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THE SUM, SUNDAY, AUGUST 2, 1914.
H O W CAVATOR DISCOVER ED THE SHRINE OF OSI Cnnllnuril row I'lritt Pnyr. We hntl, It Is Iriif, tin- Indications which lrnf. I'otrlc lind followed but aban doned, Imt iluellv wo went by 1 1 testimony nf Strnbn, who t'ntiio tn Abydos In tin' your 1(1 of our era nml presses for mllo nrnund may have boon obtained from this building. In spite of this ilfxt r net Ion to the monument I could but own to a kind nf humanistic, satisfaction In tlio thought Unit It had not boon lying nil these ages unknown ami unused. Mutter was thcro rotn nf n building possibly here "con- . rt spudding t i tlio demands imitlo upon It ifn.ii,..i . 11... 1 r, lit nil 111 l 1-1 1111111 llltllllll'l lllll'l (III- , t.... ... . i . . .. . .. . I'm ii oi ine i,nnyrintii; oui not com. foxed of ninny parts. It had n wall," ho gom on to K.iy, "situated itt great depth, mill then- wax a detent to It through a lung passage Imllt of single tones of tcnitii knblo size ami work mnnKhlp." A building convincingly like tills we were certainly finding. Here wore enormous blocks, some times hewn out in place. In parallel horizontal courses of square Mniie of ashlar masonry, with magtillloent era n Ho dovetails. Those long solemn italics Wen- like Unix of majestic prose. like Iho precepts of the f kil lord I'tnh.holcp of the llftli dynasty: "Tins mariicrx of art are not close." "N . artist Is In possession of perfection." "Speak only of perfect things." Or like the litterancex of the ! riunlil texts of the'xlxth ilynaxty nt Sakkarah: "Thou host not tiled; thou ltii.it become a plnrloitx one In the horizon." "Thou didst not tlepart dead; thou didst depart living, thou h.ixt escaped the day of thy death!" The oast wall of the hall only Is Inxcrlhod by Meri'nptnli. nim of Ilamcsos ll rilneteeutli ilynaxty. the upiHixed Pharaoh of the Kxodux. Our ilexcent downward wax xlow, for Wc were In a motintaliiotix ruin, and we encountered dllticultlos at every Inch of our path In the Imnieuxe stones that urroiinded ux. Stones must be mixed ms they are met to take advantage of the nxxlxtance of the ground on which they lie. Wo have only native workmen, ehiclly from Arabat-el-.Madfuna nnd Ilent Man our, the two villages nearext ux These men move stones very xlmply and wlftly, following ancient Instinctive methods, operating In the force nf num. bcrs. For the moxt part It Ix time loxt to try to Introduce thorn to modern In struments. I'ndcr the direction of rclses. or foreman, the xtnne moverx lay tracks of two heavy Ixniiiix. First pry lnK the Ktone this way or that with n lover of bcccliwond onto heavy rollers, they then attach a rope to It and pull It or hold It back as they raise it or lower It to n resting place against the wall. All this xtone moving, tli s strain ing, this pulling .Mid h.iulinir, ix dune. In the rhythm of brute force, in song. The men nrc allowed their personal choice In leadership, and a precentor Is chosen, nnd valued, as ,s the conductor of an orchestra, for the certainty of his boat. "Hop Ir ragil. Hop!" the pre centor sings, and the men answer on Mraln: "Hop. hop, hop!" M. I.,egrand, the director In chief of the excavations nt Karnak, has recently printed nn In tcrestln book. Including many of the oncs tixed by on- workmen at their work by life, fir-1 as shrine and nctlve agent of the spirit's liberty, then as patient ipiairy to serve physical villain needs. In mind or body, It hail helped hiis tain the nncestry of many now alive. Now we were uncovering It to serve us i heme for iirclui'iiliiglHtM' Ink or for tind tourists, with all their holiday mis. understanding, Is that n greater obla tion or u I 'xxer, I wonder? The motto of every excavation might be the Arab saw: "lie who lives, shall see." Spirits ilso and fall. One of us thought he had at last discovered the light shaft Into it sanctuary, but nlas' It was only a bin lug In a mlttxtone, fuller' thought we had found n cham ber; but It turned out to 1m- the roofed co'ner of the hall, Krom the pongs nf the liii-n one often gathers plilloxuphy enough for the day. "The sea of gifts Is very wide." sings one man. "The bucket of the Shadotlf does not take up all the water of the river. God does not deny what we pray for." If there should seem to bo delay In the narrative of the excavator, It means but the general sense of waiting In the excavation Itself, Only very slowly do the courses of gigantic red blocks, like dusty porphyry, wonderfully nppoar to us, and tlio enormous monoliths rise. At the level of six meters from the highest part of the remaining wall wo came to n niche, then to another and still nnother, until n series of niches was displayed at Intervals, completely on circling the hall. Knoh was about n.'i tetitlmeters square, packed solidly with so.l, through which n few broken frag ments of pottery were scattered, but nothing else. Prof. Navllle saw In thce niches "tlio cells of the celestial abode of Oxlrls," spoken of In the Hook of the Dead. Our Interest was now excited to find the central niche, If there should be one,' In the eastern wall. Would It be like the others? Would It be the entrnncc to something beyond? In the fourth register of the oast wall, we Indeed saw that wo were Hear ing nn opening. There was n little moulding, and the ligures near the centre of this register were sum Her, representing four genii. At the extreme left of the register Thoth was purifying tho king lu the presence of oxlrls. Then came the genii, .Mestl, Hapi and O.un nauxef nnd Keblsenouf. and the King before Osiris, Anoup leading him by the hand. Those genii "avenge Osiris" and "xmlte f5et." as the Pyramid Texts say; and are known especially as the four genii who had charge of the viscera of tho dead. Immediately on either side of the door appeared King Merenntah himself, kneeling, with hands raised In breathless adoration of what Presence? l.srge pieces of limestone which' pencil which ha made luminous tho walls of the Sell Tempo-. The rliiiinbor with Its pointed roof reminds one of a great (luthlc reliquary. In the northeast corner of the chamber there Is n break In the root and wall, showing where tho robliors probably entered the chamber; and In the oast wall Ix n second break, where had been made an unsuccessful nttempl to find treasure. Otherwise the cluiinber Is Intact. This chamber, wholly subterranean, lies parallel to the wall of .Soil's Temple and within u few feet of it, but there Is us yet no Indication whatever of com munication between them. Our en trance to the chamber was on Friday February 13, continuing Shakexpeare's belief in the divinity of odd ntimbtrs and dispelling some old bogles of 111 luck. Seventeen niches nt Inst came forth, and we supposed of course that t!i ' rested upon the pavement of the hall but to our astonishment, they pened only upon n ledge, or mammoth mould lug, sevi'nty centimeters wide, running nil tho way around the wall except across the engaged piers at either end, where there Is no ledge. A similar ledge, a little narrower, opposite, con nected the piers In the aisles, and a wider ledge similarly connected the piers In what wo may call the nave. This ledge Is cut out of the block which forms the llrst course of masonry below It. At several points wo followed the wall down for more than four meters Into tho Infiltration water, hut as we had no adequate appliances for dredging or hoisting stone from such n depth wo could not go further. From shallow square basins In the ledge In the mid dle two lllghts of twelve rough steps r .1 S3U. .& 1 . 111- End of the wall on the East. mm millstone fashioned from of the missing lintels. one he lep.iired? Was It here In the dark nosx that the oblations, as they were plunged Into the waters, called forth from the echoing granite the loud rr spouse which reached the ears of the belli vers? To prove this It will be necessary to lltul the communicating entrance Into the building of tho undis covered cnnal. The water of the Infiltration alone clearly would not sutllce even nt its Temple near the Sphinx ut Glzeh has been detected by some critics of this building; but a close study of tho Glzeh Temple shows to others only the most superllclnl resemblance. Hoth In ground plan and In masonry construction, and In the use of starch cement or mortar, the differences appear to iho latter fun damental. Nevertheless, this does not necessarily argue that tho Abydns building Is not Ancient Kmplre. and even earlier than the temple near tho Sphinx. M. Harsantl thinks It may hnvo a cloxer relation to Kalnut-el-Arynn, which ho Is at present excavating and which he has dated from the cartouche, of Ha- N'eb-K.i or Neh-Ka. King of tho Third Dynasty. On the other hand. Dr. tlorchardt strongly asserts that the en tire building Is the work of tho Klgh tcenth nnd Nineteenth dynasties. A possible solution of tho rlddlo lies In the nature of the soil In which tho building is embedded. Is this orlglnnl soil or subsequent accumulation? The evidence, after cnrefullest consideration. Is enough to baffle even a geologist with the experience of Dr. Hume of the Kgyptlan Geological Survey. No building over dies, so long as It knows what to do with Itself under the circumstances. Egyptian temples, as Samuel I littler said of the Unman Km pire, "were puzzled to death by tho Christian rillglon." Death intervenes at length, when the demands to adapt the body to the requlr' ments of life exceed the power of response. We are actually In a Christian atmosphere. On the walls there are a considerable number of red painted Greek Inscrip tions, most, of them quite illegible, but alt, from the form of the letters, con Jecturally of the tlrst nnd second cen turies after Christ, All 'appear to be votive Inscriptions. One of these was put up by a man whose name Is not quite clear, but probably reads "Netro- As a place of healing used by Coptic Christians one can hut see a certain likeness to the Abaton at Kpldaurus, as well as to almost every medkeval shrine wlicro n saint's relics have rested. These Kgyptlan Inscriptions of ours, It Is to be regretted, will probably throw no light upon the original Intention of the monu ment. They are not unlike the dated Greek Inscriptions, ex-votos to the god lies.i In tho Setl Tomplo or tho graffiti which tho Carlan mercenaries (who were tho dragomans of Kgypt when Herodo tus visited It) have left upon the walls of the westernmost Merenptah chamber or the fragments of pottery dating from Itoman times to the seventeenth cen tury, which Ho scattered through the rubbish. They mark merely the (Mexage of time, Tho digging Is not finished, the work la not done. That our tribute may In paid to history with the respect we owi It, that we may Identify this stone. Mi, pebble of tho structure of our nv ra universe, we must continue. The inn cal phrases are there almost wlth.n on; grasp and we may not hazard khixm until wo have made every utmo-' i if r to let them reveal themselves. Southwestern corner, showing ledge and cell doorway. It may be asked If there Is not great waste of Mile and money in all this, and If machinery would not do the work better and more rapidly. The nn swer is direct that certain fdmple ma chinery doex facilitate work, but that human strength urn! the rocking lever cannot Just bete be Improved upon. When our work was in full tide we had over 6S0 men an.l 1 oys, one of the larg est, if not quite the largest, of any of the forces excavating at any single site, at one time In Hgypt, since Jlarlette'x armies moved uion the Temples. 'c are a great community; names are called at Minrlxe and aun"et and cacn answers to nix name. At noon men come In procession with long wav ing stalks of sugar cane for wile, which is enton with th" uniform hard bn.nl and onions, the traditional diet, as wt roe by the iiceoiintx of onlonx supplied to the men constructing the pyramid tomb of Kufu In the fourth dynasty All i" orderly, m -.1 the men keep 'o their allowed and allotted pUcex. The overthrow of this bulldliiv Is not, less amazing than its conx'ruct.on. Commercialism ix not a characteristic of our own age nbuie; it belongs, to every ago. Itoinanci Is dead; the ciivm man said'" Till- building ivax de Mrnyed by hew el x of m.llMoties who have left eMib nee ol similar ilex ruction In most of the buildings of Nubia. T'nllnixiied millstones weighing from seven tons to two hundred pounds, leav ing great gaps ill the piers, ami roof blocks out of whii li lhe had been hewn. I,i cm tywheie. (iiln r ptetx, roof ing blocks and lintels were in.iikeit wIM, red palm, nnd even drilled, lendy for the wooden wedges and waif by which means the blocks were to be cli-aved. High up in the riilibixli near the In scribed wall we found mi ancient camp of the woikinen They had llvul on the 'pot ill the mldM of their Wo' I. Tiler' were the axhi- nf tbejr r,,, t. b'i keil water J.ir, the I nnd illxhis, the bones of shf'P they h id eaten, and their rub pot'e y lamp- liwt nx thoT i "M had gone out. 'n crtinlte xb m , oil a t blocked the entrance were removed. For t a few minutes it seemed i,, be only a niche like the others, but then one saw 1 a break In the further wall. A little over a meter was broken out of the Molten that had sealed the entrance to Mimothlng In-ynuil. (me hardly suc ceeded In crawling over the s ones and thrusting one's head in. It was utter darkness, but ono wriggled one's way through anil downi on the other side of a .-lope of stones and sand, n little more than two meters limb, and stood upright on a pavement! It was like plunging Into steaming waters, owing to the heat and moisture. As one's eyes became ncciistonied to the dark, light cast from the opening showed a wall opposite, but how fur tho chamber extended to the right or left one could not guc"3. Hy the light of a candle one felt one's way cautiously, step liy step, over a slippery pavement of large tlat stones. It seemed nn In terminable, distance to the right, until one came to the end of the room, nnd so back to tlio entrance, nnd as far along In tho other direction. As one turned, the sun was consuming the Unlit sap phlro vapors through the opening. The limestone walls were wet and hung like flakes of Ivory, touched with the red and black pigments of tlio hieroglyphics. The chamber was empty. Whatever Its treasuio suddenly, as rare things will, It had long slnee vanished' It was only later, by the light of re flecting mirrors, that we really saw tho chamber, Twenty-seven meters long ami about live meters wide, the walls aie of limestone and the pitched roof of ted sandstone about four meters from Iho angle to the pavement. The celling is Inscribed by Sell with the "Imperishable stars," "the followers of iNirW." A double representation of the cUy goddess Nut, with full lips kissing the sun Ite, spans the heavens, An Important iitrnuomlcnl calendar of the re-nig and lie setting of stars and other scenes fiom the book commonly called 'I e Ho k of the Underworld" further lin-illliex the celling, All this Is drawn w'Mi the refinement of that marvellous r.t.'J 3ECTIOH THROUGH rM miiiii.f'. UTAH. SCTI TDMPUK m LY""'' n tttYt ytZ X l MENGPHTAH V't lt'f'7.'f .l'i ,Ji,t.'v C I I1 u'uiLJ1 v.-y- tHi i .- WATER LEVEL"!"' I1 TOMD V OSIRIS fry WATER LEVEL mach jnju Men Who Are Never Late at Work Ground plan of shrine as excavators unearthed it. descend, one flight toward the east end of the hall nnd the other toward the west. It was In consequence of finding no pavement nnd of the grent (and even as yet unknown) depth to which tho walls descend, with other conditions answering to Strabo's description, that we were led to conclude too hastily that our building was the well or pool which Strabo saw. Certainly here, and of old very famous as a place of offerings to OxIrlB at Abydos, was a well supplied with water from the river by nn ap parently now totally effaced canal. The offerings, It Is said, were thrown Into the water amid great roarings and were be. Ileved to pass at once to the god. A certain Menthu-hetep of the present level; still less so, as some hold It to have been In the time of the an cient empire lying three meters below tho level of to-dny. From present evi dence In either case the niches were In accessible by water. Not n few who have seen the building think that there was a pavement, now destroyed, or that there was to have been one, perhaps never set In place. Was this to connect the ledges or to rest upon them? In support of this theory masonry evidences ate not wanting throughout the building, espe cially In the abundant presence of quarry knobs both above and below the ledge, to prove that It wtis never llnlshed, The walls below the ledge thus Inter pretid become merely massive foiinda- Floventh Dynasty says nn his stole that j lions, necessary for the enormous super he built a well here by order of the Imposed weight In the uncertain condl King, Is this the building that he bulll Hons of damp soil, or Is this an earlier building which A likeness to the Fourth Dynasty blanus." "After I'aln," he writes, "Iho Good," "My pnln lias censed; and, hap pily, my recovery continues," Of a somewhat later date than theso Grieco.ltoman Inscriptions, in the simo red paint (tin; oxide of iron still found In the desert and used in Kgypt), are Coptic Christian drawings. Most strik ing among them are representations of boats, and also figures In Christian iconography, Including the Holy Name, tho Dove, the Cross, the Fish and tho I. Inn. Those drawings range from the celling of the building to the ledges, chielly on the piers, the walls being too rough to take the brush. The boats represent the Nile craft lu which nieii came and snmo of them bear their names and remind one of the representations of boatH and railway trains painted to-day on tho house of a man who litis made a pil grimage to Mecca. '-T-MIERE Is n man up In tho Fordham district or Tnc lironx wnoso nrst names nro Thomas Joseph and whoso last name rhymes with "train." He Is 60 years of age and for forty throe years he has reported for his day's duty with a largo downtown paint and varnish concern exactly at 8:30 A. M. When tho hands of the clock reach that hour ho Is seating himself at his desk, lie often arrives ahead of time, but never has Tie arrived late. At first glance the making of such a record seems an Impossibility owing to the many chances of accident and delay In travelling. Yet when you talk to the man who has mvompllshed this font of punctuality you find that he doesn't consider It n dilllciilt thing to do nt all. Hero's wliat ho says about It: "Most pc'plo are tardy. It seems nntural for them to want to gamble with time. If they arrive with only a second to spare they net as If they were tickled nearly to dentil. These are the same fellows and this means al most evorylxidy who blame the results of tardiness u Inanimate things nnd circumstances. Instead of on their own propensity to throw dlco against tho clock, "When a man tells you that It's Im possible to arrive on time year nftor year becouse of accident nnd forgetful- ness he never seems to tlguro mat mini Is superior to matter. First, make up your mind that you will never be late, and the battle Is won. If you don't make up your mind that way, you nro already half way late. The trick Is In the mind In the resolution. When you let your mind wlllle-wnflle as to cer tainty about making your objective point, why, you've about missed It al ready. "I have been with one concern for forty-three years, and punctuality with me Is a passion. I call It a passion, although It Is nn easy and simple life rule with me, because so few peoplo seem to find It easy. They dodge punc tuality whenever they arc called upon to bow to It. "As for mo, I feel so good . thinking that I have beaten a soulless thing like a clock that there's happiness every day for mo In my on-tlmeness. Talk about tho Joy of the man who has boarded tho water wagon and ticks off another day and another year nn the calendar, why. It's nothing to my pride In tho record for punctuality I havo made. And mind you, I'v made this record with myself nnd for myself mainly. "It's a bargain that I made with my strong side to beat my lazy side, l.nzy was bealen to n frazzle years ago but not to a finish. It can't be beaten to n tin Hit until I die, for I find the lazy tendency Is still sneaking around and toady to give me a plausible argument (Why I should take It easy Just for once, i you Know, lhat s the way lazy talks. "When I got my Job with this con cern l made up my mind they'd never catch inn late. I was not gulling much salary, so I could have no reserve fund against accidents. The reserve fund I had was an utillmltid amouiii of time In which to get wotk. "I was up at a quarter to " every morning, At half past ' 1 was board ing my car at Fordham. It was gener ally Just 8 A. .l. when I got to the office. Hut several times in those years I was delayed by snow and nccldent. The ample time I allowed myself al ways brought me to my work within tho limit for reporting imo. "As the years went by and I was pro noted I found that my reputation had spread and that made me morn than ever determined never to be late. I kept my day systematized, and as my responsibilities and remuneration in creased I arranged more thoroughly to overcomo delay tlirnicli than ever mishaps. "During tho big blizzard of H&S i dozen of us chipped In for a team an, sleigh and drove all the way from I on) hnm down until railroad traffic wti re sumed on schedule time, lbp about tho several days before r.iffi. was resumed and the streets wi p - , m bound? Why. easy enough. I down tho llrst morning before trafTIi stopped. And I never went homo for two days stopped at tho Astor House "My last mishap was about three years ago. Subway tied up. I trieil the elevatul nnd the cars only crawled along. I left the train at tv Mrs station I could nnd took a t,il (lot down with ten minutes to spii'i A division superintendent of 'lie ol the railroads going out of tin .! - e side complimented tho Fordli.im nl.m on his steadfastness when he heard tho story, but did not think th f .rty (hree year performance So w. i rfu Said he; "That rordham man Is cnt praise for his con.nant willing!) effort to report on time and not fact that he has nlwaws bet n report. There's a big elemeti' In such things. Suppose win n tho old Kast Illver steamer. them had got stalled Just off lb and had been hung up for ,i Wouldn't he have been good w And such nn accident has of ' pened. Suppose tho Hml.-nn 1 C . v had been late at the 125th strif the morning he ran down to i Mutt Haven? Train. nro oftm except, nhem, on my road. It constant effort to I atlv. i' that never tired, that makes markahlo, "Wo have engineers who ln reported late slnco they hav. ' our employ, nut ns they gener.i close to where they take their It Is not so wonderful a case tuallty ns the Fordham man -believe, however, that there ,u matlo men men who work !' llko machinery. Will power 'j what is required. "Wo have trainmen who df i ono mlnuto In their getting nnd they don't set nlarm clc I They've been doing It for m.u And their day off? Some don't . day off nnd they work extra. I seem to dry them up, either. Just as agreeable and cnni as the tardy, pleasure sceK It's their makeup. "I In-long to n gymnasi',' there's a man who has mlle.H before breakfast, rain for twenty years. The day ! died they thought he'd lay off Hut ho didn't, although he'd 1 . up with the dead man all u. nnd he walked the five the d funeral." Central I'nrk reservoir w three times by a Hnrlein every morning for ten jc.irs his death. His ki.-t regret w. couldn't leave his bed to tank There's a New York Athletic i whoxo hobby for the last tw Is to do the promenade of F t1 from Fifty. ninth street to square arch every often shine. He Is away one nuur port and one month in the V during the summer and dert.r out of .oftS becalle lie colli! walk, Unusual constancy of oil.' reported In many places street lawyer has visited mnlden liuly, every Huud.i' for thirty odd years, miKu from Hrooklyn to lialntleid S so. led ( -- am' f T the ,!! t. r luck . li' ' lia ' ir I .it' ' .ip i tram -MllOtl i from Lite Is hi" effor in re- netcr .n it tv m niilnr- ,f (Mini I il . aute r l. I' iIo It jv!,it' i time , 'her vi ,ir. th' liiejn y ar whfp ! fl' .htm fiithf walk . or. f T t f. n l l I" ..If i 1 i ,r in