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The sun. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916, March 31, 1916, Image 6

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1'UIDAY, MAltCit'll. WW.
Entered at the l'n.t Offlie at New York
Hecond Class Mull .Matter.
MuWriplloni by Mall. Postpaid,
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All checks, money orders. Ac. to be,
made pj alle to The Pes.
Published dally. Iin-lurilnit Hiinrtn V. by the
Sun Printing ami Publishing Association at
tAO Nassau street, In the llorough of Man
Italian. New York. President ami Trcaj;
urer. William C. Itelek, lfai Nassau (irtrt!
Vice-President, Cdward 1. Mitchell. IJO
Nassau street; Hccretary, C I'. I.uxton. 10
Nassau street.
Intlon nBlce. 40. 4n Kleet aires'.
Paris nBlce, H Itiif ile la .Mlchodle re, off
Ttne iln qitatre Hcptembrc.
Washington office. Hlbbs Htilldlng.
llrooklyn office. lOH LIvltiK'lon street.
our fhendt icho lamr u irlth man.
mrrimtm nA lllb.lMlfrtn. fnr nil hllenti rta ICIsa
to fini-.f rtlttl'i nrtlrlf! rtturnri thti mf
n no cattra trnn biamps jvr inm r'r"i'
Colonel Roosevelt on Dr. Wllinn.
We have not the shadow of a doubt
that the great majority of Americans
tlnd satisfaction In Colonel Tnr.oiioKK
Hoomatxt'ss denunciation of President
Woouimvv Wilson's Mexican policy
and performances during the past
three jears and more. People are not
concerning themselves so much about
the time or manner of the .spirited
attack as about its truth.
It Is fair to say that Colonel Uoosi:
vklt's statement printed yesterday
merely concentrates and Intensities
the opinions he has been expressing
for month". This Is not a suddenly
adopted expedient of the calculating
campaigner. It Is entirely consist
ont with his pro tous utterances on
the subject. No politician now llv
Ing has u keener sense of opportunity
for political advantage, but here Colo
nel Uooskvelt Is only repeating, with
accumulated vigor and directness.
that which he has been saying ever
since the Administration's amazing
methods in Mexico attracted his at
tentlon nnd excited his Indignation
and disgust.
The consequences of the President's
Initial mistake and successive blun
tiers have become so evident to the
country that the toleration and re
Rtrnlnt of speech long exercised by
his fellow citizen as a patriotic duty
are now very generally contlned to
the immediate aspects of the situa
tion. Ho claims ami receives the sup
port of most good Americans In ills
emergency measures, In bis military
operations In Mexican territory. All
the same, in the broader view of the
whole chapter ot policy and the chro
nology of events, the record I clam
nlng; and Colonel Hoosi;vhti lias done
nothing more Hum to sum up the case
In the historical spiim more forcibly
.than anybody else has done.
Platforms, Past and Prospective.
It Is customary for the makers of
party platforms In Presidential years
to cover much ground in the present
ments they submit to the voters of
the country In their efforts to win
upport for their respective candl
(lutes. Major and minor issues, planks
Inserted from motives of expedience,
gurblcd history and seductive prophe
cies, catch phrases mid suggestive
material for campaign slogans, an
used to pad llieo platforms lonke
upon by political leaders as neicvary
nuisances, of ephemeral significance,
but to be handled with care, lest fatal
boomerangs may creep Into them
The average Presidential platform 1
composed in uncipial parts of fiction.
political economy, claptrap, statistics,
rainbows, apologies, promises, ,vyo.
flsnis, fallacies and tine vwltlng. If
n candidate for the Presidency shows
an Inclination during the campaign
to take liU party platform too seri
ously he receives a warning from Ills
managers in let ihe platform speak
for itself.
The underlying cause for the lack
of real significance pertaining to a
party platform In a Presidential year
lies in the lii'-t that circumstances
rather than men determine eventu
ully tlie leading Issue, forcing Itself
forward from a host of other national
problems, upon which any given cam
paign Is fought. Two great parties
may take diametrically opposite
points of view lipmi the tariff ques
tion, for example, hut the outcome of
the election may turn upon what a
ISlirrlianl siijs tu a Itlalne.
At the present moment, vvlili the
oiK'iiing of the coming Presidential
campaign less (lain three months off,
the average American is striving to
clarify his mind lo the end that he
may glimpse ihe great Issue that, de.
spile the befogging efforts nf plat
form makers, will bo net fall the
actual puiiil nf departure between op
posed voters. This endeavor may be
premature, as events of mighty mo
ment threaten to supervene between
now and next November, but somu
light may l thrown upon coming
possibilities through a process of elim
ination. It can be confidently as
sorted that the policies of Ihe present
Administration will be thrown upon
the defensive and under a heavy tire
of criticism, ami that the achieve
ments and shortcomings of the parly
In power In connection wltli domestic
affairs will be of secondary consider
ation compared to Its handling of our
foreign relations, The latest uttT-
ances of ItoosKM.i.x mid IJkyan, the
former denouncing Wilson's foreign
policy and the latter defending it, liave
in them much that Is prophetic, Thev
Indicate thai, willy ullly, the Admin
Istiiiiion must light for vindication
and retention of power upon that ono
of Hit' two pomlhto battlefields which
would lie least Inclined to choouc
ir tlin fray.
Under these elrcumstnncc! It mtpht
lio nttvlsuMn for the two lending par
ties to shorten their respect Ivo plat
forms this year, clltnlniitlni; nil Ir
relevant mutters, reducing up"Tfi.i
otis padding to n minimum nnd plac
ing the ono great Issue of these troub
lous' times before the voters of the
Dmitry from the two conflicting
standpoint!- that at present attract
tipixirtcrs to their antagonistic Htnnd-
ards. Hut whether the platform
innkers of the. leading parties work
together toward a simplification of
the coming political controversy or
not, destiny, or fate, or what you will,
seems to have decreed that the Amor
lean pcoplo ahull choose their next
President not for a variety of reasons
hut for extremely few.
Who In Behind the Proposed Em
bargo on Gasolene?
In support of his resolution nu
thorlzlng the President to put an
embargo on gasolene, Representative
Howard of Georgia declared that:
The refineries defend their action In
lUlnit extatlac and contemplated ex
orbtunt prlcea by saying that there I"
an lacreased demand occasioned by the
European -war. and a decreased produc
tion in crude oil.
".Neither of the statement ts true (f
the various Oovernment department,
Lie! ailing the Department of Commerce,
the Interior Department, the Interstate
Commerce Commission or Federal Trade
ComntiHHlon, are. to be credited.
The war In Europe ha not lacreaned
the exportation ot gasolene, but It has
The report of another governmental
Investigation foon to be made public
will show that the 'on hand' aupply Is
greater than at any time In the history
uf the country."
Assuming that the tiovernmcnt's In
formation regarding the gasolene on
hand nnd the decrease In the quan
tity exported Is nccurate, and cor
rectly reported by Mr. Howakd, how
would an embargo benetlt the domes
tic consumer? It would save, If it
were enforced, n certain quantity of
the product, of course, but would It
remedy a situation brought about in
spite of lessened shipments abroad
and Increased stock on hand? Mr.
Howard appears to believe that the
reliners have invented a falsehood
about their foreign trade to cover a
nefarious conspiracy to rob the do
mestic consumers. Should this turn
out to be the fact, they are capable
of devising nnother when thut now
in use wises to be available.
It must not he forgotten that in
the present situation all projects for
laying embargoes are open to grave
iispiclon. lie fore this radical and
dltllcult weapon is authorized, the
history of the movement that seeks
to employ It must be thoroughly In
vestigated, nnd the consequences of
Its employment must be considered.
One embargo authorized, another one
might be more readily acceded : gaso
lene would not lie. held up many days
before schemes for prohibiting other
exports would be put forward, and
In each case purely domestic reasons
urged in support of the policy might
hide a plan of serious International
A Railroad's Giant Achievement.
Too few Americans have hail the
opportunity to become aiipialtited
with the latest accomplishment of
American railroad engineering, an
achievement that Is Justly compared
In Importance with the llrst Journey
of a steam locomotive. With the an
iiotincement by the Chicago, Milvvaii
kee and St. Paul Hallway that Its task
of electrifying -MO miles of track Is
nearly completed a survey of this
latest railroad undertaking becomes
In the -MO miles between Harlow
ton, Montana, and Avery, Idaho, the
St, Paul mounts the Holt, Itocky nnd
Hitter Hoot Mountains and crosses
the Continental Divide. The Hclt
Mountains are crossed at nn altitude
of o.TTS feet at Summit ; the Pipestone
runnel at an elevation of i,'.V2'2 feet
at Donald Is a half mile bore through
the main Kocky Mountains, North
America's spine; the tracks of the
railway surmount the Hitter Hoot
range at an altitude of 4,11V! feet at
Kast Portal.
Hetween these crests trains must
climb a - per cent, grade for -0.!)
miles on the east approach to the
(Ircat Divide; Just west of the divide
there Is a grade of l.i'it! per cent, for
lo, I miles, mid a 1 per cent, grade is
found on the western sloos of the Hlg
licit Mountains for forty miles to
gether. Such gradients ns those cited
are csticctully dlfllcult for the steam
locomotive In winter weather, when
the loss of heat by radiation Is great
and much attention Is necessary at
every division point.
ln the other hand the electric loco
motive excels In cold weather. Low
temperatures keep Its motors cool, It
suffers no lessening nf speed or trac
tive power, and It can drive through
snowdrifts In which a steam locomo
tive Is helplessly stalled,'
These considerations, to which
were milled others, such us the ab
sence of smoke, the riddance of fuel
trains, roal and water stations nnd
ash dumping, led to tho decision to
spend $12,000,000 in electrifying the
mountnin divisions. (If the -MO miles
which It was decided to electrify, 115
miles, from Threo Porks to Deer
Lodge, are now In actual operation,
This Is the llrst time that electric
traction has been applied to tracks
covering several engine divisions and
exhibiting the most dllliculi tralllc
conditions that are known to rail
l-'leclrlcnl power to operate thesu
4-tO miles of roadbed and an addi
tional 160 miles of fpurs and ynrds Is
obtulned from the water power plants
of the Montana Power Company at
(Irent Palls, Montana. It Is delivered
to fourteen substations nlotig the
route of the railway. The substations
receive a 1tH),000 volt alternating cur
rent. It has to be delivered to loco
motives In 3.00(1 volt direct current.
The 100,000 volt alternating current
Is received through oil switches, I"
conveyed to the high tension current
distributer made up of three lines of
copper tubing, and there forms the
source of power for the substation.
Prom the current distributer the cur
rent Is conducted through other oil
swltcfies to the transformers. These
It enters at 100.000 volts nnd leaves
at LVtOO volts. It then goes through
switches to the motor generator sets
nnd supplies the power employed to
operate them.
There are either two or three motor
generators In each substation, and
they consist of one nlterntitlng cur
rent motor driving two direct current
generators. The motor Is of the CO
cycle synchronous type, which means
that the current chnnges sixty times
each second. Kneli set generates n
l,fiO0 or 2,000 volt direct current, nnd
the two generators, being perma
nently connected In series, deliver n
combined direct current of Ji.OOO volts.
This Is the highest voltage direct cur
rent used In railroad work anywhere
In the world. In ordinary street rail
road work only r."0 volts direct cur
rent Is used. After It has passed
through control switches this n.OOO
volt direct current Is conducted to
the feeder and trolley lines. Thence
It passes to the locomotive through
the pantngraph. the overhead contact
(responding to the trolley pole on
the ordinary street car.
Now, most overhead trolley con
struction consists nf a live wire sup
ported only by cross wires strung be
tween poles on both sides of the
track. Plainly this would not do for
mountnin tracks and winter storms.
The St. Paul adopted single poles on
one side of Its tracks. Kach pole
bears a bracket. These brackets sup
port a strong steel catenary, from
which twin trolley wires arc sus
pended at short intervnls by hangers,
The danger of the trolley wires break
ing nnd falling to earth has thus been
adequately guarded against, and the
twin trolley wire assures sparkless
collection of the heavy current at all
The locomotives are each of "St
tons weight and' cost about Sll'J.oOO
apiece. They will haul :,'Ji0 ton
loads trailing up a 1 per cent, grade
at an average speed of sixteen miles
an hour. Locomotives geared for
greater speed haul M) ton pnssenger 1
trains on the 1 la-r cent, grade at
twenty-live miles an hour. On a level
stretch this speed rises to sixty miles
an hour. Where the wood burning
locomotive of tlfty years ago had a
tractive power of .1,000 pounds ami
the present day Mallet steam loco
motive has a tractive iovver of 7.2tHi
pounds; these electric monsters, 112
feet and S Inches long, hnve a tractive
power of 83,000 pounds. '
The valuable feature of regenera
tive braking must not be overlooked.
It may not be generally known that
by regenerative braking It is possible
to make tho electric motor produce
power, instead of using it, on down
grades. This produced power can
bo turned Into the trolley wire to
assist other trains and reduce the
amount of purchased electric current.
When the crest of a grade has been
reached the holer locomotive N
brought to the front of the train anil
coupled with the forward locomotive.
both being operated as one. tlie
train Is then controlled by regenern
tlve braking as it rolls down the
slope. In this way from one-quarter
to a half of power from 25 to
per cent. is recovered and turned
back Into the trolley wire, where It is
available for other trains toiling up
ward at other points on the road.
News From British Headquarters
In Krancc.
I'ntll now the HrltMi censor has
not permitted the publication of any
facts about the length or the line
held by the Hrltlsh army on the west
em front. There Is probably method
In uuthorl.Ing the statement that one
fourth of the entire front Is occupied
by Hrltlsh troops. At rding to Iteii-
ter's correspondent ut headquarters
In Prance, the line defended by Gen
eral Haiii extends from the Yser to
the Soninie. Any part of It Is much
nearer Paris than Verdun K A year
go the Hrltlsh Inirencliments spanned
only thirty miles of the western front.
To-day the distance, Irregular In out
line, must extend for 100 miles or
even more.
It Is now explnlneil t lint when Gen
eral .Ioffiu: on March 2 said "the
.Trench army remembers liuit Its re-
cent call on the comraileshlp of the
Hrltlsh army met wllh an liniiiedlale
ami complete response" he li.nl In
anil complete res
mlnil thn new dispositions on the
western front. Thus tho reenforce
ments of artillery ami men that were
despatched to Verdun to stllTon the
defence are accounted for. It Is of
course no "thin red line" that
stretches from llie Yser to the
Somme; therefore, a very large body
of troops was moved to the Verdun
sector morn than a mouth uxo. If
the Germans did not know it before
nnd they should have known It, for
their uvlallon reconnaissance Is ex
cellent tliey iniisl now realle that
n (,'real army obsiriieis their advance
lo Paris In the Verdun Hold of opera
tions As thai pari of Hie line turned over
to tho Hrlllsh was defended by some
of the best French divisions, veter
ans who had always given a eood tie-
count of themselves, General Jortar.
must hellevo thnt the Hrltlsh who
hnve been brought In are stnnch
troops and will bo able to hold their
ground. Probably they will be put to
the test before long by the (icrmnns
In their front. It Is rather curious
that the correspondent nt the Hrltlsh
headquarters Is allowed to say hi Ids
despatch, fresh from the censor's eye,
that "although the hour of the lirlt
Hi army may be at hand, It Is not
yet." As he ulso speaks nf "the com
ing offensive," there Is apparently de
sign In the publication, but what It
Is remains to he seen. At least. It
may be assumed that great things are
In preparation.
Mnhanslc In a New Aspect.
The Monhanslc Hospital for the In
sane and the State Training School
for Hoys are to he taken from the
Croton watershed. The lenders of
the majority In the Senate, hnve
decided not to pollute the drinking
water of 5,000,000 men, women nnd
children with the sewage from these
Institutions, nnd this city Is expected
to be grateful for deliverance from
the danger In which It stood. The
measure of thnt gratitude, however,
will be exactly adjusted to the clr
cumstances under which the benefit
Is conferred.
Having selected un Indefensible site
for the establishments that are pres
ently to be abandoned, and spent
hundreds of thousands of dollnrs on
them, the frugal gentlemen who hull
from above the city linn now pur
pose to find some menus by which
to extract the whole or as large a
fraction of the lost sum as pos
slble from the taxpayers of this
town. A disinterested commission
selected by Speaker Svvr.trr and Sen
tftor HitovvN, with a member repre
sentlng Governor Whitman, will In
vestlgato the liability of the city In
the premises. The Covernor bus op
posed poisoning his fellow townsmen
nnd his spokesman on the commission
may defend the municipal pocket-
book: the men designated by Mr.
Swi-.kt and Mr. Hmivvs may be
counted on to dig as large a hole In
the treasury as they can.
We shall restrain the expression of
our enthusiasm for our Albany bene
factors until we learn how much their
decision not to put sewage In our
drinking water U going to cost us.
Holland anil WaimiT were original
hut our submarines and aeroplanes
seem to lx aboriginal.
The students in a college In this city
who object to a proclamation by tliolr
fellows against military training as
criminal inlseilacation," "viciously anti
American" nnd "a menace to moral
ln-nHh.'1 :inil nroiiosi. !n opposition
j.pW1(; ,. rcp fnr tlc academic advn
cues of suicide Instead of runnier, may
lit their mrcasm have hit umn a uso-
fnl eMiiilletit The voung pacifists may
" ,
lie Milling toserve In a needle anil thlm-
ble corps, making li.inii.tges to niincn
the wounds of the coarse "militarists
who would defend them in the Held if
war should ever come.
When Jvmkh Mack Hvlkwin, pro-
fe.ssor of psychology and passeniicr on
the Sussex, estimate at tlfty secondi
the Interval between the llrst blow on
the ship's hull and the explosion, his
testimony Is more authentic as evi
dence than would bo that of a person
of a less objective mental habit than
Is practised by the skilful student of
the processes nf the mind.
Immediate oliedlcnce to superiors Is
viciously un-American. .1 rroiillii
moil(( b'j the embryo socfiilf.'f 1 of City
Well, there Isn't enough nf It In the
country to constitute a serious menace.
Senator Taouw.t of French Lick has
been made hairiuan of the Committee
on Protection of (lame, l-'rrnch Lick?
Game? Protection? Those old chaps
In the Senate will have their little
The lunger the American troops re
main la .Mexico the more dangerous the
friction between tho two peoples will
bttotne. -Ilrnrmt Kta.HT A.NillU.r.s,
General Anohi.k., who predicts war
In thirty d.ivs if tho American column
D still In Mexico, was Vim.v's chief
lieutenant until discretion became the
better part of valor. The tieneral
then crossed to the I lilted Mates and
exchanged the sword for the plough.
lie is a graduate of Chapultepee, tho
Mexican West Point, and In the event
of war letvvecn the t'nlted Slates and
Mexico he would be welcomed with
open arms by tlie onstltut.onailsts
and assigned to a command in tun
Held. As a prophet General Anc.kles
Is therefore more or less under sus
As the Giants nnd Yankees slowly
work their way north thousands of
otllco bosses are rehearsing excuses
they will make to their olth-e Isiys fnr
absences when games nre played on
the home gioumls.
The ex -Secretary of State forecasts
victory for the Democratic party In
tho next national election. And now
tlie party can say to llrnther PnTAN:
"(iood-by. and good luck. Gon bless
nu V
The Senate Committee on Military
Affairs did a good day's work on
Tuesday when It irported the Hay
lit II IV bill from the House with the
jei.tire measure struck out after the
lr!,,',,ct''!K.,.'"."s.' uml the 'hamt,erlaln
bill substituted, only by standing; to
lis glum resolutely can the Senate
effect a satisfactory compromise on
army legislation,
A Now Jersey f.iunal naturalist on
Hunilay last heard fifteen different
kinds of song hlnl.s, Good work, In
view of tho fact that ho was not
within hearing distance of nny of tho
nineteenth holes of tho numerous golf
clubs lu his ni'lghl'orliood, where songs
unnumbered were warbled by those,
who looked nut where I ho sun was
fast inciting the snow from thn en
ticing links.
The country will look in vain for any
touch of the heroic In Hhtan's ilefenco
of the Administration,
Prime Neicssilr,
Tliniiuh ile run short
lie lint afraid
While still rrmalni
rink Irmonads,
MARCH 31, 1916.'
Dr. Oberfohren Refers to the "Keoaa.
mist" for Proof ot Hit Assertions.
To this Koitob or Til Btw Sir; In
Tine HUM of March 26 "K. O." attempts
to minimise the Importance of the Kng
Hah shortage In wheat by adducing fig
ures winch givo the lnmreeslon bh ir
Great Rrltnln's supply of cereals were
at present more plentiful than lust year.
Hut whereas I based my figure which
bavo caused your correspondent's dis
pleasure on the actual Imports as tlie
seeuret ground for any ulatlatlcs, r . U."
takes Into eons deration all the wheat
In the t.'alted Kingdom with the quanti
ties afloat." Therefore I suppose the
wheat Rtown In the United Kingdom Is
Included in his figures; this Item and
tho (inutilities alluat are at any rate
largely a niattf of peculation, und even
In this combination reveal, ns CI."
himself admits, a considerable shortage
compared to last year. Furthermore,
your correnpondent Jumbles statistics
concerning the Pulled Kingdom with
those roniernlng, In some Instances, the
l.uropean continent. In others, the allied
countries. He suggests a poselble di
version of the supplies directed to these
countries to (treat Hiitaln, which would
thus bo Instrumental In starving her
allies and the neutrals. Although mich
proceedings would be entirely consistent
with UrcHt Ilrltaln's trade policy, dis
played hitherto toward friendly or neu
tral rowers, I will refrain from any
sarcastic comment.
If I appeal la thin controversy to the
London Economist I have no fear that
thin witness will be charged of any pro
Oennaa bias. From Its commercial
history and review of 1915 ( Kconomiit,
February IS) I gather that the Imports
nf wheat during the last threo years
were la hundredweights:
loir. SS.RSt.SftO
1!M ion.05e.74S
ini:i ior,.s;.lo:
Accordingly the decrease nf wheat
Imports Into the Pulled Kingdom In the
year 1915 whs mom than 15,000,000
hundredweight compared to 1911 and
more than 17.000,000 hundredweight
compared to 1J13. Imports of flour de
creased also considerably, though not
Turning to the last barvest year the
Kronntnf.it of March, 11 gives tile fol
lowing llcures:
Total Imports of wheat and flour dur
ing Ihe twcr.ty-rcven ueelss to March 4
M.r.Ti.SOO hundredweight compared to
f.7,47O00 during the previous year, thus
showing a decreaso of 6,000,000 hun
. Thrr llgures resting upon the author
ity of the f.coiioiiilst make a illnerent
showing from those adduced by F. u
and may 1k considered as a definite
proof nf Kngl.ind'a Increasing shortage
In f(ioiltnfT.
Concerning the prices, your correspond
ent makes much ado about a recent
heavy break In the market. Yet the
f-.'conowkf of March 11 records .1 price
of 71 Hhllllhgs for Manitoba No. 1. This
rricu being only 3 shillings 3 jienie less
than the price recorded In February last,
tt cannot be considered as more than a
market fluctuation and still compares
very unfavorably with the derm in
prices. The average price of Hrltlsh
corn (lmp-rlat measure) recorded In the
same number Is S9 shillings 4 pence.
comparing with shU'.mg 11 pene In
1.915 and 31 hillln.-s e pence In 1914.
If In spite of the rise of wheat prices
the prlie of Hour has lemalned alinnt
stationary, ns vnur curresKinilent as
serts. It may be suspected that the ipial
Ity of the Hour has deteriorated or that
some other device has been adopted by
the millers In order to keep the prices
seemingly on Hie same level. It Is
hardly possible that tlie millers could
pay the siMrlng prices for wheat and et
sell Hour at a prl-n based upon large
supplies nnd low pries. This fact is
lecugnlzed by Ihe linker nmt Conre
tfom r, .111 Knelt.-. 1 ,i nodical, w Idea says :
v ,u. 111 in,- ,'iia,iii
i ,,f tM.arl double
We an- in ihe ctr.i,iri!lnar position
the price for
Hour thai we did Jul befuic the war
broke out."
I. G." talks about the "wheat price
hero anil lu Canada." which are not
under discussion ; 1 contend that the
prlc.i hi llnKlaud have risen to extraor
dinaiy heights, by far exceeding the
German prices. All quibbling will not
alter that fact, and even your corro-
spondent acknowledges it reluctantly.
As lo the teasiin for the rise of wheat
prices, it not only "because Itiltaln Is
using ships to carry soldlem and muni
tions all ov.r the world. Without
minimizing that fact It should not be
forgotten that a larue fleet of merchant
men. Instead of engaging in peaceful
trade, Is e.irryinc implements of death
over the e;us, and furlhentioie that the
ships lost In bellleercnt and neutral na
tions have been considerable. Th Ilos
ton .'ifiioi' Trnmcript of February 23
gives a list of the veses sunk up to
that date and account for !'!") vessels
of all types, negregatuig LSTS.aos ton-,
of which Gnat Hrltaiti's share is t!flS
vessds, aguregallug l.l9,S,'il tons Since
that lime tlcrnun submarines and raid-
er have not been idle and they certainly
will nut be so In future.
Owing to their relentless operations.
the fieight rates have risen to unpre.-e-
Icntcd llgures. The. Huston 7"rnirnif
reports a rale, on export grain from lies.
Inn to Liverpool of 42 tents a bushel
compared to 4 cents before the war.
That I" an Increase of more than 1,000
per cent
These Ostites expla.ll Ihe uneasiness
of the ISrltish statesmen and their fer
vent desire that the American (intern
ment should wrest the dreaded sub
marine from Germany. They also ex
plain why Grmaa cannot relinquish
her successful weapon In the light
against a ruthless, enemv who trie to
start e a foe whom be cannot conquer
In the open.
Or. 1; .1 ommroiiRKN.
Nbvv Venn, March 30.
Disheartening I'lastlllriitlon of the
Citizens uf America.
To the KniTOK nf Tut: .Spn Kir; The
working penp.e of Ibis part of tho coun
try can be divided Into two kinds, those
who earn $1.ihiii n .tear .tad are Intelli
gent ami those who earn $.',oo a year
and aro ignorant The outlook for work
men In the latter class to get into the
llrst class Is hopeless. Many of the
$500 kind can only be called "half men
The cost of living in tills cou .uj for
married people Is !,unn a year
Must a .man lite a eingle life in this
country when he gets f.'HO a jear? It
looks so, as lie Is not going lo get any
wealthy woman to marry him
What kind of a country Is this, where
a man should earn Jl.iiua a .tear and
only can earn $Mm" Is anything going
lo be done about it" In my opinion the
Failed Slates of America .Is composed
ot a majority of fools, both men and
women. When are the people going to
get wiser" A SiNuvr sirs IIkaoki:.
Putnam, Conn., March HO.
A Candidate fnr Plattstmrr.
To THE LlUTon OK Tub HvnSIr; A
short time ago 1 tend a timely editorial
article III TlIK St N, "Send the Hoys to
I'lattsburg." The suggestion was made
that men of moans might do a patriotic
thing by paying the expenses of stu.
dents who could not afford to go to the
summer encampment. A sophomore at
Ttrown University, aged 21, who Is
paying bis own way through college by
work during vacation and at the col
lege, writes mo as follows;
I feel Hint If I were able -i lit niy.rlf
for military wnrk, und ilnl not .lo p, und
thf. lime rami wliea I lie lniltf-il Huiies
wns thrust Into war. I should nut hate
dune ui y duty ' my on fninU). in
frl' lots nnd ii'-lslilmrs and liiiiii.inlb
lleie Is a young man who cannot af
foul to go to I'latlshurg a hie own o
penee. Such .toung men, with scant
moans, but with character and a will to
succeed, make our best citizens.
Thomas U. Mim.es.
Nw York, Match II,
It I Safe for a ClUiea of Ihe United
States to Dm the Name.
To tub EoiTon or Tun Bun Sir: t.
M. Ogden of Oyster Bay asks In your
columns, "If American Government Is
correct, would not the President's title
be President of America?"
Th President's title Is liven In Ar
ticle II., Section I, of the Constitution:
"The executive power shall be vested In
a President of the United States of
America." But In the Fame manner as
wo refer lo tho President of the Pnlta'l
States of Brasll as the President of
Brasll and the Brailllan President, we
might without danger of being m sun
derstood call our President the President
of America. . ,
Perhaps Mr. Ogden will have his dif
ficulty about that title cleared up by no
itxinv in hia Ma that the continent of
North America and the continent of
South America, considered together, con
stitute tho "Western Hemisphere." not
"imnrira " nf course that Is merely
n argument from the usage of the
makers and publishers of maps. el In
the absence of any agreement between
thn unveroirnilea of tho Western Hemi
sphere concerning a general name the
usage of maker ot maps would be safe
to follow. . . m
Itecently In reading letters of Lafay
ette to Washington I notice he refers
to ut as "cltlsens of America.
Philadelphia, March JO.
What They Saw ot Blra Life la aaa
Near Red Bank.
To this Fnirna or Tug Susr Sir: Our
little group of nature lovers took our
first walk on Sunday last, it was a
fine day to be In the open, the first we
Monmouth county folks have had this
year to walk In the woods ami neins.
Hefnre w nt out of town We HftW
robins on the ground. About nne-tblrd
of the robins that nest about our homes
In tho summer go Into the ravines and
woodlands near by and live all winter,
feeding on the many wild berries which
are found In abundance on the dogwood
nnd other berry bearing trees. About
the first nice day In late March the birds
chane their habits alt of a sudden, and
you see them on the lawn looking for
worms as If they had never been away
at all.
In our travels during the day we
keen a keen lookout for the flhhawks
which are supposed to be on hand March
20. no matter what the weather Is. But
we did not see a hawk. After we got
to the outskirts of the town redblrds
(cardinal grosbeaks) seemed to be plen
tiful and many more were neara tnan
seen. These beautiful birds do not even
leave their nesting localities for the
winter months. If you are careful, or,
rather, patient, you will almost always
see as well as hear redblrds In the
neighborhood of their last year's nest.
We sa.w bluebirds, red wing blackbirds,
purple grackle, aong sparrows, meadow
l.rki, kingfishers, downy woodpeckers
and many large flocks of starllngH and
Kngllsh sparrows. It wns our opinion
that we should Ilk to send the latter
two breeds back where they came from.
When we began our search for the
new green things there was only a ehow
Ing of itkunk cabbage In fcome of tho pro
tected spots. Wo found a lot of snow
In the woods and along the shady banks
and meadow brooks, and the ground so
generally frozen that those who venture
out any time within the next two weeks
will find they are In time for the first
wild flowers. A. It. Coi.su an.
..to Hank, March 21.
. .
Because Kashlonahle Polk Hegard
. .
nign An as .vmonemeni.
To tub KtiiTon or Tin: Hun Sir; A
letter In Tut: sjfN about opera ticket
scalpers speaks of "the real music lov
ers, that class which comr at the begin
ning of the performamv. not In the mid
dle of It." The Indifference, and patron
izing manner affected by some people of
wealth toward music and the other arts
are easily explained. From childhood they
are taken to opens and high c!as en
tertainments simply because it Is fash
ionable, nnd It Is Just as easy financially
for them to attend an opera -as a "movie"
show Therefnrw they are wont to treat
high art as an amusement rather than as
nn Inspiration.
It Is not the fault of the management
thnt the opera Is monopolized by the
wealthy. It Is rather the exorbitant
prices that tlie artists demand which
plate the opera out of reach of so many
nf the real music Inters. M. W. D.
KvsT uranuk, N. J., March 30.
DlM-ouraitnt llrport nn Modern ruclll.m.
To Titr. i:wten or Tur Sf.s .Sir; A let
ef wind i llng nkit.J nter the nrlre
tluht, the fuel i Wlllar,l cnuld hve fil!y
whlrp"! Mnran with n hand.
Untiring around the ring li annut all the
llslitlnc the people stfr se novadatu
vimt nf the prlie f.shtrrs and ex-chum-pious
would hnve lieen mnrf suoeetul n
danolne m"lr.
l'rlr Hxhtlnt. I!k "psrlc htrrs'" pn'l
tic, ! .it very lot- bb; th atnSlsnce
. illscu-ted at the eihlhltlon.
.Vitw VnsK, March "o. V. MfCinst
Character t:ldenee fnr an F.mlnrnt Man's
To tiis KniTon or Tur Hex ir; .lnhn
MdSrnth I' man thst iuake an lmpr
l,m on nil who hate clime dealing Tilth
him of sincerity, modesty and hl(h eharie
tsr VVhf-n a charge that tieaatrs ail thn
long nhvsrted nullifies i tirnugllt forward
under conflicting testimony public opinion
hmild accept Ihe general esteem tmf.l
un Intimate acituulnlancr,
.tnrnrn nutans.
Nut Yeah, March HO.
Simple Kemedy for High Vend Prices,
To Tiir. KoiT'in nr Tnr Suv Sir.' Why
are there not agricultural soi'lallon in
thl country Hie smne h In Kurnpe
If there wer It Is afe tn ssy that out
supplle. would cost us from "." to ,",o prr
lent, less perlisp twice that, thai
they would he fresh Instead of helng Ml
ntnst tnlle. from cold storage, in they
often are now Hi.Kti.
Nnw Yi-inh, March .ID.
Nena From Below,
-Haw- In jour garden?
-The last dltrr reported II fine.
KnU ker-Huntiuln-
Who In Thunder Can It Ite?
from l,f V.mfonn Cattttt
There l only one virile, decisive, mlll
t.mtly rlghteou character In American
puhllo life
llnka May Vamoote,
Old Congreman Jinks ta up In the atr.
He's chewing his whlikrra ami P-nrlng his
"It's coniln' too fast," he muttem at time.,
"They make m a Jdj of them nautical
1 rimes.
I dood to uphold the President when
He wanted our tiackln' tn perk up hl pen,
Hut It's acarln' me stiff tn think of a tote
On what he should say In his orxt snappy
"Ve, meldie I'm frightens 1 without an
1 au's,
1 neter read up hilernatlonal 1s.ni;
Hut II give" nic 11 pain when Ameiiean
1 miiu
1. spiilUn' our iss and hnimiln' our
"Slnlit' in i'iiiikm-s is t. It 1 In' on egg.,
If wust i-uinet id itum 111 lake 10 my
It's up lu Hi I'rcildant no, and I guess
I'll leave II 10 him 10 ti out n' the ms"
P, Jonii.
Coalition at the Capital ai an Ameri
can Visitor Found Them.
To TUB L'ntTOR W TltK SfN Sir; A
letter dated March 17 from Mexico city
contains the following flews of general
'Our trln from Vera (rua to Mexico
city was uneventful. A mllltiuy train
preceded and followed ours, and an
armored car full of soldiers was at
tached to our train, and troops turned
out at every station. There Is but one
train a day between Vera Cruz and
Mexico city. It leaves vera i.rui at
A. M. and has a Pullman. The fare
la twenty-eight pesos and tho Pullman
seat ten pesos. In all a little over one
dollar American money. !
"The city looks a little the worse tor
wear and presents a worn out at Hie
elbow appearance. Pavements are had
and full of holes. Arches have been
erected all along tho Pasco down San
Franclsro street preparatory lo receiv
ing Carransa when lie comes. All the
trees In the Zocalo Hint around tlie
Cathedral have been cut down. It looks
"Kxchangc Is 34 to 1. or III inner
words the peso Is worth thiee cents
ttnltud Ntnli currency. There Is si)
much paper money In circulation that
every one Is flush and trying to get rid
of It. In consequenco prices uro way
up, butter ten pesos a iund, eggs rour
pesos a doscn, corn thllty a bushel, flour
two pesos a pound, &c. An ordinary
soft hat costs ISO pesos, a shirt forty,
cotton socks seven, American shoes ISO.
"The cltv Is under martial law. urn-
cers and soldiers are much In evidence.
Ofllcers In automobiles rush through the
streets with mufflers wide open and with
out speed limit the public be damned !
Many lino residences are nccupieii as
military headquarters, fitrfet ears run
but few and far npait. When the reac
tion occurs It will be hard to come down
from being a spendthrift.
"For obvious reasons t refrain from
commenting on the political situation.
We grope In the dark. We are still un
aware of the rerent happenings on the
border except what tins seeped through
the censor nnd jmsed by word of mouth.
Several Americana left 011 advices by
cable. All Is quiet nnd peaceful."
O. W. KNOnt.AL'CH.
Aiii.su, March 2S.
The Streets Boiler Paved, the Town
More Attractive Than Kter.
To tiik KniTon oc Tin: St-s S'r: One
who had lived In New York city for
Hfteen years recently visited the city
after an absence of six years. You are
not only marching on, hut you are doing
many things In a better way than of old.
In years gone by jour stifts were laid
on hlg oblong blocks of granite planted
lu sand or In a venter of mud called by
the unscrupulous contractor concrete.
Now tho granite paving blocks are fin
ished smaller and nenter und are laid In
the streets in a scientific manner, making
them look fine nnd smooth without tho
old disagreeable nob"- and giving the
horses good footing. This Is a great Im
provement over the old method.
The approaches and aich ut the Canal
street entrance to the mw Kat Itlver
bridge are a tine piece of work. The
museums and the park arc more attrac
tive than ever. Not so many fat police
men are to be si-. ii, and the llremen and
their equipment are Hue. There are. I
nm told, no mote low- night places, and the
games of the "gold brick kind" bate van
ished. There ,.re still some thlncs that
should not be allow oil. Fnr Instance, a
gentleman who wished to buy a watch
for a boy w as advised lo go to a c rtain
reputable Jeweller near Forty-second
treet on Fifth avenue. The gentleman
some or.e else with the money to
buv the watch. This man made a
I mistake nmi went into one of th. small
! liops alone slv'h avaue lh.it ilishon-
e.-tly ailtertiso llu-ir watibes n-,il Jew
elry. Til" man boiulit a watch at a good
price. It was sent out of the city to
thn boy, who found that h h-ad been
miserably cheated, The authorities in
New Yolk eliould deal summarily with
rascally shopkeepers for the protection
of the public.. )iiHERVi:n.
Ham. (JfAitiir, Me.. March SS.
However Pine a Cook. We Cannot
Have Her Till She Loams to Head.
To tiik Liutoh of Tur. jl'.v--Mr; If
the writer of the odltort.il article "m.
mestlc Treasures" will but consider, he
will see that the Marios and Julics of
France will never do here.
They know nothing of cook'ng s, hnols,
and tmoks of pro.rc rec'pes bate tu-vci
moulded tlielr cieatlvc genius They
Just throw a fmv things into a pot anil
make a snap that tills ton w ,th Vnniance :
cook a ttsh so that vnu aie wafted to
the bank of some cooling stte.im, and
bring In the canard with a flavor that
makes you feel that ducks ,n no longer
made of wood, a salad In a little bowl
with an ee, h.ilot and gateau now- ami
then ton, Anil the wine, and to see
mademoiselle opening ii -a delight and
a Joy forever.
Hut could these a:t ts o' the kitchen
pass the literacy test of the proposed
Immigration bill
.loirs n tmtvr.i t., .ir.
Nkw Mavkn, t'onn.. March "0.
Misery In Jersey.
To Till- KniToa or Tin: No Coulil
Mail; Taple) be cheerful under the c.r
ciinistaia cm thai m.nle mt iiioinlng mis
erable lo-da.t " At 'ie bouse ttliete I
am vis. ling hire there wasnt a cimb
of bread for lucuUf.iM, ami the nean-si
bakery strand to be a million miles
aw. if. whole baiheiiieil bull could
neter take the place of on,- .uiple sine
of bran! as a bit.il.fist for me. so, ,u
spite of a very attractive lavout in
every other lepcit, 1 left the tible trel
ing hungry ami un- a well as ili..vit:.,.
rltd Then, lo pile I'ellon upon (is.-a,
niuu i icacncu lie stationery stole
near the railroad siton every -oit of
I HU SI'S' 11. ol been sold ' And Wee
haw-ken thirteen in lr attat : Thin pen
pie talk about the war sufferers'
IlfMO.ST. N". J., Maivli 9. J s ,
Misuse of nil Important Thoroughfare.
To tiik 1'niToit or 'I'm; Si v . yu.
ton stieet, betwicn Nassau slieet anil
llro olw ay . has become the teadezv.iiis
of a g.11 g of etnhrjo p innaiiilleis whom
me ponce siiouiii nrive awtij. Some ,.'11,111 railioad. to Menu, m
the young beggars aie not more than 1 h,,umlart From Me g.
live years old. but they display ,i much 1 w ill 1 tin s,,utb to 'IV t-
rnt nun cunning ns ll-os0 three tiaies
"I'" .me. 1 11 1 1 r ineinoii consist ,,
removing their ragged caps, thrusting
thrill under pedesti tails' duns .111,1 .......
j 'ng for pennies It nlnio.st nnpos-i.
oie 10 noose uio appeal-, or tile toung
stirs. However, It Is not tipllftm.- lo
the morals nf lue bot.s. neither n
exactly the ptoper thing to lmve an im
portant street used for such .1 purpose
,11.11 1., 1. .-.no, iniiiK suoiiai no iione
r.,.,. I"," no- ni l, nn 11 00,. nines-
habit with Ihe bote (. vy
Ni:tv Voiik, March sn
lliilibrr Ihe (inner,
To ruts lienor, or Tin. si -i,r.- eniy
lliltilnr, wlin Hindu, i gnuerv In 11,1.
und whose sIkiis lead "Hin.her u.e
tlrooer," li nil
h it Is fair 11111I lui si,,,i,i
lie rnrollcd with Ihe Imniiirt il
lbu him:, Mas- , Sl.in h ;s.
lu Hie .Vnu "i .im,,,,-.,i ';,,,, ,,. pll,
VV. ) llowilU. .tilsepli Ciiiir.nl ,, ,( K,lltI
Wyntl wrile on Henry .iniue. 1M, ., tt'm.,
War uurstifiiis o-. u.y llie edilnr , .i,.,.i.
with niriurciliiess, .t s;t ut ,n ,1,,, ..,
' "7 '""'" i""' . I ic ornii,,. ui,,, ,
sio.r. 01,111 -uio i v urn-tn tt!...
the biilloiii lads in ml, ni.ii mini
Professor VV lti,lr.v loiiiiiii-nis on toe Vitini
ease. I, A lhottn wrile. on iiinluliiimn ,,,
It II. Clulileis on Coliinel House n ike
speare is 1 i-omnieniiiral.d by an arm In by fir
" v'liiiri't-uuiii ami uocni ujr J.
IN HOUSE, 308 TO 87
Ovpi'wlii'ltiiitis Vitlp .Mean t;
Will He PiisspiI Over do.
Snys Aiitltin.
Washington, March 30.' -A'ler t'.ep.
resentatlte Sabath of Illinois, bad m.i(i
an Ineffectual effot to str'ko from t i
measure the literacy test clause t',.
IIoiiho to-day passed the llurneit immi
gration bill by a vole of 11 'IS to t;
Representative Sabath's motion to r.
commit tho bill and eliminate the. it.
erucy cluuso was defeated t.y SSI to 10T,
cast along non-partisan linen
Tho chief light over the Harnett hi'
had centred about the literacy tet.
provision similar to this caused I 're
dout Ta ft to veto the Hiirnett bill whtn
It was sent to him ehortly before l
left ofllce.
lurt in the administration of Mr.
Wilson he vetoed substantially the same
measure because lie could not sulisiriM
to the literacy test, which would iltur
ftnm admission ut any AiucrUa.-i 1.0-1
aliens above IS ycais old unable to r al
their own or some other language
Tlie overwhelming vole by wii, 1
Sabath motion was defeated no.,
however, eiiisjurages Chairman I o .,
of the Immigration Conmii'tet- ' 1
lleve that an effort to oveir'd" the -1 ..
pecllve veto of the I'tcsldetit it 1
sucrtssful. A two-thinks v-iie t.
mired 10 override a Presidents u
message, and advocates of the I ti .icy
test had more than a two-thinl. ma
Jorlt) In tho House to-dal
Test on "taliath Motion.
Irrespective of the final v as n th
bill, the real test between tho adtiva'ej
and opponents of the bill came , il
Sabath motion to rccomm t M'nir'y
I.c.ider Mann, for example, f.i i
would vote to strike from the t. 11 t
llleiary lent, but If that mot. 11 ert
defeated he would support t ic. li il l.
cause he regarded It as n rs.ir jt
view of the European war to re.'-.a
In closing debate on the bill Itep-s.
sentatlvo llurnc-tt said tho war in I j
rope, which may bo followed by a g ctt
Influx of Immigrants, made tho pa--?..
of this measure really Imptratlvt.
Changed conditions. Mr. Hurm-t ?v d.
had caused a number of members hi
had conscientiously opposed the bill irl
the literacy test heretofore to vote, fo
il at this time.
The llurnctt bill was passed uh!av
llally as It came from the Coma ItPe -Immigration.
The House r.-ta ned '
new provision that among the exrlu.ir
class shall he "persons of cors'l'ii
tlom.l psychopathic lnferiorii
Mr lluinett frankly liifonticd is
House that hu did not know exactly whi'
the term meant, but was Infertile! In
alienists that persons suffering f-o ,
"psychopathic Inferiority" ale
liaving "a congenita! defect In the i-nit
t tonal or volitional Ileitis of 1111 Ml a
tlvlty which results in Inability n ink
proper adjustment to the environment!
smt Vnrk la Interested.
Authorities of New York. It was sa'l
wen- iMillcularly Interested ill the Us
latlou because it la now costing tr
State K-.Ouu.uvO annually lu supper
the alien lii&anc within Its berUirs
Another new provision In the bill is
that Increasing tho head tax 0.1 Immi
grants from it to S, but It Is provide
that children under lii sears of a
tvlth a father or mother shall be cxtvvp;
The present rate of $ 1 Is applicable to
Immigrants u-gardlcss of age
The Conunlssloner-lleiicral of I mm in
Hon Is Klten authority to make ngjli-
lions gov truing special i.ih wt.ere re-
1I1 ' ts of Canada and Mexico con to t.
t'nlted States for temporary pc-r-Oils '
resldi nco.
Vagrants, Howawajs ,ird per.ors r
ferllig Willi tuberculosis are atno'ig 1 -excluded
classes In Hie oil . as .1
those who advocate or tea-s the .1
fill destruction of proprrtt
Hindus by inline are aillel f ' ft
eluded 1 lasses.
Increased flm s and pei. .',( e. e
sesseil against steamship. 1 ,
bung undesirable and iie, f"
to th.s country As a il'-t. 1 1 '
wiled that whenever a stert"is i
pa i.j transpoits n ah. . 1 w
nil-si m Is denied Hie , ,iip.i - r
fund to the immigi.r 1 1 e 1 1 ,
by him for lr.11 sport.it, 1
Ho'.h on the niutim to re..
cm tlie final pas-.tg ol Cie I ' 1
n-oordeil toll-S Inlli ltl"g ' i
possible for the 1 wi r i-.,il .
Freriileors vilo .f p. is i
In I'Vtiru.i'-j'. I'M., tl . sr ,
a in ijoi itj ot in al ly lo 1 '
rule I'lesiilent Tuft's tel.. . '
lacked less than a ilci 1 1 '
cording tho reipi.ted tw -i , . 1- tj
( iiiiccnlnn Include Purl ol Cie
ttoutc Once I'lllmied lit V 101 ro -in.
I'UKIS, Mar. 1 lio T '
eminent, wit 1 t'ie a, . .
h.is. completed arfe 1., r u .
pirmlttiag the latter
strut t a railro.nl in M.i
w il! in. mil. ill gut 1..,' 1:
Hulling nan, I :n hu. t ,
'I he agreement s ,,. ! 1 1
made 1,1 hal.tmc ,,iln: 1.,
to .1,11', 111 in Milllllel'll M II
Vci onbnj to pies, ;
the , .Hist! i, t;,,n ,,! t.i,
nn. in e,l lit !'usr:,i . v 1 ..
The loine. I',!,.' 111 1, s i"
I'll I of the line for tt I
l ce nemit i.ileil Willi l ' '
road tt ill t un trom I l.u I ' - . - -
M u Julian linnlei. nn'.
ttil'i the Tr.ms-Slhei .an
Hellred Federal .Indue .Inm- h
Firm of Mmtcn A t Id
,lin'e II Ileal S I-' ' ' ' '
'elu ifai v I .'. from i I
lo M
Court of Appctls hit 1' '
lit e ye ir.s ol o t u tt
pr.icti, e of law iii.nn'i'i" 1
soci.iied house!! wiitl'"
0. Niciicb- 01 vv.i'i -
Judge l..i,oniiio wa- ,
bench h.t I'lis'.len' I'.ev. -
nine years ago. and I
of ihe Cii, ml Com 1 of A
lis orcuiil iilou 111 I s-, I 1
of i.- 1 el 11 cnieoi h w "
Itlilge III" blet nib in' -up
the litigation int.. t,
lutlon of the old .Me, I -I" '
Hiitlwa, Compani
1 L.tjniir
Vleoiorlnl Hiiii'I'
,N,, m ,. nntie
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i(, ', ,,, ( Xe,.i.'
.... 1 r ll.-i bei'i A 1.1 .
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I,., rial lo lie iieileil in 1
' V formal r.-poit o. loci'
s. design of lue 1uc1nor1.1l
.in..i ... n... i.,i .,

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