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The sun. (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916, October 10, 1915, FIFTH SECTION SPECIAL FEATURE MAGAZINE, Image 48

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l. " uttii ajwi wi i .jMaiy7T iau. jnrg-.T, .,:,., , .Jta i - .. -: . - - , : - : , r, g, , i x -
J&sa&sta, ' ' - asv. .
The manual of rakes. Soldiers under the command of their officers ready to start for the harvest field.
The harvest squad in action. Threshing the grain.
One of the sidelight mysteries of the war is the msnner in which Germany has been feeding her closely congested population, cut off as she it from the granaries of the world. These photographs, recently received in America, illustrate how the German system takes advantage
of every opportunity to meet this situation and to make up for the lack of imports. On the opposite page is shown diagrammatically a comparison, by the Frankfurter Zeitung, of the food supply and industries of Germany before the war and as they are asserted to be at present.
Possibilities the War Holds for Little
Known Race Who Under Mazeppa
Revolted Against Peter the Great
I. the eighth book nf Voltaire's
"Hlstolrs df Charles XII.," which
was written at a time when
Sweden's mad King wan a
lea. element In Ike youthful remi
tlreences of everybody In Kurope. this
famous l-'rench writer nay:
The I'kraine has always aspired
Is be fn-e. Iiut being wedged In be
tween Muscovy, the Mate, of the
'irand Seigneur and Poland, it has
always had to seek a protector, and 1
consequently, a master. anong these
three states. First they put them- I
-lve. under the protection of Poland,
irhich treated them too much as a '
siitijf-,'-. state; then the) handed them-
Mien over to the Muscovite, who
interned them np slaves, as much as '
SO COUld, At first the Ukrainians en-I
Joyed (he privilege of eleriing a rulev
Shorn they called 'fJenernl' (Het-
man. but soon they were deprived
Of this right, nnd this 'General' was
appointed by the Court of Moscow."
And then Voltaire goes on to re
fount i he fascinating tale of the He
mar. Maseppa and his revolt a gains!
Pete- the (ireat. his alliance with
irlea 111 . with the object of break
ing the power of the Muscovite, and
Ms dramatic death at Bender In 1 70.
Irooi ii" Mm self-ndmlnletered. Rut
hsve already read these (hinge
elsewhere, if only in Byron's highly
sstoretl i em, prepared for our delec
tation i solicitous writer.: of muslo
Hip wiih nJiout the nation Mia
Itfl h is I :v described whit Is
tne i kratnc? How many persons In
Vgerk i linve ever heard anything
Ul t J ii " . ts'de from th"
etrlk . reference in 'oltairc's "lli--
Wlth the object of proving ihe exist
ence r.f th- people, their language
their traditions, When they send ,i
telegram to the Herman Kmprror oi,
the occasion of his victories in Po
land wo are surprised thai they exist.
How la ihls passible? How can the
existence of s . large and distinct a
community lie concealed from the rest
of the world? The explanation
really rather simple.
For years the Ukrainians in Russia
urn! Austria have had no upper classes,
and it Is the upper classes that serve
as the leaders, the cultural exponents
of a oommunlty, In Russia the) upper
Classes of this Ukrainian nation have
heen Rusalflsdj in QattCla they have
been PoionlSed. Th s plan ess muy
perhaps lie understood when we note
bow the gblei elements of our own
foreign population in IhS Initial
Htsies are concerned with ihe broader
probitmi of the wimh country,
Whereat the lower , lasses iV the s-ime
sections are i iclally more conserva
tive, No Imagine '.he abler elements
estranged rrotn their less efflcteni
brethren bj financial corruption or
snclsl enobbl
condhion of
Russia and I
In UsHcli
Wich: the entire civil administration
passed into the hands of 'he Imperial
authorities, and the Cossacks them -
forth ceased to exist as a dlSttnCI
nationality. They survived, bowevi r,
as a distinct class, whose par; It now
became to servs Russia by securing
the annexation of the Crimen and the
newly acquired position on
"In order to r nolle
owners of l.it'le llussia to
Catharine carried mi a enVc
ore abrogating freedom of
for Llttli Ruaslan ieasanti
she Introduced serfdom Into Little
Russia, where II did not as yei exist,
although the local conditions were "f
course, rip, for :;.. Introduction.
Naturally. Catharine's measures could
Die 111 irk
the land
her policy
in I Til
lie p
i .ioiii
Kieff i
sian I
hist or
th i
line i
d. one .f the mosl liberal court
in ICurope. lis Constitution is
years n'der than thai of Rue-
history of the I'kralne is one
N nil. I Justify the highest am
- for a separate national exi't
as based on a proud record in
s: The Kingdom of the I'kralne
limes called ihe Kingdom of
Was tin fir-u of nil the Rus-
and' to attract the attention of
la us, i'n, er ,t King Vladimir
Ireat it was the intermediary
,'i Which the Christian Ityzan-
ulture civilised the pagan Mus-
horde- l !ng to the north. The
invasion-. however. which
destined to stunt the develop-
have the
alnlng In
be omes
ricana to
must be
,!i Ails
are pp.
ne i 'liarlr X II."?
The L'kraliic wa n i
py i i. mil' h "f eouthern
even lapping o ' o v
ihe Austrian I 'row . Prut
' Rthnogrnphlcslly,
itlon occu
Itussln and
hat le now
in. i or iia
Ihe people
SMMipyini the territory along tin north
almre of the Hbtck Sea and extending
tntn iiv forests of Brest-Utovsh on
'e north, to the Caspian Ho'j on tb"
essi ,"..i -,i the Cafpathtunn on the
sal 'in- pie has ethnographic illy
!! . 'ie I'kratnlnn s-a'tnn.
and rven politically has several t m-i
chtev i aucn seful period of self
(orernmem nithouch ua Voltaire's
Hi la iwragraph suggest they hsve
seen much oppressed ly then- more
towrerf il m Ighborg,
b a thtrly-flve million people, be
lorn; i,, the great Slavic rue. of
rhlch :!i.-v consider themselves to be
lh lair. least contaminated repre
' . uccup) this territory, the
Bfeal majority, of pourae, v. Ruiale
'-"Ha- thirty tnillions), the remainder
m Uallclu, .- ime few evei
ttfUlllla seeliillis of till
kingdom, Their language
Slav l' and is c.illed " 1 .11 1 It-
ill the con-
Hung 1 sian
is purely
1 : e "Ureat Russians" or Muscovites.
Thv themselves do not like to lie
lermiid Mttle Russians and prefer,
'tli f.,r themselves and for their lan
Mage, the appellation Ukrainian, in
set , Austria they receive still un-
stsei name, thai of "Ruthenlan."
Ii would he puaalble to regard Utile
Russian a- one ..r the thri e grtui din
acta a '.i which ihe Russian language
tnav be divided (the two other dialects
lng Oroui Russian ami Whits Rus-
uiii. but a close Sclentiflo study of
lai uiuiu" reveals ihe fata thai i"
tnarv rospei is :i represents more orig
"al Hlavlc conditions than d ies Its
powerful neighbor, Ihe flreal Russian,
and a . therefore Just as reasjn'ubl
'" rsrd as an Independent Ion
,suie, having characterlstlea as
sharply .' utlnguiahed as those of the
real Itiisslatl, And this view Is the
"i.'i is most sympathetic lo
' 'liu speak the Ukrainian Ian-
of I
ft and
"p'ukiiiK ,,r the i.'krainlana ws
f He dealing with a coiintrv
!: has a ileflnlid geographical out
M pop llatlull as lara ' as I ha'
lalv, a lunaunge sis Uistlnel from
In 1 as r.ngllah is from (hrman,
s -hall presently see, a
i 'i irudlllnn of uloofness from
' i i races constituting ihe greal
' fninllv.
SI 'In- nation Is unknown. I look
lad pamphlets are appearing in Bng
Mi America and elsewhere written
lines- nnd you
,lTa,rs now obi
the prob'.etn
more n.ffi. ult -ill, (.; Am,
Understand, for here the faci
rerorded that tl e Ukrainian
trin known as lltilhenasns)
piessed noi i.. the Austrlans bul
ihe I Sites, wi i. constituting ns
thej .io a more cultured body than
; h Ukrainians, have sntdete control
of this province. Until half cen
in", ign ihe Ukrainian section of the
p.,p ii on i' id nbeo'.utely no koice in
it-, own affairs, but recently a new
IntcKectual class has tieen recruiting
fiaan the pesenHry, with the result
ilia, ihf .ii at SSI egerllng some
influence on i ho provincial govern,
meni and even, It is -aid. on the na
tions I policies u? the empire,
Tltey have su cef-Ied een in Bt
tractlng attention from scholars in
..:iu i Ruropetn countries, such ,is
hjitghtnd, i-'rance. (iep,rin. Norway,
Swfdi.i lerhaps the htst account
of ibem Is that given by ICtlser Reclus
in llic llfth volume of liis "UeogTSpllle
I ' ui erseile." o' which there is an
KnghVh translation. On th caalon
of a sensational hunger strike of a
Itundrrd Ukralnten students ai i..ni-
berg in HT ths greal Noiweg.in iuli-
liclst iijornst.il i tie lajornson wrote a
tl :;, article In their defence. 'file
urea: Swedish historian flat-aid 11.1a rue
he turned out an excellent essay on
the subject of the' relations between
(in it and Little Kus.-i ins. Hut the
most Interesting and convincing state
mint of the , ase for I'lngiieh readers
will prpbibly ie i hut b) I 'rot', llaln,
the ttngHsh historian, librarian "f lbs
RrlUsh Museum. In the sixth volume
ot tin "I'umbridgu M'slrrn Hlviory,"
The essential portions of his article
ipage swfi of that volume) are here
ii uoted i
The i.ittb- Ryaslan regarded the
Ureal Russians with aversion and de
testation, the two being distinct races
and speaking different languages
They were unit, d with aliiaruw idlb by
the common sovereignty established by
the Treaty of I'ereyasjaw (16&I) and
they retained at their heal a HelBsan
of their own as an Indioutlen of lher
a if primary imparlance t ' Moscow
were the Saponin Cossacks, who bad
sealed on ihe fur side of Lhe rapids
of lhe Dnieper I hence the name i and
whose free and warlike community
sich hiul constituted an OUipoal
uy , Tillers, Without a dose
connection with these, which had lieen
. ndaiiati red b) Charles XII. In ths day
of Msseppa. ihe Russian route to ths
Black Sea was insecure.
''Bul Catharlnsi who looked askance
on ihe separate rights and organisa
tion of ibe I'kralne ami mi the Innate
hostility 'be Little Russians towards
lhe claims of flreal Mussla. desired, lo
begin Willi. Ihe abolition "f Ihe olllce
of lie Net man. which, wlthoui bring
dangerous in iis.if. served lo empha
sise the Independent position nl Mttle
Ruasls. I' WSS done awav villi in
I Til 1. and II Little llussia aril.
lllldHI' i I lo el iiol -' I ' lier il. u n '.Ml
llShsd I" il- place which mean; lhe
aubsl . iilioii of a re il for a per on il
'in ITT9 followed ihe suppression "i
the Saporog Cossack Constitution of
old woman going I" church to pray I
for her .mi. Impressed in the army of
the Czar, of Ukrainian maidens be
trayed by Muscovite warriors lli
llterary efforts soon led him into po
litical activity, and in Is4fi he was
tmnlshed to Siberia, where he remained
for ten years. During this ieriod
he was regarded a- a Ukrainian na
tional hero, and to this day it Is In I
his works that the Ukrainian seeks in-,
splratlon In his hard battle for national
It'll it is not only in literature and
politics tin; this forgotten peopll
have liegun to distinguish themselves
In the T"s of the nineteenth century
a rather emphatic development of
learning set in. evidenced by such' in-'
ten-sting beginnings as that of the
Kieff branch of the imperial Russian
i leographlcsl Society.
Tile mosl Important figure in this
renascence of Ukrainian learning was
Dragomanow. to whom his studies,
meant, largely, a s-trengtheiiing of his I
filth in the rebirth "f t.he Ukraine as,
a nation. KoT Ids r.K'iai agitation
Unagomanow was banished to western
Kurope. carrying with him t Oaitc-ie,
w here ne rem cned for some time. Un
seeds of the new culture that it wast
so difficult t" plant In the Russian
Ukraine And it was m llallcla that
ihe present .struggle f, ,r 1'k
frt edom 1"- all) began.
Dragoman iw resisted the
(lemeut ;n tli ii Austrian province, a
reatatance that was then more diffi
cult than it ha- sin e I. awne. Il was
b- wh. gave the first big impetus to
the movement for national Independ
ence by associating the racial Issue
wiiii 'in- low progressive ideas of
western Kurope.
crgttc elements of the empire want it
to he, a federation of free and Inde
pendent states, nothing short, ,n fact,
of a United states of central European
The two races in Austria that are
furthest removed from tin- equality
ot treatment assured them by ihe
Austrian Constitution are tin- Hei-blana
in Itosnia and the Ukrainians in ea.-i
em Qallcla. in both cases ti.e badly
treated race larks a landed proprietor
Class "f it- own. Hut their attitude
to Austria IS quite differed Willi"
the Austrian Serbians an- eager lo
disrupt tin empire, if necessary in
order lo achieve their union w ith Set -Ina.
which some of them retard a-
their mother country, the tlallclati
Ukrainians wish a closer union with
Austria in ord-r to escape l.e.ng swal
lowed ii), by i heir Russian enemies.
Ii is very interesting to note the
entirely different objects of the recent
sassinations in the tw provinces
Long Dreamed of Freedom, or at Least
Autonomy, at Last in Sight for
35.000,000 Population
's access to
tile loss of
old cut her
pletely block Russit
Mack Si a. just ns
Ftaltlc provinces w
from tne Baltic.
This Would ai flrst s, em n
blow for llussia. hut there Is no
that Russig has another missi
far irreao r Importance, and uni
ne in
i ruel
d lUbl
ill of
. that
pai tern
a g I
perhaps lhe
hotter Working
iy political phases ,,r
msgnlflcent i
has a 1 read-.
when tin- Ukrainian student Mlroslav ! energy and
Itah Ooven
ItOS, il wi
i'otocki wa
Count I
of rtallcla. it
because i.e kn w
itrengthening tTTe
the PO"
w or- h
of the Ruaaophlle party on llallcla
end thus weakening lhe chances of
the Ukrainians to profit in lhe Aua-
Itilnnl'r""1 CatiatltUtlon, bul when th,- Sara-
I jevo murder cut short tin- life of the
Cueohle I Austrian Archduke heir apparent n
.nine, ism, ihe intention was not to
strengthen Austria but to weaken
The Russians
agitation in tlallt
t pre pat big the
caption lhal ther
'llted un
have f
a. which has aimed I as ihe case may
people for tin- con I likelihood that
cannot lie achieved .t present by ihe
Western Powers, While the culture
.r ihe Ukraine w uld receive lis
Mtr.itiuesl stimuli fr..m ("o lnia-'v -is-l mov-m-l.t
tri, anil western Kiir.ni.- ae'nera'lv. attain self-government
Russia has problems in central Asia,
iii Rlherls, in Turkestan, that are oft
--lie. some .if Which she i
hi icked w ith splendid
success, I ler i ult ural
among the Mohammedans in i
ian ha heei. particularly note
and Inudable. I
With regard the pwapecti a'
powerful new democi-jcy in the!
I'kraitn the outlook is perhaps not
eo promising a- some Ukrainians!
would have us 1-elieve m Ihe articles
ihsy contribute lo foreign publications.
When thirty million people have been
deprived of velf.giemment for so;
many centuries, rhelr language barred
from the schools and their Innd In t'ie
hands of a foreign iPolleh or Russian.'
h, i rlstocracy, the
lie will suddenly
levelop an exceptional talent f. r self,
rovi rnmeni is veri small.
I he
Miroslav Sichinsk. the yonnj; Ukrainian student who. in 1908.
shot Count Potocki, the Polish Governor of Galicia.
not bridge over tin- gulf fixed between
(Ireat Russians and Link Russia
they ratlur tindei to widen It. They
were designed t" guarantee tin- pre
dominance of tin- Russian Cxardnni in
lhe south, and. so far 11- posaitilc, to
.veld north and south together, mil
thereby to assure lis full value to the
acquisition "f tin- northern rhoro, of
tin- Black Sea.
"This was of course no Una! solu
tion of -.he ukruiulun pro ,1,-ui, which
Catharine lefi to her successors to
achieve. She also I . -Ue.i t lied to t l. Ill
the Pol Hah question, which Indeed
had created for Ruaslu by means of
lhe pai't. lions, whereas the problem
of t In- I 'I. rain she bail inherited fritiu
the past."
So much as an indication 1I1 j the
ignorance -f the I'kralne, which was
so prevalent until recenl year-. a
showing signs f wsukeninu, Al the
present moment iii presence 1 if Una
people .11 itussia is a source of in
teresting speculation on man) sides,
Uerman diplomacy, for instance.
might profit greatly from ' Midden
regi nerutton of the Ukrainian national
movement, in fact - number of Rus
sian and Kdlsh pulltlcul writers have
gone SS far as 10 say that tin- whole
movement is merely .1 recenl (I rmun
intrigin- agalusl llussia: Jusl ,1 .
twenty years sgoi it was branded by
the Russians as a Polish Intrlgu
against itussln. At tin- preseni mo
ment I'ollsh ami Russian writers it-
nor Un- Ukraine, a- lliey do not w ish
10 compHcHie th" prest nl ambii lun
of iite'r respective countries by grunt
ing an opportunity for the advancing
of rival claims in consideration.
l-'ifty yean ago tin- I'kralnian
in. . 1 "iii-iii started, not in ilermany,
..a .n Auatrlai lun In Russia, ami in
f.n Hint after it was transplanted to
Austria i' flourished there better IhHti
i-i ihe lam1 of it - hi'rth 1- merely due
pa the fail thai AUStl'IH i . so far as
the treatment of its MUM ' eon-
meni f ;h- nlavic nations for cen
t uries, resulted, among other things,
:n the downfall of this k.ngdnm.
11 - invasions began about the
1: in.
Phe entire later history of
1 .in- is udmlrabk- outlined in
i.iiro's statement quoted above,
union uiiii itussia was formulati
The d in
tin- rcat "t I'ereyaelaw (lOI), to
eh, ii Hi ll tUOed above, also ref"ts.
lint tliet'e i-utltiuued after this union
conalaill HllltlCul agitation for a
hep.uute Ukraine: of this Masepua
Was .he la-' exponent.
Thing-, continued going from bad to
worse during tin- eighteenth century,
eii.n)iiuUin .11 Catlutrine ll.'a Intro
due;. ...1 uf serfdom ni ihe Ukraine,
r.i 1 1 wth the KTench Revolution a new
Kil-lt of uat anal regeneration Neeinml
... it cade eustern Burope, finding lis
exptassloil largely In an intensive .1, -
- -1 . . 1 1 . 1 ' - i-i of national literatures on
roinaniic model-. Tin- new democrat lo
Ideals transformed the despised east
1 11 Muropeun vernaculars into liter
ary languages, ami this n turn further
encouraged tin- spread "f liberal ideas.
i-i tins connection it is rather ln
lercsllng I" note Hint the Auslri.lll
IblVel'llinetlt .11 first nursed the Slavic
dialects in Austria as interesting
phenomena, ami later, when It he.
came Conscious how dangerous the
liberal 1 ens thus disseminated were
to tin- maintenance of ihe Imperial
purple, reiircssed iiu-m with ail its
might (thai Is, until ihe giving of
in.- Constitution iii ivht. which guar
antees linguistic autonomy to the eight
provincial tongues of tip. empire:
t terms 11, Polish Italian, Ituihenlsn,
I Ukrainian I, Czech. Slovenian. Ru
manian and Croatian,
This literal and political regeneru-
1;,... produced an estremely Interesting
riguie in the Ukraine, that of the poet
Tons aiievchcnko, This man. ths
ghakespeare of tin- I'kl'slne, in Im
passioned erse sang of Ihe mis
eries of the opiucHied serf, of the
i-i i"al!ty Rus- , '
s.aus win. are eater to le restored toll
; ' j
LghlbUe' WOto V ;MOSCOWr-' NOVGOROD S-w. V
3 A. Aula; W -lT 1
A f -v-'. ! OR F L i I.-. f . J
Austria nv . ftKiTlnmiiArs''' I . ;
s'ati s on 1 In A ust ria 11
tin- Austrlsn pattern Is
reels 1 questions, w iile
American example
out ,,f the pure
the question.
In fait forty years ago the
efforts of the revolutionary movement
in Kieff resulted In ihe - ndlns of
committee lo America to study our
political I net It tit I us, and tin- federal
ist movement, tba: i-. tin- erf oil to
lor the vari
ous ra-es within tin- empire, Is-itlM I
movement of inn. 1,0011 tinn-Mosco-
vites in Itussia. uppostng the central
ist tactic- ,.f 70,000, Muscovites,
who wisii to retain sol,, control .-f the
Government, Is naturally already i
very strong one. Th well known Rue
sian publicial Vnronltt has contributed
a number "f illuminating articles to
Austrian periodicals on this question,
clearly expounding the rival preten
sions of tin Mtterovlti
Musi ovite lemenl - of
The American t ,-'
in learning ah,. ut foreign rt
once the facts on the Ukrainian iUC.
tlon have heen put clearly la-fore them
they will see what lie- ambitions .
this people mean for the development
..f Burope. The breaking up of Rus
sia into a group of nations, corre
sponding to the natural, racial aeu
ecnnomlco-geographical unit.- ..r the
empire, such as Finland, the Baltic
provinces, the I'kraine, the Caucasus,
and real Russia together with s -
heria this is one of the p. --il.lt- nut
comes of tiie Kurnpean war. on.- ili i
win become more likely as tin ant
prolonged to a greater duration, in
fact, of this n beginning has ahead
heen made ill the cutting ..ft .a' I'ldaii 1.
The nrv- step may ! the srpara- nn
of the Ukraine from Russia; ahead,,
1 Ihe armies of the central r.,w r- hnvs
reconquereo ttaiicm from iiussiuu -trol,
and occupied considerable nre -
of Russian Ukrainian lerrltor) n -peclally
in the novernment of ' -liynls
' -
Hut if lhe division "f Un-- 1 -1 m.i
I not result, there would still lie the
ne iion-Russlu.l
j extreme
1 a 1 . 011,
Map of southern Russia shaded portion indicates area known as "Little Russia.'
Wc ought 10 knua mors about the
Austrian province of (ksllcia it unl
beoaUSe of the fwi-t that fi r llSllltlls
II was 1 ins province that suffered
III is; fin an the honors of the present
Kiiiopcan war. Imagine a pnuvlnco
entirely, or atmosl aniirely, I'ullah
in Its western half and entirely, or al
most entirely, Ukrainian in its eustern
half, yet all of lhe province governed
by a I'ole and ih-mlnited by a I'olish
aHstqcril 'y, and you heve the state of
affaire in (ialiria. Asmosi ths entire
.las- of. landed proprietors is I'olish
and more tliiin 40 per cent ,.f a 1 Hie
and is In their hands, They Kinsti
tut". as .1 were, h remnair of the
I'olish Independent kingdom.
The struggle between itiiihenlans
and I'dles is in leilitv due to tlie at-
tnr.pl of Die former to gain the ad
vantages assured them hy the Aus.
tr im Constitution of IxiiT. wht h
grants complete linguistic and racial
autonomy to the eight races ol the
empire, Tin- Coles wisli 1.1 retain
their exclusive control of the entire
province of tlallOlS, and in this they
are aided by their higher Intellectual
1 raining and hy Ihe low economic and
social eta mi of the Ruthenlan (Ukrain
ian) peasants, in acrd these un-
.fortunate peasants wiah merely to
make of Austria what all the demo
their I
I loll.
and a
aid of
ga lllae in iali
..f chiefly nli
denies lo lhe
irvlhreu in llussia hy annex. i
Vast sums of money have liei n
in ilissennn.il eg tlu dig-trine,
has not la-en dllticult, w lib the
Vel gvi
llllll IS Ho
denes ra.
1 hi
w tie
1 .mi
ni. lo-
ia a oonservutit
rical charat'ier
Ukrainians in
lie I'olish
llussia or America tlie right lo con
sider themselves as anythinu else than
Russians. This party, together With
the Polish nobles in Kastern Uallclu,
was a very effective aid tu the Rus
sian army's advance into Austria m
the fall of IU14, for the) know Hull
if iiaiicia remains Auatriun lha
Ukrainian radicals will soon over
throw Ihslr authority
There Is no doubt of the reulit) of the
danger threatening Russbt In Uullcia,
The Ukrainian renascence thai lias
heen fostered there means, eulturally,
pnlltlcall) economically, a dlariiptlon I
of the Rliaalail empire. Tin- rich land
of the South, the Little Russia of I'rof,
Main. Is ihe most prolific sounc of
the empire's revenues, a-. w;ih Its
wonderful resources of agriculture ins
rich hiack earth). Ii iron, lis rual.
its petroleum, il constitutes almost all
of lhe really productive portions of
the empire. Now if this nntloti
should really herome Independent it
Is easy lo sen how it would i-ont-
pr ss: V
scltintitlc I
struggle wi
and nobllll)
dlffercnl eci
' l"
urn- 111
by the
lie- situa
When a
astern Ku
ly. it will
follow Ina
11 he.
by racial lit
doUht of lhe
i democracy
In ill the
peasant w.ll lie.-oine .1
iirtliel' and SU economic 1
11 ensue Letwcen peasant
. in this struggle between
inuinh 1 lasses, divided also J
ItieSt there is Iwrdl) any
a- nutenme. 11 must lead !
rse of
the smallr
always is-.-i
gles with g"V
race?. ha
1 heir si ru
None have hi en
even I im 1 Tuaslan
denationalise the
powerful Turkey
then inslgn He mi
races .11 ll'lj a-.-a
cu' : nrallsi d. f, an
iiiirenucrgi. Russli
uropean his.
- agricultural
victorious in
Tiling 1 lasses,
denationalised; not
have ls-eii able to
I'oles, And win n
1. 1- opposed hy the
igru uliiirul RaJkan
n t e sturdy nun.
1 the Imperialistic
will have the same
, Kpel lence With I ho I'kraine.
Sh uld lhe Ukraine not sn ii m
achieving entire national Independence
'roin the Rusetju Umpire ns a result
of tin. present war there is another
possihic outoame thai would possess
Sinn, advantages i"i tin- now almnsi
extinct nation, namely, lhe llailsfor.
man n of Russia into a federal lun f
likelih I of .1 Ruaslan fed
as tiutlined above, and In
that case also we should w iii lo
the Ukraine achieve a full measure
of autonomy, Ai any rate, whether
the central Kuropean I'ow ra or tho
Allies are victorious, it vi ill he iii t -the
dominant power of the vn ii.ra.i -group,
lei ,us say. therefore,' Kngtsn-l
or Qermany, to formulate some Hn
of action with regard 1 Russia's in
ttire, and therefore to the future of
the I'kraine.
Americana will natural!) prefer
have tins taek performed b) Kng
land, and while HJngkWd is not at this
moment seltlahl) Interested in the
freeing of Ihe I'k'r.lille. US is tile I a-e
with Oernnany, there i absolutely no
loiiht that Rngland s ultimate
ests require her 1,1 weaken
torioUS Itussia. The erection
Ukrainian Htute would achb-v
I objeot by preventing tin- presence .'
.i niinslnit navy in tin- Itluck s.-. .m.'
I thus and litis is ,. far greater im
portance it would shut off Russia's
aocees to the lliilkun I'enlnsulu, which
might then huvn freedom t. develop
; Without fcir of Russian interference.
Constantinople would noi then be
j Russian naval port to menace the
I peace of the entire Mediterranean,
v c are loOKing far mi" un- i u: ure,
p rh. his. The I'kraine. unce a nation
or an Independent hUute in a ! sje
tederation, would begin lo huvi
inward the outer world, ami
them would he to proie,: the H
St ites ugalnst any attempt "
trian or Herman domination of
Urn how different would be the
v IC-
lilt it'S
me of
i.i kail
A ne.
tin in
lection of ihe i'kraine from thai which
llussia would grant'.'
While ihe Ukraine would lie Ilk'
big brother shielding his younger
brothers ami sisters from foreign in-
ii rference, Russia in
hitherto mereli the
the lion's frit nn affords
tt-r in. ins devoured t
a!' weaker BlaVli IIHtlo
of "Russia IwdeutUi"
must conquer them a' ..
their altitude Is toward
tlon b) Russia i- now: .1
rated IhjUII in the ii -to
I'oland ami tin- Ukraine
- ..ff"i".l them
protection that
I- tlie limb ilf-
.ii. -h
lie 1 1
a sort
Wh ii
r lllus.

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