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eight pages Real Estate Market News Financial World Reports Country Life, Poultry, Kennels mt NEW YORK, SUNDAY, JANUARY 4, 1914 , Copyright, 1914, by the Hun Printing and PubtUihing Associate. CITY'S FIRST SKYSCRAPER NOW BEING RAZED Original Steel Frame Building Lasted Only Twenty-six Years but Gave to New York Pattern for AH Its Great Structures WKUCKKRS will finish within a few daya taking down Now York's first skyscraper. It Is ISO feet high, l'luus Were placed on Hie with the Bureau of Jtullcllnc? last week for the proponed lii-il(l:im of thu Pan-American Htntcs A- ' elation to occupy n whole block and to he SOI feet high, or CO feet burlier than tho Woolworth tower, illicit now hold; tho recorder height among t buildings of tho world. It is jie-t twenty-six years since the city was thrilled hy tho announcement of n high building to be erected under a new plan of must ruction in which a steel frame formed an essential part, and manv wero the predictions of its failure. Nobody in thrilled today by tho I'an-Americaii building plans, for they mark a Htep only toward th-j 1.0! foot building which everyone believe it bound to come unless th municipal authorities take action soon on pe proposed height limitation. Th story of thu old Tower llulldltiK is cii of the best illnt nitiotiM that tan be siven of the rapidity with which New Vork city has moved during the last quarter century. It e.une as an expert-1 ment caiinKl success in spite of general ridicule hikI fhnllv formed a beginning for nil high buildings of recent time. Now it has outlivd its usefulness. It cannot compete, with tho giants of its own family r.nd, like all ancestors, it is to be laid away in lt grave, which in this caw is thu second hand material man's yard Steel frame buildings like the Tower Iluikling and the Columbia Uuildiug, which followed it two years InteV, re Milted from the generally lecognlzed Advantages of buildings higher than tho live or six story otructures that prevailed up to the last quarter of tho last century. The Chicago lire had taught tho danger of nun-llreproof buildings, and here in Nr fork builderj felt tliat structures of sucn height that firemen could not com bat llres on upper stories would bo but poor investments. It was at a time while such ideas were uppermost in the minds of. men lnj.eret.ted in tlm upbuilding of New York that Iir.ulford l. Oilbert filed the plans for the Tower Building at !o llroadway Up to about lfe'O low buildings had been tho rulo also because of tho imperfection of tho elevator. Up to that year there wero few passenger elevators in the city. The first elevators wero oporatcd by contrivances which would attract as much notice in this day as then. There wero (treat iron screws which reached tho rdiolo height of tho elevator well, passing thiough the centre of the cars in a steel sleeve The turning of tho screw raised ur lowered thu cars. Tho elevators, ,wero slow but Nife. It was tho improvement in elevator ma chinery in the 'Mis that actually made the erection of high buildings possible. Vp to that time there were a few ten story structures equippisl with the old fashioned types, but their operation was such as to give little attraction to olllces on upper stories on higher buildings, It also was decreed about tint time that buildings ot mole than six storien should bo fire proof High buildings even at that, timoj werenot popular bocuut.o In noti-llreproof tvpos outer walls had to bo made so heavy that the most valuable space on the ground lloor was taken up and foundation work wa unduly expensive. Thero was gr at relief among builders: therefore when t lie l ower Building was erected and demonstrated its own success. l'lans tor the structure were filed on April 1". lsss, It has a frontage of 21 feet ti inches and is ION feet long. It was in tended to provide a llroadway connection In 1 .11 lid In i. ttttili irnnlitr 11I711 ill V,w t-'.n-fi The walls were built in novel form, hi-'c.ul of solid brick walls vertical lines cf r iron columns were placed at varying il I'iccs up to about eighteen feet apart, ) "g at (lie foot of each line a cast iron " Kiting on tho foundation walls at itiM 1 .-ement lloor level. Some of these olur is oMond up to the level of tho " . . siory Hour and part extend to the roof ,. t. T)10 columns are in lengths torn .aiding with the heights of tho various stories and are bolted together. Jn tuj, f t, hoverith story columns rest (in of wrought iron girders and from 'I1.1t int on to the top of the structure w 1 k walls rise twenty inches thick foi ,1 i"iglit thirty-two feet and then six tten niches thiol: "for twenty-llvo feet. ltolied beam girdet-H between tho up. right columns and connected to them at 11 tloor level up to the seventh support th Honrs and carry tho weight of the , twelve inches thick and built of I'"- hove tho soventh floor tho walls hi. ,d themselves, tho stool in this part 'l I i milling being merely for bracing tl" ''ours and elevator shafts, The upper ai- ie,iy tsan old fashioned brick build in: pueiii on top of tho Hteol skeleton I' pan llraciug against wind press- is 1,101 uUti 4iv ili.irrnniLt steel braces il lietweeii ivich of tho vertical col s njid so constructed us to tnuisfer to tin r. nidations a possible Wind pressure el . ot hi . ins such as would be in a hurricane v miles an hour. hi-ation of tho t lino of the erection 01 I ,.. I building tells the interesting Hnrj 'i the building laws did not pro MM. Ho 1 i.f l"i Il'll of any such composite construction, 'H Heat ion of tho architect to build I ei before tho Hoard of Htntnincrs liluig Department, which was a 1 ii'powcrcd by Viw to grant or 1 1 iicailiiiis in cases wliero pro ' ' the law ilid not directly nnnlv lnio uu equally jfood or ,dcuirabj WHILE METROPOLITAN TOWER. MADISON AVE,ANJD.2T-HST. SO STORIES, 6?3 FEET, iqP7. 3 ' Mb. S flrr-- Ilk tots bw jafflBfrigmm m m m mmm m m m - in itt m UlUUl JUUL .WUJUU.SUU. mmm mm hi Jff cOl-UMBiA BLD6, BROADWAY. 2 32 TORIES, 2 5 FEET I warn Twenty-five years progress in the form of construction was proposed rtlmn that required by the law. William J. Kryer, who was n member of that board, writint! later, said that lio well remem bered tho discussion evoked In tho hoard when Mr. Gilbert's plans wero presented LAST YEAR'S BUILDING. Vmr Ilelow An- Prrlud Since 100, When t.eilr Wrut Into KftVct. Statistics of building operations In th Horough of Manhattan for the year 1913, an given out by Uulldlnir Superin tendent Rudolph I. Miller, showa plans were filed for C77 new building, repre senting n total Investment of $73,J70,085. The year was the smallest In building operations since MOO, which was tho year tho new building ciiilo went Into effect, uud tho architects una uwutra R i. jsmmn aa w il ' m mm l mm ii '! n NEW GIANT 800 , PAN 'AMERICAN BUILDING TO BE EJECTED ON BLOCK, BROADWAY 8cAMD57TiJ&58 14 STORIES 80 FEET. SINGER BUILDING r-C-SSA 14 BROADWAY. TaTSS? All 1 1 1 ttl4H Wm ff-2' f: SYNDICATE BLDG. lGQ art of building skyscrapers shows objection alone for action. The strong preference of some of the members for solid masonry work, coupled with their prejudice ucainst iron work in ftencral, mode it very doubt ful for a time whether they would sanction this particular combination of ironwork Hied everything they could during 1S99, thereforo the laclc ot building plans in l'JOO. Tho ii t n ii ii ii t of money Involved lnt year would bo much less if tho plans for tho contemplated llfty-ono story Pan-American building bad not been Hied at tho last minute of tho old year, thus Increasing the amount by ifll', r.uo,mm, During last year plans wero filed for as dwelling bniisn.s, costing $S,7C1.0U0; I r3 tenement luuisff, costing 27.sun; 10 hotels, costing $I,:IN5,)0(), 73 store and loft buildings, coming i:i,i;r,H,coo; 20 c-flico buildings, coatliik' $1'J,7J0,0UU; wr,' "V A "WOOLWORTH BUILD! NO 1A. 1 WU. 55 STORIES. an advance from an eleven-story building 129 feet high to a forty-four can prevent the erection of a 1,000 foot building. and brickwork ; but, finally tho board approved the application. It is said that had Mr. illlhert followed the method of construction then in use in erect Iiik the Tower Ililildituj tho thickness of walN required for mfetfloven story II factories and workshops, costing $3, 62,000; io sclinolhoues, costing $1, 225,500; II vn churches, costing $.180,000; 0 municipal buildings, costing $501,000; 100 places of 'amusement, costing i!, 321,875; 38 stables and garages, costing $07-1,400; 5 hospitals, costing $880,000, and 9t5 other structures, costing $19-1,710, TltlMTV llltll.DI.VR TP.XAVI'S. The I'nltt-d States Uealty & Iiuprovr iiii'iu Ciiinimny Ii.ih le.iseil etlU'os In tlie Tilnlty llullillng nt 111 lltomhwiy to thu law Mini of liycUniiin, Oelaud VCiihn, of which former JnUo IMt'ar .M. Cullen in v. paitaer. FEET HIGH IS PLANNED builditiK would have left no move room on the Kruuml Hour beyond a narrow halhwiy He conceived a bettor method howover, and to him belongs credit for having first in the world erected a build ItiK in which tho weight of tile walls as $460,000 IN NEW APARTMENTS. I'nnr o Me Until on I lie 11,-IkM nuil Tit im llurlrm. The first liilllillng plan to lie tiled this year was put on record cstcnlay by Ueorgo V, l't'lluuii, who plain four five Htnry apaitmeiit houses fur the west side of Nortliorn avenue from lT'.Uh to fsotli Btrcrt, fo cost JUin.noo. The houses will bo built by the Haven i'oiiMiui tlmi '"i liiiliitlon, of which Cliitiiii 1 laiiiiiiu Is prcslilnnt Two of ti-.im IiiiIIiIIiiks will MUih hao a fioutiiKa of 5U kct and i story building 801 feet high. City well asthe floors was traiismitteil tliniunh girders and columns to the footings. It was this small beginning that made possible such giants as the Woolworth, Singer and Metropolitan lowers and the coining Pan American llu'ilding. depth of S3 II feet, and two will lie 75x90, Tho facades will lie of brick with lime stone trimmings, Two buildings will cobt $90,00(1 each mid two $5,000 each, m:w aimhtmiim's pou ii u u sr. (irniienberg and U'tii'ht.ig, invhltiTts fur the lllth Street Construction Cur piiratlun. .Sunuiil liiisolt', mi siil. 'ill, bute llleil pi ins fur tho cenrtl'lliilun of tun thr stiiiy :iii rt nient houses uu lllth htieet one at I" tu 4 1 West ami the oilier at 3'.' to 3'1 West, cm-li liming u IU"it'il'i of I-7 0 feet mid u ih'ptu nf 59 10 tut Tho entile cost tins been eutimaU'il ill $150,000. More Excitement Created By i2q Foot Building Than Would Be Now b One of 1,000 Feet --Some of Its For gotten Romance The pocond etccl frame building in this rdty was not much of an improve ment on the first. It was erected and still stands at 2. Pino street next to tho .Sub-Treasury. It is a ten story ructtirn occupying a lot 21 feet 2 inches wido and 74 feet 4 inches deep. It was started just as the Tower lluildlng was being com pleted. Ileal progress was made, "how ever, when In IMm the Cnlumbla lluildlng was erected at 2li llroadway, corner of Morris street It is twelve stories or 145 feet high, and for a long time it t-tood out as the most prominent and most suo cessful steel frame building in New Vork. Its columns m m nf .ii and its outer brie!: walls are twelve inclu ti thick After the threo buildings which have been mentioned showed that steel frnmo construction was safe, practical and eco nomical all older forms were abandoned in sections wheto land values wero high and space limited, Steel frame buildings of greater area and greater height fol lowed in quick succession. Tho Man hattan I.ifu lluildlng was tho first step toward tho buildings which to-day would lie considered syksorapors. It waa th llrst structure too of the modern kind to havo a high tower surmounting th princixil part nf the building. With the erection of the American Surety Uullding in lfcu; the llrst building of more than twenty stories appeared, and the first structure more than Him feet high. It just went over Ixith of these marks, for it contains twenty-one stories and i 312 feet high above the sidewalk. Its glory as the talle-t structure was short lived, however, for it was only a year later that the Park How Syndicate lluild lng was started with its twenty-six storien nnd its asn feet, of height, destined to bo the giant among giant buildings until the Singer folks conceived the idea of putting up I lie original t-ky.-craping tower on their plot at llroadway and Liberty street. There are a good many Interesting side lights on the growth of tho sky scraper in New York, but none proliably hm more human interest than the story of Ri It baser Kreisclier, a naturalized American citizen and manufacturer of lire brick, who made possible construc tion tn tin almost unlimited height by in venting the hollow tile block which now is used universally in the construction of floors in fireproof buildings. Cntil Kreischer invented the hollow block all floors were supported by brick arches filled on top with cement to make them level and then covered with wood, The under side nf tin arches was left epoed lieichcr's invention not only lightened the weight ol each (Toor so that the steel frnmo was subjected to less pres-iiie. but it made flat arches pocsihlo so that coiling lo-day are flnt and not waved a of old The in vention wa llrst u.-ed in the New York Post Ollice Uuildiug in IsTL'.-iml in the same year in a new structure in Chicago- Tba hollow tile system of floors was then I adopted widely and (Mine into le-o i-pe- cially in tho erection of c.uly sky scraiiers here. ' Presently tliem.ilterof tlie pnlciil on thn block reached the com Is, whore a tight was waged tor many years which ic.-iilled in the court ruling that the l in-eher ..itctit was void for want of originality under tho 'crucial test of publications Iroin all urls J of the globe Thiough tbi ruling Kiei scher was depi ived or an aluio-l unlimited revenue, lor m later years hi invention became mid I-. now one of the princja need in buildiugcuii-liuction With the iiicieasing height and weight of buildings the matter of foundation became a seriou problem which win solvit in many ways until in IMU the '-inking of pneumatic cai-son was adopted, which ever since lias been the method em ployed ill the election of sKwci-uper. The llrst liiih building foiiiid.itioii.i were laid on footings nf stone or concrete laid upon the earth In soil or uimsliy places whole the sale sii-tailillig strength of til" ground wa inadequate ranging Umber wete tesorled In or pile were driven to solid bearings l.aler caino llio u-o of lolled steel rail-, and beam 111 the form of grillage resting on a bed of condole. Still later the iim of grillage mis ex panded until il cnered the entile aiea ot the lot or tlie space to be occupied by the building, like a huge r.ifl , upon which thn superstructure wa erected When the .Maiilinttau Life Uuildiug was erected in IMKI l'lanei II Kiiulmll faced the.problein of not disturbing the existing adjoining he.ivv buildings on either side, lly using a giillage on which to luiso hU founditioiis it was feared lie would start mud and quicKsnnd (lowing which might; cause untold troubles. Looking abouC for an avenue of escape, ho bit upon tho pneumatic caisson, which bad been used without tho pneumatic featuto in th , construction of the Tilth avenue thnati building The ciii-.-om of the Manhattan Life Uuildiug were sunk thirty-two foot below' the level of the main otc.-i vallon, , and on reaching rock bottom worn filled with concrete tin caino miniil the ursc caisson construction During the ye.ns Unit have intervened since the pioneer skyscraper builders worked mil l bo pioblem told nf horn still more change have eomo about to make the erecting of high buildings Isith safe and economic;! I, but they uieiely sup plement the improvement in the elevator, tlmtise of tho steel skeleton, the Invention of tho hollow tiht and the adoption of tha unwimatio caisson The New I'll n American building, thn giant that i soon to rise to take the place that tlio Tower Itilildiiig held a quartet' nf a century ago, will in all likelihood Im the hi! biiihlim: nf its tvno. lor it will not bn I lung befnie legislatinii will be mulcted .which will mike such structures impos sible The plans tiled for the building mo merely tentallwi and will be sub jected to considerable lii'Mlllloiitlou So that tho building might nm -otne under the ball t Jim plans weie niched into tha bureau of buildings on Now Year's ev.