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AND THE NEWTORK HERALD SECTION SEVEN new York, Sunday, march 14, 1920 cwvhom, mo. vTh9B-itM adoration. EIGHT PAGES. Bowery Is Rolling in Wealth, Dav of Down-and-Outer Gone Bread Lines Abandoned, Missions Get Fewer Ap peals for Help and Saloons Pass Into Other Busi nessProhibitionists Report Decreases in Dis ease and Crime, Quoting Official Figures HI 1 I liW M l i W Wi ' illli M i" (S) y IKA HILL COMMANDER. EVANGELINE BOOTH 0 (he SALVATION fRMY t DAUGHTER 0 -tie FOUNDER FOR a close up view of what prohibition has already done you must go to the Bowery. Other localities show changes empty stores on corner slteu with the front door locked, the old signs of beer and whiskey falling Into decay or removed, and every other mark of glory departed hut thpse rusty evidences are nowhere so plentiful as down there. ft everybody knows, the Bowry la the refuge of every man who finds himself from whatever cause penniless, homeless ana friendless; It Is the ultimate refuge of the down and outer. Whether the man was down and out because he was a periodical drinker who can't keep a Job, or the sodden sort who never had one. or the untrained laborer who was looking for one, the Bowery offered him a fair chance of a drink and thus tempora rily shelved his troubles. Nobody would exactly choose to be an In mate of a Bowery lodging house, yet 15,000 men slept lit such places last night and aa many will sleep In them to-night. But bo cause of prohibition. It Is safe to say mat most of these unfortunates will lie a long while awake to remember their misery. While liquor was Btlll sold there wore many societies and philanthropic enterprises to help the Bowery lodgers. Tho Salvation Army, which never gives up hope while there be life, made great efforts within Its length; The Sun bread lino functioned thero for two hard winters and the "Biff Tim" Sullivan Association handed out shoes each winter to ho shoeless during severe seasons up to tha time of "Big Tim's" death. Always thero -were private and city insti tutions seeking to alleviate some of tho mis ery. Many of these, including tho Salvation Army, function still, but their work is lighter and brighter becauso the down and outer can't use the dlmo some charltablo person has given him to buy booze. History of One Block TelU All. In the first short block of the Bowery be tween Chatham Square and Bayard street thero were, one short year ago, ten saloons. Xow there are but two and both are wab bling. John Kelley, who had been In the rum business In the block for forty years, ffavo his place to a couple of bartenders a year ago and they have kept It open, but the going becomes heavier every day. The transformation of this block ends the old Bowery. Not a vestige of the days when "very other building housed a saloon, a fake museum, a gambling' house, a shady political or social club or a dance hall remains. The pickpocket, the gang fighter, th iwolallst In . Knockout drops, the artist who tinted black e? and the down and out who lounged In front of the saloons or shuffled along Mis ery's Mile In search of a handout or a free flop on a mission bench or floor hae gone from tho Bowery. Daring the Statu lioenaa period that ended on July 1, 1919, the data on which war time prohibition became effective, 8,147 saloons were in operation In Manhattan. On Janu ary 31, 1920, the date on which the last quarterly licenses Issued by tho State Excise Bureau expired, 2,669 saloons were open. Since that time the mortality has been high. It is probable that there are not now 60 per cent, of the saloons open that were doing business a year ago. On January 21 220 family liquor stores In Manhattan held licenses. The family liquor store has since become practically nonexistent. The caba rets have been dropping out one by one. Drinking from hip pocket bottles was a short lived fad. It Is estimated that there is not 6 per cent, of the drinking In public places that there was prior to July 1. For the first time the city of New York finds itself free from pressure for hospital and penal accommodations. The alcoholic ward at Bellevue, as such, has been closed. It has beds for 125 men and 40 women. It treated an averago of 6,500 patients a year and graduated many In the wards of the State hospitals for the alcoholic insane. At times Its accommodations have been insuf ficient and overflow delirium tremens pa tients have been sent to other city hospitals. It has been used for two months for In fluenza and pnoumonla patients. Arrests for Intoxication decreased by 50 per cent. In the last six months of 1919. Tho figures for Manhattan follow: First quarter. 1,914; second quarter, 1,863; third quarter, 944; fourth quarter, 936. Totals of the com mitments to tho city's penal institutions for all causes are oven more suggestive There were 4,204 commitments In 1918 and 2,576 In 1919. In 1915, when 200,000 men were home less, penniless and jobless during tho winter In the Bowery district alone, thero was a total of 6,416 commitments. Prosperity has had much to do with the Improvement since 1915, but general industrial conditions were certainly no better In 1919 than thoy were in 1918. Charities Commissioner for Prohibition. Tho big municipal lodging house In East Twenty-flfth street, which was opened in 1910 with 900 beds, may be closed and at tached f Bellevue Hospital as, a dormitory for male attendants. jOn stormy nights of the winter of 1913-1914 It was unable to ac mtyimnrtits hundreds of horaU ma a&S INTERIOR of HADLEY RESCUE MISSION DURING WINTER, of 1914- -1915 , THERE Sre NO " FLOPPERS n NOW. women who applied for admittance. It has had forty or fifty Inmates on the cold" nights of this winter. . On March 1 it housed 44 lodgers. On March 1, 1919, It housed 477 men and women and the decrease Is not ex plainable by a change In Industrial condi tions. Developments since July 1 have made Bird 8. Coler, Commissioner of Charities, an ad vocate of prohibition. He Is perhaps In a position to see the effects of the law on the Indigent poor better than any other Indi vidual. Before prohibition becamo effective, he would have been In opposition to It had thero been a referendum. In supporting pro hibition now he breaks with his Democratic State organization. "I am for prohibition," said the Commis sioner, "because the experiment of a few months has proven that it Involves a vast amtmsl f uut mumi Uv jnpi k mm most harmed by tho liquor traffic Not only that, but tho benefit It has worked to the community at large has been Incalculable. It 13 not so much the comparative figures relating to commitments and the decrease in tho need for charitable relief, but it is the atmosphere it creates. Here in this office, where we come Into direct contact with tho acute phases of misery induced by drink, we feel tho Improvement In a thousand ways. "This year we expect to receive $500,000 from patients in City Hospitals, who are able to pay for treatment and who are of a class who formerly would have been unable to pay anything. Last year wo received $247,000 from this source. In 1916 payments amounted to only $90,000. Ambulanco calls have fallen off 30 per cent, In a year, pur hospitals are no longer called upon to treat excessive drinkers who because of a cough and hemor rbu m BlMlflnrt m tub&rsulur. Tha nuo THE. SUN BREAD LINE. which vas CARRIED ON FOR SEVERAL. SEVERS WINTER SEASONS bor of cases of venereal disease In the Kings County Hospital has fallen off by one-half. In this department, with Its 3,700 employees, there has come a change that will greatly reduce tho former yearly labor turnover of 15,000 persons. There has been a substantial decrease In the number of committed chil dren. "It Is this condition, new phases of which develop each day, that convinces me that prohibition works an amazing Improvement. If thero is a referendum In this State that threatens the Eighteenth Amendment in any manner whatover I shall certainly bo heard from." The attitude of the Commissioner of Char ities stands out in contrast to that of the heads of other departments of Mayor Hy lan's administration. Commissioner Hamil ton's Department of Corrections has adopted an attitude of refusing data concerning penal institutions that might be used in a com parison supporting prohibition. Social work ers have been refused Information because tho figures would bo "misleading." Greatest Change Seen, in the Bowery. The down-and-out has disappeared from tho Bowery except as he persists, in tho cases of old men physically unable to work be cause of years of excessive drinking. The prevailing type, which was generally repre sented by a shabby, middle aged man with a weak chin, has found a valuable support for his weakening will power In tho fact that a two finger measure of bad whiskey now costs thlrty-flvo cents on tho Bowery. This stuff used to be sold for a nickel and tho rule was to help oneself from the bottle as It wan placed on the bar. These men are holding on to their Jobs and have no need of relief. At the Hadloy Rescue Mission It is the custom of tha Rev. John Callahan to con sider a periodical drinker, who professes re form, as being on probation for a year. At the end of that period the candidate is made tho principal figure in a special service and Is given a Bible. It took one man sixteen years to attain to one of these Bibles. He succeeded last month. Another recent anni versary principal was a man who had not been entirely sober for years prior to taking tho pledge. He haa $600 In a bank now. The old man professes to have been much helped to times of UmjtaUan fey a fear ttt tb effects of wood alcohol. This fear is com mon among former drink addicts. The Rev. Dr. J. O. Halllmond of the Bow ery Mission, said that prohibition has led to a marked improvement in the condition of men who live on tho Bowery. The mission serves coffee and rolls after its evening service, but one-half of the men in attend ance do not remain for refreshments. With in it a half dozen men have died of starva tion since 1900. It Is Dr. Halllmond's esti mate that 260,000 destitute men roamed the Bowery during the winter of 1910-1911. The Bowery Mission has an employment agency. This agency has now many more Jobs than applicants. Prohibition has served to complete that transformation of the Bowery into a great commercial artery that had Its most pro nounced advance following the opening of tho new bridges. The general prosperity that began in 1915 after Charles Schwab had returned from England with war con tracts worth a hundred millions or more put an end to the distress that was an evi dence of poor business conditions. Since the hard winter of 1914-1915 there have been no bread lines on tho Bowery. During that winter hundreds of men were dally in the line that wound from the kitchen of Hadley Rescue Mission for blocks into First street, Hundreds also waited until 1 o'clock in the morning to Join In a long queue outside the Bowery Mission. Last Christmas Was a Happy One. One certainty Is that last Christmas was the happiest hundreds of poor families have ever known. . The charitable agencies that distribute Christmas dinners for tho first time found their supply greater than the demand. At tho headquarters of the Sal vation Army in West Fourteenth street preparations were made to All 5,000 baskets, as in previous years, but only 3,000 were needed. Major Jermie Ward of the Cherry street branch had but 800 applications as against 2,000 In former years. In not one of the 800 destltuto families was the condi tion duo in any degree to drink. The Sah'atlon Army has so many more opportunities than workers on the lists of Its employment bureau that it has adopted a policy of listing no Jobs that pay less than $18 a week. On this basis It had 700 un filled positions on March 1. The experience of the Salvation Army with down and outs has beon particularly com prehensive. Major H. P. Urschell of the re lief department estimated that 80 per cent of all the men who used to apply to him for aid were destitute becauso of drink. He said that he Is having no trouble now be causo of the men whom ho has placed In jobs going on sprees. "I have been in this work for twenty years," said Major Urschell. "When I started If any one had predicted that the drink evil would be abated to the condition at which It stands to-day I would have laughed at him. It Is astounding. A year ago four saloons catered to the liquor patronage of tho block in Forty-oighth street, between Tenth and Eleventh avenues. gut ono saloon is left. A great peace has come over the neighborhood. Loud volcod men and women no longer quar rel profanely, and there are no streams of little children carrying palls In tho back doors of the saloons. Some of the money that used to go for beer and whiskey Is being used to buy children's clothes, and their ap pearance shows it" J. I. Elliott, head worker at Hudson Guild In West Twenty-seventh street, reported that the departure of the saloons had cut into gang activities. "I was coming down one of tho main avenues," he said, "when In front of a closed saloon I saw four men, all under 25 years of ago. All had police rec ords. They wore clean shaven and well dressed. To be sure, they were idle on a corner, but they -were better off In the open air than If they had been in the back room of a saloon. They were the nucleus of a gang that has been considerably reduced In size. All of them used to dodge the police. Now they were standing openly on the street unafraid of any one. "This indicates a bigger and better change than people who have no knowledge of the situation con realize. There must be many thousands of such youth in the city. They cannot readily be gotten into neighborhood houses, but they can be gotten into athlotlo and social clubs that are under the general supervision of some social agency." The Anti-Saloon League in a statement Cntuwt t rallimlmt Pag.