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10 THE SUN AND NEW YORK HERALD, SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 15, 1'920. Sentiment Favors Our Dead Remaining in France Government Ready to Keep Its ' Pledge x to Heroes' Kindred, but Against Wholesale Return of Bodies . s lENTIMENT opposing tlio general re turn of tlio 74,770 Amcricnu military dead to the United States from ovor-f-eas is rapidly being crystallized by the frank expressions of Government officials in Washington and by evidences of inter ested persons' intent to work upon the feelings of the soldiers' relatives. With the Government taking steps to ful fil its pledge to the American people to bring back the bodies of their martyred sons whenever such action is desired, offi cials have been reluctant about expressing views about tlio advisability of the step. But in view of certain propaganda being brought to light several are willing to talk now. Perhaps the most significant to relatives of the soldier dead with whom the desire to have the bodies returned is a matter of deepest sentiment is the opinion expressed by Paul Kaufman, director of the Bureau of Communication of the American Red Cross. He has been closer than any other person not connected with the War Depart ment to the work of registration of Ameri can soldiers' graves abroad and hail charge of the reporting of casualties to families. Mr. Kaufman is opposed to the return of the military dead for both practical and sentimental reasons. "While I am not speaking in an official capacity, I think the majority of Red Cross officials feel as I do," Mr. Kaufman slid. "Men connected with the government work in any way have not wanted to air their views on this subject for fear their attitude might be construed to be that of the War Department. But I think the time has come when the bereaved families that al ready have suffered so much should be made to realize that they are storing up for themselves unutterable sorrow and horror." Close to Gold Star Mothers. Mr. Kaufman pointed out that no one is in a better position than he to understand the feeling of the gold star mothers who want their sons' bodies brought home. "In the records of my department there is more of the suffering of the grcaj war in Old Timer Amid Arizona "Varmints" J tXTESIREE," said the old campaigner, X in answer to a question about the undesirables he hail encountered in Arizona and Mexico while in the Geron irao campaign of '85-86, "lots of 'em; two kinds of rattlesnakes, black and yellow, scorpions, centipedes, vinegarroos, turun- tulas and Gila monsters, to say nothing of ,red and black ants, either kind of which will sure make you hump if you make camp on top of one of their nests. But barring the time that Jake Stouer lay down on a rattlesnake en route from the old corner in Tucson to Fort Lowell, and Jake having a mescal jag at the time, I never knew of any one being bothered much by the varmints. "Jake! Oh! we found him near tlie Half Way House deadern' a door nail and the rattler asleep near by. I went out in the fall of '85 and my troop was in the field, so with a party of rookies we joined our outfits via wagon route from Fort Hua chuca. My troop was the furthest away from the Fort and camped in Guadaloupe Canon about 150 miles east, fl Troop, across the creek, was living in Sibley tents, but my outfit had built a lot of dugouts holding four men. I was booked up to an eld timer named Brown, nicknamed "Brocky." "I had read a lot about the poisonous insects and snakes of Arizona and a rust ling in the roof at night kept me crazy for three nights. I got some sleep in the open in the day time, but the fourth night I had reached my limit. The rustling started again in the shack, I commenced to twitch and squirm, wllile shivers and chills chased each other all over me. The three others in the shack were sleeping as though nothing ever could happen" to them, and I was deter mined to do the same or else keep them awake, so I stuck my elbow in the ribs of my bunkie. " 'What in hell ails you, kid t' he yelled, 'Turantulas, hear 'em in the rooff I an swered. Brocky reached up in the straw and dirt that made the roof, scratched about a bit, pulled his hand down, told me to light a match and showed me a field mouse. The roof of the dugout was built of poles on which was piled buffalo grass and dirt to a thickness of about two feet, so the little stub-tailed mice foregathered, built nests and raised families right in the roof. "Four winters and summers I slept wherever troop orders took me on the ground, in the barracks or on homemade bunks b teut and dugout, but never again a sleepiftM night for any reason. "I've, seen men bitter and stung, but all this talk about Gila monsters and turan tula bites being fatal, to say nothing of centipedes, is nonsense. We had a fellow named Mooney bitten by a tarantula while he wus asleep; found the dead spider the form of letters than in any other archives' in the world," Mr. Kaufman, said. "I have been reading and endeavoring to answer the letters of the gold star mothers during tlio war. It is becauso I want to spare theifi further grief that I warn them not to remove the dead from the soil where they fell. To make them understand some very plain talk is necessary. "People of this country must realize that tile bodies of our dead are in no condition to be removed. Is it right to raise these poo- remains from the places where they now lie in peace and transfer them rudely to other soil? To me it is unthinkable, as I am sure it will be to every mother when she considers. "Then tliink what the exhuming of 50,000 decomposed bodies will cause France to suffer. Has she not already experienced enough horror T" Mr.. Kaufman said that despite the pains taking efforts of the Government more thau 6,500 graves' had not been registered on December 1, 1919, due to the impossibility of identification. Mr. Kaufman recalled the opinion ex pressed by the Secretary of War that "there will undoubtedly be distressing' mistakes and the inevitable destructivenes of war will make unavoidable the fresh wounding of many relatives who request the return of their loVed ones from overse- ' peaking in his official capacity, Secre tary Baker said three weeks ago that he had no authority to interfere with any propaganda which might bo conducted in favor of legislation to have the dead brought back. He said that the decision must rest with the next of kin and that their desires alone would be considered. Ideas 'of Cardinal Gibbons. An opinion which cannot fail to have weight with relatives of the dead soldiers is that of Cardinal Gibbons, who recently expressed his views in a letter to Bishop C. H. Brent, of Buffalo, also an incorpo rator of the American Field of Honor As sociation. Cardinal Gibbons's letter read: "I read carefully your esteemed letter of December 9, and heartily indorse the gen eral plan of the Committee of the Field of Honor. "I agree with you that the experiment of cx'mniing the bodies of the soldiers would V smashed between his shirt and skin; it made him sick and there were two little holes where he had been bitten. I got stung .by a soorpion once; some sting, about like ten hornets landing on you at the same fyue on the same spot. "I'll take my hat off to a scorpion any time for the champion stinger of the world and the yell I let out nfter he bad registered brought the Indiap scouts up to me, and it lakes some noise to exeite their curiosity. "The ugliest bite I ever witnessed was the deal handed out to a cargadore of a park train, who is next in command to, the bi-ss packer. One day the cargadore started taking the saddles off in order to find one or two to restuff ; he had barely begun when a big centipede ran straight across the back of his hand. He smacked the centipede with the other hand but not before the two jaws and every claw had been sunk. IThe wounds were cauterized, were a long while in healing and left the ugliest scar a man ever carried. He was mighty sick for a time, too. "I have seen rookies climb trees to sleep in. The rattlesnakes were so thick. and we had to fire and beat the ground before we could make down for, the night. I have killed them by the hundreds, and have seen Indians walking through the grass and scrub day after day with no foot covering, except sandals, but I never saw or heard of any one being bitten by a snake only Jake Stone. ' "As for Gila monsters, no one was ever hurt by them, and I'm strong for believing that no wild thing, on this continent at least, will bother man if let alone. But don't run away with the idea that a gila monster is the slowest thing on earth by looking at them in captivity. I have seen them jump four feet at n tormentor and be about as quick as chain lightning lit it, too." Huge Mould for Guns ONE of the great Pennsylvania steel companies not long ago manufac tured the largest ingot mould ever seen. It is octagonal in shape, 15 feet 7 inches high, with an average inside diame5 ter of 91 inches. Thel thickness varies from 15 to 20 inches. Tie mould will be used in casting the 300,000-pound steel in gots frouf which our 16-inch and 18-inch guns are forged. The Bessemer iron for 'the mould was melted in three large open-hearth steel fur naces, and suspended in three ladles over the mould at one time. The molten eon tents then mingled in a trough or rnnner so that the iron was thoroughly mixed before it entered the mould. It took 340,000 pounds of iron to pour the easting. After the mould was thoroughly cooled two 100 ton cranes lifted it fruin the tumd pit (A. 1 v.v ! ,,,.v ti ' tiro OISTPJBUTIOH of AMERICAN be a useless one, to say nothing of the dis tress and pain caused to relatives and those most interested. In this matter the example of Mr. Roosevelt might be imi tated, who would have his son buried on the field where he feI. If the stddiers themselves could be consulted I feel 'they would say what St Monica said to her son. St. Augustine: 'It matters not where you place my body; only remember me at the nltar of God.' " This inward belief of both Government officials and prominent national figures that the dead should rest where they died was expressed by Gen. John J. Pershing in an address delivered in the Argonne Forest Cemetery in France shortly before his re turn to the United States. It was with the idea of making American cemeteries in France everlasting memorials that the American Field of Hqnor Associa tion was founded. Its purpose is to co operate with the Government in the selec tion and beautification of one central and several other cemeteries, each to be known as part of the American Field of Jlonor. The plan is to insure perpetual preserva tion of these cemeteries as beautiful parks and to erect on the central field a hand some memorial building or monument. 'Co.. ; VA yf St Naxaire "o. ? x? . v : - f UW06MTCJ . " 'V 'X, V-Xh lOOflMrtJ ft V0 " cJr WflMVB J ... S C K SIGNALLING MARS Continued from Seventh Page. its surface, . . . The distant astron omer would never be able to compre hend the whole of our earth's features in a birdscyc glance, as we are able to do with those features on that hemisphere of Mars which happens to be turned toward us on a clear night." Favors the Light Idea. "Accordingly," says De Forest, "if the Martians are as wise as I think they should be they have already sent signals to planets more favorably disposed to them than we are, and ten to one they have found light best fitted for that purpose. When they decide to have a try at us we shall prob ably get notice of it by flashes despatched from that planet's dark side by way of an emphasizing background. And inasmuch as Mars is supposed to be our senior in the possession of animate life, it might be just as well for us as the celestial junior to wait until we are spoken to. "With our present tremendous problems of readjustment to absorb our time and. treasure, we need not feel under any obli gation to cultivate Mars merely because Marconi is unable to identify the source of some troublesome 'strays.' When we are justified in answering Mars, or whatever other planet calls to us, the easiest and cheapest way to bring this about will prob ably bejjirough the agency of powerful electric lights adopting the plan suggested by Elmer A. Sperry. As is well known, the wonderful Sperry searchlight is, capable of producing a beam having the illuminat ing intensity of 1,280,000,000 candle power. "According to Mr. Sperry he would form a group of 150 to 200 of his searchlights and direct their combined beams, in the di rection of Mars. An aggregation of that sort would 'possess the liminous equivalent of a star of the seventh magnitude such as our telescopes are able to pick up readily. Therefore assuming that the Martians had glasses of equal power, they should have no trouble in catching that dot of light from a v, distance of 35,000,000 to 40,000,000 miles. "It would be possible, no doubt, to oper ate, these lights so that they could give slow signals which would fill all of the require ments of a system of communication. How ever, an array of lights of this character and the needful energizing plant would cost a very pretty sum. The outlay might be war ranted some day, but certainly not nntil the other fallow 'far, far away has seen fit fo call us first." Professor Einstein's Idea- Too. It is. interesting to note that Prof. .Ein stein, who has lately set the scientific world agog by reason of his theory about tho ef fect of gravitation upon rays of light, also believes that if Mors be inhabited by intel ligent creatures bent upon communicating with tha earth they might bo expected to try to do so by means of rays of light, whirh STATISTICS OKNHCH- GEHERWJ DEPM3.TMEHT GRAVES IH FRANCE- Incorporators of the American Field of Honor Association include many prominent men and women, including William Howard Taft, Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, Maj. Gen. John F. O'Ryan, Samuel Gompers, Gen. Cornelius Vanderbilt, Agnes Repplier, Violet Oakley, Mrs. Finley J. Shepard, Commander Evangeline Booth, Henry Mor ganthau, Bishop Luther Wilson, Owen Wister, Col. Frederick Palmer and many others. The plan of the Field of Honor Asso ciation is to include in its membership the people in every State who desire to make the Field of Honor the country's greatest monument to America.1 The association does not purpose to block legislation to provide an appropriation to bring back the bodies of those whose next of kin so desire. But it feels that the American public should realize the sorrow in store for them when the funeral trains of 50.000 soldiers begin to arrive in this country. Headquarters of the association have been established in the Munsey Building, Washington, with Stephen T. Early, ex-captain of U. S. In fantry, as secretary. "Almost without exception," Mr. Early said last week, "men who fought overseas and who know' the conditions' of burial Apparently he does not believe that the Marconi signals originated beyond the lim its of our own sphere. The fact that the French Academy of Sciences offers a reward of .f20,000 for the oest plan by which to make a sign to a heavenly body merely brings to light that twenty-nine years ago Mine. Guzmann made a bequest of 100,000 francs to be awarded as a prize to "the first person who shall be successful in communicating with another world other than the planet Mars." It seems that the Academy in 1891 hesi tated to accept the bequest, but finally did so, influenced by the proviso that if the prize was not claimed within succeeding periods of five years then the accumulated interest at each half decade should go to ward helping serious work in astronomical progress. Academy Accepts. The Academy, in accepting the trust, de clared that the intentions of the founder should be scrupulously executed, and then proceeded to quote Montaigne to this effect: "It is a stupid presumption to condemn as false all that which may not appear likely to us. There is no greater madness in the world than to reduce everything to the measure of our capacity and competence." Remembering how Nikola'" Tesla in 1899, cut in Colorado, picked up signals which he believed came from Mars the signals vary ing in intensity as Mars reached opposi tion and then swept further away upon its orbit the singularity of Mme. Guzmann's Ijoquest becomes suggestive. Why did she eliminate Mars from the possible planets to be reached f Had she any reason to believe that that had al ready been done and therefore cftnstituted a warrant for effort elsewhere; or was that patron of interstellar communication con vinced that there were no Martians left to respond to such a call f One way or another Mr. Tesln was not rewarded and certainly $20,000 would not make a kindred effort worth while now. A sum of that sort would be only a drop in the bucket that would have to be filled to make success possible.- Ice a Popular Dainty AMERICANS eat more ice cream and similar frozen desserts than the peo ple of anv other nation, but the Jap anese have us surpassed as eaters of ice. One of their favorite dishes is small cakes of ice broken into tiny, pebbly pieces and eaten with sugar and lemon. The com monest way of eating ice in Japan, how ever, is to shave it into snowy flakes and to swallow it with sweetened water into which fruit juice or sweetmeats have been thrown. Ice cream, milk and eggs shaken with ice and other kinds of cooling beverages are wild' in an over increasing quantity, but tho old style of eating raw ice, in what the Jap anese rail the korimiiu fashion, is still in the greatest vogue. Truth About Agitation in This Country Shows That Undertakers Hoped to Increase Business want to see their comrades left in the fields where they felK" Into tho hands of Mr. Early have come concrete evidences of tho intentions of cer tain undertakers now working in this coun try to make profit on the transportation of America't load. Most startling in its sig nificance is a form letter sent out by a prominent French undertaker to various undertakers in this country. That, the let ter has been sent at large to undertakers in widely different localities is indicated by tho various copies of tho same form which have been uncovered. The American Purple Cross Association, formed at tho beginning of the war, offered the Government assistance in returning the bodies of the dead to the United States. It was composed of undertakers of this country. According to the statement of Alfred B. Gawler, secretary of the Wash ington branch of the National Funeral Di rectors' Association, which is tho represent ative in the capital of the national body, the undertakers and einbalmcra of the country as a whole are not behind the Purple Cross movement. He recently said that the Pur ple Cross plan, considered not feasible from a military standpoint, was not approved at the annual (1918) meeting of the National Funeral Directors' Association. Asks for $50,000,000. Considerable publicity was given to an article in the September 1, 1919, issue of The Casket, the organ of American under takers, which was signed "S. G. Q.," and which urged the undertakers of the United States to promote legislation to bring tho dead back from France as a business prop osition.. The mercenary tone of the article was deplored in a pamphlet issued by Mabel Fonda Gareisscn, a gold star mother, whose ouly son lies in France and who, her self, served overseas with the Y. M. C. A. The Stars and Stripes, the veterans' weekly published in- Washington, excoriated "S. G. Q." in an editorial in the issue of No vember 28, 1919. The legislation referred to in The Casket was the bill which was introduced last July by Congressman T. II. Caraway of Ar kansas providing for an appropriation of .50,000,000 to return the bodies to America. Of the fourteen bills on the matter intro duced in Congress the latest is that of Mr. Crago, providing for an appropriation of Vitamines Helpful To Anaemic Babies FOR lack of a substance in their food known as vitamines concerning whoso mysteries science is not yet fully informed many children die in infancy from rickets and from forms of the wast ing sickness which doctors cla-sify as marasmus. Just ns a person might fade away upon food entirely wholesome in it self but lacking fat or starch or some other necessary, part, so it has been discovered that vitamines are needed to make food complete. Vitamines are usually classed as types A, B or C, according lo their effects. The presence of the A and B types seems neces sary to growth and the absence of the C type produces scurvy These substances are found in animal and vegetable sub stances and it would be difficult for an adult on a. mixed diet to avoid getting his quota. In the case of the infant and his restricted diet, however, the matter is quite different and science is just beginning to give attention to tliis danger of vitamine lack in baby diets. Teachers College, which for years has had an extensive department for studying questions of diet in relation to health, .is going to'know more about vitamines. Prof. Walter H. Eddy, who as n Major was chief of the food and nutrition section of the chief surgeon's office, hopes that by the introduction of vitamine solutions into the diets of marasmie babies it will' be possible to reduce infant mortulity. He has. collaborated with Dr. Joseph G. Roper in the study of sixteen cases of babies under a year old at the New York Hospital and in cooperation with Drs. Schloss and Sannnis at the New York Nursery and Children's Hospital has begun further studies. The sixteen cases at the New York Hospital have nil been dis charged fully restored to health. Prof. Eddy and Dr. Roper said in a recent article in the American Journal of Diseases of Children: "While the number of cases at present reported is small the results are suggestive and are reported here more for stimulation of collateral investi gation than because of the conclusiveness of the evidence." One of the most, interesting cases re ported in this article is that of an infant identified as "John G." The baby was six months old on admission to the hospital. He was a typical marasmie in appearance, weighing only seven pounds and uine ounces, although at birth he had been a normal child of twelve pounds. In the first twenty-two days various diets were tried on John. Sometimes there was a trifling gain, at others a loss, and tie net result was a loss of two ounces. ' It was at this point that Prof. Eddy and Dr. Roper began the experiments with vitamine dos age. Prof. Eddy had demonstrated the .5,000,000. This amount will be only a beginning, in tho opinion of Congressmen opppsing the bill. Tho War Department and Government officials recognize that tho preponderance of sentiment favoring the return of the, bodies comes naturally from the nearest of kin of those who gave their lives overseas. Some estimate of the percentage of rela tives who want tho bodies returned may be made from figures issued by the War De partment on queries Bent to nearest of kin. Many Want the Return. Eurly in the discussion of the plan the War Department sent out a total of 74,770 cards to relatives. Of this number 03,708 ilnswcrs were received. Of these, 43,909 requested tho return of the bodies to the United States, 19,499 requested retention in Europe, and 300 asked for reburials in other countries than the United States. Considering that those relatives who have not been heard from do not desire tho bodies returned, totalling 11,002, and ad ding to this number the 19,499 who request retention in Europe and the 300 who want reburials in other European countries, it is found that 30,801 families' out of a total of 74,770 do not want their dead brought back to America. Of tho original 43,909 answers in favor of transfer to this country betweeli 500 and 000 recently have sent in letters changing their attitude on the mat ter and requesting retention in France. The Graves Registration Service of the Government now has offices in both Wash ington and Paris. Cooperating with the Government is the American Red Cross, which is engaged in photographing the in dividual graves. These photographs are being collected at Red Cross headquarters in the capital where they will be sorted and mailed, three copies of the photograph of the grave of every American soldier be ing sent to his family. From more than 15,000 isolated and in accessibly located single graves and from 17,000 burial places of American dead the bodies of the men overseas now have been concentrated in somewhat less than 600 lo cations. The Red Cross has no share in tho regis tering or care of the graves or the final disposition of the bodies. These matters rest with tho Government. presence of the B vitamine in sheep pan ereas, and in this experimert that source was used, the extracted vitamine being added to a diet complete in every respect as to nutricuts and calories, &o., but on which the baby had failed to grow. These experiments continued -for eighty days. In this time the following striking results were observed: In the first eight days after the administration of the vita mine the baby not only tolerated his diet but gained eight ounces in weight, although the consumption of food was the lowest yet given. Increasing the food to meet the new appetite and continuing the vitamine dosage, the child gained in twenty-one days' twenty-one ounces. When the vitamine was discontinued for a short time the amount already consumed appeared to continue in effect for a few days, an increase in six ounces in weight being recorded in the next five days. Then, though the food intake remained" the same, there was. no further growth. Without changing the food the vitamine dosage was resumed with an immediate response which continued for twenty-three days. At that time the appearance of the baby was so improved that it was decided to determine whether the child could now get along on a whole milk diet. Apparently at this point the impulse toward normal growth and assimilation had been established and the child was discharged as a cured case four months after admission, having in creased in weight from seven pounds nine ounces on ndmission to thirteen pounds at date of discharge. . The authors are careful to state in their publication that the work is in a purely experimental stage and to deprecate pre mature conclusions. Itits in the develop ment of such work, however, that progress lies in the reduction of infant mortality and it is from such work that Teachers College transforms its teaching from mere routine to progressive instruction. . The subject of vitamines has taken great strides since Casimir Fund named the sub stance in 1911. To no one man can be ascribed the whole credit of their discovery and importance. Osborne and Mendel at Yale and E. J.McCollumof Johns Hopkins, perhaps, have done most in this country, through feeding experiments with rats, to sliow the principles that must guide feeding and diet. The beginnings of the applica tion of tho principles to baby diets may perhaps be credited to Dr. Alfred Hess of New York city, and the experiments of Prof. Eddy nnd Dr. Roper arc the first that hive been directly applied to the problem of marasmus. "Better Babies'' is a slogan that interest every mother and father in the world. Bet ter education and better facilities for scien tific investigation are the factors that made the slogan vital.