a ...'.' Iir,'".v -'(""' -" "bout the old Chicago l''rtage, a tale Instinct with the appeal "' L'i..n.-. i nuns propnenc oi great ar- 'Ties that later generations hnve seen lpncs mat later generations hnve h P'use mightily with the full tides of a """' ""' spienunr. Not even the zealous aiitiqunrinn can confer upon the Chicago of the seven teenth century anything like historical place personality. If he expands his theme Into pages without dulness the vivacity and quality of his narrative Is reflected from the record of wonder-, ers like Tonty, La Salle's lieutenant, for example, who came and went and, kindly for the record, passed In their comings nnd goings through the n,uth-, tuial machinery will before long be re west portage. It Is nil fair game for quired on the great plains of Pechlll. htm, however, by virtue of the second Mongolia and the Manchurlnn prov- compouent of his comprehensive title, In the latter part of the century Father 1'ierre Plnet wus one of the Jesuits proselyting among the Illinois Indians, mid tho location of his Mission of the fSuurdlan Angel nt "Chlkagwa" has lieen a subject of dispute among his torians. It Is not a matter of world shaking Importance, or even of isitent appeal to the state patriotism of Illlnolsans, but by paring away some one else s argument here and building ! up one of his own there the professor establishes the mission at the mouth of the Chicago river, and so obtains white Inhabitants for his town In thc barren century. He also upsets thn tradition of a French fort at Chicago In the eighteenth century, attributing It to the errors of cartographers In Kurope working from the records of travels. and those errors, quite plausibly, to con fusion or careless blundering on the part of the explorers themselves. In this Instance It mav well enough be that Father Hennepin, having In mind Ia Salle's Fort Miami on tho St. Joseph, had confused thnt river and tho Kankakee with tho Chicago and the Des Plaines at the opposite corner of the lake. And without Impeachment of the passion for historical accuracy It may be mnlntalned that these points have Infinitesimal value, except for the peculiar and rather narrow purposes of the aspirant for the higher honors of Hcademe. Tt Is worth while to argue nver the motive and accompllsimenta !lsn of the Jesuit explorer, but not over the' mlnutiic of their temporary domiciliary arrangements. So too with the story of 'the Fox wars, "a half century of conflict." Its Interest Is not Inherent, but hlstorlco phllosophlcat. It led up to tho huge strugglo with tho llrltlsh In the upper Ohio Valley. The Invmedlato Issue was control of the Indian trade in tho Mis sissippi Valley; "the larger stake was tho commercial and political supremacy of three continents and all the seas. When tho struggle ended the dominion of Krance in North America toad passed forever." During the Revolutionary years the Northwest wn seething with military and seml-mllltary activities. Tho opera tions of Clark and of St. Clair and Wayne against the Indians kept the middle West busy, but they concern tho Chicago situation only Indirectly, serving to point out Its strategic value as a centre of control for the region lietween the Great Lakes and the Missis sippi, in the closing years of the eighteenth century there were Increas ingly definite rumors of Intention to es tablish a Government post, but the matter was not settled till 1803, when Lieut. .lames Strode Hwearlngen led an expedition through tho wilderness of southern Michigan and northern Indiana, while the artillery, provisions and heavy baggage were forwarded by water. Swearlngen led the march because of the 111 health of Capt. John Whistler, appointed to the command of the new post. Capt. Whistler's son, (leorge Washington, then .1 yours old, later an eminent engineer, was the fnther of the artist. Prof. Qualfe settles the rivalry between John Klnzle and Whistler for the honor of fathering the modern Chicago ln favor of the Captain. Klnzle was a pretty hard character, an Indian trader. He settled at Chicago In 1801 and his account liooks are historical "sources." Prof. Qualfe's book Is more useful ns a museum of antiquities than'as a literary history. The story of the Northwest has settled Into a definitive telling nt the hands of historians ex cellently qualified to mould it Into per manent shape. To most readers, how ever, the story of the old portage, of Chicago before Chicago was, will add a new element to their conception of the capital of the Great Lakps. The history of the fort, the personalities of the early settlers, the detailed notes of the Indian trade and missions nnd wars, nnd the bibliography of 160 Items will give pleasure of a certain sort to readers of a certain sort, those whose hobby la the running down of the dates nnd dnja that arc properly consigned to limbo In the literary historian's footnote. I The Chinese Itepnhllc. Not longer ago than day liefore yes terday the query, When will China be come a republic? might have been nn- swered only by paradox: when stones smoking opium, tins cut off Its pigtail nnd Is donning the toggery of modern Ism. A world ln its dotage stands on Its head ln order to get a new view of things: women voting, Chinamen elect- I im their "'ra r own rulers, marriage made Immoral and divorce ilioly, America try Ing to make Itself believe It wants to turn from representative to direct popu lnr government. Soon the sun will rise In the west, we shall swim in the liquid land and walk on dry water. The youngest member of the family of republics Is photographed In many poses by John Stvakt Thomson- In China frroruffoiiffrif (Hobbs Merrill) New China Is a hodgepodge; so must be any book about It planned In com unity In the subject there can be none In the treatment of it. Part of Chlnn. enough to constitute a respectable sized nation, is in tihe equilibrium of infinite motion: n larger part, enough for half a dozen powerful nations, Is clamped In nnelent and unconcerned Inertia; millions of hlnterlanders no doubt nre ap-Ins, yet' Ignorant even of tho existence of their new civic status, assuredly unenlightened ns to its significance, a 4,000 year long stream of history di verted from Its established channel, four hundred million kings to take the place of one dethroned, a hermit nnd Ingrow ing nation taking Its sent nt the council tablo of the peoples. In a chapter on "The Genesis of a Revolution" which is rather a narrative of the revolution than a recount and analysis of Its sources the author roots the movement that has given the "tnxed maioritv" ballot nower over the "nrlvl - leged minority" In the Opium Confer . . nio . ,-mi-,,i . ,UJ ihrte h"n no i'tfinnt "f tli opium linlilt thrniiffh lin., !.n.l.r.til of ., tllllpnt nnil llrltilln'i, .'.rrlftr ,.f rni.m,. Vrom" 19M no rhllioi to ID 1 1 thfro eouM have bn rhlllon In 1911. Tlif rrrorm clenrnt th tiotoenr.i hrmla of tha nation, miaul " million men to imitation, ami furnUlinl " hundred million dollars directly end Indl reotly tnari1 the independence of the agita tor". "(let ready for the China trade," this closo observer cries. The machlnerv of business Is to be readjusted to meet the new needs. There will lie a con structive erlod In finances, Internal and International politics, river and harbor regulation, army and navy, municipal organization, tax system, civil service Ac, and then with a rush will begin tho great trade." The first pressing need will l for machinery. "Agrlcul luces, whence America will draw much grain, meat, oil, lumler nnd coal." Factory, mill and mining machinery will follow In demand. China Invites the world to advertise In Chlneso In her newspapers: "She hates concession hunters of the Pizarro and Cortez type, nnd deslro to exploit nnd protlt by her own wenlth." An unbounded field of modern Industrial organization Is to be opened, nnd the quaint old methods of exploitation, transportii msportatlon nnd mar keting will have to go. Nepotism and graft will offer obstacles more dltllcult than those of material conquest. A new economic world is a-bornlng. American exports to Clilna, princi pally of cotton goods, machinery, oil, flour and tobacco, have lHen, in recent Voters: 1908, f34,000,000; 1909, $28,000, 000; 1910, U'3,000,000, and 1911, 23, 000.000. In 1910 China's Imports from all countries totalled $30.'.,580,000. Our Im ports from China In those yeara, con sisting of silk, tea, hides, wool, straw braid, pig Iron, musk, hair, raw cotton, albumen nnd bristles, were: 190$, tn, 000,000; 1909, 31,000,000; 1910, $38, 000,000; 1911, $3:1,000,000. China's total exports In 1910 wero $2M, 460,000. Mr. Thomson's prophetic eyo sees a line of Tinndsome digits dancing down the years ready to fall Into position to the left of thc grand totals, with a host of serviceable ciphers to deploy gracefully Into posts of honor and responsibility on the right wing. He advises the keeping of etocks of goods at Manila, ready for forwardlngnt the psychological moment: "Tills applies to Iron, hardware tinware, structural beams, cotton.' woollens, ynrn, shoes, machinery, etlti. catlonal and military apparatus! fnnd lllnlt.llu . . .1 1. 1 ' u.v.iot.n, iriiie. null uii'i vii inL' n.i.iAn sary In municipal, Industrial and do. mestlc development." His iletall.,i analysis of tho demand of thn Chlnee market and tho international enmpp tltlon of Wcstprn nations to supply u should be helpful to American uri chants. The non-commercial mlini gives birth and lodging to the qiidv Is It not possible that In nil thia of hand partitioning of China's vast iino. velopcd "field" tho Western Invader nro rather underestimating the nmbl tlon and ability of John Chlnnmin to cultivate ihls own vineyard and market its product? The twelve universities of China nre a far from negligible factor In the equipment with whlah she faces her new task, Hongkong t'nlvirsliv (llrltlsh) Is to bo "equipped for the nt opportunity offered to Influence Chlnn In the ways of permanent progress the Cantonese have always been leaden of republicanism nnd modernity." St John's at Shanghai (American Kplsen. pal) has excellent medical nnd nrta schools and a school of science next In line for development. It is gloriously modern: "The football team has mowed down the Municipal Police team en many occasions; Its track teams ami rowing teams nre yet going to make China famous at Olympics and Hen leys." The t'nlvcrsity of Nankin "n.i always be u political, naval, military scientific, and cultivated centre, n grea Influence In teaching the coming lead ers of the New China." The Pel Ynne I'nlverslty nt Tientsin Is the leading en gineering nnd technological Institute the Hermans nre to conduct opposition at Tslngtau. The Government pro gramme In Pechlll Is not parsimonious It Includes: A unheraliy at Tlentnln. a provincial enl lece at I'.iotlnn, fevenleen IndiiKtrlal arhon'i three hlith school, forty-nine elemetitar normal eohool. two medical, thra forelin language, elnht commercial, flva arrlcu lural, thirty middle. 174 upper, lot mliel MOO primary, 131 girl' school and 171 nlirht cliool In the Industrial clttf. This Is nn encyclopaedic book; li nearly 600 pages seem to cover Cuna, ancient nnd modern. In every Imagina ble phase. The author, deprecating gourmand habits but recognizing th good sense of being nn epicure "on eminent occnslons," gives the prospec tive tourist pointer on the peculiar pleasure of the Chinese table, v Mncao, ask for broiled snmll or Sc1 Pan; nt Shanghai let It be toasted ri birds or Ap ducks. Pekln In tine g.i tronomlc Itaedeker stand' for Mong. mn mutton, Tientsin for roast Imperii' pheasant, Canton, for preserved com quats Jn ginger syrup, Hiingynn s' monds nnd Sal Klvu watetmelon. Swatow glories in Its Hung Lai plums Chlfu In Its Tin cimn Khor npplrs Hongkong In fresh lichees nnd Phor Ka. turkey, To name the topics treated in tb solid volume would be to prepare i skeleton for a dictionary of flilnr civilization, nnd to catalogue the "classes" or "groups" of re.ideis i which It alms would le simply to nanv the groups that read. It Is a hnndhooi of useful Information about the Chin that was, the China that Is, nnd tl China t'.iat shall be. KANSAS WOMAN'S BOOK 383 YEARS OLD Among the many relics shown nt , Itepubllc County Fair one of the Intel estlng perhaps was a Herman 1 Luther's sermons printed In IS"1 the ptoperty of Mrs. C. P, Carstei.jir llellevllle. Mathlas Still, an old resident of At -h son. Is the possessor of four very n . able antique books, the oldest one ! i ; been printed 35; years ago in Co'.ok-h tiermany, within forty ears of the t me when the tlrst book was pr'ntid 'mn movable type. The oldet book m i posession of Mr. Still Is a New Tef ment and was printed In 13 ill by .loh.i' Queritel. Another book, a Itlhli. n , printed In HOT by Arnolum Qutntcl, descendant of the foregoing, A third e Is the llnspel of John the Apostle, printc In 1.1S7. The fourth Is n history of r Itoman Knipire, printed Iu 1571 by Za c arlus Miientzir. and was translated M Ihe Herman language from th" Litln Titus Llnlus. The books are In a fine state of pr ervatlon. They are very heavy and cue bcrsume, the largest one being twent eight Inches lung, sixteen Inches whb eight Inches thick nnd weighing nbo-u twenty-five pounds The other books ti about the same size and weight. TI" are printed on a coarse grade of papi apparently made from wood tlbrr, a are bound In crude but smieeab'. sheepskin leather. Hand carved, mm able type was used In the printing e' these books. They an- Illustrated wi wood cuts, whlih show the great skdl the wood carvus of that early day f-'rom thc Toprka Capital. FATE OF COAL ROAD MADE FAMOUS BY NOVEL The slilfe for the right of way from Katnlla lo the Hiring lilvcr coal ti.l.l over which the battle of Hruin r's cro ' nas fought sewtal years ago and wh1 ' Hex Beach has Inunoi talUed In one of In novel", was relviil before Superior Judo It. Albertson this morning, when Will' ir Wrav, a local attorney, brought u against the Alaska Pacific lt.illw.iv ,v 1 Terminal Company for a debt of II1"1 u 1 aiked for n receiver The complaint ald the enmpiny ones JUno.OOO and that apart from tuelxe nub of grading and some tr.i.k.ige it has n assets. 1 The court appointed T I. HlBger, a representative of the l'enns lvanla cap) tallsls who hicked the proposition, tem porary recelvet .rter tne nsiii over ic cinvnil the lliiggenhelius found Coidnvi was a better harbor and built the Copiw ltlver and Northwestern road from there The J"i-niis Ivnni.uii abandoned tho'.r on' structlon when they found they could n - enter the coal lands. Kcattln corn auom race Son Francisco en ran trie. PORTRAIT OF HEINE MISSING 60 YEAR? There has Just been sold in Berlin a pastel drawing of llelnrich Heine by th artlst llrnest Benedict Kletz, which the-i Is every reason to suppose Is the at portrait made of Helno from the IK' A note on the picture states that It w:i the work of Kletz; and In Melsner famous "Reminiscences of Heine" Is nr. account of how Kletz made a drawing of Helno nt Paris In isr.l, when the pit wns nlready attacked by the Illness frim which h" died five enis aft-rward Tin. sittings were given In July. When tho head ws drawn MHtlilto. Heine's wife, complained that the po- was made to look blind, and ilciu.-tndo that the eyes should be drawn as thoiic open. Accordingly Kiel- made a seen' ' sketch, and subsequently finished bet nnrtralts. Kainpe. the Hamburg pub Usher, acquired the tlist, but It appcv -that M.nlnme Heine did not obMIn second, which has been missing for nv than stxty years. Theie seems no noum mat tne oris . baa now been recovered. It repre-eiil Helno In three-quarter length, with long hair and the romantic heard which wore during his last years. Ills eve are open, as his wife Insisted they ah mid be. f rom tht Westminster aattttt.