OCR Interpretation

The sun. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916, March 30, 1916, Image 6

Image and text provided by The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundation

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030272/1916-03-30/ed-1/seq-6/

What is OCR?

Thumbnail for 6

THUNHIMY, M AHCII .'), 1010.
?(ntered t th Post omo at New York ai
fecund Class Hall Matter.
fsubarrliillnna br Mall, l'olpld.
n.Vtt.V, Per Monlli W
HAI1.Y. Per Year It 0
SIWDAV, l'r .Monlli '!
Si'NIJAY do CiJla), lVr .Month.... Ml
KL'NDAV. I'cr Vear S All
DAILY AND HU.VDAY, Per Month... "5
r"ottrMN ltlTH.
DAILY, rr Month I M
HtlNDAV. I'cr .Montli .
DAILY AND SUNDAY. Per .Month... 1 90
Till: KVi;.NLNU 8UNKorclgn),rcrAto. 1 8
Alt cheeks, money orders, Ac, to be
made payable to The Scs.
Published daltv, Including Snnilnj-. by tha
flun Printing nml Publishing Annotation at
t.Ml Nuuu street, In the llornuKh of Man
hattan, Now York. President Bint Treae.
urrr, William U. ItetcK. 1A0 Nassau street:
Vice-President, lldward I'. Mitchell, l
Nrau atret't; (Secretary, C. II. I.uxton, ISO
Nnaiuu street.
tendon time: 40-43 Kleel atreat.
Paris iittlce. u Hue do U .Mlchodlere, oft
Hue (In Quatre Septembr, .
VV'nahlngton cities. IIIIili llnlldlnir.
Ilrookln ofllrf, 100 Livingston street.
our frltniit trAo favor tin teltS mnnu
leripta and ttluitratlons for publication Irish
to Mn rrlectxd orllclrt returned then mutt
In all catts nnd tlampn fur l.ut purj.oie.
Who Ilnbced Orders?
According to rrnxsengcrs on the first
socllon of th! cnsihotiinl I.ako Shore
train which was run Into by the soo
oiul section ut Amherst, Ohio, yc-Mcr-day,
the pilot of thu following train
smashed the roar couch before, tho
cars hail conic to n standstill, or Im
mt'illatoly after. What was Uic see
onil auction doing In thu block before
tho first section liail cleared it?
This question will occur Itnmerll
ntoly touvcry Intelligent traeller. In
tho New Haven's wreck at Mllford,
the engineer responsible for the tils
nster disregarded thu signals set
ngfillist li till. Plil tlu Lake Shore
engineer ilo the r-ittnu llilng? Ami
are the caution anil Mop signals cuv
tomnrlly Ignored? If they are, the
signal systems nillit profitably bo
torn out, unit dependence for safety
reposed In the quickness ami skill of
the engineers.
As Till; Srs has often said, n rear
end collision Is beyond excuse. It
cau be explained, but the explnna
tlnn Inevitably reveals disobedience to
orders, neglect of equipment, or fall-
tire to provide the essential mnchln
cry for safe operation of the roads
ou which the "accident" happens.
Absolutely Fair."
Tho proposed Investigation referred
to In the subjoined sentences from
President Wilson's letter of Mrch
2S to the majority leader of the House
of Kepresentatlves has been urged to
guide Coheres In nmciiding the act
regulating the common carriers of
the country:
"The, railways of the country- are be
aomlng more and mora tin key to lt
successful Industry, and It seems to me
of capital Important that wo should
lay a new groundwork of actual facta
for the necessary futur regulation.
"I know that we nil want to be abso
lutely fair to the railroads, and It teems
to mo that tho proposed Investigation In
the first step toward tho fulfilment of
that desire."
The desire to bo "absolutely fair'
to the railroads Is ut present esem
pllthtl by the efforts to reduce still
further by legislative enactment the
Inequitable payments made for trans
porting the malls. The railroads have
mnde their plea for higher compensa
tion to Congress; a Joint commission
has certified the Ju-tice of their do
mand, nml jet a serious effort N
milking to cut down the rates now
In force. Vn this we sec no sign ot
n desire to be fair to the railroads,
Mr. Wilson to the contrary notwlth
The Investigation In behalf of
which the ('resident wrn e would re
veal the Ignorance on which much
regulatory legislation Is based, and
disclose the mischief many of the civ
aclnients have caused, II should be
mnde, nml until li N finished then
should be no morn assaults on tin
railroads. )tui we must look to some
thing more substantial than the
Congressional longing for Justice to
support the Impe that tho Inquiry
will ho undertaken.
A Foolish Notion.
If It is true, as reported In Wash
ington, that any Republican Senators
nre charging the President with "us
ing the Mexican expedition to further
his political Interests," thoo liepub
llcan Senators are talking foolishly.
It seems to lie their view that Mr.
Wilson's purpose Is to have (leneral
Pkhshinc's operations drag on Into
the Presidential campaign. Evidently
they do not know Pi:rsiumi. lie must
bo eating his heart out now because
two weeks have passed and lie has
not accounted for Fkvm inch Villa.
Certainly the Itrigadler In command
of tho American expeditionary force
could not be Used us a tool by tho
As for Mr. Wilson, ho must lie
walking the tloor nights because
Vilia lias not been caught. As the
President does not desire armed Inter
vention In Mexico he wants I'r.asiiiNii
to get out of the country as quick as
he can with the bandit loader alive
or dead. Tho longer American troops
remain It: .Mexico the greater tho
danger of grave complications with
the Carranza (Jovernment, which
President Wilson has recognized,
Ills Mexican policy will meet with
iibsoluio nml irretrievable failure If
a spark cots Pitt, the powder maga
zine neri Mil line.
The American people do not want
war with Mexico, au-1 they are fear
ful that If the purwilt of Villa Is
prolonged for mrny days It may bo
Impossible to convince th Mexicans
that armed intervention Is not in
truded. Mr. Wilson understands
this, and he knows that If he tried
to turn the Mexican expedition to
political account he would be playing
with tire nnd In the end would pet
burned. Even his opponents In the
Semite should gto him credit for ns
much sense. They nre certainly not
showing ordinary Intelligence when
they bring such n charge ngnlnst him.
It Is chn.rltn.bto to suppose that they
nre suffering from the megrims.
Senator Lawion'a Folic Rill.
Senator Lawron'h hill dividing the
ImiIIco force Into grades nnd fixing the
salaries of Its members is mandatory
lcglslntlon regulating the Internal af
fairs of this city. It Is a sample of
the class of enactments that Inter
fere with the administration of the
town's government, tnko the taxpay
ers' money without consulting them,
and weaken the authority of tho Ul
cers elected to mniiago the business
of the city.
It should be defeated, not becnuse
of the charncter of the pay schedules
It proposes, or because It would Im
pose n new and unnecessary burden
on tho trensury, but because It Is In
fingratit violation of the principle of
home rule. The Board of Estimate
and the Hoard of Aldermen nre the
legislative bodies that should decide
what salaries should bo paid to po
licemen, firemen, street clenners nnd
other city employees. The Legisla
ture should have nothing to do with
such details of housekeeping. It
cannot know the city's needs, how
ever well Informed It may be on the
ambitions of Its prospective bonell
claries; nnd the property owners of
New York are ns much entitled to
consideration- ns are the men they
hire to serve them.
Swelling a Redundant Currency.
Why nre the Federal lleserve banks
putting out circulating notes like the
national bunk notes mid like them
secured by Government bonds?
This question, which we ask for
the third time. Is not answered by
the communications which Tin: Sr.v
lias received from the Treasury De
partment and elsewhere, nor by the
iinllltitnluatlng comments of our
neighbor tho U'orM. Such response
us our Inquiry has so far evoked has
dealt with the figures of the coun
try's huge supply of currency and
their significance. It misses or avoids
the point of our interrogation.
Tho currency figures were adduced
In discussion of the original question,
but rather to shapo the inquiry ns
bearing on the future than to debate
the immediate portents of iuilatloii.
The facts about currency condition"
are that the circulating medium of
gold, silver nnd paper In the United
States rose from $111.55 on March 1
1!1.. to $I!S.5I on March 1. liH, and
that this was the largest gain for
nny year In the past century except
the Increase from $10.'J3 In 1S02 to
S17.S4 In 1803. The situation is re
deemed somewhat by the prevailing
gold character of the recent Increaie.
but when there Is an alinoriii.nl cur
rency of gold the excess urges n con
traction of paper money.
Nor does It make much difference
whether the existing situation Is de
scribed In terms of Inflation. We
shnll agree to speak of the currency
ns merely In n state of plethoric re
dundancy, but the question still r'
mains: Why are the Federal lleserve
banks apparently operating to aggra
vate this condition by paper money
Through the Kansas City lleserve
Hank, the nearest to the centre of the
cheap money delusion with which pol
Itlcs has been aflllcted for decades,
the reserve banking system has dur
ing the month of March been adding
Its own bond secured currency to the
other varieties and to the total of the
monetary circulating medium. All the
circumstances of the money market,
of financial conditions generally, and
especially of the stock of currency,
call for a contraction of paper money.
It will not be disputed that the re
serve banking system was established
to facilitate currency contraction
when such contraction wus desirable;
but It Is not working that way.
More than that, the reserve hanks
are apparently planning through the
Owen bill, recently Introduced into
tho Senate to nmeinl the Federal lie
serve act, for a larger freedom of or
dinary reserve note Issue in the fu
ture. Tim Owen bill, which purports
to represent the Idea of the Federal
lleserve Hoard, provides, among other
thing', for changes In the restrictions
placed on ordinary reserve note Issues
Mint will conduce to easier note ex
pansion. Yet nothing Is more certain
Hunt that advantage will be taken of
opportunities for expansion nf note
lsiies when liberal facilities are af
forded, and that the result will bo
an Increased difficulty of contraction
when the currency Is redundant.
It Is not Tun Si'n'h present pur
pose to start controversy on the do.
gree or danger of financial luilatlon
which may now bo detected, but to
direct attention to the processes con
tributory to the further Inflation of
a money supply already abnormal lo
which Ihe Federal lleserve system
seems to be lending Itself. Whether
the reserve bank organization Is an
engine of luilatlon depends In the lat
analysis on what It does.
At the Kurt of the Story.
Who wrote Siiakksitark'n plays?
Is there, or Is there to be, a (Jreat
American Novel? Is tho new poetry
new, and Is It poetry? Answers to
iheo question!; and a multitude like
tliem are as evaslvo as tho Identity
of the assailant of Hilly Patterson,
but the quest Is never abandoned.
Equally enthralling of the Interest of
the unfenthered blpeM which love
better than anything el so n debate,
and best of all debates that which
leaves the question ns open ns It wns
before the floodgates of argument
pyrtcd, Is the question of the "happy
A "forthcoming feature of the fill
urns" has posed the question nnew.
Should tho picture story end hap
pily or tragically? Two dozen the
atre mnnagers nnd movie reviewers
sat In solemn conclnve on the weighty
question. They hnd tho ndvantnge
over llternry critics of swift ocular
demonstration of tho opposite possi
bilities. Two sets of pictures were
shown, one with Joy In the closing
scenes, the other with stnrk trngedy.
The volo wits n tie, one dozen for sen
timent, the other for logic.
Hut the vote was not strictly on
the merits of the question, nor was It
dlctnted by the unprejudiced opinion
of the Individual erllte., Itase com
mercial considerations ruled. Ity hon
est confession, tho voters agreed that
the sad ending was the more artis
tic, ihe happy ono false to the logic
of the plot. Hut these nrblters, torn
between nrt nnd business, left de
cision to the toss of a coin, nnd the
force of gravity decided that the pa
trons of the pictures would bo better
pleased to lose the nrt nnd the logic
and leave the theatre with smiles, not
tears, on .their faces,
Sentiment Is often gloomy, and
many nil affectedly stern looker on
In the world of drama loves surrepti
tiously to wet a handkerchief. And
there Is a difference between "what
the public wants" and what the fillers
of Us paii bottle say It wants.
Hut the question of the happy end
lug Is still In suspense. Why do not
the screens anil the books compromise
by offering both? If the unkind "law
of diminishing returns" forbids such
generous provision for differences In
taste, we might at least have our
stories put up In alternative forms.
Thus picture plays could be an
nounced for Mondays, Wednesdays
and Frldajs with happy ending, and
for Tuesdays. Thursdays nnd Satur
days with the tragic conclusion, while
novels could be put out In loose leaf
editions, with the last chapter In
pamphlet form to bo tucked Into an
envelope Inside the bnck cover, to suit
the buyer's taste.
Mr. Kltrhln's Awakening.
We recently suggested that enact
ment of needed Federal laws was Im
perilled because of lack of sympathy
shown by Hepresentutlve Claude
Kitciiin with the legislative pro
gramme of preparedness. We have
freely admitted Mr. KneiuVs emi
nent ability to perform the duty for
which he as majority leader In the
House Is primarily responsible, while
lamenting his failure to proceed with
that duty.
It Is a pleasure now to note evi
dence that Mr. Kitciiin Is acting with
skill nnd seeming determination his
proper role, a leader In s.vmpathy
with the respectable members, the
large majority, of Ids party. There
are agreealde signs that he has ceased
to heed, the malicious whispering of
the Nebraska Incubus.
The House caucus on the night of
March IM, caMcd by Mr. Kitciiin,
adopted plans to expedite considera
tion of important matters, the grent
supply bills, the bills required to re
plenlsh tli,e Treasury to provide those
supplies, the army and navy prepara
tion bills.
We have not doubted Mr. Kitcii
in's ability as a legislator; we shall
welcome occasion to praise him for
patriotic exercise of that ability.
A finnd Beginning.
It Is too early to estimate Nlwton
Dikiii. HvKmt's promise as Secretary
of War. He entered upon bis duties
with two things In bis favor: he was
a sound law.ver with a liberal mind,
ami as Mayor of Cleveland he bad
shown executive ability of no mean
order. He was not parochial; he had
mixed with men of all classes. It Is
true that no man could well know
less of the work of tho War Depart
ment, and his appointment was i here
fore sharply criticised. Hut In ad
mitting his shortcomings and taking
off his coat In a businesslike manner
Mr. H.vurit mnde a good Impression,
Although confronted by the unavoid
able Mexican adventure he kept his
head and Ills temper. He did noth
ing to make the Judicious grieve. The
country soon got used to lilm as Sec
retary of War.
It Is not our purpose to praise
Secretary IInkli:. He lias his spurs
to win, and is being put to a severe
test. Encomiums would bo prema
ture. Hut accounts of him agree that
ho learns quickly nml remembers
what he learns. Ho displays zeal
and he Is Industrious. Everybody
who does business with Secretary
Hvia.it finds 1 1 1 m attentive and polite,
Ho understands without long expla
nations. Ills tact Is unfailing.' So
far so good, but Mr. Hakkii has a sllll
better title to the public regard: he
trusts the army officers In his De
portment and leans upon them for In
formation to guide him In tho dis
charge nf Ids duties. It Is said that
he at once made friends with the
(leneral Staff. Ho was wise, for
thorn Is no more competent and con
scientious officer In the service than
MaJor-tJeneral Hriui I.. Scott, and
the assistants of the Chief of Staff
have been selected for the qualities
lie possesses, '
As soon as It fell to Secretary
Haki:ii to organize the expedition Into
Mexico ho turned to (leneral Scott
for advice and followed It In every
particular. A niaii Willi u single
track mind would hnvo hemmed nnd
hawed, tried to look the part of Sec
rotary of War, and delayed the game.
Hut Mr. Bakkh saw them waa no time
to lose, cut nut ceremony, and ap
proved of everything General Scott
proposed to him. That Is to any, he
understood his own limitations, wns
not afraid of being thought Ignorant
of his new duties, nnd Instinctively
felt that In the Chief of Stnff he had
n loyal nnd capable subordinate.
In this attitude of Mr. Hakk.r we
see the brightest promise of his suc
cess ns Secretary of War. In n
democracy such ns ours Is ihe heads
of the War and Navy deportments
should he civilians, but they should
respect the professional skill of the
officers appointed or selected to nsslst
them, nnd they should know how to
avail themselves of It. A Secretnry
of either department who Imposes
his ltiexerlence on tho service, dis
regards technical advice, rebuffs men
of merit, violates traditions, Intro
duces imlltlcs Into his administra
tion, gathers favorites nnd parasites
around him, nnd sets tip as n Pooh
Hah or boss, will end by demoralizing
the service and ruining Its prestige.
To Judge from the beginning he has
mode Nkwton I). Hakrb will not be
Hint kind of Secretary.
The Innorenre of Poker.
"Poker," rules Magistrate I.kvy,
"cannot Justly be considered gam
bling." He supports the contention
frequently put forvvnrd by Old Man
Greenlaw, and sustained by the rec
ord of the proceedings In the back
room of that philanthropist's Arkan
sas City establishment. Poker Is nn
nrt, n science, n profession, nn In
dustry. From It the student derives
a liberal education ; hence its popu
larity at numerous Institutions of
learning. It comels attention, re
quires analysis, Inculcates caution.
No practitioner of poker will he dc
eclved by outward nppenrances; he
has lenrned thnt n dlsconsolnte fnce
may sit behind n full liniul.
The dlctlonnry, record of humnn
hopes nml progress, sustains the Mng
Istrate. "A game of cards In which
the players bet on the value of their
hands, and he whose hand contains
the highest group of card wins the
pool or entire sum wagered, provided
he has carried the'bettlng through":
this Is the lexicographer's stilted way
of saying that the best hand wins If
Us holder Isn't bluffed out. Hut:
Thouch orlRlnally always played for
money, ns Its technical terms show, It
Is now much played simply for amuse
ment, the player who Ikh rrrrwt counters
or chips nt tho end of ii specllled time
being accounted the winner."
So poker has Judicial and diction
ary vindication from the charge that
It l gambling: yet we have been
told that gamblers adapt It to their
nefarious purwises. Their depravity
transforms this Innocent and highly
Intricate pastime into an agency for
the extraction of good money from
the pockets of some for the edifica
tion of others; nnd tills abue of the
national recreation, rather than nny
Inherent wickedness of the game It
self, we take to lie responsible for the
fact that the name of poker Is associ
ated with frightful objects, nnd In the
form Old Poker designates specifi
cally that foe of mankind whoso com
moner appellation Is the Devil.
With Its war on cocktails and ciga
rettes for girls, Philadelphia Is giving
tho lie to nn ancient reputation.
As we watch the toilsome efforts to
save by the f.itnillnr plea of Insanity
n particularly cold blooded murderer
from punishment for his crime, wo are
Irresistibly moved to hellcvn that "the
man from Kcypt" may be a closn
kinsman of Oliver Oborne.
"ThrouRhmit Its hltnry." says C F.
MAnvi.v nf the Weather lliireau, "the
bureau ha been called upon from tlmo
to time to caution the public against
nuw fchemes for forecasting the
cither weeks or months In advance."
Is there a cynic mean rnoush to say
"Physlclnn, heal thyself"?
He ran ilrlnk nnd linld h end up.
Chatactrr (ruMmm!; or 11 irr mlniK In
th Supreme Court.
Well meant, pcrlinp", but such evl
denco cotnc.i dangerously near to
enrolling the man m wlnwe behalf
It Is given ns a "good fellow "
Thu Authors Club of this city will
celebrate tho one hundred ami fiftieth
anniversary of.the birthday of I'.aron
Mr.vciursKN on tho evening of April
f. The publishers nre rlu-ht, authors
aro grnwtnu constantly more grasp
ing. Mcnchavsrn Is the special prop,
erty of the AnanlaH Club. Tho Au
thors Club may be In grave danger of
n sdlt for datnnKen.
The forty-three seniors nt Princeton
who nny they have never kissed the
girls lack something. Is It candor or
Pleasant Forecast From Pleasant llle.
To Tiin Koitoh or Tim Ki'N Mr,- Thin
year cks will bo much ehrnper than
iisual for Duster The springlike Janu
ary th.iw wns uuliidy followed bv a
heavy snow, nature- blanket to pro
tect the growing sr.-is-n.
When tln spring ralni rome to be
absorbed by mother earth llo.ustfiil
Uluehcaid mil lead h!s wives to tho
green pastures, whern lilddy will eel
tho succulent grass, or perchance, nip
the luckless worm.
Yes, eggs this ear will bo rmich
cheaper than usual for Batrr.
('. H. QfiNnr.
Plkahaktvim k, March 20.
New York.
Would ou know what Naw York tat
To tha Kaat Sid" hie,
Whera lha alien faeea fuaa,
Militia, live ami die.
river)- rhtp pnira In a atream
Of the )iolglot,
Tor Ihe nation Nriv York afrvea
Aa n nieltlnic pnt.
Would nu know lint New York li?
To Ihe Went Hide hie,
Where nlnnc the (lrnt YVMta Way
W edll liy lohttora lo.
!r.in from I'rlaco, drnvn from M.ilna,
Pone m heurt rould wlah,
For tha nation Now York aarvea
At ctiaflna" dlh,
Mcl.snnrn VVitaos,
The Conflict Retiree State an Fed
eral Jarlioictlna.
To tiik Km mn or Tiik Sun Sir: In
Tub Hvs of March 23 appears a con
tribution by Mr. Stuyvcsant Fish on
railroad regulation. Mr. Fish suggests
that Federal Incorporation would nut
be availed of by tha strong companies
because such nctlon would Involve re
linquishment of valuable, rights granted
by the Htntes, would neressltiite a.
chnngo of corporate mono and loss of
eood will and credit. He concludes that
Federal Incorporation would only com
plicate nn already Involved situation.
Concurrent regulation by tho Federal
Government and by the sjtatcs creates
nn Impossible situation, While theoreti
cally the Federal flovernmcnt concerns
Itself with Interstate, commerce and the
eeral States with commerce within
their respective borders, the fact U
that each and eiery ono of these gov
ernmental ngencles Is regulHthiK not the
abstraction "commerce," but the rail
roads over which "commerce among the
States" Is conducted. Whatever affects
ono portion of such an organism ns a
railroad nrfects every other portion. The
rates established nnd the practice or
nppllances demanded In State A, though
confined In terms to Intrastate com
merce, necessarily affect the rates and
practices In sjtate II, nnd In each case
there Is an Immediate bearing upon the
rates and practices of the roads over
which Interstate commerce Mows. When
thin condition of conflicting policies end
methods In applied to all parts of the
railroad stem of tho country the con
trol of Interstate commerce, reserved to
Congress by tho Constitution Is lost. No
consistent policy In respect to tho trans
portation system can be carried out by
the Federal ilnvernment so long an the
present condition continues.
If a single Hgeney Is to take the place
of tho numero'ui agencies now Imposing
their conflicting regulations upon the
railroads that single agency must be of
Federal creation. The dislike, some
times exprersed. to nny extension of tho
Federal jurisdiction Is In this casn with
out warrant. The States rpresly sur
rendered their right to Interfere with
"commerce, among tho Ktntes," and tho
power of control Is verted In Congress.
Oohgrc has exercised that power In
part. Hates aro the llfeblood of tho
roads, nnd t'ongress having ascrtod Its
power In that particular. It remains
only In adopt a comprehensive system
that will nut an end to the nrefent eon
lllct and Inure to the benefit of tho coun
try and of the railroads. The two
things nro too chwely bound tgeher
ror narrow vious in prevail.
The problem becomes one of method
Will Federal Incorporation tnture a Fed'
eral transportation syMem, or must
Congress assert Its power through n
scrloB of enactments which will so
occupy tho Held of regulation ns to ex
elude outside Interference?
Ciilcss Congress has the Inherent
power, under the Constitution, to occupy
the whole field of control, to tho ex
clusion of tho States. It cannot by Fed
eral Incorporation or any other means
exeixise that control. A Federal charter.
of and by Itself, Is not a talisman
against State action of nay and evciy
Federal chatters for railroads are not
a new thing. Tho fact Is often over
looked that iinny of the iranscuntlneir
tal lines were Incorporated under special
charters granted by Congress. These
charters h.ie been before tho court for
interpretation. In the case of Itegan
k. Tru-t Companv, 111 t" ... 413, the
Supreme Court (Hretter. .1.. i. 4 I'll sa5.s;
"Conceding to Congress tho power to
remove the corporation In all Its
operations from the t.mtrul "f Cie State,
there in the a.t creating thin I-
pany ITexas and P.icifl- R.tilvx .t C.un
Pali) 1 nothing will, n Indicate nn la
tent on the part of Congress so to re
move it . it (Congress) must
have known that. In tb nature of thing',
the control ,,f that bllMine would be
exercis.-d by the State, and If It deemed
that thu Interests of tho nation and tho
discharge of the duties required on In
half of the nation from thin corporation
demanded exemption In all thlnm from
State control It would iiliqueatlonably
have expressed such Intention In lan
guage who-e meaning would be clear."
The principles to be deduced fiom this
and slmil ir decisions nre that Congress
has tho iwcr to occupy the whole Held
of railroad control, to the exclusion of
the several States; and that the clll
ency of the Federal regulation must de
pend upon the provisions of the act of
Congress authorizing bueh Incorporation.
If the railroad Incorporation act shall
disclo'e a clear intent on tho part of
Congress to remove the corporations so
creiitdl from State cuntrol, the reult
will l' nccumpludted, If such Intent Is
not adeiiu Hi ly declared, tho Federal
charter vciil not be a m itter of much
consequence, V.eu then It would pro.
tect tho road Incorporated under Its
provisions from unfriendly discrimina
tion hi taxation of franchises. Ac. but
the fart would remain that Congress had
not assumed its full power and the
States were sull left to follow their
local prejudices and polbles. It Is
equally certain, however, that a Federal
Incorporation net based on the clearly
conceived theory that nil of these roads
and their comiev lions and brandies con
stituting a national transportation sys
torn, which might n.it be continued by
the several Stales, would bo effective to
bring outer out of the present wasteful
and liinutic condition.
What of the oblee'lon that to accept a
Federal charter would entail the Ion of
rights granted by the States, a change
of corporate name and consequent loss of
gootl will nnd credit?
The national blinking act llb-v. Stats,
See. Mil) permitted Slate banks to be
come natlon.il bank by a very simple
method. A majorltv ef the director,
with th consent nf two-thirds of the
stockholders, executed n certlllCMte of
association, Thla vva sent lo the Comp
troller, who thereupon Issued a cerllll
cate or charter. It was provided In the
net that the director should continue In
itllce till a new election was held, and
the shares of sloik, might lemnln
tinehangoil In construing the act the
courts have held that "Stale binks may
avail themselves of It privileges anil
subjeit themselves to Its liabilities with
out abandoning their corporate) exNtenor,
without any change In the organization,
olllceis, stockholders or property and
without interruption in tbeir pending
business or contracts. As be
tween it (the bank nnd tho who
have contracted with It, It retains Its
Identity, notwithstanding It acceptance
of the privilege of organizing under the
national banking act," (National Hank
vs. I'lilllli. 97 N Y r.n, ) And further.
'The transaction did not disturb the
relation of either tho stockholders or
ottlcers of the corporation, nor rilil It en
large or diminish the asset of the In
stitution. These nil remained the same
under the national ns they worn under
the Slate oiganlzatlon " (Coffev vs.
Hank. 4-S Mo, H0.) ,t said by one of
the courts, the process Involved was a
mere transition nnd not n new creation,
ns evidenced by tho fact that no iisslgn
ment of tho nssels was necessary.
Is It not fairly to be Inferred from
tho decisions limited Hint acceptance of
n Federal charter could under no cir
cumstances abate' the rights heretofore
conferred upon roads, assuming of
course tint tho a i for Federal incor
poration Is properly designed' These
cases nlso Indicate that no change of
enrpornte nanin or organization need
occur, and there need not be, therefore,
nny loss of good will or credit, If Con
gress shall evince n desire to nccoinpllsh
a iieceisnry end ht'thn simplest and best
manner possible, n In I ho case of the
iwitlonnl b-iuKiug net, one nf the funda
mental difficulties In our present method
of railroad legiilatlnn ran be icadlly ie
moved through a proper Federal Incor
poration si I'ntll the confllci between
Slate and Federal Jurisdiction I ended,
thero ran bo no such thing as icsponsl
blo.rvllrnad regulation, Federal Incor
poration would Hceni to be tho first stop
toward that end, M. !., Jr,
Plltt.Apn.i'illA, March 20,
Assistant fseereUry of the Treasury
Ktalalni the New Moaej.
To TiiaKDtTon or Tltr HVN Sir: An
editorial Article nmvfared III TltC HL'N
of March 28 entitled "Inflating tho Cur
rency" thnt contains some statements
which ro l kelv to convey an erroneous
Impression to the ordinary individual. It
la stated thnt on the face of tha figures
contained In the Treaeury etatcment of
March 1, 191(1, the per capita circula
tion of paper money In the United
States made a gain of $4 In the twelve
month from March t to March I. This
statement without a proper explanation
conveya the Idea that there haa been
great Inflation In the paper circulation
during the past year.
As a matter of fact, the circulation
statements show that the general stock
of money In the United States Increased
1483,966.428 from March 1, 1915. to
March 1, 1916, but as the gold stock
Increased I4SS.514.37S during that time
there wns nn actual decrease of nil
other forma of money of 82.577,944. The
nctunl cold does not go Into circulation,
but Is represented by gold certificates,
which aro, In one ecnee, paper money,
but ns each dollar represents a dollar
In gold In the Treasury It ehould prop
erly be considered as gold In circulation,
and not as paper, Ho far, therefore,
from half a billion dollars or more of
paper money having been added to the
circulating supply In the last year, ap
proximately that amount haa been added
In gold to the general stock of money
In the United titates.
Whether this situation calla for con
traction of currency may be a question
for debate, but It certainly does not call
for auch contraction for tho reason
given In your paper, that the Increase
consists of paper money.
William P. Mat-nunr,
Assistant Hecretary of the Treasury.
Washington, I). C, March 29.
Inflation by Bank Loan.
you not drawn wrung conclusions from
tho figures given In your editorial article
on "Inflating tho Currency"? You say
that a gross Increase of 8581,741,000 Is
shown: which Is reduced to a net In
crease of 454,180,000 by decreases of
1159,(100 In the Treasury notes of 190
and $127,402,000 In national bank notes.
You ndd :
Nevertheless, lha currency statistics dis
close that half a billion dollars or moro of
paper money has been sdded to the circu
lating supply In the last )ear. Thla de
notes an extraordinary situation, one that.
In view of tha easy condition of the money
market, calls for a contraction rather than
fresh expansion.
Po not the figures which you aivo
show a material contraction of partly
covered currency? The two classes of
Issues. 838O.O5S.ft0O of gidd certificates
and tl63.37S.000 of Federal lleserve
note.. Aggregating 8543. 416.000. arc
nothing more or less than warehouse
certificates for a corresponding amount
of gold . and tho only Inflation they
represent Is gold Inflation. The In
creases In silver certificates, United
States notes nnd Federal lleserve bank
notes, aggregating 83S.3O4.O0O. are offset
by the decreases of 1159.000 In the
Treasury note of ls.90 and 1127,402,000
In national bank notes, a total of 8127,
601,000; or an actual decrease In partly
covered paper Issues of 889,157,000 dur
ing the past year.
It l my understanding that a grenter
part of the cash reported by the banks
of the New York Clearing Mouse Assn
elation us gold Is realty gold certificate:-,
hut one would hardly call this paper
mone.v" In the sene In which the term
Is ied In your article
The really serious Inflation of the past
year ha occurred In the bank loans,
the rehirts of the Comptroller of the
Currency showing nn Increase In the na
tional bank loans of the country of
jsni.flon.ono during the year l?ir,, nnd
the reports of the New York dentine
House bank. anil trust companies show
ing a loan lncreae of 97i.noo,nfto from
March 27. 1915. to March 25. 1916.
John FiNLtT.
New Tor.K. Marii 29.
(letting Hie Scalpers Is Cnod. hut Only
a Beginning.
To tiif. KniToh oi- Tiik Sl'n sir: The
arreet of five avalpers In front of the
Metropolitan Opera House Is to be com
mended. 1 cannot understand why It
was necessary to send women detec
tive and plain clothes men to "round
up" theee scalper when any num
ber of pollce-nen who must also know
that thiee men are breaking the law
stand about the opera houe. Why
should not they make the necessary ar
rets? 1 hope the good wink will go on. but
It seem to me that not only should
these scalper be arrested and lined,
but something nhould be done with the
management of the Metropolitan. The
real fault for this ticket scalping nui
sance Ilea in the box ofllce. If the
managers of our New York theatres
were arrested and third, as they could
be under the law governing this par
ticular matter. I nm sure the right step
would be taken to abolish this most Ir
ritating custom. llt-sroN I.. Kamiali..
New-auk. N .T . March 19.
ow "the F.xtra Child" Can Nave
To tiik Rpitor nr Tin: Ses Mr- It
I wnmxn'H glorious tresees, "Mere
Man," that has given her the pinver to
take man In as a kind of extra child,
n Mrs. Charlotte rerkins (illman so
Interestingly and scicnt'tlcally points
nut VV'oirmn has known this ever since
S.itpson, was overcome by the "en
chanted cup and warbling charms," lo,t
his hair nnd was undone". From that
day woman has been planning man's
downfall as she trim her treases with
Ihe moon and comks them In the sun's
glad rays.
With watchful ert she has observed
man's shiny dome appear; laughed with
glee as she saw lit lleetlng fringes fade
away, knowing full well that her time
was coming, for s man's hair went,
so went his wit, wisdom nnd strength.
Tho only way I see for man to eave
himself la to entrap woman and cut off
her hair: if lie doesn't ho Is gone. An
extra child ! He won't be anything.
Iamks n. liEwn.t., Jr.
Nr.w If.wr.N, Conn., March 29.
Hard Drinking In I'rohll.lllon Knnsaa,
f'riini tr Hutt hin.nn .Vein
Th prohibitory law Is well enfered
down In Morton nniiity, Put the folk a at
tPLhirt nr hard drinkers One drug stnie
at l'.lkhart sold more root Pser Inst jear
than anv ether drug 'tut- In Kanas,
Oklahoma or Texas. Tho flgurrs nr from
tha atntlatlrnl pamphtM Issued br the
manufacturers nf the beverage,
Mlaaourian'a SIS Kar of Torn,
From tht Vnlonullt llepukllran.
It p.ia to rnlso good corn when ,?1S
can be made Irom a single ear. ,V l.lun
county farmer had what he conldered a
good rur nf ram and showed It nt ihe
I'urdln fair In October, where It won
first place and 81, At the fair In I.lim-us
the ear won 12, and tli owner, having
smelted blood, began to but for mnr', so
he entered It nt the St. Joseph shoiv,
whera It nlso won first and ir, in prize
In Hits I'rnneyUnnla llna.li l.rainr.
From thr Latrahr liuUttin,
Woson Hush of Peanut visited relatives
In tow ii en Suiidas
Miss Theresa llii.h nf Dei r vl.lled on
Sunday tit her home 111 town.
Mr and Xlis. VVilber (llbsnii and daugh
ter, little Mlaa Miirjartt. nr Derrj, were
over Sunday guests ut lha home nf Mrs
Olbson'a father, Henry Hush,
Ijiwrence Ruin waa a visitor In I.alrnbe
en Saturday,
With the llawn of Freedom Her At-
tltude Has Changed.
To tiik FniTon op Tub Sun sin Vic
tor Herbert, tho distinguished musician
and composer of delightful music,
added nothing to his laurels when In
put aside lila baton and scores and took
up hla pen to write, nt savernl column
length In THE Sl!N, about the attitude
of the Irish toward the world war, Mr
Herbert tackled a subject which lie noes
not understand, nnd reminds mc of the
English cnndldate for an Irish parlia
mentary constituency, In bis gifted
grandfather's novel, who when asked
If he understood tho Irish replied thnt
the wholo we were "quite Incompre
hensible." Thnnk heaven for a sense
of humor In thn Irish people and for
alasence of hard feelings toward those
who misrepresent im to the world !
Mr. Herbert, Cleiman by education,
though Irish by birth and descent, Is a
generation behind the times In the
views which he presents. The Impres
sion be tries to create, that tho Irish
hate Knxlanrf, is grotesquely Incorrect.
It might be prematuro to say that the
Irish love Knglnnd : but tliei haired has
gone out of their hearts. The Ktisland
of to-day la not tho Fnglarul of a gen
eration ago. If It were, a corporal'
guard could not lie enlisted hi Ireland
for service In tho Hrltlsh army.
I have not forgotten, nor can any
true Irishman ever forget. Hint less than
a generation ago the machinery of Eng
lish law Bnd the forces of the Hrlllh
Crown were used ruthlessly to drive
the Irish from their homes often to die
by the roadside or seek a refuge In the
poorhouse ; nor do those of us who wit
nessed those things deny or evade the
fact that we then hated England with
an Intense hatred, and longed for the
day when her difficulties would nffoid
us tho opportunity to throw off an alien
and tyrannical rule. Itut England's
treatment of the land of oar birth lias
hnnged. and our sentiments townrd her
have been softened accordingly. For a
number of years past England has been
making generou amends for the wrongs
of the past: and Irishmen's thoughts
nre of n happy present and not of the
cruelties of a bygone time.
Ireland I prosperous and happy, nnd
tho day of her freedom, constitutionally
obtained. I nt hand. She mny not love
England nt present: but her feelings are
working in thnt direction. The hun
dreds of thousands of Ireland's sons
who have cnllted In the army arc not,
however,' pouring Into the trenches to
fight for England alone. Neither are
they fighting for France alone: nor even
solely for outraged little Kelglum. They
are fighting tho battle of humanity,
fl-ihtlng to free even Germany Itself
from the tyranny of Prussian despotism.
Tlic beloved land of our adoption, like
all other rounltles, Is vltnlly' Interested
In the enitcntne of the conflict : and may
(lod preserve her In pence to share In
the fruits of the victory by which right
will yet be crowned. James Kuii.i.t.
KlKiEwesnp, N. J.. March 29.
Figures for Imports anil Fx ports of
F.ngland and (Jcrniany Compared.
To tiik EiiiTor. or Tut: Hvs sir; In
a letter to Tiik SrN Mr. Alfred Mueller
says that England Im fighting liermany
"because of rivalry In trade." Taking
otllclal ilgtircs lsnl by tho Hoard of
Trade for twenty yearn provlous to
1912. these being the latest figures I
have, 1 llnd that In 1X92 Hrltlsh Im
ports and e-xpoitx amounted to 715.
131,04.. Ten years later. In 1902. these
had been Increaeol to 77,'!3O,053, and
In 1912 hnd risen to l,34U,lftl.7l. or an
Increase In twenty yeais of 02!.1S7.
713. I have not the later Ce.-nian figure.,
but 1 tlnd thai In 1911 eiermau imports
and export amounted to f,fi42.i77,nnt,
as i .iinpared to tie llntlsli I,2.'l7,n.'t'!,
non, shi.weu- II. , i.un ahead of ijermany
in that year by nearly f 3(io,iiiiii,iiou,
And let it not be forgotten that the
population of llrltnln Is only 41,U00,Oii(i
as against liermany's fiC.OOO.Ono, giving
the Utter .i numerical superiority 4u
labor, who,, tale of wages Is lower
than In !ieat llrltnln.
It may .nt.-iest Mr. Mueller to know
that in n-aard to shipping the mercan
tile marine of llrltnln In 1912 amounted
to 20.50ii.ooo tons gross, as compared
vvltli Germany's 5,000,000 tons gross.
Sew Yohk, March 29. It. C. H.
Will a l.Ittlo Lesson Suffice Thoe
Whose Theories Kill Soldiers'.'
To tiik KniTon or Tiik Si-N---.Nfv If
ine i intra Mates should become em
broiled In actual w.i t fare with a foreign
nation and the deplorable untitness of
our army be undeb.it.ibly shown to our
citizens, may vengeance for ihe crime
fall on the heads of the political mar
plot, who have fought with tooth nod
nail ngalnt every mow made In this
country to put our defences In an ade
quate stale of preparedness;
Where are the cUimplons of their fal
lacious cause who have proclaimed from
one end of the land to the other that
a iMtlon prepaicil nnd ready to meet
emerg-ncie when thev arise Is more
likely to becnyie Involved than one blind
to the dangers Insetting It on till side,
that puts Its trust for protection In the
bauds of the llaguo Tribunal to save it
from disaster In tho time of adversity"
They aro strangely quiet now. Their
blitant cries are stilled. , dismal c.
lorv is theirs, for never was a nation so
wofully unlit to defend ltef ,r avenge
the murder of Its citizens ss we tlnd our
selves at Ihe present time.
Where the conflagration will end no
one e-.m foietell, but a v-.e are drawn
dre?r and deeper Into the nvlio let those
who by their mall, e or Ignorance ,-om-luted
tho picas and fffoitt. of patilotlo
citizens to prepare, learn to their sorrow
tint .ve must pay In lives of our soldiers
s.uilflccd while fighting lo avenge the
murders of our countiynun, and all so
unnccessaiy E, Maiiki.v.
Glens Falls, March 29.
The Itetort Candid.
To tiik Eiutoi: or Tin: St:..- Sir: A
short time ago I iccclved from Itrprr
sentiitive Clyila H. Tavcnncr two
pamphlets entitled "The Navy League
I'nm.'iFked" and "The World Wide War
Trust." I was therefore Impelled to
write, that gentleman thl letter:
I am one ef pre.iutuMv a number of
P-rsoii, annoyed by the recel,,, of ,.,
speeche, ,.,.,. by oa It, H. II,,,,.,. ,f
ll.pre.entatlve.. I therefore fee, n,
eny l say In , nu that j-o are. m
opinion, one of tl,. tip. of Cott, ,,.
most Atm-.'ra'is feel a-hnnid nf Cork
nnd polities .,-ein to o. eupv eon- r-,t ie
timr. wlil'e eiirmanshlp l sn unktioon
quantity. I am both glad nnd i."-, tint
mi srn not Ihe Coni-r' uman f em oi)
Such Congres'tnen lead one to believe
lhat If we could ,e rid of Congress we
should be better off, for then something
would be done by united actum to meet
the grave emergencies that ii" now con.
f milling u. s. w. M.
Nrvv York, March 2P.
A I'osxlblllt) ; Not Yet a t'erlalnl).
To thi: Editor or Tin: son sir- The
Herman Americana are against Ameri
can prepaieilness almoet 'o a man. Hut
they approved preparedness In Ocrmnnv
on tlie ground thai England was a.iiilug
to eruh that nation,
Now they say thai Enslniul pie.
pat.iig to ertish the Fulled Slates .'itol
yel thev ate against prepnicln.e In
the l'nileil Slates
Is not t'us , ut-loii. im nnsivleoe t
revelation of the teal Teutonic attiiiide
tow unt t'us nation'.' ItoiiKi-.s T.vri.iT..
Nkw Yens., March 29.
Knlckarllnw far have not
Itnckrr Preparedness for preparedness
I'ruposttl to TfPtiuro XiiinliiT ,,
21 Is Inrtorsrd hy nie
of 22 lo 1(5.
The first clash between the ,i
nnd Churchill factions In the toir(
Education since the annual ele-tnn .,
February 7 came yeaterday nt a ip'- ,,
meeting called by William CI. Win, ,v
president, to discuss the term. of
I.orkwood-lvlncnld hill, recently nirn.
dueed at Albany by flenntor lvkwmi
of Hrooklyn nnd Assemblyman Ulrica 1
of Syracuse.
The bill was drafted by l)r Thnrnn
13. Flnegan. deputy State Superintended
of Education, nnd though not at ".-
accepted by the city administration h.i
since lieen approved by Mayor MttrV,
Among Its provisions Is the cutting dons,
of the Hoard of Education from i'e pres.
ent membership of forty -six to twenty,
Thn resolution favoring that e-"B
of Hie bill was forced through Hie loj-i
of Education yesterday despltn tl ic e-ps
sltlon of the antl-admliilstration fnn-.i
led by Thomas VV. Church. II. for-n.
president of the board. When tl ' r,.
Union was read I'resldenl Wllleox k m
for a vote nnd wns putting the quest
when Mr. Churchill demanded tl r 'hci
be a discussion of Its mensures fore
the board,
Mr, Churchill then nsKr.l that no
tlnn be taken and read a teleisrain frena
Albany saying that the gem-rat ln-ir-j
on education Ii n r) lecH Inile'fim'rl) post
poned In the Legislature and -hat
Immediate action was needed He a ,4
that the matter Is referred o lap mm
mitten on by-law and legMatnni for t.
report, as none had yet been rr,e,,d
"It Is a rank waste of timr. s.ni Mf,
Churchill, "debatln.' on a measure I,i4
Is honeycombed with erior nnd ,s re-,
t n i ti of defent. I would like to xniw
the reason for the inemir of thi
lioard wanting the numl-er fixed nt tev
ty-one. Is It because Ur, riiug.iti san
twenty-one and wo mils' follow lilt
sheep? There Is no good reason for that
number, and this Is simply a facionil
thing. Mr. Martin, now so nun h t
favor nf twenty-one, told me t"t hrt
aao that he knew of no reason whv
number should be reduced. V Isrs
board will I n Isetter board Th prei.
rut number has been In force for a n-ur.
bcr of year nnd there has been nj blot
on our escutcheon. Forty- is te
large a number to have In on cor.
Mr Martin oke In defence of (
nttitude. say lug he bad never made
statement attributed to him by M
Churchill, slid that be wns In favor of
a small l-oard because l.e thought trs
quality of the members would b Im
proved. C.eorge J. Olllespie. a support'" of tht
Churchill faction and It candidate fo
the presidency until the day of the e't
lion, when Mr. Churchill requested thf
he withdraw from the Impending defeat
said the board had no right to vote "
the question, ss the by-laws eominltt
lad made no report. He was rule,
down by President Uillcox, who ordrei
u vote taken.
Mr. Churchill then passed to th ss-.
reiary a request signed by six members
asking that tho matter bo laid over. bU
1 'resident Wllleox again called for a
roll call ami John Martin's reso.ti'.-r
favoring the passage of the bill and I
dorslng the mcnsuie to cut do t
Hoard of Education was passe 1 ey a
vote of 22 to 16.
Morton Stela of the Churchill fartler
then ititrodtice-d n resolution lo vacatt
the oi.e already passed.
"There has never been rjeft
despicable exhibition of politic! teen c
this floor." said Mr. Stein. "You nil
that the I.ockwood-Kluc.ild bill sho'J
be considered Item by item, and ti
you, Mr. Chairman, are about t s
journ the other measures until 1 1 f
tare. 1 demand that the imcftic g v
and I Introduce a resolution de.ra-l'-j
thai the last resolution cc re. ,t ie !
Join Harrison of the .M ( til fores
i tit I l in el a counter resohine so
journing the hearing of the ot or Iter'
in the bill until next VVcdnc-day !.''
action bail been taken on M- ."
resolution. Mr Chtirebhl ! " 4't
that Mr. Stein's resolution be v M
and the Mitchel fore, In r!1 ci', vols',
to lay It on tin lab'e until t w'
Mr. Harrison's motion to ps-pn-s
Consideration of the other (tens
then put to a vote and can el br .
to 17.
The ten, hers' pension b '.I ! re
duced in the l.egilature Iv .-' T"
.r, 1, wood at d Assembly man K
wa iHciissed and approve n
stipulate n "Hint any ameriin.e-' f
upon by Ihe confereni-e o-i pet -Ihe
.Mayor's pension countess rtp"
lug optional entta ioe of a Pi""
be approved If practical."
Teiielier' I'elltlnil I'oreeasl '"
Flulit on I'lllll,
Ai.hanv. March 29 VV 1 M'
preiieni of the New ors
cts' Pension Assoilntloi, tr.e
Hie lo'le.rituic to-day a pot
New York city s, hool lea. oer
the lockwood-Eilcnbog' ti it
which wa Inttodliccd la-' '
the Indorsement of the j.
mlttee of the' Federated Tea '
elation and, it was so I t'
Tho pent nm miliar ,
flfty-i'Uht of the f.iiO . -.ion'
w.th l,r,52 t, aclicr !c,o .led
bill. At till- rale, i t .
a fail- etlmae would s w
d u
.,, " . ,T,
' ' on " ' ". ' ' J '
,' ' l.v I . ' ",l
. ,.r . ? t?i,"'- ""' '
' , ' '''' r. f. .
' ' '' '''"'?lve rate nf ,. I
the .'o.iiom teachers on-.o- t
out teacher.' i-onsoiit a. ,1
.! A ork ( enlre Xnnie. ln
Hnuuln na President uiuo
The annual meeting o'
(Vntie of the lirama I., ..
was held ycsterd.iv ai.
Theatre I'ramais M'- l -
gin w is leele. le, ! - .. '
M' i'irdy, Mrs .l.itmv II ,
and Samuel M Tu, k. , i.- .
ptes, dents . XI.... Lain i v
tarv, ami WIKlain II. H
Mrs. Ilaggln re.nl the ; ' -port
,11., I ills.-lls.ed plan ,
a fill tin r stimulation of
New Yoik William I: I'
of the educational cm i . ,
address asserted fiat I i ,
w lis tin- llin to sl.it t tl
Ihe presc'it sii. ike-oca' , . '
nifhr.ii on ,; muni llu.i.i' H
an illn-lialcl Iivtuie oi M
ciafl," an expos, t on i.'
done ,tln n,n by linrdon
Iti-inna: ,t Another fi e , .
Tucl er I erectors to sei-v i '
I weie elected as foions
I Mis. .lames W Alexin dor v
Wife, Holaiiil Holt, Pie' n ', "
K.lte Ugleliav. Mim I'll. ten e
M.-s Man s ,( and i ,e v ,

xml | txt