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THE SUN, SUNDAY, AUGUST 22, 1915.
WILL THE KAISER MEET NAPOLEON'S FATE IN RUSSIA? Possibility That Grand Duke Nicholas Is Fol lowing Old Russian Tactics in Leading On Germans 8 Present Invasion, the First in 103 Years. Has Many Features Similar to Corsican s Debacle Br HF1RHKHT ('IXTOX. FOR the first time In 103 yearn Rub it Is waging a war really within Its own borders. The Crimean war took place upon an outpost, and the Czar's force wero defeated, as they were when his huge urmiee went to the Far Fast In thl century to bat tle with the Japanese on alien terri tory. Now the Hermans through BO" land ore aiming HOW at the hmrt of Russia Moscow, although far dlslunt from the present seat of operations, is their objective, aa It waa In 1812 that of Napoleon, Will they tie able where he failed to , Sain their goal? Or. gaining It, will they And their victory a barren one, with ultimate defeat and a ruinous retreat the se quel? Or digging themselves in after each success, will they by means of theh- splendid organization be able to keep up their supplies from the rear and by repealed victorious advances approach until not only Moscow but Petrograd are theirs and the Czar s army Is brought to its knees? Ia the Russian retreat the sign of a failure of Its army or is It ti.e pre cursor of a coup such as that by which Alexander's tienerala drew NapotSOfl Into a trap and then overwhelmed hint with dBJaster? The Uermans have great advantages over Napoleon. Nearly thirty railways carry troops and supplies to them. The country through which they ad vance. Is the same through which he went, but agriculture has greatly im proved It and manufactures have raised the miserable towns to rich and powerful cities. The Russians are In many respects till a primitive people. Their life in peace or in war still shows traces of their nomadic origin. Adopting modern arms, they yet fight much as did their ancestors. Their strategy may be at fault, but no one duubts the bravery of their overwhelming forces. When they Tetreated before Na poleon In 1812 they left nothing In the territory they evacuated for his troops to live upon; crops were destroyed, applies carried off, towns laid on the ground, and even when he reached Mosrvw It waa only to see that ancient city in Hames. Reports to-day show that something eV the same tactics Is In fashion. While they did not destroy Warsaw, Kovno and other cities which they abandoned to the advancing foe, (hay left no wealth to seise, no advantage which would accrue to the Germans when they came up. What is there up the oapocioul Russian sleeve? The nation, the court, the diplomats and the General Staff rely on Grand Duke Nicholas for the ultimate victory of the Rus sian arms. He has displayed mag nificent generalship with forces bugs but untrained ajid to an extent un disciplined as compared with the enemy. The vast resources of the country and the people appear ani mated with a patriotic unanimity to Win. There has been a year in which to prepare even for defeat on Russian oil. Observers of events cannot be lieve that back of the Vistula Russia la not prepared for any eventuality. The next few months will tell whether or not this belief is well founded. Followers of the news of the day need no recapitulation of the port Rus sia has played in the war of the last twelve months; of the advance Into East Prussia. Into Gallcla, and of the gradual beating bock of Its forces and the loss of the gains they had made, until now the aggressive foe is push ing bapk the former Invaders into their own territory. The war and the territory in which it Is waged sug gest am analogy with the Napoleonic campaign of 1812, the first serious blunder of the French Bmperor, and te one which knit his enemies into a common determination to put an end to his military aggression. It may be well therefore to examine briefly the Russian campaign of Napoleon in its chief features for the purposes of comparison. Napoleon's demands on Russia of an embargo on Kngland having been refused by the Czar, the latter en tered Into an agreement with Greai Britain and determined to appoaa the dictatorship of the French Emperor, The IVillsh question, the annexation of Oldenburg, and the frustration of Russian designs on Turkey, together with the alliance of Austria. Prussia and the other German States on Na poleon's side, showed Alexander that it was up to Russia to fight If French domination was not to be coexistent with the boundaries of all Europe, In May all negotiations for peace gSjued, and Nspoteon, who had ma fl Ills plans of campaign, went to Die 4 den. His forces numbered 600,000. lb had 1,300 cannon, 18,000 horses, an I siege trains had gone on to Riga, Dunehurg, Magdeburg and Danzig The allies had their work cut out. Not only were they to supply men and munitions but were to aid In supply lng food and In transporting It. Oxen drew wagons of flour and rice. Dan zig held provisions for 400,000 (or two months, and at various other points were vast stores of food. The CJLBipalgn was not started until the country through which the army was to pass could supply green (odder (or the horses and oxen. Napoleon arrived nt l'osen nn tin la: duv of May and then pushed on 10 Konlgsbsrg, His army was divided into three groups, he commanding the IVrst. Eugene the second and Jerome tiie thl d. The main body, comprising th-' guard.- , had aa oorpa commanders DkVOUt, Ney. Oudlnot and Mac!, maid lnr udc d ill this w re several Unites of Wi.rtti mbergera, in-iss ar.s and others. Mur.it had two corps of cava'ry re serves. This main body, the flower f thi army, totalled 150,000 men. Eugenes force Included French cavalry, Italian and Bavarian reserves. in all 10,000 troops, Jerome com manded Poles, Begone, W est phai ions at.o a body of cavalry. In all It was a4'i,ut oo.ua to Eugene's, The con scription, I y Which large part of this huge f res had fs-en obtained, cauaed great dissatisfaction, and many of the sold.ers were tOta ' untrained in war. Napoleon's forces were stretched over a I ne from Killing and KooIgS N rg along the liver to Nov ., Alexan dria, and down in Oallclg Bchwarsen- herg stood ready with an Austrian army. Oppoaad to this hu,e invading force the Russians under De Tolly. 110.000 Strong, were north of Vil nu, and under Bggratlon, till, 000, south of the Prlpet while back in Volhynla Turnisaaoff Hm tsaembllng a tMrd division. Bkgratlon left 10,000 of his men with the latter to opp M the Austrians, who Intended to wage war Independently of Napoleon, The Russian campaign drawn up by Gen. Phull was to fall hack to the Drissa Intrencbmenta and there give battle, I second army mean while attack r.g In the (tank and the rear. H,.j wen- held that troops In Finland and Wnl nlao be brought into mi yet read: lachia might act on. Nap i on, not knowing h.s numerical advantage, planned to march by Kovno on Vllna with hla own command, Mao dona'.d with the left wing meanwhile crossing the Nlemen at Tilsit with his Prussians, working north to separate De Tolly and Bagmtlon, The other two armies were to follow and com pl. te thll breach, after which the two Russian forces were to be defeated sc irat, ly, The hugone of tin- French army spoiled this plan, f..r De Tolly, unable to g,ve battle. f,-: book, as did Uagra tion, and till Joim retreat across the w. si, untry frustrated Napoleon's dtsign, Whl'.a at the same tlm:- It led his pursuing army further and further Into new territory, when the Em peror's supply trains could 001 follow, Toward the last of June Napoleon orosaed the Nlemen, but found practi cally no snems In front of h m. He proceeded to v Una, but was greatly disappointed at the lack of enthusiasm w.th which Us was received. The Russians had evaluated the town gome 'lavs before, having noth ing Worth While (or tle French to take and no chance for a battle. The advance i id I n mad in wretched condition over muddy roads and In ruin. The Whole Country had been stripped bare by the retreating enemy, the French supplies were days behind the army, and tl ere waa neither food and fodder nor shelter, More than 10,000 horaea had already du d. loo onnnon had to ha lert In the mud. and word came thai the ships bearing (lour and other provisions were aground In the Baltic. As they r, treat -d the Russians burned mills, grain and stores of nil sons. The fields were d vaatated una the country was as bare as u bono. The Branch army was in such straits that not a fow died ,,r starvation, many of sickness and s ma o( suicide. And all this is (ores battle had been fought win i definite campaign plans and with n miuh Inferior force than that of u (OS the Russian army nevertheless continued to svold eon lot, partly by strategy and partly by luck, l' Tolly retri tiled in Prlssa, scraping the u untry as he went of all on which the Preuoh could sub sbt. Hagratton could not join him becaus. Davout'a forces atOOd In hla Way wivlung to attack ihe sicond Rus Hlun anny retreating before Jerome. sereduesd from e carbon Marshal Ney sustaining the rear guard of Napoleon's Grand Army in the retreat m r s s w mxxAxi w -se ar ear n m j aaa jl Map of part of Bagratlon struck south and eluded Jerome, greatly to the annoyanc ef Napoleon, who gave the command to Davout. nudiiiot, Ney and Murat were : pushed on toward Drlssa In July to attack De Tolly m front, while Na- j GIRL SEES Working in Dental Sur gery Operating Room of American Institu tion, She Writes of Worst Cases AN American girl engaged as a nurse in the American Hospital at Neuilly-sur-Setne, Paris, has written to her mother, a New York woman, the following description of her work : "You will be surprised to see me here, but hardly more than I am my self! Miss H sent for me In u great hurry to ask If I would take her work, as she has been nt It for ten mouths and wants to go to America for a rest of a few months. "1 am not doing any nursing, but am here In the dental surgery operat ing room, where I keep the lists thousands of lists of everything and have the photographs and X-rnys taken, and really do no end of odd things, and happily am quite my own mistress with no nurse over me, only the doctors. "If I could only send you a few of the photographs of men who have had their whole facus blown off and some who have come in without the slightest sign of a chin and who have only slight scars to show that they have had new faces and new chins grown on them. All of this wonderful surgery is the result of the trench lighting there have never been such hideous nor so many face wounds SS there are In this war. wtien as soon as a man sticks his head above the trenches he gets It blown off, or almost blown off. From a painting by Adotphe Yoon in the Museum at Versailles. Russia; dotted lines showing poleon. a part of Davout'a force and Kugene s troops smashed him on the flank, but again plans went wrong, I for Bagrution, not being able to come up. De Tolly moved further back. The ' French were suffering as If they had j been In battle. The heat and dust WAR HORRORS IN "My hours here are rather long, from 8:30 to 5:10, which means that I leave home at T if and don't get back until :1S, as the hospital Is at the other end of the world from ..ny where. But I have the consolation of knowing that I am being very Useful, and when I see the women who come from hospitals where they are their own orderllee and scrubwomen and everything I don't even dare re member that I am tired. "If this war seemed the most im SWITZERLAND TDK following excerpts from a letter received recently by a citizen of Mew Jersey tells something of the attitude of the Swiss toward the great war tfhu Is raging on all sides of them: "To maintain neutrality Imposes op pressive burdens on this otherwise thrifty republic. The sacrifices ore eontlnuoua and augmenting at terrlflo rate, "Wedged In between the fighting nations, our frontiers must bo guarded or another chapter written on 'mili tary neceaalty.' Nearly 600,000 men had to be taken from their dally and uniformly useful occupation. This means an additional expenee of, say, one-holf a milliard a year, besides the economic loss In withdrawal from pro ductiveness, Its largest factor. The load has to be carried by a popula tion frugal and by habit Induatrloua, numerically lnftnlteatmal In compari son to the mighty States waging war all round ua. "Taxes had to ba Increased enor mously; vaat auma borrowed; yielding to us no direct benefit; In no manner advancing our development. The beat cultivation of our soli falls ehort of our requirements In foodstuffs. Their price is up, on the average. B0 per cent. Dame Nature generously oom penaated ua with sceneries. In variety and grandeur unrivalled. Lakes with vineyards, bathing aing the shore: or Napoleon's advance to Moscow weie terrific, and lack of fxxl and I water cauaed them to fall by hun- dreds In exhaustion. Dysentery killed j whole regiments. Horses dronned dead I hv the aenre. The Russians croeaed the Dwina, the Idea being that BagTatlon would portant thing in the world before now, here among theae wounded soldiers It simply seems the whole of Ufe. There Isn't anything else. "Really your talk about a German victory Is the maddest thing I ever heard of! Don't you knosv anything about what la going on In France? Never since the beginning of the war have thlnga been going so well in the north. A great many of my refugees have eveti gone back to their homea and every day we gain a little around COMPLAINS osk and pine on gtlent guard; or bab Ming brook, or raging torrent bringing messages from far off heights, from rock strewn chasms and from glitter ing glaciers They matured harveeta that were aupposed rjever to fall. They attracted visitors, every year more and more. Hundreds of mllllnna of franca, well and honeatly earned, were thus dispersed. Our chief In dustry, th guests at hotel and pen eion, with travel, sightseeing, health resorts, real and wholesome recrratton for the overbusy, tired out, careworn of the earth and who Is free from work and worry?--our chief industry, to cater to and comfort them, was no mere experiment with us. but a study, and rested on a scientific busts. "Last year waa bad. the present sea son Is worse. We bear It with forti tude, but cannot help occasional, even aome continual, grumbling. Our one wish remains paramount, to be able to remain neutral, not to be drawn Into the maelstrom of malicious conten tions. One or the other 'cultured na tion' may aland committed to the Idea that war Is a concomitant of higher development moat emphatically we do not agree to It. We do not share, we do not hold that conviction. We prefer to grovel along at a ateady, utilitarian, humane and humanising galt-we prefer sober olvil.satlon to piracy, to highway robbery, to sav agery, to the 'noble art of killing.' " print by Mslten Ad Brsun Oflj . nrun from Moscow. and his retreat. jobn them at Vitebsk Mtirat on July 3S forced a fight and drove them back on that place. Meanwhile Bagratlon. flndlnir bai our hlrl re:,. I M,lllr sfor him t,.,,i.. i.,,, v, ,a ,.. treat south. All hope I f aid from I him being gone. De Tolly, too out- HOSPITAL Trench Fighting Has Produced Most Hide ous Face Wounds, but Science Does Wonders for Victims Arras and Votre Dame de I..rette. Of course the English and the Rus slana haven't uny munitions, but the French have plenty and they are good too and they are makhig more for the winter campaign. "The French are wonderful the way they never complain of the Eng lish you know they are only holding alxty-llve kilometers out of the 400 kilometers of front, and they are do ing tbat with the assistance of the Belgians, who aren't very g.ssl sol dier either. Here the Americans that I see are simply disgusted with the English. The other day I heard a doctor who has been working in Bel gium say that this Is the end of Eng land, ttivt aa far as her prwtlge is concerned 1 think it Is. Fr-r chat mat ter 1 think It Is Just what would hap pen with us under the same circum stances. "There Is a great deal I might write about here In the hospital, only I am too tired to do anything hut Mleep whem I get h. me, and here I never have a minute to myself this letter even has been written with about twenty-five Interruptions. "There la a man I talked with yes terday who came here half dead ivnd every member of his body wounded. He broke his leg at Arras and waa taken to tb.e hospital there. At S o'clock the morning after the Oer nsins srot th ranire of t h i ,,,.,, i and began firing on It three nuraes in ma wara were killed and every one of the soldiers. "At 9 o'clock at nlgtit when there wasn't a atone left atanding in the building they stopped the fire and an hour or ao later soma nn him out of the rulma. He la lust like a frightened animal and hardly darea look at you even ottt of the oue eye that Is left him." , Co. ucottsore. New York and Parle numbered for battle, retreated In a heavy mist. The failure of Napoleon to attack with full force before the coup was accomplished h.ts never been satisfactorily explained. Now one-third of hla army was destroyed and no real battle had been fought. Depleted by 130,000 men, his force was far Into a hostile and barren terri tory, without supplies and suffering from hunger and disease. The main body and the wings wero far apart. Determined to secure a battle Na poleon planned to advance on Smo lensk and then Mosixiw. He brought Davout'a army In and With 300,000 he passed the Dnieper August 10. and four days later crossed the old Rus sian frontiers at Knunoi. The united Russian armies, under great pressure at Vono, now hail to give battle and hurried to Smob-nsk August 1 the French attack on the town failed, and while Napoleon waited for more troops 'the Russians strengthened their pools tlon and prepared to block the way to Motvow. Half the town was de stroyed by the Fr.nch fire, and al j though the Russians retreated the on I gagement was a barren Victory for the French. Titen, ne before, Napoleon's judg I ment went wrong. He was ncoumer Ing a wholly new mode of warfare, (something not In hjs plan of campaign, j He became rattled, apparently, and dis regarding the advice and requests of his Generals he negh cu d at Ieat two ft rut class opportunities by which he might have crushed one or hth of the Russian OensralS, These lat ter, with their vastly Inferior forces, were showing consummate tactics to inflict lossra on the French, which, however, were ns nothing compared with than which the elements), dWease and lack of provisions were accom plishing The privations were alinoet unbelievable, and th re Is no doubt that the reports of hts staff did much to contribute to his Indecision at this time. The only plan which presented itself to him was to attack the Russian left wing and centre, turning the front south Inmead of west, and drive it to tlv Mosko He put it to the test, and Ney, Davout. Eugene. Murat and JuttOt attacked successively. The fight waa a desperate one. Ixith armies display ing the greatest valor. Bock and forth victory swung, the Russians gradually retreating, and this only after they had lost 44.000 In olwtinat ly holding their ground all night. At that, they claimed the battle as theirs, and It was so re garded by the Government, The French loss was 70.000. It has been said that at Borodino Napoleon gained not a battle but only a batlftld. But ho phrased on now along the road to the City of his desire The day he came in Sight Of Mi-scow the Russian army evacuated it. When tho French entered the town It w:m discovered to be on fire. All provisions were destroyed and only one quarter of the city was untouched by the flames. The army tried to subsist by foraging on the country, hut this did not suffice to feed the troops. Three thousand foragkig troops were cap tured in one Instance. Osrrlsnng left by Napoleon were surprised and killed and roads held by the French were lost to them. But worse threatened, for Kutusoff, who led the Russian retreat from Moscow, assembled no less than 10,000 Infantry, 800 guns and 20,000 Cossacks south of the city, while another force of 40.000. under Witt genstein, was heard from on the Dwina and 4.000 were moving on Schwarzenberg's AUStro-goxon army, h) this situation Napoleon tried to treat with the Caar, but the latter Ignored him His position was further made precurlous by the approach of winter, news of gathering trouble m Prussia, and the return to the 1'jMir of 20,000 Russian troops which had been helping Bernadotte In Sweden. At the Csar'a elbow was Stein, one of the shrewdest statesmen in Europe whom Napoleon had driven out of wu now out of the qu. tlon; retreat tho only thing posslbkl ThlB was accepted and tho withdrawal began October 19, 108,000 men march ing on the famoua retreat. Napoleon In the lead, the Orand Army stara west, while Kutusoff BlntUltanSOusl) sprang to block his way. If nature hindered the advance cm Moscow, ah" did more to obstruct the retreat. All that the French suffered In the first Instance was multiplied tenfo d now. Rains and bod roads made progress slower than before. At Morojairoelavetz the vanguaM of the French gained a partial victory over the enemy, but at a loss of 6,000 Turning north, to avoid the main body of Kutusoff h army, Napoleon made off In the direction of Moehaisk In full retreat. His Idea was to reach Smolensk, where he expected rein forcements from Marshal Victor, and also provisions for his army. Between the two rivers the army was to winter and rest. By November the suffering became almost unbearable. The pro visions brought were exhausted, fuel was scarce and death by freezing common. All this time Kutusoff had been harrying the retreating French, By forced marches over a shorter route he was at Vlasma and cut off the rear guard, killing 4.000 and capturing 3,000. With more determination he might have smashed the entire army The French, now thoroughly demoral ised, broke Into rout. All discipline was cast to the winds. With the co'.d at 10 degrees below rem and in a blinding snowstorm It became each one for himself. Exhausted, they sank to freeze to death. Around One tamp fire, Fournier says, 300 were found frozen. On the rear and on tho flanks pressed the Cossacks, killing wherever they couid. The Russians did not sio;. to take prisoners. They went on, leav ing winter to attend to the fugitive! who had offered to surrender. When the French arrived at th place where that winter was to hsvi been spent Napoleon learned th it Vic tor and Saint t'yr had both been de feated by the Russians under W tt stein, and that he could not h pe f . aid from that quarter. Worse, lars force had advanced on Minsk fr m south. He therefore ordered the with drawal from Smolensk, the t-.n be ing blown up at his command With regard for thousands ot - si k and wounded there. Straggler behind were set upon by the enragi peasants and slaughter- d The sr. of Russia was reddened by pome of ' best blood of the Fre.-.ch and the: allies. Everywhere lay the unburled deSd, and ils the reireatinir army pnsm battlefield of Borodino the virtii bodies still remained stark an.: t trf monuments of the fiasco of Na campaign. Mors than onct the four of Xr caused the Russians to lope th , t ,- vi anninnaiing a i- renen arm . although they outnumbered , French on one occasion three to I In such straits Ney was left -I and after a battle lost 2,100 nut of his I 3,000 men. The retreating arm- d reetly under Napoleon now n imh r hut 25.000 and some of th'-e cost ,: i I their muskets. There was little j tmpt to carry away the sri most of it had already been shun At Oroha the fugitives totalled ' 11,000, There they obtained I me ' . and got a rest. There Napoleon h-nr-l thai T ' chagoff. with the force from Mlr.a had marched so rapidly thai lie I 1 reached the Berealns River, '.. : ! French had expected to cross and I Wittgenstein had defestfd both not ar.it victor, Pursued by K and harried on the flanks by W tgei stein and Tchltchagoff, th,. im position was most precarlou s poison ordered Oudlnot, with men. to ho! I off Tch.t. hsg IT itu t ink,- the Berestna bridge and V I tor i repel Wittgenstein "t t;-.,- river T word cnnie that th,- Russ mi tu burned the i ridge, only the mlllturv Maim .t I French generals egtrlcsted I armies from the situation Thi tlCUlOUS Russian c mman km ; Into the foe's hands n had mnrcnen far enough through ' II ' the rnrsican fox. Commanding . .situation where they could have ! strayed the entire Fren h arm) if probably captured Napoleon . enoh commander delayed, hut an. i nnaiiy was outwitted, era ed and beaten by the 1-rench f..r. ... By I c. Ived Teh tohoa-off ruse i aid n ' and bulll bridgsa almost und er the Rusk oos,-. arr.s tnese men marched. The son and his force a force of '. next day N followed Tl ti nes one bridge fell, drowr I uresis, but at last F.ug.-ne s :, VOUt'S men passed over, ea I 000 under Victor to co,-r the ret I With thi- rssnforoementi wh i Joined Napoleon ho now had ' 30,000 and 16,000 men. with more unarmed stragglers. suddenly Confronted and ittgensteln with u much lai - the French roar aiard ha ml en by the Russians, and I guff, Joining forces with Wlttgei attacked Victor's 7,000 mi n i Side of tho river and snot hi if of 10,000 on the other side, In ti-.e disparity of numbers the t won out, defeating the i: a Signally In one instance and I " SOT OSS the r.v.-r in the othi I sands of Stragglers perished ridge and tn th- river In Ihe following the Kittle, and n 5.000 were m ule prleom re. ' says that 24,ooo bodies f' ' : drowned were found on the I . eneM In the river, on its bank' ' '" peasants' cottages N.ileon and the fi-num-army esciiss. but their Cond. 1 " t be lowest, i nly 0, I m It ,K' the Emperor, and those 1 wh typhus, half rlothod m ' shoeless, gni.nt and d sp, dropping in i to- snow under It s co'.d. which DOS a . degrees in-ow aero, Karl) uer he Ordered Mora; to i.-a-l to Vllna. whi re ihe lUvur... Wiede were waiting II- ( storied in Ulsguisu tor Pan.