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The sun. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916, August 02, 1914, Image 8

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8 4
THE SUN, SUNDAY, AUGUST 2, 1914.
SERVIA'S ARMY IS
DOUBLED BY WOMEN
Ainorlpim Princess Snys Her
Ailouted Sisters Will Fight
With the Men.
ALU AltK IXTK.VSE PATRIOTS
Former Califnrniiin Describes
Influence of lie Fireside
I'Ikui a lln.ee of Soldiers.
"Serv1 i's wiir st.-enuth mny be Klven as
2(0 ooii. but that fliturn must he doubled,
for .ill Servian won.en can nnd will hear
.i'm," drd.irisl Princess t.ii.iroiteh
llichiilinovirli, th American wife of the
1 it ilesrendiirr of the old Hervlan kltiKs,
HMcrduy. "I'Aeii now I have no douht
they ar drilling as the Montenecrln
women did durlntc the IJulkan campaign,
and tonkins over their underground store
houses, for they liavn Plwnjs hail charKe
of t tie emiimlfs.iry department of the
army. Tor every Servian soldier who
fall thero will he n wlfo or n ulster to
take up his Kim.
"They are wonderful creatures, tall nnd
iilmusl nvermuscled from the outdoor work
they have done for uenerntlons. They
nre often very beautiful. And nlways
they ate afire with patriotism."
The riinrrs drew herself up and her
omr iiriHm-mMi u mi pr int in m:r i
I . . t . I .... . i.L. 1 .1 I .
nd opt ihI country women. It n enny to t
believe that she was very kindly
lUlV fS
celved when she went to them as a Cali
fornia beauty fifteen years ago.
"In the Kreat wars of the past when
the men have fougit the Turks In front,
tho women have .Ired their -;uns nt the
Autrlnns In the rar. They have fought
aide by side with tl-e men, worn the same
uniforms, undergone the same hardships
and In the end recslved the same honors
from their country.
No i-d for Snffnme.
"Perhaps It Is because these women
have fought and died beside the men
that thero Is np need for suffrage In
Servla. Long before Magna Charta was
thought of the Queen sat In the Servian
Parliament with her husband, and when
the Kin: Issued a proclamation he began
It:
" 'I, having taken counsel with my dear
wife, the Council of State and the Na
tional Assembly, do hereby decree.'
"To-day If a woman Is considered the
most nble member of one of the great
family groups or ..irtrugas into wnicn
to oversee the work of the fields which
family groups or 7..idrugas Into which j
belong to the family and Its branches In
common and tho work of tho household as
well. The men obey her unhesltntlngly.
"When a man Is head of the family
his wife oversees the household work.
Thero Is the great central house, with
Its Immense never dying fire In the mid
dle of tho central room. Oxen and sheep
are often roasted whole over the oak logs
and
hams and plecet of sheep meat are .
;cd In tho great chimney which over-
smok
har.M the (Ire like an extinguisher above
n cjnd'e.
"Tlicic Is much cooking to he done, for
the 'Ps and cousins nnd their wive
.on!.' In from their tittle cottages or
oy.itK scattered round about for the eve
r ng nual. The women do the work In
B cups a week at a time. Afterward they
tiit iitiuut tho great fire and some one
play- "n the one stringed fiddle of the
t uritr--. while another sings one of the old
uh1- if Servian victory. At Intervals
fie J 'Ung people dance the wonderful
fPirlt. d Servian dances. For refreshments
'tliere .s a great cauldron of green corn
bolllrg on the tire.
I ii ! lie net- of (lie Fireside.
"It Is thes songs and dances, with the
htorles of the old days told to the children
around tho tire, with the good food and
the free education that make the Servians
the wonderful. Indomitable people they
nre. The upright lives they lead may
contribute something to their moral fibre,
for thero Is practically no Illegitimacy In
the country, while lust news the border
where the Serbs are crushrd under Aus
trian tyranny It umounts to 40 per cent,
of the populate-.
"Where even man has his own Interest
In the land of the Zadruga there Is no
poverty. The boy becomes hla father's
partner at birth, though he Is expected
to do his little share of the work. Out
side of that his time is his own. The land
is wonderfully fertile, the soli has never
needed fertilizer and the great oak for
eiU supply a mast of acorns that makes
Servian pork known the world over.
"The cnen are a water drinking race.
Now and then they take a glass of prune
brandy, but not often. They take their
pleasures singing and laughing among
their great, happy families. Each new
baby Is welcomed as an added sunbeam
In tho great Zabruga. That Is why Servla
Jiaa been able to offstand Turkey for these
many centuries. Do you wonder that
Servian women are ready to tight to pre
serve such a homo life as thelra?
"Not S00 Serbs have left their country,
but they emigrate from tho Austrian ruled
provinces by thouaands every year. Theao
are tho men who are crowding the boats
the men who want to ace Bosnia and
Herzegovina and Croatia free once more.
And tho women will follow them If they
fall. How many of them. I wonder, are
brightening up tho daggers they wore
from childhood to preserve themselves
from Turkish and Austrian soldiers?"
LITTLE CALLING OF LOANS.
Canadian llnnk Most Active to Send
Minify to Dominion.
It was learned yi'stetilay thut thero was
some calling of loans, but only In a limited
way 'Urn ( aiiadlun banks here, which aro
not depositary Institutions, enlled some
loans anil snipped th money to Canada. B3
There was no established money rate and
no loans with iimilnoutsidouf thone between
baiiKi'iH mid their clii'iilx.
ACCUSES COTTON BROKER.
Mini .iik M II. Iliithsclilld ('luii-Ki'il
llivn l.iissis lii Ciistiiiurra.
HirloiiH charges against .Morris
II.
ot.
JJ.ii' - h Id, nii'inbnr of tho New York Cot
t 'i i:tii.ingo ami bend of M H. Ilotlm
i ' lil k I'n. of Si2 Ileavi r atreet, were
1". nli' yesterday in tho Supreme Court
whi 'i David Miirrli'K, dr., of .Montreal (lied
an answer In n suit brought by tho IlothH-
"i linn to recover tho amount duo on
hTorrlre sajs ho was one of fifty or
m' istoiiiers who hud optional accounts
w n liothsc hlld In which Rothschild made
im' ii.iui's ior ine customers without gut
tig miv li,sri. t.ons from them llo
nllegm that Roll
tn c.-ttrm f,. his mn iiivuiiiit ut iM0
ri.ui.' nine anii mat r lus trades suo-
.1 . 1 "f'l'to.i them to h'nisrlf and
. , , , " " T i.lill
" "'v lulled they were bnnkod for the
ft' .nit of Homo optional trader.
V"'r.i'tiH account.
' Wrhi0JE?J tlXX '"ontrestiUant friction the Russian part Z'Z ttj" f ,mmlt" yesterday after-
U' this h , "his" a IT VEeni: J "..IM themsclveAto.hofull. RyJudlciouH Tr nnotZr centurv nni I .y members after tho conference they
that although he had no money to ,y ' the hostile crltl ism ul.icl. belongs to him. fTh w u ideraUnd Jhiit Prasla'o l' YTrAtSl Z'V f"
Ill IV. I
..ll...a - ....... .......... .. .''- ,,,,.. .n, , r, a nlumallnn.
SLAV AND TEUTON STRUGGLE
REALLY AN ECONOMIC WAR
Race Hatred Between Germany and Russia
Founded on the Lust for Land and
on Trade Rivalry.
itr svmo,Aii tonjojioff.
An astonishing feature of the tumult that
precede Armageddon In Christendom la the
violent anil" vociferous outbreak of race
hatred In the capitals of the. great Powers.
All llerlln. with the exception of the So
cialist minority. Is shouting "Down with tho
8lav peril!" All St. Petersburg excluding
the Irreconcilable elements. Is frothing
"Down with the' Germans'" And the Kus
slan word for German Is peculiarly offensive.
It Is "Xlemetz" a mute person that la to
say, a person whose speech cannot be under
stood Taking Its cue from either Berlin or St,
... i . , I..1H i. i J l
Petersburg, the entire civilized world has
iiivtueu u.seir into two raucous camps, eacn
resonant with howls of derision and hate.
Kven toone whose ears are well accustomed
to cries of discord, etich a concerted out
burst of battle cries is appalling with por
tent. Ho far as the man In the atreet is concerned
the general war that Is looming Imminent
upon the horizon of Europe Is a war of self
preservation on the one hand of tho German
against the Slav and on the other of tho
Slav against the German. Tho assumption
on all hands appears to be, so far as the mob
. . -- .., if o, W
" - . J;",l. " '
vlB lruifin uic icuiuii iimcwin 'i"-
sitv die. or the other way around
Whence tomes this hatred, this deadly
conviction of Incompatibility, of sinister
purpose on either aide?
Of course, there is such a thing a race,
hatred between the German and the Slav.
Of that there can be no doubt, because It la
perceptible to the casual observer even whon
thepulaewof nations are beating at the nor
mul rate. Hon much this sense of mutual
distrust has been cultivated and stimulated
by official devices Is a question which cannot
be answered offhand.
The Hussion people the mass of the
peasants see the German people from
below. Even to-day, after Russia has suc
ceeded In eliminating the political domi
nance of tho Germans which Peter the
Great established when he transferred Ger
man nnd Swedish civilization bodily to the
Inhospitable Russian aoll. the Russian,
peasantry Is largely bossed by Germans
.Most of the overseers of the great estates
which form the basis of the wealth of the
, ,.ini racv which means the
unencumbered wraith to speak of-aro
Germans.
Itnualsni nnd Business.
This well nigh universal arrangement
Is the result of-the temperamental inability
if the Hueslan to ucuulro business habits.
'I ho Individual Russian has creative ability
of various sort. Hi- can become a
T.rhnlkowskv. or h Verestchiigln, or a
Turgenleff ; but In business matters he is
helpless.
Kven In the exact and sclentinc phases or
the art of war he f i wMiently lias to call upon
the foreigner within his gates til do tho
eMier fo Z It In well Aiown to
military men. for Instance, that the slego of
Pleven In the Husso-lurMsn war was
notoriously bungled because of the desire
of the Czar to gle a purely Slavic cast to
the operations undertaken to liberate a
brother Slavic nation, the Hulgarlans,
The woaknes of the Russian attack upon
Pleen was the inadequate artillery arm.
The Russians hud a splendid artillery
ofneer at their d.spo sal one o great..!
htfnX: Si? Tlu.and'rlebtn ."'a
irnod German name. So. rather than admit
a German to a share in the task of liberating
a "little brother" since read out of the
Hlavlc brotherhood because of his refusal
to lend himself to Russlm schemes the
Russians under Skobeleff poked nway at tho
fortress with their bayonets until the losses
of life grew nppalllng, without accomplish
ing definite result
At this pbaso of thn proceedings the
great "Whlto Czar" bowed to tho inevi
table, called In tho despised Todleben and
tho work of smoking the fox Osman from
Ills hole was accomplished without unduo
delay.
Tho Russian bureaucracy the machlnory
of government fairly bristles with Teu
tonic names, because tho Teutons In Rus
sian service as a rule disdain to add the
suffix "off" to tholr names, as some na
tionalities moro pliant readily do. For
Instance there Is tho well known case of
I.oris Mellkoff, whoso name was Mellklan,
but who adopted the Hlavlo possessive
genitive termination to mako his path
easlor.
Among the Germans who have attracted
tho attention of current newspaper readers
as Russian officials of fame or notoriety
Is Uaron Rosen, who preceded Ilakhmeteff
as Ambassador to the United States; von
Plchve, who was assassinated a few years
ago after a serleo of repressive severities
that gave tho world a sho-k. The present
Minister of Flnonce, Hark. Is of German
extraction, so Is Sorglus Wltte, who. with
Rosen, settled Russia's affairs with Japan
at the Portsmouth conference. 8o through
out the list of tho Russian hierarchy of
state tho Teutonic name sticks out with
persistent energy.
Heldom
nnsalnn,
The sanm Is true of Uussli.n trade, The
middleman tho moneyed class of tho
nations in Russia Is seldom a Russian
so far its origin is con'-cmpd. lly the same
token ho Is more frequently n German
than of any other nationality, and dosplto
restrictions upon tho Jewish race ho Is not
teldom a Jow
Thus, in all tho phases of life In the em-1
plre, tin' "man higher up." with whom tho
neiisant. the mass of the people has to ileal,
Is likely to bo a German. As the dealings
of the mass with the "man blither up" are
seldom pleasant under the existing political
and economic order in Russia, the German
gets a good share of the Indignation that
11 HUH im ,,m,, i n... i iiiin. i limn,
And the German, be it understood, makes'
nu attempt to conceal his contempt for the
. Peasant with whom ho has to do business.
1 With wmieJUhlloii.lt must be iietmlttisj ha
charge,! the common ItUHslan with being
unc can. of being untruthful, unreliable.'
, . , i t, i...i,.- .. i
liuy--and above all of being a hopeless
iiruiiKiird.
th true German bluntni'ss he doe not
hesitate to convey his opinion of the Russian
fe rente
In suiii ways, partly through deliberate
purpose and partly by the working of tho
laws of human nature, thi Russian people
'"rK'' llll" "' I that la to say have
' become tliioughly Imbued with the convlo-
, Hon tht the (ieriimn Is us naturally their
i enemy us me naK is m enemy or the de
fenceless barnyard fowl,
Now this race feeling has rected upon
the Germaus ou the German side of the
International line. Moreover, the Russians
have given a notable exhibition of Incon
sistency In their treatment of the Herman
In the Baltic provinces. Esthonla, Ltvonla
and Courland.
In these province! tho Germans have kept
up for centuries a bitter struggle to main
tain their German nationality and their
Lutheran faith against the attacks of the
Muscovite official and the Kusslan Orthodox
Church. Naturally tho Germans of tho
German emplro have watched with sym
pathy and deep resontment the plight of
their brothers beyond tho Russian frontier.
They have acquired the lively Impression
that the llunslan steam roller knows no
brother.
A glance at German affairs gives a good
bum 1'iuua t n rALMUllttl it n Oi liio HVl niu.il
omcr. B(all),t RlUM)a M ,h(. ,)(f brofher
of the Slav, In the Kaiser's capital and
throughout tho German empire In this por
tentous moment In which history Is being
written with relentleas speed.
The Weak Spot.
There la a weak spot In 'he armor of the
Teuton Achilles. Achillea himself haa been
Aware of It for some time, and Blsmtrclc
undertook drastic measures to strengthen
the doubtful Joint, but the enterprise failed
because of the astonishing vitality of the
Slav,
r. This weak spot Is the province of !
Posen, or Posnan, which Is Inhabited over-
whelmlngly by Poles.
Now Russia has no love for the Poles
within her own border, as any Pole wilt tell
you. Rut tho Poles of Posen tho Tan-Slavic
Committee at Moscow bos long regarded
as In danger of lapsing from true Slavdom
unless eomcthing were done to maintain
alive within them tho divine spark of race
consciousness.
Any Pole who knows will tell you that tho
activities of tho Panstavic committee aro
wholly unnecessary and uncalled for. Rut
you cannot furnish the gentlemen of Mos
... ...j., . i . ....
vip" mi ny adverse inionnaiion once iney .
have laid their hands to tho Immemorial j
task of keeping the Slavic race from being
Germanized off tho fnco of tho earth. So
tho Muscovites have gone blithely about tho
business of meddling In Posen.
Illsmarck thought tho peril of Polish sur
vival sinister enough to adopt an expensive
plan of expropriation of land from Polish
landlords and the settlement of German 1
farmers In their places, The evicted land- and have helped this ruinous rise along in
owners. In order to bo assured of the proper ,our anxiety ami courtesy to placo for
influences, were transposed to purely Gcr- '16 correspondents n funds over night
man communities and there settled with ' ,rylnB '? Ut V rM!)
order to become Germans forthwith. I ' ";. no, "J0,
A few years ago an official report In the i
Prussian Diet on the outcome of this and
suusequeni cosiiy experiments m tne same
uirection tniilcateet astonishing results.
These results were, in short, tint not only
ii'iu me uuerneu roies maintained tneir ,
nationality In all its original fervor, but
that they had actually Polonized some of the
surrounding Germans.
This appalling discovery so affected the
German mind thr.t In all subsequent ar
rangements for the defence of tho empire
ample account has hern taken or the diinge:
' ; SUvio uprising in Posen the momcn
""?" '"" ""d It-Hf t war wit I
er
t
h
Russia or any other nelghtior.
The (Sermnn rinveriiniPiit h nv..r mn,tu
any attempt to conceal its suspicion of tho
Poles as a peril to the empire. On the other
hand the Poles, who aro represented In the
Diet ns well as In the Relchstau. have waged
bitter warfare upon the Government as .
sort of perpetual and Irreconcilable opposl -
j tion. Thus the business of promoting race
TZSSS;. hi
- '.e German side of ,
UM
tne
Th heat of tho nntl-Slavio campaign In
Germany has been rising noticeably for a
year past. Inspired without doubt from
official sources, a considerable section of
the German press. Including several organs
recognized ns official or semi-official, have
been carrying on an acrid campaign of
publicity against Russia and agulnst the
Slavic race in general
Frontier Incidents,
Ample texts for these attacks were fur
nished by a series of frontier incidents, such
as unnecessary arrests of German subjects
on the Russian side of the lino. The capture
of an aeronaut who had loot his way in the
night and descended on tho Russian aide
of the border created or was made to
create ouch a sensation in Germany that
some of the newspapers actually de'inandeil
that war bo declared upon Russia forthwith,
The fact that the unhappy atrlaaut was
aent to Jail for a short term because ho had
violated a plain prohibition of such un
warranted and defiant odventures upon
the soil of "Holy Russia " added coal oil to
the blazing fire of German resentment.
The pother that waa made over an Inci
dent which ordinarily would have been re
garded as only an annoying trifle made it
appear to tho outside observer as if some
Influence In the vicinity of the German
Foreign Office were employing, the affair
as a means to fan German patriotism to a
whlto ardor of belligerent Russophobla.
It Is rsy to understand how two races,
mutually Incompatible, should develop
somo heat In tho course of bbelr friction; but
that two peoplru should spring ready to fly
at each other's throats is inconcdvablo on
such flimsy provocation.
Raco hatred as such, thendnesnotexplaln
tho present sinister alignment of nations
on either oldo of a bristling barrlcado of
bayonets. No, Tho cries of "Down with
Russia!" and "Down with Germany!" aro
only the convenient rallying words dovUod
by cunning statesmen to arouse the tnob.
Tho underlying reusonsi for tho Impending
cataclysm, tho moat appnlllnv that tho
world has ever dreamed of, nro economic,
j The outlylnf roglona which tho lato Lord
i Hiillsburv lies' -nalixl as the "waste nlnces
, 0f the earth," to bo appropriated to tholr
! OWIl purposes by tho thrifty and tho strong,
hUVn been protty well distributed. Tho
Klavs. for Instanco. as typified by Russia
have more than tholr share In the view of
, jrrilUi II fVUIIU II1IO US,
Tnp industrious, progressive, rnterprls-
i ciorimm raco, on the other hand Is
crunil)ed for room. And now, only a year
I nfor tIlroe 8mlU Hlnvlo llalOM have ac-
qulrP(1 rnrt of mtta of th . , k
, vr,,.. -
i ,.-.,w,'", v., i""iu mu" iiiiuuiitf,
Uflhtld th tho prido of comment, has H
I ut to worry away from Gorman Austria
r-in,, ui,ir.h u .mi. ...i ...i.i.i. i.
trllth must bo told. Is much bettor off under
prcoccupa
tlon Is so profound as to permit the real
owner to como down Into his own without
effective hindrance.
Huch fs the Gorman view of Russia's
championship of little Krvla, and that is
why the mob in IWHn Is shouting "Down
with the HlRV peril1" On the other hand,
Russian statesmen know that tho Germans
know porfectly well the lay of tho land.
And that is why the mob In Bt. Petersburg
Is yelling "Down with the Jflemetzl"
WANT NATION TO END
HIGH EXCHANGE RATE
llopresentntivcs of Bankers Go
to Washington to
Urjro Action.
SENT AFTER CONFERENCE
May Troposc Government Ship
ment of $100,000,000
to London.
Max May of tho Guaranty Trust Com
pany nnd the best authority on foreign
exchange In tho United States nnd Aug
ust Ulrlch of the foreign exahnngo de
partment of Ladenburg, Thalmann & Co. J
loft last night for Washington to confer i
with tho Treasury Department and por- .
haps with President Wilson. They intend
to lay before the Government the de
moralized condition of tho foreign ex
change market and to ask that assistance
bo lent them In unravelling the difficulties
In which this country has found Itself j
through the conditions In Kuropo and tho(
desire for gold In overy capital on tho
Continent and In England. It Is not lm
probable that they will ask that a ship
ment of J100,000,000 gold be made to
London lther In the shape of a loan or In
payment of a purchase of bonda.
Thuro w.is a iiuellng ut tho Guaranty
Trust Company yesterday morning of
more than forty foreign exchange mn,
representing all tho great national banks,
trust companies and private banking
houses In the city. Its purpose was to
devise somo means of eottllng tho abnor
mal and unprecedented conditions In the
foreign exchange market.
SilKltests Arlillrnrr Unfe.
Mr. Ulrlch a chairman addressed the
lll?CblllK liClill IW l
meeting, referring to tho demoralized
.u. , .v.i.n-. ,.,
ket wUn guch nb,urd (,uotatlonB ,G.50
a poun(1 stPrlnR. He suggested that a
pnmmi micht be unnolnted to meet
commltten might be uppolnted to meet
dally nnd fix an arbitrary rate on ex
change until the situation cleared and
pointed out how Iondon came to our as
sistance when wo needed gold In 1007.
Mr. Ulrlch ald:
We have been guilty In a certain way
' '... i,ue,. rert.iln
understanding such ns there oug-hl to
... , nm. such . have on two dt.
fcrt.nt occasions tried to bring about our
exchange market might not have acted
ro disgracefully ns It has done this week.
"Gentlemen, you know that tho intrinsic
value of a pound sterling Is only 4.S6 2-S
nnd yet any Importer who wanted to
remit yesterday had to pay rates which
cost him a premium of all the way from
Ii to 40 per cent.
Cull Premiums 'lOntrniirons."
"And yet while we were boasting that
we could absorb all tho foreign sales of
securities better than nny other nnanciai
'centre, that gold here was not at a
Premium, yet the American business man
' hn!' W ch ou,ra-;e0"9 Hli",?!!
ffeckB which, when they arc Prrientvd
Von"
. ...in .' ...., tt;. n , i,
w,nout undue niury to the American
business man. We shall find the proper
i nml at the same time honorable way to
adjust our exchange transactions, but we
must end those exorbitantly high rates.
"In 1907 It was London that provided
us with gold and ungrudgingly helped us.
It now behooves us to stand by London
In Its present embarraesment. I under
stand that a shipment of $100,000,000 In
gold to London, either In the shapo of n
loan or In payment of a purchase of
bonds, would greatly relievo tho London
money market. It would benefit London
and would react to the benefit of our
own money market.
"I am firmly of the opinion that In
view of the present unusual conditions we
ought to fix exchange ratea and do this
moro In accordance with the natural
parities, as they are arrived at from day
.to day, taking Into account tho Intrinsic
value of foreign exchange, tho value ot
loanable capital both hero and abroad
and making due allowance for proper
differences between checks and cables.
TTrxes Dally MrrtlnK.
"I therefore strongly advocate dally
meetings of a committee to be chos'n
from among representatives of exchange
banks nnd trust Institutions whose duties
It shall be to fix a reasonable range ct
rates and to aupcrvlao the exchange ot
foreign bills on 'cable transfers, to ap
point If necessary agents at foreign cen
tres who would attend to the collection
of bills In case a moratorium should be
established abroad and In general to look
after any other transactions os may from
tlmo to time have to be settled nbroad.
"Or to appoint trustees In New York
with whom could be deposited cold In
trust for foreign cential banks In caao
shipments of apecle should become too
perilous and too expensive.
"It Is generally recognized by foreign
exchango experts that this country, In
Biilte of the tremendous liquidation of for
clgn holdings of American securities
which has been going on here-, still owes
a great deal abroad. Not tho least of
thla amount Is In the millions of dollars
In letters of credit which have been Is
sued. The establishment here of a trusted
In New York city with whom gold could
be deposited In trust for foreign cen
tral banks would help to relieve that In
dihtedness abroad to some extent. In
that way, provided there was nny trans
nttantle shipping, Europeans could pur
chase our grain and other agricultural
and Industrial products and payments to
the farmers nnd mmufacturiTH could be
iioo.OOOioOO f or what VthVr amount w.re
made by tho truftxe from the fund of
deposited here as a loan or In payment
1 of an Issue of bonds.
FtT A'nmcel for Conference.
Following Mr. Ulrlch's address a com
mittee of ilvo was appointed to confer on
inn situation. l ins cimiuuuri! was com-
posed ot Max May. Autust Ulrlch. It. O.
Hbden of'tho Hank of .Montreal, John U.
n,, h-nrt ,f nhA f,.ri.-n .vi,.,,.
tho situation. This committee was com
iParUnont of tho National City lUnk, and
of which they nro a part to-nlnlit, and
whatever decision Is then arrived at will
b communicated to representatives of the
foreign exchango departments of all the
hanks, trust companies and private bank
Ing houses, who will meet at tho Guar
anty Trust Company on Monday morn
Ing.
When asked what amount of foreign
exchange was still outstanding yesterday
Mr. May said that It would be Impossible
to set any definite amount, but he thought
the total would aggregate between 20,
000,000 and $30,000,000.
There was no foreign exchange mar
ket yesterday strictly speaking. Quota
tions were only nominal. Such quota
tions as could bo secured wore demand
sterling, 6,26 & 7, .'.nJ cable transfers, C.7S
07.
One of the leading bankers of tho city
Rhen sked yesterday whether any
bankers' Conferences had been held during;
tho day said "yes," but that they had
been purely to consider new phases of
the foreign situation as they arose.
He pointed out fliat tho banking In
terests of tho city are tryirR to shape
their course of action so as to meet con
ditions abroad, but until some definite
steps are taken there the banking Inter
eats here as n whole wdll not know Just
what to expect. If tho Powers act for
war one course of action might be neces
sary: If for peace tho situation would bo
considerably cleared ami another coursa
of action would be determined upon. At
present he said they must trim their
sails, to meet every wind,
Thla banker pointed out that In case
International war waa declared In Eu
rope, this country would of a necessity bo
practically cut oft frJm that continent In
tho way of shipping.
"Our position," ho said, "Is In a large
renso a secure one, as wo nro self-supporting
and are not dependent on nny other
country for our foodaruffs or our manu
factured artlclea. Never before has there
come a cataclsm which no upsot the
whole financial fabrio of tho world. In
case of war it would be necessary for thla
country to pass through a period of re
adjustment In order to accustom Ittelf to
the new condition of nffalra which has
been thrust upon It
RIGHTS OF CONSULS
ARE HIT BY COURT
Derision Affects Letters of Ad
ministration Grnntcd on
Estntcs of Aliens.
A decision denying the right of foreign
Consuls In New York State to letters of ad
ministration on the estates of citizens of
their countries who die in this State has
been handed down by the Court of Appeals.
These letters have heretofore been granted
by the Surrogates on the grounds that the
treaty between the L tilled States anil Italy
In Id's rcqulrix! It. In a decision yesterday
Surrogate Fowler declined to agree with
tho Court of Appeals, but said he was com
pelled to follow its ruling.
Under the treaty In Question tne Italian
Consuls are entitled to the samo rights as
Consuls of the "moat favored nation." The
Court of Appeals says that the latest treaty
bearing on the subject was mada between
he I nlteil Slates aid Sweden in 1011. and
Provides tliuf If a iltlz'ii of either country
dies inttstute the foreign Consul shall, so
far as the laws of each country will permit.
appointed administrator.
In the case beKire tho eourt Carmina
D'Adamodleil, leaving a widow und children
In Italy and u brother lu this State. The
Italian Consul applied for nnd received let
ters of administration, but the decedent's
brother applied to have the letters revoked
on the ground that he should beappolnted.
The Surrogate denied his application and
the Appellate Division unirnien s;it-decision
but the Court of Appeuls reverses both.
Construing the riwcdlsh treaty in Its ap
nllrntlnn to Italian suhlects the Court of
Appeuis says the Consul is entitled to letters
of administration only when no one having
ii nrlnr rlcht under the local law la com
petent or wining to uci. mnce uie oeccoeni
left a nrotner no re ine nrouier is euiiueu
to letters under tno .ew lorK laws.
Ocean Mnll Contracts Cancelled.
Wabiiingtox, Aug. 1. Postmaster-
Ueneral Hurleson to-night ordered the dis
continuance of all contrncta for the car
riage ot the foreign malls of the United
States In vessels flying the German flag.
For tho present the contracts with the
various Hrltlsh lines and tho Compagnle
Generate Transatlantlnue will not be dis
turbed. The Library and
its Furnishings
PURELY the cheeriest and
most companionable of
rooms in the stately Seventeenth
Century English Mansion is the
Library which owes its digni
fied yet careful Mahogany fur
nishings to some book-loving
Georgian Squire contemporary
with the Spectator's Sir Roger
dc Coverlcy.
The touch of old world and
bookish sentiment so grateful
in the Library of today may be
supplied by our Hampton
Shops Reproductionsthe
Sheraton Writing Table, for in
stance, with its ample top and
convenient nests of drawers, the
Book Cases with their latticed
fronts, a Lamp-stand perhaps
of Chippendale's designing or
the Capacious Settee and Easy
Chairs whose upholstering up
holds the best traditions of
English craftsmanship.
A Memorable Ten Days
TIIURSDAV, July 23. Austria setula ultimatum to Sorvlti, to bo answered.
by 0 o'clock Saturday cvonlnc, lcmnnIlnR that Servla punish aexom.
plioos to tho murder of Archduko Francis Ferdinand and his wits,
repress pan-Serb propaganda mid publish official denunciation of nntl.
Austrian agitation nnd that Austrian offlevrrt bo permitted f0 try
Servian offenders on Survliiu noil.
FRIDAY Ilussln makes representations to Austria in Servla' favor
nuking for an extension of time to answer ultimatum.
SATURDAY Servla nnswers ultimatum ten minutes Inside of stipulated
time, yielding all points but investigation of Servians by Austria.
Answer unsatisfactory and Austrian Minister and staff leave Itel-
grade.
SUNDAY Servian Minister dismissed from Vienna.
Europe aeeka means of mediation.
Sen-Ian nrmy molrillzed; Aiistrlans hurried to Servian borders.
Itussla sends warning to (ierniany.
MONDAY Austria gives reasons for rejecting Servin's answer and preivires
to cross tho Savo nnd DanulM?.
Sir Edwiird Grey prooses conference In Ixindon to mediate between
Austria nnd Itussla.
Ilourses close nt Vienna, Hrussels nnd Iludapest! heavy runs on
Oorrunn banks.
Kulmr returns to Berlin and callH conference of Ministers.
Greek Minister nays his country will aid Sen-la with 100,000 men.
Entire Servian nrmy mobilized.
TUESDAY Austria formally declares war on Senia, seizes Sen-Ian boats
nnd blockades Montenegrin ports.
Sir Bdwnrd Grey's peace plans fall.
Itussla threatens Austria unel masses troops on eastern border.
Imdon, Tarls and Berlin markets show severe declines; SIO.CO.OOO
in gold shipped to Kurope from New York; wheat advances sharply,
cniudng wilel excitement in Chicago and St. Louis exchanges, nnd prices
decline In New York stock markets.
WEDNESDAY Belgrade bombanled by gunbewts nnd occupied by Ans.
trians.
Germany wnnis Itussla to stop mobilization.
France reporteel ready to advanco by way of Belgium.
German troops sent to Itusslan frontier.
Americans in Kurope In struggle to get accommodations home.
International peace conference set for August IB to 20 In Vienna,
aliandoncd.
Stocks on European bourses weak ; Paris Bourse only formally opens
Kngllsh bankers withdraw cash from Vienna banks; big dump tn
Chicago wheat market.
TinjRSDAY Kaiser calls on Russia to stop mobilization -within twenty,
four hours.
Portsmouth nnd Dover harbors closed.
Austria hurls 500,000 (soldiers in four divisions into Servla; en
gagements nt Scmendria on tho Danube nnd Foca in Bosnia.
Prices on New York Stock Exchange drop to lowest levels sine
panic of 1007, total of 1,300,500 shares changing hands; more gold
engaged for transport to Europe, In nil 510,000,000 In flvo days; war
insurance Honrs; foreign exchange advances.
Bulgaria issued declaration of neutrality.
FRIDAY Martial law declared In Germany.
British licet leaves Plymouth; German squadron stop merchant
esscl In Danish waters.
Austrlans and Senians claflh on Danubo and on Bosnian frontier.
Secretnry McAdoo announces that the Government is ready to issue
$300,000,000 of emergency currency.
New York Stock Exchango closes its doors, first time since 1878;
Consolidated Exchange follows; Cotton Exchange did not open; trading
stopped on tho curb.
SATURDAY Germany declares war on Itussla.
Italy refuses to side with Germany nnd Austria, declaring that her
alliance was only defensive.
German Minister recalled from St. Petersburg.
Germany mobilizing all her forces.
France orders general mobilization to start to-morrow.
Great Britain announces that she will decide to-morrow If she will
support France.
Bank of England discount rate reaches 10 per cent., highest point
lu history of institution.
Secretary of Treasury calls conference of Clearing IIouso associations
and prepares to Issue emergency currency.
Transatlantic service between New York and Continental Europe
suspended.
'Martial law declared In St.
of Ch hnendnleV, &f,i .. . V I 1W, BH' I
Petersburg nnd suburbs.
l"f'l'J"A-rfV'' ViMsfi' 'lit

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