Newspaper Page Text
THE SUN, SUNDAY, OCTOBER 10, 1915.
HARVESTS OF NORTHERN FRANCE GO TO FEED GERMANY l. " uttii ajwi wi i .jMaiy7T iau. jnrg-.T, .,:,., , .Jta i - .. -: . - - , : - : , r, g, , i x - J&sa&sta, ' ' - asv. . The manual of rakes. Soldiers under the command of their officers ready to start for the harvest field. The harvest squad in action. Threshing the grain. One of the sidelight mysteries of the war is the msnner in which Germany has been feeding her closely congested population, cut off as she it from the granaries of the world. These photographs, recently received in America, illustrate how the German system takes advantage of every opportunity to meet this situation and to make up for the lack of imports. On the opposite page is shown diagrammatically a comparison, by the Frankfurter Zeitung, of the food supply and industries of Germany before the war and as they are asserted to be at present. THE UKRAINE, A FORGOTTEN NATION THAT MAY SEPARATE FROM RUSSIA Possibilities the War Holds for Little Known Race Who Under Mazeppa Revolted Against Peter the Great Br PRHK. .Ill OR ITTMKH H. HTM ASST. I. the eighth book nf Voltaire's "Hlstolrs df Charles XII.," which was written at a time when Sweden's mad King wan a lea. element In Ike youthful remi tlreences of everybody In Kurope. this famous l-'rench writer nay: The I'kraine has always aspired Is be fn-e. Iiut being wedged In be tween Muscovy, the Mate, of the 'irand Seigneur and Poland, it has always had to seek a protector, and 1 consequently, a master. anong these three states. First they put them- I -lve. under the protection of Poland, irhich treated them too much as a ' siitijf-,'-. state; then the) handed them- Mien over to the Muscovite, who interned them np slaves, as much as ' SO COUld, At first the Ukrainians en-I Joyed (he privilege of eleriing a rulev Shorn they called 'fJenernl' (Het- man. but soon they were deprived Of this right, nnd this 'General' was appointed by the Court of Moscow." And then Voltaire goes on to re fount i he fascinating tale of the He mar. Maseppa and his revolt a gains! Pete- the (ireat. his alliance with irlea 111 . with the object of break ing the power of the Muscovite, and Ms dramatic death at Bender In 1 70. Irooi ii" Mm self-ndmlnletered. Rut hsve already read these (hinge elsewhere, if only in Byron's highly sstoretl i em, prepared for our delec tation i solicitous writer.: of muslo Pf"Er,iiniiief.. Hip wiih nJiout the nation Mia Itfl h is I :v described whit Is tne i kratnc? How many persons In Vgerk i linve ever heard anything Ul t J ii " . ts'de from th" etrlk . reference in 'oltairc's "lli-- Wlth the object of proving ihe exist ence r.f th- people, their language their traditions, When they send ,i telegram to the Herman Kmprror oi, the occasion of his victories in Po land wo are surprised thai they exist. How la ihls passible? How can the existence of s . large and distinct a community lie concealed from the rest of the world? The explanation really rather simple. For years the Ukrainians in Russia urn! Austria have had no upper classes, and it Is the upper classes that serve as the leaders, the cultural exponents of a oommunlty, In Russia the) upper Classes of this Ukrainian nation have heen Rusalflsdj in QattCla they have been PoionlSed. Th s plan ess muy perhaps lie understood when we note bow the gblei elements of our own foreign population in IhS Initial Htsies are concerned with ihe broader probitmi of the wimh country, Whereat the lower , lasses iV the s-ime sections are i iclally more conserva tive, No Imagine '.he abler elements estranged rrotn their less efflcteni brethren bj financial corruption or snclsl enobbl condhion of Russia and I In UsHcli Wich: the entire civil administration passed into the hands of 'he Imperial authorities, and the Cossacks them - forth ceased to exist as a dlSttnCI nationality. They survived, bowevi r, as a distinct class, whose par; It now became to servs Russia by securing the annexation of the Crimen and the newly acquired position on Sea. "In order to r nolle owners of l.it'le llussia to Catharine carried mi a enVc ore abrogating freedom of for Llttli Ruaslan ieasanti she Introduced serfdom Into Little Russia, where II did not as yei exist, although the local conditions were "f course, rip, for :;.. Introduction. Naturally. Catharine's measures could Die 111 irk the land her policy ttlemenl in I Til CI I tries forty sla. Tin that bltlon ence lie p i .ioiii Kieff i sian I hist or th i lllloll line i eovite Tatar were d. one .f the mosl liberal court in ICurope. lis Constitution is years n'der than thai of Rue- history of the I'kralne is one N nil. I Justify the highest am - for a separate national exi't as based on a proud record in s: The Kingdom of the I'kralne limes called ihe Kingdom of Was tin fir-u of nil the Rus- and' to attract the attention of la us, i'n, er ,t King Vladimir Ireat it was the intermediary ,'i Which the Christian Ityzan- ulture civilised the pagan Mus- horde- l !ng to the north. The invasion-. however. which destined to stunt the develop- have the alnlng In be omes ricana to must be ,!i Ails are pp. ne i 'liarlr X II."? The L'kraliic wa n i py i i. mil' h "f eouthern even lapping o ' o v ihe Austrian I 'row . Prut ' Rthnogrnphlcslly, itlon occu Itussln and hat le now in. i or iia Ihe people SMMipyini the territory along tin north almre of the Hbtck Sea and extending tntn iiv forests of Brest-Utovsh on 'e north, to the Caspian Ho'j on tb" essi ,"..i -,i the Cafpathtunn on the sal 'in- pie has ethnographic illy !! . 'ie I'kratnlnn s-a'tnn. and rven politically has several t m-i chtev i aucn seful period of self (orernmem nithouch ua Voltaire's Hi la iwragraph suggest they hsve seen much oppressed ly then- more towrerf il m Ighborg, b a thtrly-flve million people, be lorn; i,, the great Slavic rue. of rhlch :!i.-v consider themselves to be lh lair. least contaminated repre ' . uccup) this territory, the Bfeal majority, of pourae, v. Ruiale '-"Ha- thirty tnillions), the remainder m Uallclu, .- ime few evei ttfUlllla seeliillis of till kingdom, Their language Slav l' and is c.illed " 1 .11 1 It- ill the con- Hung 1 sian is purely Russian 1 : e "Ureat Russians" or Muscovites. Thv themselves do not like to lie lermiid Mttle Russians and prefer, 'tli f.,r themselves and for their lan Mage, the appellation Ukrainian, in set , Austria they receive still un- stsei name, thai of "Ruthenlan." Ii would he puaalble to regard Utile Russian a- one ..r the thri e grtui din acta a '.i which ihe Russian language tnav be divided (the two other dialects lng Oroui Russian ami Whits Rus- uiii. but a close Sclentiflo study of lai uiuiu" reveals ihe fata thai i" tnarv rospei is :i represents more orig "al Hlavlc conditions than d ies Its powerful neighbor, Ihe flreal Russian, and a . therefore Just as reasjn'ubl '" rsrd as an Independent Ion ,suie, having characterlstlea as sharply .' utlnguiahed as those of the real Itiisslatl, And this view Is the "i.'i is most sympathetic lo ' 'liu speak the Ukrainian Ian- r'i," h in aii of I flu. ft and hint th. Ilai "p'ukiiiK ,,r the i.'krainlana ws f He dealing with a coiintrv !: has a ileflnlid geographical out M pop llatlull as lara ' as I ha' lalv, a lunaunge sis Uistlnel from In 1 as r.ngllah is from (hrman, s -hall presently see, a i 'i irudlllnn of uloofness from ' i i races constituting ihe greal ' fninllv. SI 'In- nation Is unknown. I look lad pamphlets are appearing in Bng Mi America and elsewhere written lines- nnd you ,lTa,rs now obi flicls. the prob'.etn more n.ffi. ult -ill, (.; Am, Understand, for here the faci rerorded that tl e Ukrainian trin known as lltilhenasns) piessed noi i.. the Austrlans bul ihe I Sites, wi i. constituting ns thej .io a more cultured body than ; h Ukrainians, have sntdete control of this province. Until half cen in", ign ihe Ukrainian section of the p.,p ii on i' id nbeo'.utely no koice in it-, own affairs, but recently a new IntcKectual class has tieen recruiting fiaan the pesenHry, with the result ilia, ihf .ii at SSI egerllng some influence on i ho provincial govern, meni and even, It is -aid. on the na tions I policies u? the empire, Tltey have su cef-Ied een in Bt tractlng attention from scholars in ..:iu i Ruropetn countries, such ,is hjitghtnd, i-'rance. (iep,rin. Norway, Swfdi.i lerhaps the htst account of ibem Is that given by ICtlser Reclus in llic llfth volume of liis "UeogTSpllle I ' ui erseile." o' which there is an KnghVh translation. On th caalon of a sensational hunger strike of a Itundrrd Ukralnten students ai i..ni- berg in HT ths greal Noiweg.in iuli- liclst iijornst.il i tie lajornson wrote a tl :;, article In their defence. 'file urea: Swedish historian flat-aid 11.1a rue he turned out an excellent essay on the subject of the' relations between (in it and Little Kus.-i ins. Hut the most Interesting and convincing state mint of the , ase for I'lngiieh readers will prpbibly ie i hut b) I 'rot', llaln, the ttngHsh historian, librarian "f lbs RrlUsh Museum. In the sixth volume ot tin "I'umbridgu M'slrrn Hlviory," The essential portions of his article ipage swfi of that volume) are here ii uoted i The i.ittb- Ryaslan regarded the Ureal Russians with aversion and de testation, the two being distinct races and speaking different languages They were unit, d with aliiaruw idlb by the common sovereignty established by the Treaty of I'ereyasjaw (16&I) and they retained at their heal a HelBsan of their own as an Indioutlen of lher independence. a if primary imparlance t ' Moscow were the Saponin Cossacks, who bad sealed on ihe fur side of Lhe rapids of lhe Dnieper I hence the name i and whose free and warlike community sich hiul constituted an OUipoal uy , Tillers, Without a dose connection with these, which had lieen . ndaiiati red b) Charles XII. In ths day of Msseppa. ihe Russian route to ths Black Sea was insecure. ''Bul Catharlnsi who looked askance on ihe separate rights and organisa tion of ibe I'kralne ami mi the Innate hostility 'be Little Russians towards lhe claims of flreal Mussla. desired, lo begin Willi. Ihe abolition "f Ihe olllce of lie Net man. which, wlthoui bring dangerous in iis.if. served lo empha sise the Independent position nl Mttle Ruasls. I' WSS done awav villi in I Til 1. and II Little llussia aril. lllldHI' i I lo el iiol -' I ' lier il. u n '.Ml llShsd I" il- place which mean; lhe aubsl . iilioii of a re il for a per on il union. 'in ITT9 followed ihe suppression "i the Saporog Cossack Constitution of old woman going I" church to pray I for her .mi. Impressed in the army of the Czar, of Ukrainian maidens be trayed by Muscovite warriors lli llterary efforts soon led him into po litical activity, and in Is4fi he was tmnlshed to Siberia, where he remained for ten years. During this ieriod he was regarded a- a Ukrainian na tional hero, and to this day it Is In I his works that the Ukrainian seeks in-, splratlon In his hard battle for national recognition, It'll it is not only in literature and politics tin; this forgotten peopll have liegun to distinguish themselves In the T"s of the nineteenth century a rather emphatic development of learning set in. evidenced by such' in-' ten-sting beginnings as that of the Kieff branch of the imperial Russian i leographlcsl Society. Tile mosl Important figure in this renascence of Ukrainian learning was Dragomanow. to whom his studies, meant, largely, a s-trengtheiiing of his I filth in the rebirth "f t.he Ukraine as, a nation. KoT Ids r.K'iai agitation Unagomanow was banished to western Kurope. carrying with him t Oaitc-ie, w here ne rem cned for some time. Un seeds of the new culture that it wast so difficult t" plant In the Russian Ukraine And it was m llallcla that ihe present .struggle f, ,r 1'k frt edom 1"- all) began. Dragoman iw resisted the (lemeut ;n tli ii Austrian province, a reatatance that was then more diffi cult than it ha- sin e I. awne. Il was b- wh. gave the first big impetus to the movement for national Independ ence by associating the racial Issue wiiii 'in- low progressive ideas of western Kurope. crgttc elements of the empire want it to he, a federation of free and Inde pendent states, nothing short, ,n fact, of a United states of central European races. The two races in Austria that are furthest removed from tin- equality ot treatment assured them by ihe Austrian Constitution are tin- Hei-blana in Itosnia and the Ukrainians in ea.-i em Qallcla. in both cases ti.e badly treated race larks a landed proprietor Class "f it- own. Hut their attitude to Austria IS quite differed Willi" the Austrian Serbians an- eager lo disrupt tin empire, if necessary in order lo achieve their union w ith Set -Ina. which some of them retard a- their mother country, the tlallclati Ukrainians wish a closer union with Austria in ord-r to escape l.e.ng swal lowed ii), by i heir Russian enemies. Ii is very interesting to note the entirely different objects of the recent sassinations in the tw provinces Long Dreamed of Freedom, or at Least Autonomy, at Last in Sight for 35.000,000 Population 's access to tile loss of old cut her pletely block Russit Mack Si a. just ns Ftaltlc provinces w from tne Baltic. This Would ai flrst s, em n blow for llussia. hut there Is no that Russig has another missi far irreao r Importance, and uni the the off for ne in i ruel d lUbl ill of . that pai tern a g I perhaps lhe hotter Working iy political phases ,,r first msgnlflcent i has a 1 read-. when tin- Ukrainian student Mlroslav ! energy and glchlneky Itah Ooven ItOS, il wi i'otocki wa --hoi otockl, Count I of rtallcla. it because i.e kn w itrengthening tTTe the PO" April grip work Turk, w or- h of the Ruaaophlle party on llallcla end thus weakening lhe chances of the Ukrainians to profit in lhe Aua- Itilnnl'r""1 CatiatltUtlon, bul when th,- Sara- I jevo murder cut short tin- life of the Cueohle I Austrian Archduke heir apparent n .nine, ism, ihe intention was not to strengthen Austria but to weaken her. The Russians agitation in tlallt t pre pat big the caption lhal ther 'llted un have f a. which has aimed I as ihe case may people for tin- con I likelihood that are cannot lie achieved .t present by ihe Western Powers, While the culture .r ihe Ukraine w uld receive lis Mtr.itiuesl stimuli fr..m ("o lnia-'v -is-l mov-m-l.t tri, anil western Kiir.ni.- ae'nera'lv. attain self-government Russia has problems in central Asia, iii Rlherls, in Turkestan, that are oft --lie. some .if Which she i hi icked w ith splendid success, I ler i ult ural among the Mohammedans in i ian ha heei. particularly note and Inudable. I With regard the pwapecti a' powerful new democi-jcy in the! I'kraitn the outlook is perhaps not eo promising a- some Ukrainians! would have us 1-elieve m Ihe articles ihsy contribute lo foreign publications. When thirty million people have been deprived of velf.giemment for so; many centuries, rhelr language barred from the schools and their Innd In t'ie hands of a foreign iPolleh or Russian.' h, i rlstocracy, the lie will suddenly levelop an exceptional talent f. r self, rovi rnmeni is veri small. and I he inn Miroslav Sichinsk. the yonnj; Ukrainian student who. in 1908. shot Count Potocki, the Polish Governor of Galicia. not bridge over tin- gulf fixed between (Ireat Russians and Link Russia they ratlur tindei to widen It. They were designed t" guarantee tin- pre dominance of tin- Russian Cxardnni in lhe south, and. so far 11- posaitilc, to .veld north and south together, mil thereby to assure lis full value to the acquisition "f tin- northern rhoro, of tin- Black Sea. "This was of course no Una! solu tion of -.he ukruiulun pro ,1,-ui, which Catharine lefi to her successors to achieve. She also I . -Ue.i t lied to t l. Ill the Pol Hah question, which Indeed had created for Ruaslu by means of lhe pai't. lions, whereas the problem of t In- I 'I. rain she bail inherited fritiu the past." So much as an indication 1I1 j the ignorance -f the I'kralne, which was so prevalent until recenl year-. a showing signs f wsukeninu, Al the present moment iii presence 1 if Una people .11 itussia is a source of in teresting speculation on man) sides, Uerman diplomacy, for instance. might profit greatly from ' Midden regi nerutton of the Ukrainian national movement, in fact - number of Rus sian and Kdlsh pulltlcul writers have gone SS far as 10 say that tin- whole movement is merely .1 recenl (I rmun intrigin- agalusl llussia: Jusl ,1 . twenty years sgoi it was branded by the Russians as a Polish Intrlgu against itussln. At tin- preseni mo ment I'ollsh ami Russian writers it- nor Un- Ukraine, a- lliey do not w ish 10 compHcHie th" prest nl ambii lun of iite'r respective countries by grunt ing an opportunity for the advancing of rival claims in consideration. l-'ifty yean ago tin- I'kralnian in. . 1 "iii-iii started, not in ilermany, ..a .n Auatrlai lun In Russia, ami in f.n Hint after it was transplanted to Austria i' flourished there better IhHti i-i ihe lam1 of it - hi'rth 1- merely due pa the fail thai AUStl'IH i . so far as the treatment of its MUM ' eon- meni f ;h- nlavic nations for cen t uries, resulted, among other things, :n the downfall of this k.ngdnm. 11 - invasions began about the 1: in. Phe entire later history of 1 .in- is udmlrabk- outlined in i.iiro's statement quoted above, union uiiii itussia was formulati ear the Voi The d in tin- rcat "t I'ereyaelaw (lOI), to eh, ii Hi ll tUOed above, also ref"ts. lint tliet'e i-utltiuued after this union conalaill HllltlCul agitation for a hep.uute Ukraine: of this Masepua Was .he la-' exponent. Thing-, continued going from bad to worse during tin- eighteenth century, eii.n)iiuUin .11 Catlutrine ll.'a Intro due;. ...1 uf serfdom ni ihe Ukraine, r.i 1 1 wth the KTench Revolution a new Kil-lt of uat anal regeneration Neeinml ... it cade eustern Burope, finding lis exptassloil largely In an intensive .1, - - -1 . . 1 1 . 1 ' - i-i of national literatures on roinaniic model-. Tin- new democrat lo Ideals transformed the despised east 1 11 Muropeun vernaculars into liter ary languages, ami this n turn further encouraged tin- spread "f liberal ideas. i-i tins connection it is rather ln lercsllng I" note Hint the Auslri.lll IblVel'llinetlt .11 first nursed the Slavic dialects in Austria as interesting phenomena, ami later, when It he. came Conscious how dangerous the liberal 1 ens thus disseminated were to tin- maintenance of ihe Imperial purple, reiircssed iiu-m with ail its might (thai Is, until ihe giving of in.- Constitution iii ivht. which guar antees linguistic autonomy to the eight provincial tongues of tip. empire: t terms 11, Polish Italian, Ituihenlsn, I Ukrainian I, Czech. Slovenian. Ru manian and Croatian, This literal and political regeneru- 1;,... produced an estremely Interesting riguie in the Ukraine, that of the poet Tons aiievchcnko, This man. ths ghakespeare of tin- I'kl'slne, in Im passioned erse sang of Ihe mis eries of the opiucHied serf, of the i-i i"al!ty Rus- , ' s.aus win. are eater to le restored toll ; ' j LghlbUe' WOto V ;MOSCOWr-' NOVGOROD S-w. V 3 A. Aula; W -lT 1 A f -v-'. ! OR F L i I.-. f . J AUSTRIA iCTSv' lL ' ST' Austria nv . ftKiTlnmiiArs''' I . ; I R OtyllsW MORT HERN CAUCASIA Xn 1 s'ati s on 1 In A ust ria 11 tin- Austrlsn pattern Is reels 1 questions, w iile American example out ,,f the pure the question. In fait forty years ago the efforts of the revolutionary movement in Kieff resulted In ihe - ndlns of committee lo America to study our political I net It tit I us, and tin- federal ist movement, tba: i-. tin- erf oil to lor the vari ous ra-es within tin- empire, Is-itlM I movement of inn. 1,0011 tinn-Mosco- vites in Itussia. uppostng the central ist tactic- ,.f 70,000, Muscovites, who wisii to retain sol,, control .-f the Government, Is naturally already i very strong one. Th well known Rue sian publicial Vnronltt has contributed a number "f illuminating articles to Austrian periodicals on this question, clearly expounding the rival preten sions of tin Mtterovlti Musi ovite lemenl - of population. The American t ,-' in learning ah,. ut foreign rt once the facts on the Ukrainian iUC. tlon have heen put clearly la-fore them they will see what lie- ambitions . this people mean for the development ..f Burope. The breaking up of Rus sia into a group of nations, corre sponding to the natural, racial aeu ecnnomlco-geographical unit.- ..r the empire, such as Finland, the Baltic provinces, the I'kraine, the Caucasus, and real Russia together with s - heria this is one of the p. --il.lt- nut comes of tiie Kurnpean war. on.- ili i win become more likely as tin ant prolonged to a greater duration, in fact, of this n beginning has ahead heen made ill the cutting ..ft .a' I'ldaii 1. The nrv- step may ! the srpara- nn of the Ukraine from Russia; ahead,, 1 Ihe armies of the central r.,w r- hnvs reconquereo ttaiicm from iiussiuu -trol, and occupied considerable nre - of Russian Ukrainian lerrltor) n -peclally in the novernment of ' -liynls ' - Hut if lhe division "f Un-- 1 -1 m.i I not result, there would still lie the ne iion-Russlu.l low but j extreme 1 a 1 . 011, Map of southern Russia shaded portion indicates area known as "Little Russia.' Wc ought 10 knua mors about the Austrian province of (ksllcia it unl beoaUSe of the fwi-t that fi r llSllltlls II was 1 ins province that suffered III is; fin an the honors of the present Kiiiopcan war. Imagine a pnuvlnco entirely, or atmosl aniirely, I'ullah in Its western half and entirely, or al most entirely, Ukrainian in its eustern half, yet all of lhe province governed by a I'ole and ih-mlnited by a I'olish aHstqcril 'y, and you heve the state of affaire in (ialiria. Asmosi ths entire .las- of. landed proprietors is I'olish and more tliiin 40 per cent ,.f a 1 Hie and is In their hands, They Kinsti tut". as .1 were, h remnair of the I'olish Independent kingdom. The struggle between itiiihenlans and I'dles is in leilitv due to tlie at- tnr.pl of Die former to gain the ad vantages assured them hy the Aus. tr im Constitution of IxiiT. wht h grants complete linguistic and racial autonomy to the eight races ol the empire, Tin- Coles wisli 1.1 retain their exclusive control of the entire province of tlallOlS, and in this they are aided by their higher Intellectual 1 raining and hy Ihe low economic and social eta mi of the Ruthenlan (Ukrain ian) peasants, in acrd these un- .fortunate peasants wiah merely to make of Austria what all the demo their I I loll. Spent and a aid of ga lllae in iali ..f chiefly nli denies lo lhe irvlhreu in llussia hy annex. i Vast sums of money have liei n in ilissennn.il eg tlu dig-trine, has not la-en dllticult, w lib the Vel gvi llllll IS Ho denes ra. 1 hi w tie llHS apet 1 .mi ni. lo- ia a oonservutit rical charat'ier Ukrainians in lie I'olish airty which Auelrlu, llussia or America tlie right lo con sider themselves as anythinu else than Russians. This party, together With the Polish nobles in Kastern Uallclu, was a very effective aid tu the Rus sian army's advance into Austria m the fall of IU14, for the) know Hull if iiaiicia remains Auatriun lha Ukrainian radicals will soon over throw Ihslr authority There Is no doubt of the reulit) of the danger threatening Russbt In Uullcia, The Ukrainian renascence thai lias heen fostered there means, eulturally, pnlltlcall) economically, a dlariiptlon I of the Rliaalail empire. Tin- rich land of the South, the Little Russia of I'rof, Main. Is ihe most prolific sounc of the empire's revenues, a-. w;ih Its wonderful resources of agriculture ins rich hiack earth). Ii iron, lis rual. its petroleum, il constitutes almost all of lhe really productive portions of the empire. Now if this nntloti should really herome Independent it Is easy lo sen how it would i-ont- I't pr ss: V scltintitlc I struggle wi and nobllll) dlffercnl eci .tu. r, ' l" urn- 111 ultlmiit by the lie- situa When a astern Ku ly. it will follow Ina 11 he. by racial lit doUht of lhe i democracy In ill the peasant w.ll lie.-oine .1 iirtliel' and SU economic 1 11 ensue Letwcen peasant . in this struggle between inuinh 1 lasses, divided also J ItieSt there is Iwrdl) any a- nutenme. 11 must lead ! lol-.i i-n rse of the smallr always is-.-i gles with g"V race?. ha 1 heir si ru None have hi en even I im 1 Tuaslan denationalise the powerful Turkey then inslgn He mi races .11 ll'lj a-.-a cu' : nrallsi d. f, an iiiirenucrgi. Russli uropean his. - agricultural victorious in Tiling 1 lasses, denationalised; not have ls-eii able to I'oles, And win n 1. 1- opposed hy the igru uliiirul RaJkan n t e sturdy nun. 1 the Imperialistic will have the same , Kpel lence With I ho I'kraine. Sh uld lhe Ukraine not sn ii m achieving entire national Independence 'roin the Rusetju Umpire ns a result of tin. present war there is another possihic outoame thai would possess Sinn, advantages i"i tin- now almnsi extinct nation, namely, lhe llailsfor. man n of Russia into a federal lun f likelih I of .1 Ruaslan fed as tiutlined above, and In that case also we should w iii lo the Ukraine achieve a full measure of autonomy, Ai any rate, whether the central Kuropean I'ow ra or tho Allies are victorious, it vi ill he iii t -the dominant power of the vn ii.ra.i -group, lei ,us say. therefore,' Kngtsn-l or Qermany, to formulate some Hn of action with regard 1 Russia's in ttire, and therefore to the future of the I'kraine. Americana will natural!) prefer have tins taek performed b) Kng land, and while HJngkWd is not at this moment seltlahl) Interested in the freeing of Ihe I'k'r.lille. US is tile I a-e with Oernnany, there i absolutely no loiiht that Rngland s ultimate ests require her 1,1 weaken torioUS Itussia. The erection Ukrainian Htute would achb-v I objeot by preventing tin- presence .' .i niinslnit navy in tin- Itluck s.-. .m.' I thus and litis is ,. far greater im portance it would shut off Russia's aocees to the lliilkun I'enlnsulu, which might then huvn freedom t. develop ; Without fcir of Russian interference. Constantinople would noi then be j Russian naval port to menace the I peace of the entire Mediterranean, v c are loOKing far mi" un- i u: ure, p rh. his. The I'kraine. unce a nation or an Independent hUute in a ! sje tederation, would begin lo huvi inward the outer world, ami them would he to proie,: the H St ites ugalnst any attempt " trian or Herman domination of Urn how different would be the iter- v IC- .s lilt it'S me of i.i kail A ne. tin in pro lection of ihe i'kraine from thai which llussia would grant'.' While ihe Ukraine would lie Ilk' big brother shielding his younger brothers ami sisters from foreign in- ii rference, Russia in hitherto mereli the the lion's frit nn affords tt-r in. ins devoured t a!' weaker BlaVli IIHtlo of "Russia IwdeutUi" must conquer them a' .. their altitude Is toward tlon b) Russia i- now: .1 rated IhjUII in the ii -to I'oland ami tin- Ukraine - ..ff"i".l them protection that I- tlie limb ilf- Kor I HIT and cost .ii. -h lie 1 1 Itussl a sort Russia Wh ii bsorp. r lllus. ('Inland, ji II I I