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THE SUN, SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 15, 1914.
NEW THE TRAIL OF BIG INESS' JAPAN ON Cotton spinning in the II; .tooI'lMI I. i . ri.AKKi:. k k'-JMli:lii; .h a new Japan, tho I Japan f industry and com X m ree, pushing for success In m.inuf.i. luring and marketing at llrat hand abroad." This sentence was ih.it of llaron Taka-aklra Kato, For eign Minister of Japan, In the course of a long talk In his largo parlor .it the I'.. reign i lillee In Toklo. He Is of imposing personality, speaks English perfectly, and Is one of the most dis tinguished of Japanese diplomats. He was Foreign Minister as far back as 1SSS and has been Minister to Kngland, Member of Parliament and twice again Foreign MlnlMer before taking up the Fore.gn Portfolio under Count Okuma. tlie present I 'rime Minister. The Itar. n had been discussing Japa nese relations with the United States, and making those renewed assurances of good will to our country which are the basic note in all such conversations. He had regretted that thero was any troublesome question between us and trusted that a way would bo found that America would tlnd a way t.. treat Japanese subjects in all things on the level which her treaties called for. and to which in tilt- wale of nations and the pitch of civilization they were surely entitled. He hail said that self-interest in Japan called for the olden friendship with the United States, becaufro In Its mhnnce it needed that line friendship more lhau ev. r. What advanc ?" I had asked. ' There is a n- w Japan, the Japan of industry and omnuivo, pushing for success In inauufai t urlng and market ing at llrst hand abroad." he answered. In .alier words In- mid: Japan Is go ing .ii for Dig llusliiiss and needs peace and nmlty to work out her destiny. And it Is this sense of n new economic departure that 1 found among the most outstanding things in Japan. .She has been arming herself in schools at home and alii, ad with the weapons of burn ing, sliv has been studying Western business technique at the busiest of the great cities, New York, Paris, London, Hamburg, lierlln, Vienna, Uareilona. You will tltul graduates of them all to day In Tokio hanks nnd IiiisIiiush houses. Alongside this she has had an army of students and workers learning tho minor and higher secrets of manufac ture on a large scale In Iron and steel, cotton, wool, N.Ik, pottery, tobacco, ut tho best seats of those industries all over the working world. Sho has set up mills, furnaces and factories of all kinds. .Sho Is building large steel ships, largo engines and dynamos; In fact It Is hard to recount tho variety of big things In dustrial that she Is at Work upon, either In full operation or vigorously attempt ing. Her main market, too, for these manu factured products Is close at hand, namely China, India and to an extent, Siberia a continent almost In them se.ves, For these new and large en terprises she has lacked sulllclng (apltal, and where else should sho look for i( than In the country that paid her so many millions yearly for her raw silk, her rice, her green tea'.' And In these latter we have seen how strenu ously she Is trying to eu'.nrgi her out put and better her qualities. Here Is ambition, clear and Intelligible In Its direction and Intensity. One remembers how recent Is all this as tho lives of nations go. It seems dllllci.ii to realize that up to sixty years back she was a self-diclared hermit na tion, A self-contained unit, practically w.thout dealings In the outside world, what foreign commerce she had mis carried in foreign iHittnm and laid down ai her doors. She was served, as It were, by great International pedlers who spread out their packs at Yoko hama and KoIh, Now she Is for mak ing her own goods, raising or buying Jier raw materials and. pack on back, entering tho race for :rade. She has been through the great gru ell'mg of foreign wars. Sho Is going to t iko big business for her own. One may Ik- a bit sceptical ns to her com plete mastery of all the moves on tho business chess- board: sho confesses when pushed Hint sho does not quite know It all, but, as Horace Greeley used to say of the resumption of specie pay ments after tho civil war, "the way to resume Is to resume," and she Is strik ing out boldly. If her baggage Is too II' ht to furnish her wlih all tho raiment necessity she can get what she needs en route. olden way in Japan Since my 'alk with llaron Kato the lllg War has come upon the world. It was not in Japan's purview nor any body's outside posflbly the German Kaiser's; but her being drawn Into It Is unwelcome to her statesmen, although the extent to which It Involves her bo Ilml'.ed nnd the opportunity Ix-yond be a great one. Her operations at Klno chow should not strain her greatly, and their result will help her In greater measure by giving her a chance nt tak ing some of the growing German trade In China to herself. Parenthetically 1 may say that .some will smllo at my statement 'hat Japan had no foreshadowing of the lllg War. I find In my diary a rather long memo randum of n talk I had last May with Count Okunia, the Grand Old Man of Japan, nt his spacious home In Toklo. Wo were discussing tho contrast of riches and poverty In various countries. Ho was fearing that Japan's happy con dition would bo sadly mod'tli-d In the great race for Industrial wealth. "Atop of that," said he, "wo havo to maintain a large army and navy to proiect ourseles bei-.iuse stronger nnd richer nations of Kuropo anil America aro now increasing their armaments In sp.:e of peace movements and humanl tarlanism. I do not know why, but Germany has decided to Increaso Its al ready enormous army, and Russia has aln recently decided to make provisions for bringing 6,000,000 men to the front in time of war. What Is your idea In the United States of Increasing your navy when you aro so rich and strong already? If It Is u burden on your rich people It is ten times worse for a people like Japan. IIoweer. I th.nk tho tlmo Is fast approaching when tho civilized nations will stop this absurd competi tion." Well, thero was on answer to the count's conundrum fast approaching, which was anything but n peaceful one. The count, however, had unwittingly laid his linger on the point near the lthlne where the war initiative would lie. To proceed. In my travels I had more than n peep at what Japan Is doing In the way of promoting ltig Huslncss In n land of the smallest retail imnglnable. A visit to the Imperial Government steel works at Wakamatsu, on the coast somn eight miles from MoJI In Kylushu, was Illuminated. Hero was a great plant re calling tho giant steel and Iron plants of the old world, built up In the space of some thirty years from nothing. It Is 'always well to remember that posi tive absence of big works at so recent a date. Its advance during Its existence has been gradual To-day the works cover 350 acres and employ 9,000 workmen. The town of Yawnta, of 4.".,000 Inhabitants, lives upon It. To connect Its various shops, mills and docks, It has fifty-eight miles of narrow guuge railroad. The works aro exteriorly Imposing, and they con duct all tho processes of Iron and steel maklm from the ore to tho finished pro duct, making their own coke 7.10 tons a week from their own coal, saving and working over tho tnr, gas, naphtha' line and ammonia sulphate; making besides their own electricity from their own dynamos. The sing from their Iron ore they make Into bricks and architectural forms. They could build you n house or a factory of steel frame and slag bricks nnd forms without going outside their boundaries. The structures include blast furnaces, open hearth, Ilcssemer nnd crucible steel furnaces, rolling mills, rail mills, bnr mills, plate mills, sheet mill, galvanized sheet mill, wire rod and wlro drawing mills, forging plant, foundries, pattern shops, electric Kiwer, lighting nnd so on, They drew a charge from a blast furnace for our benefit, tho molten Iron running Into huge buckets to le drawn away by locomotives us soon as filled. Then n steel charge was drawn else where running Into Ingots. Wo tramped through rolling mills, plate mills, wire mills, all well ( quipped, all, manned by Japnneso all working nt sjieed. It Is surely a busy 350 acres. The most picturesque thing wo saw was the brickmaklng. Here the machlno work was limited to tho pug mill and grinding and mixing of the slag. Tho rest was hand lalwr done mostly by women. Tho rntlo of factory female labor to mule throughout Japan is CI to 35 per cent two to one. Hero were 300 girls mm at work. They stood In a brn k lined trench making the gray bricks ) hand. It called for muscular power, but the girls a good looking lot work" d with vim and without perceptible strain. They filled the wooden moulds, tainped them, smoothed top and bottom, took the wet bricks on their Hat wooden knives nnd laid them on boards behind them, as If they were sugar coated cakes. Fach girl makes 350 br.cks dally. Youths carry away tho bricks to dry. It was somehow a cheering sight. The women belonged to the workmen's families, Tho yearly output of steel and iron product Is considerable -somo U0.U00 tons of ilg Iron but the Institution has only lately come to working profitably. Skilled labor has been hard to obtain, but tho natives learn quickly. The nov elty of it may bo guessed from the fact that only Oovernment backing could have crtattd the Industry. There It Is, however, elllclent, growing nnd to grow. On u different basis, and promising really great results, Is the Hnkaldo Steel Works at Muroran, In which tho grent Fngllsh firm of Armstrong & Vlckers havo taken half the capital of yen 15, 000,000, tho Mitsui family of Japan tak ing tho other half. There big guns nnd arms aro maniifncturtd with n great variety of other steel products. Tho Iron ami from which the manu facture Is largely conducted und the coal are both found on the Island. The gcnernl lack of Iron oro In Japan Is a grout drawback, but It Is obtainable from China, tho Imperial Wakamatsu Steel Works having a leaso of the famous Talya (magnetite Iron) mines In China. Iron sand and iron pyrites nlMiind, nnd with a certain ndmlxturo of Iron ore the Iron sand Is workable. On a still firmer foundation Is the Kawasaki Dock Yard Company nt Kobe, which has been a private enterprise from tho beginning nnd now after forty years of existence Is building types of tho 'largest warships and merchantmen afloat In Japanese wulers, paying divi dends of 8 per cent, for tho last flvo years and 6 per cent, on Its debentures. It Is not tho largest shipbuilding Inter est In Japan the Mitsubishi at Naga saki being perhaps somewhat larger, but It Is tho ono I happened to visit, and that, I take It, Is a good excuse for pardcularlzlng about H a bit I(s works cover 100 acres. It has ex isted under Its present organization since 1806, nnd Is n monument to (ho uhlllty of Its manager, .Mr. K, Matsu kato, as much as to anything else, and Is remnrknble not only for Its steel ships but for Its locomotlvo works, bridge and girder work as well Heal progressive. rvoH Is tho history of a few leading men 111, Japan as In America, Our steel ln dustry is surely such: Carnegie, Frlck, Schwab, Gary nnd a few others mado It, as John D. Ttockefeller, his brother Wlll lum and his associates, John D. Arch bold, H, M. Flagler nnd II. II. Ilogers, made the petroleum business. Mr. Mntsakata In the third son of the marquis of thnt name, nnd ho com mands his army of 11,800 workmen with n skill, good naturo nnd cnpaclty for work that none of his Samurai ances tors could surpass In their narrower j field of war. Ho looks all that he Is, I an Intellectual, open minded, able bodlnl w . c :m kiw M' Jiyi awr 3 worker of middle age. Educated as a lawyer, he came to tho dockyard twenty-two years ngo, and most of tho tlmo slnco ho has been nt tho head of tho concern, having mastered nil tho details nnd studied nil tho developments of tho business. It was really a pleasuro to have his company on our tour of tho great shops with their scores of grent over head cranes of from two to 125 tons lifting cnpaclty, their lino up to dato tools whereby high tension or nickel plates 6 feet Irroad nnd 2 Inches thick can bo sheared with one stroke, steel plates 38 feet long nnd 2 Inches thick can bo planed nt a stroke, or the same pinto can bo bent. And so of plate punching, straightening. So In boring, turnlni;, riveting, flanging, drilling nnd what not. It has five shipbuilding stocks to lay keels for vessels up to 35,000 tons, floating cranes up to 200 tons capnclty, and nil tho accompaniments, electrical and other, of a great modern shipyard. Up to a few years ago It gt no farther than gunboats und smaller mer chantmen, but of Into It has gone fur ther. It has launched the Hurano, a battle cruiser of 27,000 toiiR, has on the stocks n superdreadnonght of 30,000 tons and pnssenger nnd cargo steamers up to 12,000 tons. . Wo passed through somo of the shops during the men's dinner hour, nnd It was a reminder of homo to see the Japanese equivalent of (he dinner rnn In the same lively action with work AConini unity of Interests With the Brains and Capita of the Industrials of the United States Highly Desired A Bridge to International Friendship stimulated nppcllt . The manager takes ii lively Interest In his men. The company Iiiih n free night school at tended by 1,500 of tlie men. They raise nt once tlie wages of young men who pass examination In thu technics of the business. They keep a fureo of young men studying nbroail a good thing, for the works an well as (ho students de pend upon l(. Tluy pay a bonUH prnc (Ically on (ho prollt sharing plan (o (heir olllco force and chief employees. Here was a specimen of Yankee energy In an Oren(al skin. Ah (ho railroads of Japan aro nation alized that in, owned and run by the novernment (hey are outsldu (he scope or (his article. The mercantile marine Is, however, In private, hands, receiv ing, In Km foreign-going bottom?, substantial governmcntnl subsidy. The. sh pplng Interest of Japan Is naturally a very large one, tho tonnage for the most part being In small sailing and steam craft that run Into the huntheds of thousands carrying on the tlshtng ami short ' transportation on the coasts and between tho hundreds of islands making up the empire. In the larger trade, however, four concerns stand ou': The Nippon Yuen Kalshn, of which In the Kamgafuchi cotton mill, Kobe. Above Mr. Buyei Nakano, President Chamber of Commerce, Tokio. Baron It. Kondo 1s the president, stands at tho head with eighty large steamers and somo 50,000 miles of service In coasting und foreign trade, having Im portant runs on tho Ruropenn, Ameri can, Ynngtsc-klang, Uomlay, Austra lian and South American routes. It bus paid 10 per cent, dividends for years past. Tho Osaka Shosen Kalsha, of which T. Naknbash! Is president, has over 100 steamers, mostly of moderate ton nage. It operates mostly In Asiatic homo waters between Jupaneso ports nnd to Chinese, Formosan and Coronn ports, with a service to Taconia via Shanghai and Yokohoma. It 1s paying 8 per cent, dividends. The Tayo Klsen Kalsha, of which S. Asano Is president, Is younger than the other two concerns named. It has run slnco 1S9G a splendid fortnightly service between San Francisco nnd Yokohama via Honolulu, with calls at other Japanese nnd Chinese ports to Manila with sienmers of 22,000 tons. I sailed to the Orient nnd returned on dlf ferent steamers of this line, nut can testify to the comfort and courtesy I experienced. Tho four lurgo steamers on this route nro tho favorites for the valuable raw silk cargoes which nre the apple of the eye of Japan's Industries. Their cJilef officers aro Amerlcnn, but one gets a pleasant foretaste of Orlentnl life In their Japanese crews nnd Chi nese ''boys,'! Tho company has a South American service also. A fourth hut In n way subsidiary or- ganlzatlon Is the Japan-Ohlii.i Steam ship Company, in which the Yusen and Ofaka Shosen, w th 'two other Jupaneso companies, hold shares. It has n dozem steamers on the Vangtso Inland rttt'o and pays 1 per cent, dividends. Of tho highest promise Is tho cotton spinning nnd weaving Industry. It Is only In tho last ten years that Japan has taken up tho spinning of finer yarns and weaving of finer fabrics. Itef'iro that time a widespread home Industry and n coarse cloth factory Industry sup plied the homo demand and exported to China. Corea nnd tho South Sens, liner cloths being nil Imported. Now, however, thirty nnd more large cotton mills nre making better, nnd more uniform grades, operating 2,000,000 spindles and using about 1,000,000 bales of cotton. The Industry Is immensely profitable, earn ings up to 3u per cent, being constantly reported. Cheap nnd abundant femalo .abor nc cotints for miuh of tints. 1 paid n islt to the Kobe mills of the Kuncgnfuclii Spinning Company. It Is a spacious place -with many mills for spinning cot ton yarns tint threads nnd weaving va rieties tif cotton cloth. It emplos B.SftO operatives, nnd the company, In cluding Its Toklo mills, has a total of 22,500 workers. Tho mills were a 1 scrupulously e'ean and n line sanitary and ventilating system Is In force. The machinery Is quite modern, and the shops iiiv huge and not crowded. Sys tem pervades everything, and the products, so fur as I examined them, seemed of stundard qualities. The operatives ranged from young gills of 1.1 at lighter tasks nnd shorter hours to young women of 23 or 21. They have rooms In which to change their garments before .filtering thu work.ng part of the mills, No girt seemed to have more spindles to nttend to than she could servo with case, liut the l.i'itrs ore long. In most mll.s work Is prao ieally continuous, a night force and a day force changing ranks at Jnterv.ils. The company has largo airy dormitories and vast spotless refectories. Indeed, thfle seemed no t ml of tho Welfare work, all sorts of leaguis for sltk bene Ills, schools of many kinds, lectures, nurseries, recreation halls, We went down to the beach, n quarter of a mile away, and saw a hundred or so of the minger glr.s splashing to their heart's "Mont In the green sa water, having a lino time. Tho girls, It seems, do n t work in tho factories tor more than three or four years. The pressutc must be pretty great and tho desire for a freer life becomes lrre slst l!e. No matter how we:l guarded they may be. no matter how much enro may be taken of their health nnd their morals, they long to be "back on the fat m." The supply does not, however, seem t fall off. as tho workers generally go home with money saved, and n l.ttlo goes a long vn in rural .hi p in. Pottery Is another Industry with a glowing futute, not the line artistic thlngs that collectors value, and which, despite nil croakers to the contrary, will continue, to bo produced In Japan by n devoted few about as they were dn the past. Tho models of Arnold Hennett's Five Towns will generally bo followed. I visited small fuctories In Osaka, where ono could well Imagine the novelist's stodgy characters at work turning out their stint of product nmld dusty, Ill-kempt, surroundings things for the common market done In a com mon way. At Nagoya, on tho other hand, I went through tho largo Morlmura porcelain factory, where 2,500 hands nro em ployed, who work from 0 A, M. to 6:30 P. M., with time for meals. Perhaps half nre young women. We were shown tho entire process from the puddling of the kaolin through tho shaping and wheelwork nnd the baking, glazing nnd painting. The shops arc Inrge and nlry, nnd thero Is an Ameri can nlr of briskness not usually vlslblo In the crufts work of Japan. A largo part of their business Is of the smaller order of things for the cheaper grades of porce.UIn. Ono order nmused me, namely 1,100 cases of cups and saucers for 700 "ten cent stores" In the United Slates, ICach case con tains 300. So that these enterprising merchants of Uncle Sam account for 420,000 cups, and saucers from Nugoya every year. What n mighty flood of gossip over the ten cent tea cups thls. fact prefigures! They have a large trade with Kngland also In like ware and compete successfully many. Modern Kngllsh shaping in.i ,. used on ii great scale. In Hi. ,. a department 1 saw ono huii.l. n1Hrii youths and girls painting b i ful the firm. Designs nro furnish"' clal artists. These are outlliu i i,4ci iii paper for them and the pa' itl. applied over tho plaque, plati ,(, r viisp, wetted and taken oft le . tin. design outlined on tho object, 'i tr artist then paints on the ii n in colors, sometimes varying it little. Somo of tho plaques wer' e nt. Wo ulso saw tho hollow t n dry plaster moulds. A fluid in uc 0j kuolln and water in poured , t(,9 dry mould, which absorbs t' ater nnd attracts tho kaolin, wh ,.tt,. In a thin flako on (he ni" The water Is poured off, and mom .,1 a put In the oven nnd linked. There Is n largo dining ha r ths workers. Tho Satsuma ware . a.,. other class. It becomes obvious to the . rcr that In all businesses where th. ,t nu terlal Is freely obtainable anil . r, liuitlc and other conditions are f ub Japan mill more and more tend , ;,t ger units of manufacture. It i d lund ed alike by tho energy und ann n ,, Japan. The great advance by (; mMn us wholesale manufacturer und - since 1870 Is pointed to us Ja x emplar. It 4s notable that tho Imp t: . ' tho Asiatic continent as a i . t .... ground for Japan bus grown In i ,. . few years, In 18S2 lCurope st.i i.l :,,. head, with Asia ami America f.. ... In 1S9P It was found that these n I tlons had been reversed, and nw llrst In exports, followed by Ann i . , .1 P.uropc, while In Imports Asia u ,i -. first, but Kuropo preceded Amei i , T'i. Asiatic lend has been strength. I ..f late years In China and Ilrlti-t, . i as well. Another notable thing Is tin- .r ness and push of Japanese i i tu agents In these countries, wh. i. clnsh continually with the rs. Mii.n traders, who have literally .sw.irn I a' over Asia. The hold of Kngland n ' markets Is very strong and inoi ira lively ancient, hence n rather b i . it. indifference to the newcomers .i a few Americans, who have be. ing somewhat Into the old tl -t. I i . exclusively supplied by CJriat r.i n France's share has not varied in ich, her wares are so much her very 'vn. Japan's push for this At-iati. r.idi naturally competes with Am. i .an I'rm.lxprit t .111 cloths 11.1 1 t iclll . ' 1 1 - among the rest, but American uv.-i; can take Its share nnd welcome is .' was explained to me, by comhlmn- a.m the Japanese corporations. Tlie i great advantages in the low wa.. f Asia while they remain low. It -of course to be assumed that nit i n ness of wage in all. etllclelicy cotn '- ' t a great deal. What strikes nv ever, In the matter of investni' that they nre safest when made i who best know the conditions business looking for capital. I that tho people to 'whom the propositions, steel propositions, or machinery propositions slum commend themselves are the r like industries In America. Mnny of these invitations ir tlnctly worth while. In a talk w count Mlshlma, (lovernor of th' of Japan, In my Interview with Okuma, the Premier, nnd In mil llaron Shlbesawa, at once perh richest trader aiid.iiiost otitei pi lsi In Jnpan, with Mr. Hayokawa. (( the Mitsui Hank, I dot-cted namely, that American Investiiv well grounded Japanese enti would work as potent, factory much to Iks desired good tinders' lietween the two countries. Tin upon" tho Idea of community of In from miny viewpoints, but nlw.v tho Idea of consolidating Intern friendship. Not ono of them I out nny special Interest to roeor to my countrymen for Invosluiei Mr. Huynkawii pointed to severa In which satisfaction nnd mutual ' had followed tho Investment of can and Kngllsh brains nnd mini' Japanese concerns. One was the entrance of Arm & Vlckers Into the Muroran stee ''.) . an Mil r.J ,r?t of 1 J- v is- i nit ' ml , -h in uia or s In 0J il.tU li't TS'" svlth m.il itM nJ but l.n'J ietlt 'ins CnnMitiicd o Seventh ffifl'