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THE SUN, SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 23, 1913.
JTTLE INCIDENTS DEPICTED BY JAMES MONTGOMERY FLAGG ilar;itr & Urnthir- TWO GENERATIONS. WAY OF TRANSPORTING LARGE QUANTITIES OF MAIL AT HIGH RATE OF SPEED Novel Electric Carrier Capable of Handling Tons of Letters and Packages on Exhibition at Paterson, N. J. Expected to Travel at Rate of 100 Miles an Hour SM..itTf.MiNfis of the physical mechanical agencies of the l"-fil service have been ompha :il l' thf advent of the par I I"-' It m true I hut the horse ilravi ii mail wagon has largely dls I'l'i.ir .1 rt.is.n the limits of Mulihat m an.) :i,..t..j- wagons have supplanted ' w.'.i a material Kiiin In elliclency. There a pneumatic tube service Ahich i.l .. in anil from the main post 4 llin ,! ,iy modest percentage of the lir.st il.,-, nutter In transit within mu ni.il When Hrst Installed, " .i. ; ins tulie answered fairly ll ' m lin ati r .Sew York has been rnw.n -'..il.iy and rapidly since then 'iid, ,..!r,isi, this eight inch mall riir. li.i- l.iui shrinking correspond- in ! . apacity to meet the mo "in s need.-. This of itself shows how 'ir U'hiiiU the demands of the day are "' I Jl facilities. "v r at I'.iterson, N. J has recently " - ' v -tnn an extensive mail carry " '(-' i. latum which gives every rcu ' pi.itnlse of supplying a satlsfuc i iik .ins of transporting large quan "f postal matter at high speed. It !' a ctt.ld's affair like the eight inch '"i' ii i used, hut a man sized nppa ''tus t.u Iny an Internal tubular dlame ,r ' " r. ! feet. Where the C.Istlng '' ui'lli' only pounds, this will 'mm .i . .pacny of ions, und u speed ( ira . t of a much higher degree, lii'f .r, t lit. establishment of the par ''' i Mere was moved dally between '"' t!' Ml I'entral and the I'ennsyl inu S'ii..,n ipillo three hundred tons "' 111 ' I'.nter. Not only has this ln- rta.f , , ,t tlf, j,arct.s j,y poat laVo iimii-i ! .welled the volume now to l'irani..,i, Viu,H ar fon,i f flK. jrs. If n, Uit. fmVng details will '" f n'eies-t to you. . Tin average weight of each mall l"JU'h m probably fully 100 pounds, '"! at ot.iy 300 tons every twonty-four ""r- I Ins would represent 6,000 ''uu.i 1 1., i, tak-n from station tu sta "" I nf irtunately, this total cannot '"' " -r.'-iicd over the whole twenty. ir i,iir , u.r nru rllHll ,.104,, in .',!'" ''''' SPn1"'. nnd most of this mall I ii i " 1,0 ll"l"wd of Inside of ' ne limns. You can see that this calls m l k-ruit ,lt,i'1 "f utllnK, und even 'Uc is a derided lag. ... Vi"' '' III"IIH "u streets because we.iiher, tho state of traffic of the normal day or that of the unusual day, und the Mocking of thorough fares by reason of fires, &c, may Inter fere with the existing mall wagons running to and from these great rail road terminals and also to und from the city's mail despatching centres. Therefore some new means of trans portation Is needed. The l'aterson mall carrying railway has been about seven years In Its de velopment. It Isn't n pneumatic tube at all, but nn electrically driven system. It might bo described ns a succession of motorless motor trains. It Is nn adaptation of the elements which go to mako up nn electric motor or dynamo. A dynamo differs from a motor In tills one particular, the motor revolves because of current fed to It, while the dynamo Is forcibly turned by some ex traneous mechanical agency and In making these revolutions It gives forth electrical energy to run other motors. You have probably seen a motor and you will remember that thero was first an enveloping ring of Iron and free to rot a to Inside of this was a cylindrical body apparently made up of wires and copper slabs separated from one another, In short a sort of metallic fagot bound uround u core of Iron. This Inner body of copper nnd Iron the electrician calls nn armature, while the big enveloping ring constitutes the field jnagnot, which becomes In fact such only when a current Is sent through It. A magnet hns u north and a south pole, so too has the armature, and when current Is fed to the urma turo these neighboring poles alternately attract nnd repel one another and thus cuuso tho armaturo to revolve. Motors or dynamos may be variously built, but theso principles remain tho same. The motor uses current while the dynamo produces it. Now Imagine tho surrounding field magnet to be a ring with copper slabs attached to Its Inner surface. Further split this ring at one point and flatten It out so that tho copper cross pieces are uppermost. Tho result Is an Iron bar with transverso copper strips ar ranged like tho keys of a piano. A rail of. this description runs the length of the .system and between tho two tracks upon which tho carB travel. Now for the other motor elemont. On the undersldo of tho car and separated from tho roadbed clement by a quarter of an Inch Is a second flat motor unit made of laminated Iron, about which Is wrapped a winding of Insulated copper wire. It Is really a sort of armature. When the current from the powerhouse Hows through this wire nnd the car gets this from overhead rails this enveloped bar becomes a magnet for the time be ing und creates about It a magnetic Held. This effects the underlying ele ment between tho tracks und sets up a reaction. Now neither this part laid between the rails nor the magnet nttached to the car can revolve, but an invisible force Is aroused which exerts n pull. Hcc.iuse the car Is on wheels it moves forward in response to this attraction, und the curious part of it Is that the vehicle's own advance creates this zone of Im pulse. You don't sco this, eh? Then let us explain. The armature unit and the Held mag net unit are dead to one another except when the current comes from the dis tant powerhouse and then It Is their nearncs that excites their mutual reac tion. Tho copper slabbed nit Is not energized directly by connection with the power plant, hut the armature fea ture under tho car Is so connected when the trolleys are touching the charged rails overhead. Therefore the carrier' excites only that section of the com panion motor element lying below It for the time being and the reaction thus aroused tends to pull the vehicle forward as long as the current reaches the armature. Perhaps you are not enough of nn en gineer to see at once the meaning of this so far as it affects the question of propulslvo economy. This Is not hard to explain, however. Ordinarily, If the carrier were motor driven, In the usual sense of the word, like a street ear, it would have to have a full fledged revolving motor running at high speed nnd thin motion, by means of intermediate cog wheels, would be car ried to propulsive trucks In contact with the supporting tracks. This means n lot of additional weight, machinery thnt has to be continually watched and lubri cated nnd a dead burden that has to be moved nlong Independently of the freight. Hut these are not tho only disadvan tages of such a system. There are danger? of breakdown and the tractlv wheels cannot get n good grip on the rails If they are wet or If the grade is steep. You have seen this exemplified often In your street ear experiences. In the electric carrier described all these drawbacks are avoided. The sup porting wheels follow freely the guiding tracks and their grip upon the rails In Immaterial for purposes of locomotion. Ileeause they are not geared to other mechanisms they revolve with a mini mum of friction and they obey the Irre sistible lure of the magnetic Held. Therefore, for a given expenditure of electrical energy at the power house, a higher speed can be maintained because the ehlcle Is lighter and easier to move. Apart from this, on account of tho ex treme simplicity of the electrical feature nttached to the under side of the carrier, wear and tear is reduced to a minimum and only a trilling amount of super vision Is necessary. Hut, best of all this leaves the whole Interior of the vehicle free for the carriage of mail. The cars can be run at widely varying speeds, depending entirely upon the nature of the operative current em .i.-'rr jrpr-"! New York, With 8 Inch Pneumatic Tube, Far Behind Demands of Day in Postal Facili tiesCan Take Lessons From New Jersey Authorities One of the covered mail cars complete climbing a 20 per cent, grade. Rival installations And it difficult to crawl up a 5 per cent, grade. ployed. This Is one of the features of the Installation and It the result of Un employment of an alternating current. Tho period of these alternations dictates Just how fast the cars shall go, because these waves of energy intermittently vitalize and devitalize the magnetic Held units which affect the armatuie element beneath the carriers and between the tracks. The quicker the alternations the stronger the magnetic Hux from the Iron bar on the under side of tho car and accordingly the more forceful the tractive Impulse tending tu pull the car rier forward. Hy reason of this arrangement the rate of travel can be regulated to a nicety from the directive station and there Is no chance of any of the ears getting beyond control. They cannot run away, because they are subject to an Irn slsilble grip which regulates their rate of advance or halts them at will. Hut you will say, that inasmuch as the car merely rests upon freely re volving wheels, and these have appar ently no arrangement for braking them, nothing will prevent momentum sweep ing it down grade with an ever in creasing speed. Oft" hand, such would, Indeed, seem to be the case, but the fact Is quite contrary. The same mag netic force that draws the carrier up hill, because of the Intermittent Im pulses of tho alternating current, re acts like a check or brake upon the vehicle when It tends to exceed the de signed velocity. In other words, Instead of drawing tho car forward, these reactions grip tho carrier and balance their efforts against that of the momentum Impell ing tho vehicle downward. All this Is radically different from the dlfllculticH encountered in carH driven by attached motors, where they are halted by grades that tho present Installation can mount easily or they get beyond control when travelling down similar slopes, Colli sions, too, upon other systems are apt to be far more destructive In their con sequences, while a deranged car on this new line would bo overtaken by the following one, and shoved along with out any further hitch by Its sound fel low. Thero Is a reason for this. In the best of tho rival electric mail carriers, the Interval or headway be twt-en moving cars can not safely be less than a minute and a half. With this system, a headway of only live seconds Is needful, because, the latter move along uniformly as though pulled by an Invisible rope. Now imagine thnt either Installation Is speeding its cars at the rate of thirty miles an hour. In ninety seconds lin ear driven by Its own motor would have come substantially to a standstill and a following live car would strike it with full force. With carriers mowug only live seconds apart, the hading one. In case of a breakdown, would have lost so little of Its speed when ovet taken by tile one behind that the collision would be well nigh without any Jar. During demonstrations at l'ateion, a car weighing 1,'jun pounds, loaded with 1,000 pounds of sand, and with n trailer attached weighing l.lilo pounds and carrying 400 pounds of s.md, has been pulled up a twenty per cent, grade at tho rate of thirty miles an hour, A Ti per cent, grade is about the best rival systems can negotiate. An Installation of this sort can carry dally" by means of single cars, 8,040 pouches with a headway of twenty seconds and running but nine hours. Hy adding a trailer to each, this could be doubled, and four ear trains could be handled Just as easily. Trace It Back Club IN Albany they have an organization called the Trace It Hack Club. It was organized twelve years ago as the outcome of an Inquiry as to who had set a certain false story allo.it. A party of men were In a cafe when a statement was made that practically ac cused a well known citizen of crookedness. "I'd like to see that story traced back," said one of the men at the table, "for there's not tho slightest truth In It, In my opinion." "Well, let's organize a club to do It," said another. So the club was formed and a com mittee appointed to Investigate tho statement. Tho story was run down within two days. The club, elated over Its success, ndopted by-laws and arranged to meet regularly. Whenever a man opened his mouth to accuse somebody the president merely began: "I nppolnt as a commit tee of investigation " and he seldom got further. The Trace It Hacks havo had many tips nnd downs and the mem bership has thinned out considerably, but there are enough still on hand to practise and preach their principles.