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THE SUN, SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 22, 1914.
MORE POWERFUL X-RAYS iKHJHHHiHllliHi rOSRtclK 'ssbbbbbbbbbbbbbbTIH SIHBhB SbLbbbbbbbH Ml ilH f Lbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbk 'bbbbbbbbbbbbB1 bH- "yR, :HKrB annnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnVBBBBBanf IH'BBll''' 1 liHiHHAH sbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbEs BHWHi,.. JBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB9BBBBVBBBBBBjBBL3BBJBMi An up to date X-ray outfit. The lamp is immediately above the operating tabic. The physician works from the booth on the left, where he is sheltered from the X-rays. AM. because of a peculiarly un yielding gray metal It has be ivmc possible to make a de velopment of revolutionary character In the newest form of X-ray apparatus. The discovery Is the result C'l the perseverance of Dr. William David Coolldge and his associates of the ri-M'.-iroh laboratory of the General Klec 11 it Company. Radiographers and radio therapists decluru this development of tlic X-ray tube to be the greatest dis covery In the art since Prof. WUhclm Kuiir.nl Roentgen In 1893 startled the win hi with his original announcement of an Invisible beam that could pene trate npaiiuc bodies and make shadow praphs of hidden objects. The metal In question is commonly known us tungsten, but It might better t'O railed wolfram the wilful, as this Is the older name for It and the adjective attached quite fittingly characterizes the material. Dr. Coolldge'H X-ray tube is almost directly the consequence of ex haustive efforts made to adapt tungsten fur service as a filament for Incan descent electric lights. He was not a pioneer In this direction, for two Aus trian. Mjessrs. Just and Ilanaman, had preceded him. These Ingenious Viennese made fila ments out of the seemingly Intractable metal by binding particles of tungsten or tungsten oxide with an amalgam which could be worked into wlrcllke form and then subjected to Intense heat in a vacuum. In this manner the ele ments of the amalgam were burned em unci the tungsten particles became tnlMHled as' a filament. The light It furnished was much more brilliant than that of the curlion filament; consumed far less current a candle- power, but was so brittle that Us life was a short one. Too much was at stajte not to Justify a deal of painstaking experimenting, and accordingly the research laboratory at Schenectady set Itself the task of evolving a form of ductile tungsten. Finally success was attained and n per fectly pliable, ductile wire was produced, as strong ns steel, which could be drawn to halrlike diameters and yet possess extraordinary strength. This was about four years ago. Trior to this the Roentgen tube was limited in Its possibilities by the en durance of platinum, which was used for the target, or antlcathode, of tho X-ray apparatus; limited because this tnrget has to withstand Intense heat to give off the most effective measure of deeply penetrative rays, and the melting point of platinum Is 3,195 degrees Fahrenheit. The only way to Improvo the X-ray output seemed to be to tind a more refractory material for tho target, one that had a higher melting point. Until the advent of pure malleable tungsten there was nothing to supplant the platinum, but then the situation was changed. Tungsten has a melting point nearly 60 per cent, higher than platinum, or, to be exact, 5,432 degrees Fahrenheit. To this extent the substi tution of tungsten extended tho possi bilities of the Itoentgen tube. From tho cathode or negative element of the X-ray tube cathode rays are driven forth to strike the interixisod tar get or antlcathode. The more violently they are Impelled against the target the stronger the resulting X-rays coming from the antlcathode. But, unfortu nately, this produces heat, and if the attack Is too Impetuous or strong the metal of the target may be raised to the melting point and scattered against the Inner walls of the glass lube. Therefore by substituting the more resistant tung sten a very material gain was secured and more powerful X-rays were placed within the reach of the radiographer, the man of science and the radlo-thcra-plat. Remember, until radium was discov ered and physicians found uses for it the Itoentgen tube was looked upon as a remedial agent. In fact, the X-ray appa ratus has done some wonderful things In battling with various diseases and it has been used effectively In the treat ment of skin diseases, malignant growths, sciatica, rheumatism, tuberculosis and cancer. Hut unfortunately the control of the X-ray hns been an extremely diffi cult matter, and this. In large measure, has been duo to the very Instability or uncertainty In the strength of the rays employed. As one authority has said: "What Is needed Is m more exact means of defini tion of what we ure really using In a given case. This necessity will be more evident when we reflect how small an Interval divides the beneficial from the noxious dose of X-rays. Irri tation and exuberant growth may be produced by a dose of X-rays only Use of; Tungsten in the Apparatus Pronounced the Greatest De velopment Since Original Discov ery of the Roent gen Rays slightly different from that which will paralyze and kill, and this Irritative growth Is the very sign and symbol of malignancy. In a deep seated tumor the surface growth may be inhibited, while the d:eper layers are stimulated by the same irradiation." Apparently strength Is needed, but strength that can be administered with the nicest discrimination. Now we shall begin to understand better what Dr. Coolldge has produced. First, however, It is necessary to un derstand how the ordinary Roentgen tube works. Tho electric current enters the tube at the electrode, which Is called the anode, and ends Its course at the negative electrode, termed the cathode. When the current flows through the tube, peculiar rays occur at tho latter point, and these are known as cathode rays. They stream directly against the path of the exciting positive Ions, which are thrown off by the nnode and which actually Induce the cathode rays by this bombardment of the cathode. The cathode rays Impinge upon the Interposed target, or antlcathode ns It Is so frequently called. The higher the vacuum In the tubo the greater the speed of the electrons or cathode rays, bee ause there are fewer molecules of gas to Interrupt the flight of the electrons. Accordingly, tho greater the speed of the cathode raj's the more penetrating the resulting X-rays emanating from the target. To put It In another way, whenevei n rapidly moving electron comes In con tact with a material body, a concussion occurs in the surrounding ether analo gous to that which is caused when n bullet hits nn object, and splinters from the opposing mass, In their turn, set the On the left, X-ray picture of a metal rod passing through a metal ring. Curious because of the ap parent photograph of shadows. On the right, X-ray pictures of lilies of the valley, snowing that the rays produce a veritable picture of the flower's substance and not a mere shadowgraph. 4 H bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbK' rasJanaBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBMOvt vbbbbbbBBbI bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbBv.4v imSBbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbw . iBBBBBBBBl IiBBBBBBBBBBBBBbWv. 1 W?mvmKmtiL tsaBBBBBBBal bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbBw &JiBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBl'-i.- iBBBBBBBBBi BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBsW. f'iASslllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllH'BllllllllllllH bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbW. v 'C11BlbbbbbbbbbbS v sirrcWsH p An unusual photograph of an X-ray tube in action made by means of its own light. I. The cathode. 3. Lumlnotu, effect produced by the attack of InUiible positive1 tons projected from the anode. 4. 3. The path ot the cathode rays on ihclr ay to the urrct In the centre, ot the flobe. &. ItcDectlon ot the luminous cathode on the opposite Inner surface of the lobe. The cathode Ij made luminous by the heat rcsultlnr from the attack of the posltlte Ions. . The lone of .X-rays can off by the tarret In response to Ihe assault of the cathode rays. enveloping atmosphere In motion. The ether impulses which spread In all di rections from the face of a Roentgen tule target are X-rays. Roentgen therapy rests on the ability of these X-rays to change the living cell, sometimes even killing the cell Just us sunlight does. Hut while the sunlight af fects principally, only the surface of the body, the X-rays exert nn Influence on tissues lying deeper. Just how this metamorphosis Is brought about is not yet known, but apparently diseased cells ure made to purge themselves or to dis solve ami pass uway Into the circula tion. We can not go Into all of the technical niceties by which Dr. Coolldge evolved his present apparatus. In a great meas ure his discoveries came about while studying how to Improve the antl cathode or tnrget of the ordinary com mercial X-ray tube. In order to deter mine the ultimate resistance of this part of the apparatus his experiments were cnrrled to tho point of the ruin or the destruction of the target. In thus learning practically how much energy was required to destroy the target he. learned some things that might otherwise not have come within his ken. Having thus evolved u satis factory tungsten target he set himself the task of getting rid of some of tho other limitations peculiar to the X-ray tube of the usual type. Strange to say, In doing this he found ways to upset previously accepted theories, and In the end discovered how he could perfect a far more powerful Roentgen tube a tube that works as no other X-ray tubo has before. At the same time he Inci dentally evolved Increased facility of control. Remember, we started out with the substitution of n tungsten target In place of the previously prevailing plat inum antlcathode. Well, It was not long after this change was made that Dr. Coolldge saw that tho usual massive aluminum cathode was apt to melt when the tube was working with a very heavy discharge. In fact, molten glob ules of the cathode were hurled against the glass of the tube. When resulting in nothing worse this injury to the cathode changed the focal spot ot the electrons, and this In turn hurt tho re sulting X-rays, upset their control, and when used for making shadowgraphs caused the picture to be blurred and unsatisfactory. It then occurred to Dr. Coolldge to displace tho aluminum cathode by em ploying one made of tungsten, taking advantage of the higher melting point of the latter, which is four and a half times greater than that of aluminum. Rut trouble began ns soon as curient was passed Into the tube, for the be havior of the appuratus was distinctly cranky, or Uko the ordinary outfit when working badly. However, by passing current through only for a very brief while, then cutting it off, then turning it on again, gradu ally the functioning steadied until the tube would wotk continuously and well for several minutes. Dr. Irving I.angmulr, also of the re search laboratory staff, had found that n hot tungsten cathode In n very high vacuum, much higher than that or dnlarlly employed In a Roentgen ray tube, could be made to yield continuously a supply of electrons, and this supply was regulated entirely by tho temperature. Here was the germ of a revolutionary procedure, for It meant that the elec trons hurled from the cathode were not to depend upon the inducing attack ol bombarding positive ions from the anode, but would be Inspired by the temperature of tho cathode, and thli by a suitable control of current could be regulated to a nicety, ranging from 3,434 to 4,60! degrees Fahrenheit. The usual X-ray tube has a vacuum of a few microns, but In th case of the Coolldge apparatus this Is reduced tr not more than a few hundredths of a micron, and at this extremely low pres sure there arc not enough molecules ot gas available to provide transport for the electrical charge, even though the pressure of the current reach the great potential of 100.000 volts, but when the cathode Is heated all this Is changed, and from It pours a stream of pure electronic discharge. RELICS OF A PREHISTORIC PEOPLE IN RIO GRANDE VALLEY &.nN& Li i.N'O before Coronado and his band of explorers from Spain In vaded what is now New Mexico In quest of adventure and gold four centuries ago a race of people lived and flourished on the banks of the arrnyos of the upper IUo Grande region, it Is thought that they were there from one thousand to two thousand years ago. These prehistoric people built com munity villages of stone and adobe, with houes of quaint design, sometimes of pyramidal type and again suggesting a castle of feudal times, and usually their villages were planned with a view to obtaining a plentiful water supply, and always with regard for ample de fence The construction of their dwell ings, built either In rectangular form or in a semicircle around a court with terraced rooms erected blocklike toward the outer wall, shows that they feared attacks from their enemies and took precautions to be on the defensive. During the last two years Nels C. Nelson, formerly of the University of ('allinrnla, has been conducting an ex IX'illtiun In the Southwest and particu lar!) m the region of the. Qallsteo Basin anj along the tributaries of the Rio Onii il,., In the sagebrush, arid land of New Mexico. His object has been to Kather archaeological specimens and to determine through research by excava tions the prehistoric culture of this ru-iou in relation to the culture of to day. Mr. Nelson has recently returned from tho Rio Grande region with more than 2,000 specimens of archaeological interest for the American Museum of Natural History, and his study and re search in the Galtsteo Rasln will un doubtedly throw light upon the civiliza tion of the prehistoric people who once lived there In primitive castles of adobe and limestone and subsisted on the maize which they ground on stone for food. "I consider It the most Interesting archseologlcnl region in the United States," said Mr. Nelson, "and It Is rich In specimens, which .unquestionably re veal hints of a life and civilization now almost forgotten." For nearly two months on one expedi tion the archieologlst lived in a cave, where he cooked his meals and was a veritable cave dweller. Ho was assisted in his work of excavating the ancient ruins of prehistoric villages by native Mexicans and Indians ot the Rio Grande region. Last fall he camped in a pre historic dwelling, which was probably Inhabited one thousand years ago by a family ot an extinct race a van ished people. A piece otLcanvaa was stretched over the ruins or the ancient dwelling and formed a canopy, a pro tection against the elements. It has been generally supposed that the Indians derived certain Ideas per taining to altars and Images from the Spaniards, but one of the discoveries made by Mr, Nelson Includes an altar on which was placed an Imago with humanlike face carved in stone. It might have been a family shrine, or It might have been used for public cere monials in some village peopled by a prehistoric race. Unmistakably this old altar is a prehistoric shrine. This place of devotion consisted of a large earthen platform, on which stood a human Image of stone, surrounded by various offerings in tho shape of natural and artificial objects. The shrine was In a room of a ruined building at Pueblo Iargo, in the Oat Isteo Basin, and in a village which evi dently has not been Inhabited since the period of Spanish exploration In the Southwest. Similar shrines still have a place in the religion ot the I'ueblo In dians to-day and It is not unreasonable to assume from the finding of this al tar that this feature of their ceremonial life Is of native origin and not duo to European Influence. The ruins of the prehistoric pueblos of the Rio Grande region Indicate that these people were artistically Inclined. Many of their drawings and carvings on stone arc symbolical, although some of their pictures ot animals may Ik merely representations of the creatures of the period. Some of the pictures represent the sun, the clouds and other aspects of nature. The horned serpent fre quently appears and sometimes human heads with horns are noted. Among other animals depicted by the prehis toric artists are bears, deer, squirrels, and several designs portray warriors with spears and shields, I'ortrayals of horned serpents were found near I'ueblo San Cristobal. One of the largest of the rock pictures representing a horned serpent was not less than twenty-five feet In length, and presumably more In Its original state. Snukes arc still held in high re gard by the Indians of the Southwest, and in the Ilopl villages play an im Itortant role In the rain producing cere monies. Kxamples of 'pottery found at Tueblo San Cristobal are of prehistoric design and among these specimens are bowls and small Jars with painted and glazed decoration. The field work of the Nelson expedi tion began at Ysleta del Bur, a few'mlles below Kl Paso, Tex., and the advance was made up the valley chiefly by short railroad Journeys. Sometimes side trips were taken on horseback or by wagon as conditions favored. Mr. Nelson covered a three hundred mile stretch on his expedition, and when he reached the Cochltl Canon in the latitude of Santa Fe, the location of more than one hundred archaeological sites had been ascertained. The sites Included caves, rock shelters, camp sites and petroglyphs as well as extensive ruins. In the opinion of the archaeologist the region was well suited for the advance of primitive culture In the prehistoric times. Most of the ruins located by the expedition are not situated on the banks of the great river which flows through the Southwest, but to the east and west, thirty or forty miles away. "It Is quite certain," says Mr. Nel son, "that these people of prehistoric times were ancestors of the I'ueblo In dians. Their method of house building and agricultural pursuits and general way of living indicate their relation to the I'ueblo Indians. They arrived lie fore the Spaniards, and afterward their descendants lived under Spanish influ ence until New Mexico was taken by the United States. "The question usually propounded Is, 'Where did these people of prehistoric times como from?' It is a general theory that they came from the north and legends handed down to-day indi cate or point to this conclusion. Na tlvo Mexicans also entertain this be lief. It is Hsslble that tho prehistoric people came to America by the way of the Bering Strnlts." But that Is a problem unsolved, and Mr. Nelson may take it up on some future expedition. Much of the work of the Nelson ex pedition was accomplished in the Gal isteo Basin. The Gallsteo pueblos re semble those observed elsewhere In the Rio Grande region. "They represent villages of the well known cummunlstlc type," saye tho ar chieologlst, "consisting of a scries of buildings arranged at right angles in such a way as to form one or more enclosed courts or plazas. "Within these enclosures ore often found traces of seml-subterraneun structures, and In fact a type of under ground house used to-day by the I'ueblo Indians of the Rlu Grande. "The scheme of house building was somewhat unique, nnd ulso varied in the pueblos of tho region explored by the expedition. "In one of the ruined buildings seventy-two rooms were found upon the ground floor, and evidently the orig inal structure was from two to three stories high. Another ruined structure measured seven hundred feet in length, and must havo contained several hun dred rooms. Fireplaces were discovered In some of these ruins, but no chimneys, With reference to the ancient peo ple Dr. I'llny Karle Goddnrd, associate curator of anthropology at the Ameri can Museum, says In a book recently published on Indians ot the Southwest: "Because there arc various kinds of ruins in tho Southwest it has been be lieved by some that they were the homes of two separate peoples. Those who built the houses under the cliffs and In caves have been called the cliff dwellers, while those who built in the valleys have been called Aztecs under the belief that the founders of ancient on Ago Mexico migrated from the Southwest at an early date. "In Chaco Canyon, a branch of Chacc Valley, there is a cluster of clever large ruins which evidently represent an Important political group of prehls torlo villages. One of these, I'ueblc Ilontto, Is hardly surpassed In size and Interest anywhere. "On the western side of the Rlt Grande are many large ruins. Uetweet the Rio I'ecos and the Rio Grande then ure many ruins and evidences of for mer occupation by pottery making people. Some of these ruins, notably those known us Abo, Quara, Tablna ot Gran Qulvlrn, wero still occupied undei Spanish rule." Incidental to the Nelson expedition-! work in tho Gallsteo region seven weeks were given to tho excavation o the historically famous ruin of Kotylt on I'otrero Vlego, a few miles 'west o the Rio Grande and not far from Santa Fe. Tills ruin shows signs of having beet occupied In very ancient times, but wai a village of refuge after tho Indlar rebellion In 16S0, and later was de stroyed by the Spaniards, Tho work of the Nelson expcditlor In the pueblos of the Rio Grande Val ley places the American Museum ot Natural History In the first rank with Its collections of specimens and date regarding the culture of that Interest, ing region. ' 0&rBlBSBif 'iJsslLJsBBBHSal I ' r '3sHwiRBRBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBK I r' -;aaiisBsilli JLgslWWHWsssssWWPBfffHWBsW'MKr '.LJgWIfcrJsBMssssssMBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBSSSSSSSSSSSH SMsffcL I fT-" , V - . kHltH U ' Am .'viksSBliMsisSsHsflslsSsliBBBBBBBB flft JMI ESI VSSseSSBa.. SSSSSSSPSSBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB IwVSBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBS II I !MnBBBBBBBBrBV V I b 3iSSSSSHslsr'feBBBBBBBBBB rnVI L II BBisMflsisBBBB t asl liiiH'liiiiBlll................ H EaflBV-W lWCrt4WXsVlBBBBBBBBBBSSSSsiSSSSSSB SSSSSSSSSSSBBBBBBBBBBBBBBsl jBBMlBW'' tiBlfltrBHHIiH L-,SBBBBBBBBBbB SBBBBBBBBBBBBBBlHHBiiPISSSslis!! ssssVLbbbbbbbbbbbI Portion of rata of m ucivat afarint, about 10 feet in height. A prehistoric shrine found at Pueblo Largo, by Nelsoa expe dition, bow hi American Museum. Petroglyph of horned serpent found by Nelson expedition. Ml Til i if ft if