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THE SUN AND NEW YORK HERALD, THURSDAY, MARCH 18, 1920.
HOOVER MESSAGE AMAZES CAPITAL Aflvlco lo President Agninst Involving U. S. in League, Stirs Senators. BOIUII QUICK TO USE IT Btrongest Indictment l'ossiblo and Almost Prophetic, Ho Dcclurcs. Bttctal to Tmr Scn iND New T'os Hebm.0. Washington, UUrch 17. Tlio publi cation to-day or a private message which Herbert Hoover wrote to Preal dent Wilson In April, 1910, dvlshur neatnst Involving tlio United .States In the affairs of Kuropo lias amuzed "Washington nnd caused intenfio aston inhment anions United States Senators whbfcc Interest Is particularly pointed tiicaujo of tho bearing tho mesaago lias on tlio peaco treaty. Tho letter Is iicceptod here as a per fectly frank statement of Mr. Hoover's views, written for no oUier purpose than to convince tho President, It possible, that -It would bo danBerous to commit tho United States to tlio policies of the Loaffue of Nations. Officials here view It rfth added significance. In view of tho tact ttot moro recent utterances of Mr. Hoover, mado for publication, lo olaro for a Lcnffuo of Nations with proper asauranco of protection for American Interests. A. largo portion of the Hoover letter was ret.d to tho Scnato to-day by Sen ator Bomb (Idaho), who commented upon It as supporting the position taken by ilio lrreeoncllablo opponents of Uio treaty. Ho declared that It was a stronger argument against tho leaguo than' any of tho opponents of tho leaguo had '.been able to make, Itcnda Hoover Objection. Tfifc Senator, however, had hardly fin., lshed' reading tho letter when Senator nitctfcocU (Neb.), tho acting Democratic leader, read the statement given out In Now York by Mr. Hoover to-day, in which ho explained that tho letter to tlio President was a private communication representing the views he entertained at thatjlme, but protesting that It should not have been made public, and Insisting that, his own matt was not responsible for Its publication. 'Mr. Hoover also said It was Impossible for him to assume that no 'President had given It out, and called attrition to the fact th.it ha had modi-fled- his views to tho extent of having a repftf"Cntatlve of tho United States on tho- Preparation Commission becaupe of the largo economic control Anally given to it over n great part of Europe. Senator Borah read to the Scnato tho fifth paragraph of tho Hoover letter to tho' rre,ldent, which declared that If tho United States obtained representa tion on the various commissions to secure- justl' and moderation In the de mands of tho Allies "we would be thrust Into tho repulsive position of tho de fender of our lato enemy." This para graph says decidedly that "our experi ence has shown us very bitterly" that such action would result in complaint and attack by tho allied Governments, and that such a continued relationship only wouW breed the moFt distressing and acuto International friction. Cnlls It Stronjr Indictment. This is an Infinitely stronger Indict ment against this programmo than It has been within tho ab Ity of the so called Irreconcllablos to make," said Senator Borah. "It Is the deliberate Judgment of a man who3e business It was to study Europo for two or three years, and who at that time could cer tainly havo had no other purpose than advising his commander-in-chief accord ing, to the facts as ho saw them. When you read that In the light of whRt has transpired slnco It amounts almost to jirophccy." Senator Borah then read the sixth and eoyenth paragraphs of tho Hoover letter. Tho sixth paragraph declared that tho allied governments, knowing the dispo sition of the United States.nccessarlly ask for moro than they expect to get, and that "we find ourselves psychologi cally and In fact politically on the side of the enemy in these negotiations," nnd aro frequently forced to abandon some moasure of what we consldor san statesmanship. The seventh paeagraph sets' forth Mr. Hoover's opinion that a continuation of such relationship would bind the United States for a period of years to a succession of compromises at variance with our national convictions. "Of courso that must inevitably be true," Senator Borah commented. "If wo tako up tho European programme and undertake to deal with tho Euro pean situation wo must inevitably bo forced to adopt principles concerning It which aro Inimical to and at war with our entlro theory of government and civilization. How many things aro written In this treaty and how many things aro to transpire under the treaty which nre at war with every sentiment ot the American people?" "Wantx Letter In the Ilecord. .JVhen Senator Borah asked to Insert tha entire letter in the record Semt'.or HJtchcook apked If tho Senator from Idaho would bo willing to Insert at tho same point the statement given out In Now York by Mr. Hoover In reference to tho letter, "r would bo willing to tako any ex planation of any candidate for tho Presidency who Is In tho field," said Sen ator Borah, "but I think I should want to comment on It a llttlo." Continuing, no mid : "Of course, I sympathlio with Mr. Honvnr In hlnir Inlil to k&BO tt BOCret, but nowhere does ho attempt to modify tho points to which I havo caiien unc tion. The fact that It has reached tho public through meunu which may not bo dcfenslblo docs not differentiate It at nil. Whllo I know the Senator from Nebrasku always acts with honor and Hlncerlty, I nm not suro whether ho In-1 troduced that explanation na Mr. Hoov er'H friend or ns hl enemy. ' "Tho fact has leaked out that that Is the vlow of Mr. Hoover, tho European expert, at tho tlmo when ho was advls Inir hln commander-in-chief ns to tho situation. Tho explanation docs nothing more than condemn tno processes uy which that reached tho American peo ple, and tho only objection I find to It , In tho explanation Is that the American ' peoplo wero permitted to know tho , facts no explanation, and no modlfl-1 cation of tho facts. "I ask those who aro Interested In this treaty to talto tho statement of Mr. j Hoover upon tho 11th day of April, 1910, nnd before they cast their votes to pull tho United States Into this maelstrom of passion of Interest and of selfishness, to read It nnd consider It When you read it remember that It was not Intended for anybody but his commander-in-chief, and therefore must have been actuated by tlio most slnccro motives. Nothing on tho outside, no political situation, nothing to modify his views as they came to him In nil sincerity and In deepest deslro to know the facts." BRYAN PLEADS WITH SENATE FOR TREATY Continued from First Page. DEPARTMENT SLOTH ASSAILED BY SIMS Hear Admiral Tresses Charge of Remissness in Conduct of Naval War. Washinqto.v, March 17. Again cen tring his fire nt the Navy Department on his charges' that It Insisted on di recting all war operations from Wash ington, Rear Admiral Sims told the Sonata Investigating committee to-day that his urgent appeals for an adequate staff In London were ignored until No vember, ID 17. Admiral Benson, chief of operations, reached London during that month. Ad miral Sims said, and quickly convinced himself of the "necessity for establish ing a real advanced baie headquarters of tlio Navy Department abroad with nn adequate staff to make possible full co operation with the Admiralty and coor dinating all activities with tho Allies." "I had been recommending such action for five months and specifically In my let ters of May 16, July 16 and October 23, 1817, had pointed out the necessity for tha establishment of such an advanced base headquarters abroad," said Ad miral Sims. After Admiral Benson had reported, the department changed Its attitude, he contlnucd, and a cablo to Benson No vember 17 said a decision had been reached that it wojjld be advantageous to have a permanent wnr staff In Eng land to work with tho plans depart ment of the British Admhalty. "If this meets your approval addi tional ofilcers will be sent to augment thoso already In England who are fitted for this work," It said. Admiral Benson then asked that Capt P. 'II. Schofleld and Commander Knox be ordered to report to Admiral Sims nnd Admiral Jelllcoe for such duty and this was dono at once,. Admiral Sims testified, whllo hl3 own rt'commendatlons for nearly six months for tho same ac tion had been disregarded. "It Is hardly necessary to stato that this Is merely another instance of tho nttiludo of the Department during all those first critical months of tho war," said Admiral Sims. "A recommendation I had been making for six months was not carried into effect until Admiral Benson during his snort stay In London, convinced himself that It was Justified. "The soundness of tho policy was again demonstratfd by tho tact that the Department adopted it and throughout tho remainder of tho war continued to recognize, though some times grudgingly, l" "'"""'I "" tinually recommended and which Bhould havo leen obvious from tho very first." There was continued delay on vitally important recommendations because of ficials In Washington did not consider that sufficient Information had been sent from London, Admiral Sims said. In many cases, ho added, the necessity for Beorecy, or his lack of assistants, prevented full reports. Ho read a cable from tho department declaring that "It 4s essential that the department be promptly and fully Informed of all op erations of our vessels acting with the allied naval forces." After his reply that all Important operations -would be reported, tho department renewed its demand for detailed reports, he said. "Tho department seemed disinclined to tako any action or indorse any rec ommendations unless tho fullest and most complete explanation could bo made, and this was extremely difficult, If, Indeed, not Impossible," the Admiral said. possible by tho constitutional provision requiring a two-thirds voto for ratifica tion. I nm sure that that provision Is out of dato and that tho Constitution will soon bo chnnged so ns to malco It possible for a majority to ratify." "It should bo ns easy to declare peace na to declare war," Mr. Bryan added with force. "A majority can dcclaro war. Why should It ibo harder to get out of war than to get in? Wo havo been preach ing democracy to the world and tho Democratic party cannot afford to make n campaign on tha theory mat n minority of tho Scnato ought to bo able to dlctnto hi policy. "I assume, then, that tho Democrats who aro oppooed to tlio reservations, now that they havo been adopted, will not Join with tho Irreconcllablca In de feating tho treaty. "Tho world Is In need of tho United States in tho Leaguo of Nations. Our ndvlco now may mean moro for tha preservation of world peace than an nrmy would a year from now. Besides our duty to the world wo havo our own domestic problems which demand atten tion. Consideration of them ought not to be suspended merely to permit a year's fight over tho phraseology ot a few reservations when; by ratification, wo can restore n condition ot peace and deal with tho homo questions which aro at Issue. Cnn 3ftibe Chiiiiite Lnter. "If tho Democrats want to make any provision of tho treaty an Issuo they can do it tov asking for tho election of men who will direct our delegates in the league to secure such changes as tho peoplo may deem necessary. I consider that thn nrlnclnlo of democracy Involved Is moro Important than tho wording of theso reservations, because the right of tha Senate to make such reservations as it deems best is moro Important. Mr. Bryan was asked whether or not ho beliovod tho Lodgo- reservation to Article X. would destroy tho value of (hn t oictii of Nations. "Not nt all." ho replied decisively. Thn mnrnl valuo of tho league Is far superior to tho valuo of any of tlio physi cal forces which It contemplates. It pro vrfes tliree ways ot promoting ieacc be fore thd question of a resort to torco can arise. "Tho first of these provides nine months for Investigation beforo resort to war. This is not ni an auecitni uy uuj reservation, and this provision of Itself, In my Judgment, will mako war impos sible. Tho second provision referred to is that providing ror a reduction of armamtnt3, which will relievo, tho na tions of heavy burdens. This also Is not affected by any reservation. Tha third provision abolishes secret treaties, which ' we now know aro a constant menaco to neacc. These three provisions nre not j affected by any reservation. "Article X. never may be called into , operation. If we nro In tho league and can ibc our moral Influence for tho cs-1 tnbllshment of Jnstlco throughout the ! world, tho chances are many to one that i we can prevent a condition to which Article X. might apply. How can wo Jeopardize all these good provisions In tho League of Nations becauso of a dlf-. ferenco of opinion over a few words In 1 reservations that deal with contingencies while tho leaguo deals with actual con-1 dltions?" The Icnroot reservation was(defe.it-1 ed nt tho oloso of tho day's work In tho Senate by a voto of 2S nyes to 39 noes. In tho view of many Senators It repre sented tho last chanco of bo modifying ho reservation as to glvo a possible chnnco for ratification, nnd It was de feated by tho Democrats, to tho sur prUo of tho reservatlonlsts on tho Re publican side. On tho Republican slda tho element that has followed Senator Lodgo throughout tho flfiht gavo tho reserva tion Its support and considered that this, was the one great concession made In the Interest ot ratification. The Irrec oncllablos viewed tuo pntfosai as tnoir last danger, fearing that If accepted It might tempt cnovch Democratic votes to mako ratification possiuie. ino rcoer- v at Ion read: It slmll be tho declared policy of this Government that tho froedom and pcaco of Eur6po being again threatened by any Power or com bination of Powers, tho unjtoa States will regard such a situation would causo gravo concent nnd will consider what, If any, action It will tako In the premises. Vlowlng it as a statement of genorul policy the foregoing declaration has had m-inv Kiinnorters aver since Senator Knox first advanocd It In a speech last December. At that time lie suggosiou It on a substitute for a leaguo of na tions and those who agreed to offer It as mi additional reservation expected It to command a strong Democratic support. "It is certain," said a Republican leadei after tlio voto had been taken, "to be strong with tho country and to Increase the embarrassment ot tho men who voted against It." How the Senator Voted. The roll call by which tho reservation was defeated presented a plcturo of the Senate situation moro accurately than hns been given on any othor roll call. carrled- Tho lrreconcllablo opponents of tho Thomas (Col.) In behalf of Corea. treaty and tho Administration Demo- Senator Kellogg (Minn.) moved to tabio erats have been malntalnlns a tight tho entire reservation, and it combination to prevent ratification, and tl to 21. on this voto they came squaroly out Into Senator Heed protested that It was tho open and displayed their strength, unfair that the Egypt reservation should In fact, the neatlvo voto. 39, was ex actly tho samo number that was shown by Tub Sun and Nbw York Herald poll published on Tuesday morning as Mkoly to voto against the treaty's ratifi cation. Tho roll call showed : For tho Lenroot reservation Repub licans; Caldor (N. V.), CapporfKns.), Colt (U. I.), Cummins (Iowa), Curtlss (Kan,), Rdgo (N. J.), P.lklns (W. Va.j, Halo (Me.), Jones '(Wash.), Ktllogg (Minn.), ; Keyes (N. II.), Lenroot (Wis.), Lodgo (Mass.), McNary (Ore), Now (Ind.), Phlpps (Col.), Smoot (Utah), Spencer (Mo.), Storllng (S. D.), Sutherland (W. Vn.), Townscnd (Mich.), Wndsworth (N, Y.), Watson (Ind.), 23. Domocrats: . Fletcher (Fla.), Smith (Ga.), 2. Total, 25. Against the reservation Republicans: Borah (Idaho), Brandtgeo (Conn.), bo drawn down In a parliamentary pool and offered a reservation declaring that subject peoples should bo given by the Leaguo of Nations opportunity to de claro If they wished Independence, and If by threo-fourths majority they so de olared It should bo granted. "If we will not do thla much," ho said, "wo tell tho world this leaguo merely rivets tho chutna on all subject peoples." Ilccd Propovnl Tabled. Senator Norrlo offered a new reser vation dealing with Egypt, saying tho United States recognized tho British protectorate only ns n war measure to contlnuo only till tho ratification of the treaty. A voto on tho Rcod proposal tabled It, 40 to SI, tho "Irroconcllablos" "Until iunuu, Uiunuihcu v-wnti., ( . ' , . . Y. . Fcrnald (Me.), Franco (Md.), Gronna "iB Enst tabling, and with them (N. D.), Kcnyon (Iowa), La Follotto (Wis.), Norrls (Neb.), 8. Democrats: Ashurst (Ore.), Beckham (Ky.), Comer 'Ala.), Dial (S. C), Gerry (U. I.). Harris (On,), Harrison (La.), Hitchcock) (Neb), .lohnson (S. I).), Jones (N. M.), Kcnd rlck (Wyo.), King (Utah), Klrby (Ark.), McICollar (Tenn,), Nugent (Idaho), Owen (Okla.), Phelan (Cal.), Plttman (Nov.), Pomorcno (Ohio), Reed (Mo.), Shoppard (Texas), Shields (Tcnn.), Smith (Md,), Stanley (Ky.), Swanson (Vs.), Thomas (Col.), Trammoll (Fla.), Walsh (.Mass.), Walsh (Mont), Williams (Miss.), Wolcott (Del.), 31. Total, 39. Tho (lay's tienty consideration opened with tlio Owen reservation beforo tho Senate declaring tho United States' un willingness to recognUo tlio British pro tectorate over Egypt. To this amend ments had been offered by Mr. Shields (Tenn.) In behalf of Irolund and Mr. Senators Ashurst1, Honderson, Klrby, McICollar, Nugent, Owen, Phelan, Pom crene, Trammell and Wolcott. Senator Owen tried another variation of tho Eyyptlan reservation, but It was ruled out on a point of order as being substantially similar to ono already dis posed of. Then Senator Norrls pleaded for unanimous consent for a voto on tho Egypt reservation alone and finally got It. Tho roll call showed ayes 15, noes 51, tho nffirmatlvo votes being by tho Irreconcllablca and Senators Ash urst, Jones (Waah.K Kenyon, Lodge. Owen, Phelan und Trammell. .,.. Mr. Owon then offered a resoluUon declaring that tho United, States In ratifying the treaty Is not to bo under stood as modifying tho agreoment of tho United States and tho Entente or November E, 1918, on tho faith of which Germany laid down her anna. This was defeated on a rollcall, 13 to 65. The trreconcllablcs again supporting It. Then Senator Lenroot's reservation declaring a policy of "gravo concern" for the poaxo of Europo camo up. Sena tor Borah offered an addition to It by which tho United States would rcsorye tho right to throw Its Influence on Whichever sldo H doomed right In a European conflict. This reservation Senator Lenroot nt first accepted, but afterward rejected and Sonator Borah withdrew It. The iteservutlon finally camo to a voto and was defeated as already described. Before adjournment tho Senato ndoptod n unanimous consent agree ment under which to-morrow speeches will bo limited to fifteen minutes for oadh Sonator for each reservation or amendment. Under this rule it Is hoped to closo tho treaty consideration Friday. Mexican IJnndlt In Executed. Aqua Fiueta, Sonora, Mexico, .March 17. Jesus Alvarez, formerly a colonel In tho nrmy of Francisco Villa and more recently operating as a bandit In tho P. F. C. 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