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THE SUN AND NEW YORK HERALD, SUNDAY, MARCH 14, 1920.
2 Rush of Aliens Home Puzzling Labor Men Flood of 800,000 Annually Into This Country Turned Into Net Decrease of 30,000 Yearly in Foreign Born' Population Capt. Evans's Story of the Dover Patrol - Plan to Build Memorial Overlooking New York Bay Brings to Mind Most Thril ling Sea Fight of the Great War The proposal to erect a memorial shaft on a commanding site on Staten Island to the men of the Dover Patrol, renews interest in the work done by that service during the Great War. Many Amricans helped the British to keep the English Channel clear of German submarines and destroyers. In addition to the mine barrage at the entrance to the North Sea there was kept a constant patrol of destroyers, armed trawlers and swift motor craft. The American contribution included destroyers and armed yachts. Many clashes were had with desperate German sorties to bombard the unarmed English coast towns. One of the most thrilling of the war was the battle between the British destroyers Broke and Swift and six German de stroyers that had thrown a few shells into Dover. The Broke under command of Capt. E. R. G. R. Evans of Antarctic fame, rammed one of the German de stroyers and the crews fought hand to hand as In the ancient days of sea war fare. The command, "Repel boarders," was given for the first time in more than half a century. ' Capt. Evans's thrilling story of this action, which follows, is gleaned from lectures he gave in Britain and from the January number of The National Marine. The Captain's complete story is about to be issued in book form by Frederick Warne & Co. London, Feb. 28, 1920. "W! "ELL done, nroke!" Those three short words comprise the great- est eulogy that one ship can pay another In tho British navy, howovrr dash ing and gallant may have been tho action In whlrh sho fought. "Well done" Is the epic of the nallorman's praise. The Broke was one of the latest and fastest British destroy ers of the war. She was centred on the famous Dover anti-submarine patrol; and she figured In the naval engagement, next to the famous Zeabrugge raid considered the most spirited of all Her Captain, E. G. R. Evans, C. B, D. S. O., who commanded her In the flgfit, for the first time now has given that Immortal story in his own words. "The enemy approached at moderate speed," he told the audience at an Edinburgh lecture, the first of a series on "How We Kept the Seas." with six destroyers of a very modern type and carried out a rapid t borUrdment of Dover. We fired our port foremost torpedo" when the sights came on the second ship In line and held on for a few seconds to give the torpedo a chnr.ee to clear the tube, then altered course again to go right In among the enemy destroyers. Got Her With a Torpedo. "The Broke was conned with the Intention of ramming the destroyer against which we had launched a torpedo, but before she had steadied In her course, the controlling ofllcer opened rapid Independent Are with aur fore most guns owing to the shortness of range. Despard, the First Lieutenant was watching the torpedo which he had fired, from the bridge, speeding through the water. Sud denly he. yelled out 'We've got her!' and as he spoke our torpedo reached Its mark, strik ing the destroyer G-85 plumb amidships." "My intention had been to ram this ves sel, but It was now not necessaryto do so. I put my helm hard aport and swung away to starboard for a matter of seconds and Tailors' Profits RoilMr.Grump MR. GRUMP entered his downtown club, drew off his fur lined over coat with the assistance of the negro attendant, and with practised eye saw to It that the, coat was placed In the proper hanging position, "hen hr took a seat at a table with his cronies, where ginger ale, with a discussion of high prices, mainly profiteering, wan running freely. Mr. Grump whs sadly out of breath, but he effervesced with Indignation and soon had the floor, taking the lead In denouncing profiteers In food, liquor, cloth ing and what not His chief plaint was against tho tailoring trade, and Judging from his sartorial appear ance it was not difficult to estimate that the wardrobe costs of Mr. Orump mounted Into high figures for the year and still were mounting as the makers of clothes Increased their prices. "Profiteering!" he boiled. "It Isn't prof iteering, It's Lodge No. 1 of the Amalgama ted Association of Yeggmen, Bank Robbers and Safe Crackers operating In gentlemanly fashion without the use of dynamite, guns or blackjacks. "Why, to-day I dropped Into a small tailor ing shop, not one of tho big places, but one of those whero ono might think that he might have a Job done at a price within reach of the average pocketbook. I asked the man what h wanted to turn a suit fe me. Promptly he boomed out 135. The suit cost slightly more than that throe years ago, but then I had connections In the tailoring trade and prided myself that I was geting clothes, at a low price. "In my amazement I recalled that a frienc had had an overcoat turned last year and had been charged only $15. The cost came out like new and It took a minute inspection to reveal that It had been worn the othnr way out. So I countered with the tailor with the question of how much he charged for turning an overcoat. I wanted to get a line on the prices of the present day and a year ago to see how great the Increase had been In the last twelve months. Back came ths answer $30, a clean advance of 100 per cent "Now If that Isn't profiteering, 100 per cent, profiteering, what is?" A friend suggested that the wages being paid to tailors had been increased In ths last year and perhaps this was responsible for the Jump In prices in tailor handiwork. This gave Qrump a fresh supply of verbal ammunition and he resumed: "Perhaps wages to tailors have been In creased, but the Job of turning a suit or an overcoat Is not an all day task. It can be done In less than eight hours by a single man, and tho wages of that man do not approximate $85 a day. " Once more Mr. Grump ws silent, but one of his audience Joined in clinching his argument. "I wanted to get a now collar to my fur overcoat," the second man started, "I dropped Into a furrier and mentioned It to him casually, knowing that the price would be high enough. My coat cost $150 and had an otter collar. Mr. Furrier danced around warmed his hands once or twice and whisked an otter skin from a nearby hook. 'Sixty five dollars for the collar, and it's a tine piece of fur,' was his- cheering remark. Three years ago the price would have bean $25, perhaps less. Of course fur have gone up, but tht profits have gone up at ib aim tame." then. Just as I had made up my mind that It was time to turn again In order to ram the next boat following astern of the torpedoed one my navigator, Lieut O. V. Hickman, said quickly, 'If you put the helm over now, sir, you'll get this next onb nil rlifht.' I put the helm hard starboard, righted It and thon we watched, Those In tho destroyer we In tended to run down had gathered what our Intention was, but for them It was too late. A cloud of smoke and sparks belched forth from their funnels. "It all happened In a few seconds, and the feeling of exhilaration as we were about to strike her can never bo repeated, at the mo ment we crashed Into her port side, abreast of the after funnel, my enthusiasm overcame me and I shouted out, 'That means two months le.ve!' "Our strong bow ground Its way Into the enemy vessel's flank j In the blaze of gun flashes we read her name, G-42, as her bow swung round toward us, whllo we carried her bodily nway on our ram. "The Hrnke, steaming at 27 knots, whirled this destroyer practically on her beam ends so that sho could not fire. It must have been a dreadful moment for those on board. One of her torpedo tubes stuck Into our side and was wrenched right off Its mounting. Our guns, which would bear at maximum depres sion, were turned on to this wretched ship and we literally squirted 4 Inch shell into the helpless vessel. Ready to Repel Boarders. "In fine weather we always kept three loaded rifles, with bayonets fixed, at each gun, and one at each tub and after search light Cutlasses were provided all round the upper deck, besides which revolvers were supplied to petty ofllcers, and there were many kept loaded on the bridge. The anti aircraft pompoms were also manned, and at the moment of ramming, when Lieut. Des pard piped boarders on the forecastle, the weapons practically fell into the hands of the men who were waiting to use them. "In a few seconds after the shock of the collision a deadly fire was poured from our fore part Into the huddled mass of men who, terror struck, were grouped about the enemy destroyer's decks. Many of them clambered up our bow and got on the fore castle, to meet with Instant death from our well armed seamen and stokers. There was no question of the enemy'boarding us with the Idea of Inflicting damage, they came on board to save their own lives, but In the con fusion of the action the Broke's men took no chances. Seemed Like a Whole Fleet. "I do not pretend that we In the Broke escaped without Injury during this welcome action. The German account made out that the enemy torpedoed several light cruisers and tank sundry torpedo craft, and if two superdestroyers were mistaken for a flotilla of light cruisers and torpodo craft one can excuse the Germans, becauso, although there were only six against us, there was a mo ment when we on the bridge of the Broke thought that quite fifteen ships were against us m the confusion of the blaze of the fire, the choking smoke, the men's cries and tho noise of exploding shells. "I must say I thoroughly enjoyed myself, although at one. time I wan very frightrned. for a shel! from one of tho Grman destroy ers passing down our starboard side hit n box of cordlto on the Broke's forecastle, and this, after being thrown Into the air, fell on our bridge. The cordite was scattered about and on fire. The high flames lit us up so much that we were a target to the enemy vessrfs. and we certainly were punished severely. "We had killed everything we could see ti"" O-il; her stern was sinking moro and more until we finally steamed right over her, and wo then made to ram another vessel; this we missed, owing to our Business Romance of J. C. Gould Arouses British T HE most romantic character In the present day commercial world of Great Britain Is J. C. Gould, M. P.. a young man who has arrived at the enviable station of heading dne of England's and the world's greatest steamship companies. The deal Itself whereby Mr. Gould comes Into control of two Important shipping lines Is ono of the biggest financial propositions since tho clo'e of the war. The Griffith -Lewis Steam Navigation, Limited, and tho Dulcia Stcanirhlp Company, the market value of whose assets Is estimated at more than $12,000,000, have been merged and recreated Into tho Gould Steamships and Industrials, Limited, with a capital of $15,000,000. Mr. Gould began his business life aa an office boy In Cardiff, that Important shipping centre which not so long ago returned him victorious for a seat In tho House of Com mons. Life In shipping and commercial oTflcef became irksome, whereupon young Gould shipped as an ordinary seaman aboard a vessel for South Africa, where he again took up his labors as a Junior clerk. From South Africa he. went to America, where after a few years' work In tha offices of an Insur ance company bs made such an Impression upon bis seniors and later upon the directors of the company they mado hlra the manager. However, It was not long until ne decided to return to England and start on his own account a marine Insurance business. lis Uft America In 1818 sad shortly after formed hi own comtxny. Bui tha IM nf the WAT loss of sped, doe to an explosion In one of tho boiler rooms which cut our main steam pipes. The Broke wns now on Are amidships as well ns on the bridge, steam was escap InK with a horrible noise and we were rapidly losing headway. "I remember blowing up my life saving wolHtconi. hlcli I had put on for thf flrsi time; I gave It throe good sturdy puffs, said nbout three words of prayer that 1 should be spared for my wife's sake, ind then turned my attention to doing moro dam ago to the pi einy." When the "scrap" was over tho Broke was on fire amidships as well a on the bridge Finally they wero discovered by tho Swift who cheered their work, signalling across the Intervening space, ','Wull done, Broke!'' With what little steam sho had Broke "hiccuped" amng to one of 'the two sinking enemy destroyers, whose deck was aflame. Some men In her shouted "Surrender," and Capt. Evans shouted through tho megaphone, "All right, we will pick you up." All Dover Honored the Dead. "But." he said, "some Inconsiderate fellow on board fired a round from the foremast 4-lnch gun which passed through the Broke's bridge, and then we let her have It." "The Broke was turned Into harbor and berthed by two large tugs from Dover. One could not help feeling a bit lumpy In the throat when the other ships' companies cheered us again and again. - Not least among these cheers wero those of the little drifters' crews, who made cock-a-doodlo-doos on their syrens until the din of hoot ing was almost deafening. "Our own brave dead were burled the fol lowing day when all Dover turned out to pay their last mark of respect to our fallen sailors. The funeral of tho Broke's and the one man killed on tho Swift, naturally left a lasting Impression on one's mind, and made one feel how hateful war was. We who had come out unscathed received a lot of deco rations und rewards for our services, but we wire not unmindful of the poor relatives who had lost their nearest and dearest, their drawn cheeks, dimmed eyes and palo faces, one cannot forget. "When, after the service was over, ws who had paid our last tribute to cur fallen comrades, took our ship Jo London under her own steam, for by this time we had patched our Fteam pipe and already made good many of tho dpfocts consequent upon the action. "It took two months to repair our bows and fit us with a new stem, and we got a line slice of leave. I knew, the moment that we hid rammed 0-42 that this would hap pen, because we could not get off scot free from a bump like that, and so my enthusi astic prophecy, which escaped my Hps In that second of excitement, came true." In conclusion, Capt. Evans remarked Uiat sometimes in their leisure tlmo they car Shipping Men altered his course from 'marine Insurance to shipping, with tho result that he became active in that most important work during tho critical years of the submarine hostili ties. His next step upward was his election to Parliament, but only recently he declared he wanted to relinquish such work, particularly as he considered tho Coalition Gavernment moro or less a failure. His condemnation of the trade policy of the Government since the armistice has attracted much attention. Just what ho intends to do about his seat for Car diff is not known, but it socms certain he will not stand for reelection and perhaps will not fill his present term. Mr. Gould was In America for a short tlmo late In 1919, and upon his roturn to England ho spoke very frankly about the lmmlnenco of American shipping supremacy unless British Interest, with the Govern ment's uid or nt least with the governmental removal of existing hindrances, displayed more energy. Mr. Gould also took a leading port In protesting agalnat tho allocation of a great amount of German merchant ship ping to Amifflcu, declaring England had paid tho price and deserved what degree of re ward it was possible to make. Mr. Gould also Is a frequent writer In tho British press on shipping and Industrial topics, and his views command wide attention. Mr. Gould says he has made all his money In the last four years, his status previously being that of a wage earner. In those four yaars he has mida (sdlllonn in pounds, too. got dolUu-e, ried monarchs, potentates, and political "big wigs" from France to Dover, and vice versa. "It would be a breach of etiquette," he salil. "If we destroyer captains told all that we heard and saw during our employment as sea 'taxlcab drivers,' but on one occa sion I recall embarking five million pounds of gold. "In addition, I found tho Prime Minister Lloyd Oorge with Sir William Robertson and Sir Maurice Hankey stranded on Calais ;)!'. and 1 embarked them on top of the gold which covered the floor of my cabin and conveyed my valuable cargo to Dover. Once nrrlved, and having seen the Prime Minister off in the special train, we pro ceeded to disembark tho gold. "Tho Bank of England representative found ono bag short, and It became a ques tion as to whether tho Prime Minister had taken It or whether there had been a mis count In tallying the odd bags out of the ship. "On recounting the missing bag was found and tho Prime Minister's reputation was cleared I" Bowery Rolling In Wealth Now Continued from Preceding Page. Just given to the public - thus summarises data showing tho effects of prohibition as collected by Wayno B. Wheeler, general counsel. The summary Is put out as being countrywide, showing that on the average there has been a reduction in arrests for. crime generally of about 50 per cent; for drunkenness between 60 and 60 per cent. Tnevsummary Includes the following Items! Decreased crime, arrests, bettor health, fewer accidents, business prosperity and labor and poverty and riubllc charity. Under the first head appears the follow ing: "In Pittsburg, Pa comparing the last six months of 1919 dry with the first six months wet, we find 7,464 in the county Jail the first six months and 3,125 the last six months. A reduction of over 50 per cent. "Sheriff Hanratty of Cleveland said Sep tember 12 the county Jali had fewer prison ers this somwr thi"n any tirr.e in ten years. Charles F.- Burns, superintendent of tho workhouso near Cleveland, said the popula tion nf tho city workhouse was reduced from 1,000 to less than 400. Judge George Adams of the Juvenile Court In Cleveland said: 'Prohibition Is the direct cause In the decreasing of Juvenile crime. The chief of pollcu In Cleveland, Frank Smith, says mur ders have decreased 50 per cent, since the saloons havo closed. In Cincinnati the Felony Court has been abolished." Under arrests these percentages are given from Massachusetts, Illinois and Ohio: "Springfield, HI., reported 85 per cent, de crease In arrests the first eighteen dry days. In ten Massachusetts cities formerly .wot the arrests are reduced from 4,962 to 895 under the dry regime. In Columbus. Ohio, the city prison is without prisoners many days at a time. On December 26 the county Jail at Lancaster, Ohio, had been re ported empty for two weeks. Tho arrests for crime In Youngstown, Ohio, have been reduced over 40 per cent. Arrests for drunkenness decreased about 1,000 per month fo? the first four months under pro hibition. "Raymond Stockton of the Associated Charities, Uoston, says that formerly 10 per cent, of the families under care of that board were thero because of drink. They have not had a single person from that onuse since September. In Belolt, Wis., tho chairman of the board In charge of the poorhouse announced, 'Prohibition Is rob bing the poorhouse of its tenants.'" Tho following statements were gathered by the .general council of tho league: "The records of nil banks will show an Increase In savings deposit which undoubtedly can be attributed to prohibition," says John A. House, president of the Guardian and Trust Company, Cleveland. D. C. Wills of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, Ohio, says: "Prohibition has Increased real es tate's values for the home owner, factory owner, building owner and other lines ot real estate.' "In Bloomlngton, 111., formerly the home of brewers and distillers, there are twice as many men under employment now as when the breweries wero operating ar.4 a greater number still will be on the payrolls as soon as machinery arrives to convert the breweries Into other manufacturing plants. "The Inebriate ward n the General Hos jrttal in Philadelphia cared fo- 2,126 alcoholics h itts, it ttoH. lu tNrt July i, mi " Immigrant Aliens Admitted To and Emigrant Aliens Departed From the, United StatM Since July 1, 1919, by Races and Months. IMMIOKANT. naco or PeopI. Julj- Afrtcn (black) 01 Armenian. . .... , . s llohemlan and Morerlan (Orecb) ,. lliilriirUn, Snrblan and Montenegrin f'libMM. . . . . ,s; Croatian sad Slovenian. !uban It Dalmatian, noanlan and lleraegorlnlan... .... t.Ai Dutch and Klomlutt .... 33j Kant Indian .g ICngUah 3.743 KlnnUh , gg Irneh . dwman reek J Hebrew i Auk. 603 4U Hunt. U24 07 38 43 833 0 841 6.M0 3.W 4V2 130 SS7 1,310 m a-S5 48 17 s-soo 0 103 347 28e is Oct H4S 112 1ft U7 B 105 so 103 170 37 11)4 S 890 30 fi.317 11U 3.77U 030 478 718 1,337 1.O07 6,103 U14 3 30 U 4,003 ica 701 01) 1M a 40S S 3,801 S3 3,240 29 148 444 1,088 434 1,700 010 1 S7 4,031 3 ioo 184 11 173 33 Italian (north) 277 Italian Uoutn) . . . . blO Japanese 677 10 40 13 1.711 itorean Lithuanian Magyar Mexican w.7rr.:v:;.:v. m Portucoaa. 178 lumantoo 301 Hut-entan (Rukfnlak). . Ucandlaavtoo (Norwo alanr. Dane and lo aw Wait 004 685 1,310 16 474 300 63 6 80 1,436 3,023 SO 780 476 7i 117 3.807 1,740 107 1,261 431 83 It 148 Scotch... u!o Blorak Hpanlah 400 8 panlab-American. 34.1 HyrUn l -::::::::::: wi Wa,s.J?1Un ("C0Pt 03 60 183 100 TOUU l7T63 SWOT 30,684 83,418 97.810 134.070 311.767 S8.8J4 97,770 25,447 107,003 8iinlUr"Vta'ttta 'for imnUgranU Ur than Korsaber. 1010. a4 to, emigrants later thai, October. 1010. not yet available. IN normal years before the war the net lncreaso In tke population of the United States through Immigration amounted to between 800,000 and 900,000 annually. Now, when it naturally would be supposed that the residents of the foreign countries that have been torn by the war for the last five years would be flocking to the country of supposed peace and plenty, the tide has turned In the opposite direction, with the result that America rapidly Is losing its alien population. Why is It that the aliens are leaving tho United States In such large numbers? Why is It that they do not wish to remain and continue to earn wages that are highor than they ever received In their lives? Why do they want to go back to tho countries that have suffered unmeasurably from the war and now, confronted by severe food short ages and almost national bankruptcy, are struggling to keep their heads above water? Feared Flood of Aliens. These are questions that the Government Just now Is trying to answer through the agency of the Department of Labor, by Its Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Bureau of Immigration. The whole situation Is surprising to some of the authorities, who had feared that when the war came to an end In Europe tho United States would see an unprecedented Immigration of foreigners, who. with shipping again normal, would hasten away from the awful scene of the war. t Herewith are presented figures compiled by tho Bureau of Immigration showing ar rivals and departures of aliens during the four and five month periods beginning with last July. For immigration, the figures cover a total of five months July, August, Septomber, October and November but for emigration the figures are for only four months July, August, September and October. The November emigration flgur3 are not as yet available. On a comparative basis It is shown that for the four months ended with October disregarding tho Immigra tion figures for November, during which month no Immigration figures are given thero was a net decrease In the alien popu lation of approximately 10,000. If this ratio Is continued throughout the year the net decreaso in alien population will amount to 20,000 Instead of an Increase of 900,000. This, however, Is not the case. The num ber of aliens departing la on the Increase with the Improvement of shipping condi tions, and conservative estimates place the figure for the year In the general neighbor hood of 100,000. For the purposes of the compilation the Bureau of Immigration naturally has used the figures of Mexicans and Canadians funder English). WJille the use of theMJ figures Is correct, yet If they are eliminated they come nearer showing the real state of affairs. Immigration from Mexico, due to the unsettled conditions there, Is out of proportion; the figures aleo are' Increased by the entry Into the United States of many Canadians for commercial purposes. Tho net Increase of Mexicans during the period exceeded 16.000. Want to Sea War Zones. Careful Inquiries by Government agents Into the cause of the unprecedented emi gration has revealed that It Is due to sev eral reasons, chief of which Is the desire of the aliens to get back to their homes and seo what has happened during the war. Many of theso aliens have not heard from their homos during the five years that tho war was on, and they art anxious to know if their relatives still are alive and what has happened to them and their property. During i the war It was impossible for them to get home, owing to the lack of shipping. Word received In Washington from various centres Is to the effect that there Is a tremendous demand for passage so great, In fact, that It Is almost Impossible to nil It. But there are many other reasons for the emigration, and one that Is Interesting Is prohibition In the United States. Most of the aliens are lovers of wine, which they are unable to get under present conditions. They cannot make this wine tor their own use ittar, Kit JMy in fun ginning to EMIGRANT. Aim. Sopt. Oct. Not. 680 1-1 23 47 181 23 7t 1 843 30 53U2 114 3,310 AW 7 107 020 1,609 473 4,6.18 732 H 34 10 8,100 'lib 1.046 48 184 IS Total. 3,uo dV4 144 260 MS 03 1,004 11 3U,6SV 471 11.70.1 3,200 1.O01 July. 120 0 Totil. 3M) 73 65 6,413 1.14H 4,136 621 187 1,24V 14 5,405 638 3,640 413 SAM 118 '2,345 2,704 43.473 1,111 4 8 107 3,484 '676 s.ouo 6.U76 311 S 120 67 03 33 10 1.400 377 1,106 231 St 14 l'.iii 128 b30 6U 28 074 30 14 24 10 053 . 13 837 SOU 31 228 6 1,104 an 1.2ftJ 46 1,372 22 408 1,438 lU'J 939 U3 01 320 1 1,873 100 .m 30 641 2,6-14 400 1.286 01 38 COS 8 1,048 136 1,010 228 046 20 602 1,103 7,401 260 1 3 84 831 '6ii 405 9,806 86 6 3.67V 0.0VD 3,810 4t0 SOU 034 14,011 13.8JU 11,121 11,121 .,.1 .lull UTl Ufll 283 271 301 30 208 03 10,460 0 680 2.8U3 200 1.U23 77 a 356 'ioo at7 1,301 40 1 "id 003 '225 uoo 2,012 70S ''a 108 108 70 1,120 1,704 103 760 212 02 4 143 7 0.817 MOO 331 8,086 1.800 803 17 606 607 301 1,133 30U 123 743 186 217 1 311 61 S48 013 760 661 8,340 203 414 300 l.iOi 416 760 07S 3.260 ,01 170 740 2,420 08 103 70 407 273 310 361 1,050 4 16 48 68 80 XO 21 00 61 07 47 166 804 SO 67 718 learn that if they try they are liable to arrest. Beer is the chief consideration with some of the nationalities, the aliens being in the habit of using beer as a boverago with their meals. They aro changing their minds about America being tho free country they thought it wus and aro going back now Whore they will be able to get their wine and beer unmolested. Object to Income Tax Too. Then there Is the Income tax. Under the law aliens do not receive the exemp tions granted to citizens, $1,000 for single persons and $2,000 for those who are mar ried. Tho application of the Income tax to them, therefore, Is distasteful; they Insist that they are being Imposed upon by the Government and being deprived of money they rightfully earned. In leaving the country It is, ot course, necessary for the aliens to obtain clearance through the Bureau of Immigration, and it is necessary also that they pay their in come tax before they leave. The tax is being collected before they are allowed to go, so that tho Government la losing no money from this source. Another clement of the situation which onicmla have discovered Is the difference In tho rato of foreign exchange as quoted during th last few weeks. The drop in the villus of foreign money makes it of ad vantage for aliens to buy tho money of their own countries at tho current low prices in the United States, and they go back to their homes with more money than they ever had In their lives. Some of them, unquestion ably, will be able to retire or to go into business for themselves when they get back to their native land. They will be capital ists, In a small sense, when their wealth is compared with that of their friends and neighbors. Lewis F. Post, Assistant Secretary of La bor. In general charge of tho various bu reaus dealing with immigration and emigra tion, expressed hid views to mo about con ditions in general. Calla Emigration Natural. "The situation, I think, Is natural," Mr. Post declared. "It always has been true that the flow of labor has been to the place where there haa been destruction and dey ostttlon. That Is one of tho reasoi coupled with the income tax and the low prico of foreign exchange and the desire to get back home after the war for the remarknblo emigration that now Is being recorded. "In normal years tho immigration to the United States amounted to something like 1,250,000 a year, but the net Increase did not exceed 900,000. Aliens who had been here a few years and mado their money wont home at the rate of about 300,000 a year. "During tho war, of course, shipping was devoted to purposes other than the carry ing of passengers. It was almost Impossible for anybody to go to Europe In a private cnpaclty, let alone the aliens. So the aliens hnd to remain In the United States and wait for tho first opportunity for them to get back to their homes. That opportunity now has come, and for this reason they are tak ing It. "We do not look for any great Immigra tion under the present conditions. The cities of Europe will have to be rebuilt and the farms that havo been tho battle grounds for years will have to be ploughed up again end reeultlvated. Europe is realizing that production Is essential to recovery from the war, and is sotting about to produce. There Is work for the aliens In Europe, under Better conditions and better wages than those that prevailed before the war. And much of the labor win remain, which means a reduction of Immigration to the United States. 'Tho Department of Labor has been making the closest study ot conditions, naturally, to see what effect It will have on conditions In the United States. We have made surveys of various sections of the country and It is evident that there will be shortages of foreign labor, unless, of course, thero Is some suddru shift In conditions. I hesltatn about making any predictions under so unsettled a situation." Americans Leave Too. This wave ot departure from the United States Is not confined alone to the aliens. Americans at well are leaving in large num bers, but figures regarding them are kept by th Rurosu of Passports. At this time as high as 1,100 application! for passports are being received in a single day. Business men going to Europe to look after affairs and others going to Cuba or elsewhere where they can get n drink Is the CJtuie,