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THE SUN, SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 9, 1913. COACHING SPECTATOR TO UNDERSTAND FINE POINTS OF BATTLES ON GRIDIRON 6 It safe to say that a Itiric per ventayc of spectators at football uamcs really do not understand the fine points of play. In a book en titled "Football for Public and Player," by Herbert Ileal, jwsf Is sued by the Frederick A. Kt'okes Company, there Li a chapter devoted to coaehlny the spectator, By HKttBKItT HI'Etl. SO Ol-'TUN Iimh ll Iwoii charged that American college footbull was a dull and profitless game for the spectator that the rule makers have sought constantly In re cent years to open up the play ho that there would be n better ehnneu to fol low the ball. At the Bamc time the at tempt bus been mnde to bring out more sharply the work of Individual, no that ll might be better appreciated by those Ignorant of the technique of the game. In the old days the man In the stand aw little more than two struggling manses, pushing up and down the Held. The object was sufllclently apparent, but not the method of Its attainment. After the radlcnl changes In the laws of the game, however, the play swung Wlftly to the oilier extreme, mi that the spectator saw so much of the ball W. v ' -i- ,. 1 1 Ifc' liMBri 1 iHMwH IWr I 7 FMEP jUailMm itliliiiTiiM'ni WiMMt mMPJIM, aXWIti JUI'i Wl1 iilllimMMrBBillM that he had little time or opportunity to watch anything else. The result was that while one object of the committee, the opening of the play, was attained, the other, the bringing out of the work of those Individuals who had little or no chance to handle the ball, failed of r.ccompllshment to a largo extent. Again, while the old game was com paratively simple concerned as it was almost entirely with masses th coaches found so much opportunity in the new style for the bewilderment of the opposing eleven that they were soon able to bewilder the spectntor us well and along a new line. They introduced ahlfts of all sorts, both in the line and In tho backfleld, und the one gr.-:. ad vantage of the old game the fact that In the line at least the same men faced each other practically from whistle to whistle was lost. The rules, too, have gradually be come so Intricate that even many good players are not thoroughly versed In them, and the general public seldom reads them. There remains then noth ing for the spectator but to get some friend to teach him as much of the came as can be done In the half hour session or so, nnd trust to his own good tense to acquire the rest. The man who Is able to uttend only one big game a year may well be excused for failure to make any deep scrutiny Into a form of sport that often puzzles Its closest students, but there is less to bo said for the enthusiast who Is able to attend an early season game or two. The attempt NORMAL Ml ta xtmmm Kicwmo at a to is ps .esjW 2 IYARD XT p pass ZONE ''K PLACEMENT KICK 0 0 $ ftftOP or PLACE KICK L. LLkOTr?rl V riW MIMh UHL J fV V anvcm m mCW two ATTACK V V N O INDICATES POSITION Writer Gives Suggestion to Onlooker to Grasp Scheme of FootballTake a Seat Near the Centre of Field Near Top Row and Try Not to Follow the Ball, He Says will be 'made here to give tho average spectator enough of an Insight Into the gnme as he will witness It on the No vember day that occupies n prominent place In his date book to Induce lilm to go on with a most fascinating study on his own account. To the man who gets out to a game or two In the early fall I would suggest In the (lrst place that he select a better sent than seems to have been his cus tom. I have seen a crowd of two or three thousand Jam down Into the front i rows of the Harvard Stadium, In tho early fall, nlthough there w..s plenty of room nt the top. The higher up one Is, within reason, the better view w' football will he get, Near the centre of the field, und well toward the top of the stand, If not actually In ttie top row. Is the choice jiosllion. From this post one gets an excellent Idea of the work of the teams with relation to their positions In one part of the field or A spectator sees so another, and an Idea of how the gen eralship varies with the change in posi tion. Again, In looking almost direct' down on the elevens the hotly of one man Is not hidden by that of two or three others, and there Is a far better opportunity for accurate Judgment of the merits of the individuals on tho Meld. This high position In the stand with Its consequent almost blrdseye view of the field Is generally nought by the team scouts as well as by certain of the coaches. If a coach could have the op portunity to make his observations from this point Instead of from the side line In the course of nn Important gamo he would be happy indeed. Happily there Is no menns of communicating with the field, nnd the team therefore has to work out Its own salvation without the aid of expert advice from the "crow's nest," It is one situation In which the fipectntor has the advantage of the coach to a large degree. Not alone does the running game stand out In stronger relief, but the course of the kicking Is easily followed and the various forma tions for the protection of the punter and the back receiving tho ball nre like an open book. Tho single advantage of this situation lies In the fact that the openings In the line and the manner In which the run ner takes them are not so clearly ap parent, and for this reason It would be wise to watch one of tho early season games from the end stand, albeit In a METHOD of KICKING,, ATTACK OO 06 4Q JO 40 4Q as ao XOWE, Or K1CK1MO DEFENC&. OF TEAM INDICATES POSITION OF KICKED lofty position. From such u post the way In which the defensive backs come up to reenforce the line, the width of the openings and the Judging of kicks can be gauged better than from the side, while In the event of ti steady march down the Held In the direction of the spectator the latter will experi ence a deeper thrill more solid enjoy ment than would be the cobc were he sitting In the side stand. It Is of special Importance to get a line on the kickers, one of whom may be left footed, in which case the main protection will be formed In front of his left side. Thus, whenever nfter the gnme starts the protection Is formed on the left side It Is safe to assume that the kicker will be the left footed man, and vice versa. Before the game the players will practise punting, drop and place kicking, the team frequently using a different man for each of these duties, and It is Important to follow their prac- much of the battle he has little time tlce as closely ns possible, bo that once the game stnrts ttu Instant n man drops back of the line the spectator will know nt once for which function he Is there. If he has not been dropped back for his ipeclalty the move has been made as n blind, and something novel may be ex pected. Under the most recent change In the rules the punter no longer has to kick from a position five yards back of his own line, nnd while In the defensive half of the field the punting will prob ably be done from n point fully eight to ten yards behind the forwards, the punting In attacking territory will often be done from close behind the line. In this case the spectator will have to fall back on his study of Identity, for there will be no special formation to mark the play. So much for what the onlooker ought to take Into account before the gnme. As soon as possible after the kirkoff he should school himself to n disregard of the ball for the time being. This Is perhaps the most difficult task of all, for there Is a fascination In following the ball that grips even the more ex perienced watcher nnd makes it diffi cult for him to stick to his original plan. With the exception of a run for a touchdown from the klckoff, or a fumble or blocked punt, the first minute or two of play are not likely to produce anything that will be missed by the man who is not following the ball, Hlnce plays succeed or fail through the combined work of the en tire team, It follows that the man with the tiall may be yards awny from a teammate who Is doing yeoman ser- sa m is J io i YARD FORWARD: PASS ZONE S vice In keeping n player of the defence out of nctlon. The very first thing to note, and note carefully, therefore, Is the work of the two sets of forwards. The team play lug against the wind will probably start a running play or two soon after the game begins, and even If the first play be from kick formation there will be In stant opportunity to size up tho "Jump of the lines, for upon this "Jump" the result of the battle may, and often does, depend. .Should the forwards of the team carrying not kicking the ball, get a little the better of the charge and get It as often as twice out of three plays, the fact Is significant, for under the rule these men are not allowed to use their hands, i-uist charge across the neutral zone between the lines and have more difficulty In reaching the de fensive players than the defensive men In reaching them. Further, they must reach the defensive forwards In a cer tain way If their charge is to lie effect ive, and an ability to do so shows nt once a superiority that, if continued with any degree of consistency, will mean all the difference between good for anything else. und bad lino play. The advantage, so far as the line Is concerned, lies with the defence. In the lineup the backs of the at tacking forwards must be kept straight if they are to play as they have been taught, and humped backs are an In stant indication to the spectator that the men are not doing their work prop erly. Again, the erfect charge goes to Hie count of "one-two-three, and when a Hue Is found answering to this rhythm the onlooker will know that It Is giving of Its best. It Is possible of course that the work of the attacking lino will be uneven, but If the men nre in good physical condition and they have reached their best form more than a day or so lieforc the big game their play in the first few minutes of thu game is apt to furnish a fair criterion for the entire afternoon. The exceptions to this are numerous, but they prove the rule. Now In watching this line at work the eye must exclude absolutely everything else, taking In the runner only ns mv reaches the line of scrimmage, and In case forwards are found going clear through to the secondary defence they should le followed to the end of their charge to ascertain whether or no they have accomplished their purpose of ac counting for nt least one man beyond the line of scrimmage. Just a moment before the ball Is snapped many of the forwards will have one knee on the ground, hut the men will come up to gether to the crouch at some part of the signal, nnd If one man Is behind the others he mny be put down as a weak member. Absolute unison Is onevif tin- sure signs of a good set of forwards. On the defence tho positions of the backs should be carefully noted, shutting out In the course of this observation tho attack until It reaches the line. Under modern conditions a team Is heavily de pendent upon Its secondary defence. The backs must come up to tho line fast nnd their tackling must be deadly, li any of the defensive backs Is being put out of the play It Is well to note how and by whom, for the man who is doing It Is playing sterling football for his team. Hut If n forwnrd Is doing the execution rather than a back, und If he Is doing It before the nttnek reaches the line, then thero Is causo for finding tho back wanting In ono of his most Important duties. With the close offensive and defensive work of the backs fairly mastered, the onlooker should take up tho kicking game, watching In order the line, tho protecting backs, tho kicker, tho defen sive line, tho defensive backs and tho work of tho men down tho field. It Is n good plan In studying the lino on kicks to begin with the centre, then to take the guards, tackles and ends In pairs. In the case of tho centre his passing in of the utmost importance. If ho Is not sending tho bnll hack with a slngln sweep, hut Is raising It slightly from tne ground before sending It back, his team Is In for trouble, for not only will the opposing team know when a kick Is '.o be made and when a short puss to a runner, In which case there will be no temptntlon to raise the ball before shoot ing It back, but the opposing centro will try to spoil the pass, since tho ball is In play the Instant It leaves the ground. The centre must block longest of any of the forwards, since through his position Is the shortest path to th.! kicker, and If he lets a man thrcugh him now nnd then he Is not playing up to stnndard. The guards block next lengest to the centre, and they too should prevent any man from coming through until the back Is all but iM of the ball. It may be thut the man who Is watch ing the llrst big gnme will have n long wait before he has a chance to see the forward pass In nctlon, and he may be Inlrly sure that It will not be used In defensive territory, but the principal thing of which to take note when It does appear Is whether the ball Is thrown to a particular individual who has already taken his position or whether fent away to a spot where a player is supposed to arrive simultane ously with the lull. The latter method Is the greater "ch'ance taker," for there Is considerable danger that the fling will be Intercepted for a run and the more risky method should bo "covered" by some player who will be ready to make a tackle should a player of the opposing team snatch the ball In mid career, Tho spectator may well ap prove a pass so covered and condemn a pass left unprotected. At the end of the llrvt half It Is a good plan to go In for n mental recapit ulation that whnt happens In the second half may be the expected rather than the unexpected. Has one team done u great deal more running than the other without onco getting Inside Its oppo nent's 2." yard line? If It has, nnd It Is behind In tho point total, or there has been no scoring, then It Is In worso case than Its opponent on general principles, lias tho team with thu wind behind it scored? Then when facing the wind It may play for time and conserve Its tnergy with better than an even chance of success. If, on the contrary, the team that had the favor ing wind ha frittered away Its chances It Is not a sound team and finds itself In a dangerous position. I'pou the an swers to these questions and an an alysis of the general play may be built The 4 i6 il ilo ttVARD FORWARD) KmoowN ZONE wp msa onr GOAL UNTttiANV DOWH a fair prophecy of the ultimate out come. Itlght here the matter of condition plays nn Important part und it Is often too tiuhtlc a problem even for the ex pert. Under tho modern rules men nro more apt to become exhausted on tho field through their own efforts than because of tho constant bumping Into their o,.opnents. That Is why It Is so Important to contrast the amount of the work done by the two teams In the llrst half. A finely conditioned eleven will hist through, even though worked more than It ought to havo been in the wrong Held situations, but If thero Is any tendency toward "crack ing" It should show ns pnon as n team Is on the defence after n period of hard and perhaps fruitless work. The spec tator must remember that a tired team wilt bo apt to como to llfo If It is able to score and so tie up tho game, and In tho case of sheer grit no rules apply. I think that If the spectator will fob low the suggestions given iiIhivc he will DO O O A7 w o S 2 I u 1 A D WHITE ARROWS INDICATE SPHERES of lACTIONof SECONDARY DEFENCE Normal attack and come nearer than he han In the past to grasping the scheme of football and so getting more enjoyment out of it, but it 'means that he must make up his mind to do a lot of thinking while the teams are In action until such time as he can safely follow the ball and at the same time catch the other points of play ns a matter of meiitnl habit. Ills Interest In football as well as his un Trials by Electricity in the Future . EXIT the third degree. Hnter the latest Invention of psychology. A young nngllh scientist, formerly associated with Liver pool University and recently appointed psychologist to the London schools, has Invented nn apparatus which he be lieves will make it poi-diiic to solve the most perplexing criminal problems quickly. If his expectations nre realized in criminal trials of the future there will bp nn nn-d of pxpenslve attorneys, scores of witnesses nnd the costly array of legal machinery. The accused per. son will be put on the witness stand, the "psychogalvanic reflex" apparatus will be put into play and In a few mo ments tin- truth will le known nnd a verdict will be possible. The apparatus consists merely of two IhjwIs of water and a galvanometer capable of measuring even so feeble n current ns one-millionth of nn ampere, and this current will be generated by the accused as soon as he deviates In the slightest degree from the truth. According to l'rof. Cyril Hurt, wlui has Just laid this device before tlm liritlsh Association, psychologists, havo been barking up the wrong tree nil the time In their effort to arrive nt the In vention of such nn apparatus. They havo been working on the theory that the intellectual factors alone nre to bo considered In the investigation of crima nnd In the examination of criminals, whereas It is the emotional factors alone which should be considered. It is not what the criminal knows but what he feels that ohouM be made the basis of his cross-cxnminntlon, and it was on this basis that Prof. Hurt worked. The tests to which the apparatus bus been put are interesting, A number FIELD of PLAY and lit ft ajo A 4 4 dk 4ft1 P4 b5 OS KICK. 4'" DOWN b. HUD GOAL o PUNT of King's College students were chosen and nn Imaginary crime was planned. A boy Is supposed to huvo been killed In cold blood and his body Is bundled Into n sack which the murderer tries to hide. The details of this murder nre kept from nil the students but one, tho "guilty" man, who Is permit tv.l to see tho "crime" In execution. Then the trial commences. All tho students nre put on the witness stand nnd nro asked questions In regard to tho crime, llefore they are permitted to answer the simple npparatus Is brought Into play. The hands of the witness nre put Into the bowls of water to which the galvanometer Is attached und tho sensitive Instrument Is closely observed while they are testifying. Tho secret of tho system Is that when n man tries to repress a deep emotion his hands tend to perspire. They then becomo better conductors of electricity than the dry, normal hand, and this sets the galvanometer working. In this way it Infallibly betrays tho guilty per son. In the tests conducted by Prof. Burt ood 4 6 6A defence attack. derstanding of It will also be increased. I feel certain, If he will study the gaini nfter It is over with more care than i usually the case. He should compan ies own opinions of the team and in dividual play, and of the generalship, with those of other rncn who have been trained to watch It carefully, and so the better -prepare himself for another seafon. he "Innocent" witnesses proved they had no connection with the crime when the galvanometer failed to register any emotion on their part. When the "guilty" man testified, however, the man who had been permitted to see th. crime, his hands perspired ns a res'ib of the emotions the memory of the. Tim aroused and the apparatus registered this accurately. It Is argued that, In the case of a real criminal, the emotion will be even greater and the result will be even I.-sn doubtful. This experiment was made twelve times, and In every case tin examiner was able to find the "guilty" person, though he was not previously Informed of his Identity. To mnko the circumstances even more difficult. In addition to allowing one of the students to see the crime, three or four of them were given ample details of the circumstances under which It was supposed to have taken place. The examiner did not know who these stu dents were, nor did he know the "guilty" pet son. This was done in the hope of ccntfslng the examiner, but the ap paratus proved Infallible again. There was a marked difference In tin degree to which it responded to l if "Millty" student and to those who only lad the Information of tho crime .u st cord hand. Though the latter had a Knowledge of the crime, It stirred no feelings in them because they had not Fecn it with their own eyes; but the student who had been an eyewitness wa moved when the picture of the murdei was brought hack to his mind by tin leading questions of the examiner l'rof. Hurt has foreseen the objection of some critics that a criminal may be so hardened that he will remain un moved In spite of all efforts on the part ZONES. lOYARD : KKWARD; pass : 10 do ZONE OEFtNCC KICK FIRST or StCONO DOWN of the examiner, nnd he has provided a variation of the test In sitoh oases. This method Is based on the theor of "associate reaction time." The witness will not be asked to give nn account of his knowledge of n crime. 11.- will merely be confronted with a single word and will be asked to tell what other word this brings to his mlml. Thus, If the witness in a murder ..o-e such lis the one supposed is bell, veil to have seen n body put Into n sack, tin-cross-examiner will suggest the word "sack," At tlie same time lie will pi ess a button, setting at work a chronometer capable of recording u fraction of a second. When the examiner suggests the word "sack," the obvious word lor the witness to say, In case he has re.ill.v seen the murder, Is "body" At any rite this Is the word that will occur to It i tit nt once Inevitably, und If lie Is lnn.'. ' nnd merely has n knowledge of t'u crime by report he will say It. Iio ever, If he tins any guilty connef with the episode, he will uvol.l ' -word.