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The Sun and the New York herald. (New York [N.Y.]) 1920-1920, March 21, 1920, Section 7 Magazine Section, Image 89

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Suffragists' Fifty Year Fight
Reviewed on Eve of Victory
Notable Women and Stirring Events in Struggle
for Franchise Are Recalled While Ratification by.
Only Two More States Is Needed for Success
Women Voters in the
United States, 26,800,000.
Number 01 women 21 ycira of ae and over
in the United State' Entimatc based on 1910
rfMiu. (No allowance Is nude for allenf.):
Albania ... . 5'iZ.l.it Nevada 19,954
Arioim .. H ftfi New Hamiwihlre US,j9
Arkifiat .. 3C193 New Jersey. ... 810.321
CViforma .. .. 731,324 New Mexico W.4S7
folnr.ulo . 231, ,"67 New York 8,033,8
CniHuTticut . 3ivf.ll North farolina. 671.423
Delaware C4.2V1 Wuth Carolina. 37MS3
Vlonrla lofi.TO North Dakota... 134.646
fifovia ft. 463 Ohio 1,633,17
Tflaho H'm Oklahoma . . 381,813
Illmoic 1,754.240 Oreion 185.165
Indiana SIT, 7.3 Pennijlmnla 2,325,4M
IOa S4,WS IthcVe Ulaml. . lS3.0atl
Kan .. HI.M7 South Dakota . 147,60.)
Kentucky 63T.T31 Tenneiaee -94.44!
Loeiuana . .. 434 SSS Tezaa 972, 19
Maine 245.309 vtah 91.301
Maryland . . 44)3.500 Vermont 117,971
MasachU9ette ..1.1S1.903 Virginia S7D.320
Mlchlsan . . H64.631 Woahlnaton .... 300,499
Minnenota .. . 893.SS2 West Virnlnla 313.465
MlMlaslppi... 444.233 Wlaconjln 671,271
MiMOUri .. .. 9W.167 Wjominir 31,711
MS.T.ana . . 89,915 .
Nebraaka 327.M4 Total W.SW.OM
A DETERMINED, simply dressed woman
wearing her dark hair brushed
smoothly over her ears and colled
in a knot low on hef neck was seated
tn the front end uf a street car In Roches
ter. X. Y. The town sheriff stood on the
rear end of the car. Now and then he
glanced uneasily toward the prisoner In his
charge. Her firm mouth and flashing eyes
somewhat daunted him.
"Fare!" demanded the conductor, ap
proaching the woman passenger.
"I am a prisoner." she said, looking up
from contemplating her slender hands en
cased In silk mitts. "I am travelling under
the escort of the sheriff. He Is In the other
end if the car and you will have to ask him
for my fare."
And Susan B. Anthony, for It was she, set
ifd the fold of her dress, which had been
sllfhtly crumpled In the recent struggle
which had resulted in her being sent to 'he
CVmrt House for having tried to cast her
vote on the ground that she was one of
th" "people."
That was nearly half a century ago. If
"Aunt Susan" were alive to-day she would
find that those widely criticized militant acts
o' hers and her sister pioneers had actually
helped to lead women straight to political
freedom. And If she could be here to-mnrrow.
March 22. she would probably see the ratl
ftat!on of the Federal suffrage amendment
by the full thirty-six States, after a battle
for freedom that has lasted since 1S69.
Only Two Statea More.
With thirty-four of the States having
algned 'he measure, all hopeR of the political
equality leaders are now centred on Wash
ington and Delaware, where special sections
to consider ratification of tho Eighteenth
Amendment will be held within the next
twenty-four hours,
There Is little doubt that the measure w'll
go through. Washington has been an equal
suffrage State for several years and the
Delaware Legislature is considored to be fa
vorably Inclined. It would hardly have the
temerity, suffragists argue, to vote against
the amendment, knowing that the entire
suffrage world Is looking to this tiny section
of the United States to change the political
complexion of the country.
However, If Delaware should defeat the
amendment the suffragists will pin their
hopes on Connecticut and Vermont, both of
which hold regular sessions in 1921, and one
of which might be persuaded, they believe,
to call a special consideration of the measure
if it needed Just one more vote.
Twelve out of the thirty-four States already
In line ratified In regular sessions. The
twenty-two others called special sessions. Is
it any wonder, therefore, that the women of
this day are rejoicing in what Is practically
a triumph, and that in their rejoicing they
remember those who laid the foundation of
the movement, the organizers of tho women's
rights cause?
The National Woman Suffrage Association,
"f which Susan B. Anthony was president
fr eight years, was born of poor, but honest
Parents, In 1869. and fortunately for a cause
which was to progress steadily, If slowly at
time?, toward victory. It happened to have a
".ilth godmother. This was Mrs. Eliza
beth I? Phelps, who installed the sturdy child
In spaeious quarters at 49 East Twenty-third
street. For some time the new organization,
sort of woman's bureau, held weekly meet
ings, and its home became a salon friendly
to reforms in general and to tho franchise
eeker In particular.
One hundred signed the pledge and be
came charter members of the national asso
ciation. Elizabeth Cady Stanton was elected
h first president and that time Miss
Anthony refused to accept any higher office
han that of member of tho executive com
mittee Mrs. Stanton served from 1889 to 1S92.
when Mls.i Anthonj1 was elected to the chief
"Wee, which she occupied until 1900. Mrs.
''arrle Chapman Catt succeeded Miss An
hony and held office from 1900 until 1904.
"'hen Dr. Anna Howard Shaw was choen
national leader. In 1915 Mrs. Catt was again
elected president and succeeded Dr. Shaw,
"he, has guided its destinies ever since and
now winding up the affairs of the fifty
ne year old body, which has bean voted out
of existence because It has aoc-xapllihed Its
mission. In Its place there has been formed
tho National League of Women Voters, with
seven regional directors and leagues In every
State to correspond with the State suffrage
The suffrage association was really the
outgrowth of a convention called to discuss
woman's tight. This was. in IMS, at' Seneca
Falls, and was hrought about by the com
bined efforts of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and
Lueretla Mott, with the cooperation of
Martha C. Wright and Mary Ann McClIntoek.
The organizers decided to exclude men" but
either from curiosity or other Interest a
number of the recognized voters not only
attended, but men actually presided over
and otneered tho gathering. The convention
adopted a declaration of sentiments modeled
after the Declaration of Independence.
The next great gathering was held four
years lattr at Syracuse, and was called to
consider woman's rights. Delegates from
eight States and Canada were present. Be
tween the dates of the two conventions
meetings were held in various States, one pf
ospeclal Importance being the Salem, Ohio,
convention in 1850, which brought together
Frances Dana Gage, Elizabeth Robinson. J.
Elizabeth Jones and Josephine S. Grilling.
The women attending this convention sent a
memorial signed by 8,000 men and women,
calling a'tentlon to the unjust laws concern
ing married women and asking for the right
of suffrage.
Formed Another Body in 1869.
During the same yiar the Massachusetts
women, under leadership of Lucy Stone and
Pauline Wright Davis, were gathering their
forces. In the samp year, 1850, they held a
convention at Worcester. Among the
speakers were Lucretia Motf, Ernestine
Rose. Abby Kelly, Antoinette Brown and Dr.
Harriot K. Hunt. The next woman's rights
convention was held in 1861, In Indiana, and
the following year saw the 1'ennsylvanla
women gathered to ' discuss the political
equality question.
When the National Woman Suffrage As
sociation was formed eighteen years later In
New York, another group of women met in
Cleveland, Ohio.nnd organized the American
Woman Suffrage Assocatlon. Lucy Stone
and Julia Ward Howe took the leadership of
the latter organization, whilo Elizabeth Cady
Stanton and Miss Anthony headed the for
mer organization.
Tho two suffrage organization split on
campaign policy. The Anthony-Stanton ad
herents considered the Federal amendment
the most Important work ahead of them,
while the Stone-Howe followers preferred to
win the fight State by State.
During this year, 18C9, when the two na
tional organizations were formed, Wyoming
granted Its women the ballot and for twenty
four years the light for tho franchise was
waged, but not another State followed
Wyoming's lead.
It was in 1872 that several women, among
them Miss Anthony, believed that they had
been enfranchised under the Fourteenth
Amendment, which provides that "no State
shall make or enforce any law which shall
abridge tho privileges or Immunities of citi
zens o'f the United StatesT" With fifteen
women of the same belief, Miss Anthony reg
istered In Rochester and in November she
cast her vote. ho was prosecuted for this
"crime" by the United States Government and
fined f 100, which she refused to pay and
which was never exacted.
Another attempt to gain political recogni
tion for women under the Fourteenth
Amendment was made by Miss Anthony and
her followers, and the case was carried to the
Supremo Court. The case was decided
against tho suffragists, and Miss Anthony
then turned her attention to securing tho
passage of a new amendment. This was
drawn up iri 1875, and since that year suf
fragists have worked both in the States and
through Congress to have thelr.right to the
bnllot recognized.
Introduced Firat in 1878.
The Anthony amendment, as It was called.
was Introduced for the first time In Con
gress In the Senate In 1878 by Senator A. A.
Sergent of California. It was reported ad
versely to the Senate by the committee, but
the next year, 1879, the adverse report of
the majority was accompanied by a favor
able report from the minority.
Year after year the suffragists have gone
to Washington to plead their cause with the
committees. MIsb Anthony personally un
dertook the work of seeing that the amend
ment was Introduced annually until 1890.
The House of Representatives voted on the
amendment for tha first time tn 1911 and
Ratification of Suffrage Amendment.
2 Michigan
3 Kansas .
4 Ohlo ...
9 'Massachusetts
1 'Texas
10 Iowa
11 Missouri
12 'Arkansas . . .
13 'Montana .
J 6-
-New Hampshire
19 'Mains
-iV 'North Dakota
21 'South Dakota
22 'Colorado
23 Rhode Island.
Gov. Utfjla. Seiute. Houno.
. K It June 10 24-1 54-2
. H ft June 10 Unan. Una n.
. K It June IS I'nan. Unan.
D R June 16 27-3 7J-
D R June 16 Unan. Unan.
. R Ft June 17 Unan. 133-4
. R R Juna 24 .12-8 153-44
R R June 25 34-5 184-77
. D D June 29 Unan. 96-21
. U n July 2 Unan. B-5
. D DIvM July 3 28-3 125-4
. D D July 20 20-2 76-17
. D R July 30 3S-1 Unan.
. R R .Aug. 2 Unan. Unan.
. R R Sept. tt 60-5 120-6
. R R Sept. 10 14-10 212-143
. D D Bept 30 Unan. Unan.
. R R Nov. 1 Unan. 73-2
. R R Nov. 5 24-5 72-68
. R R Dec. 1 38-4 103-6
. R R Dec. 4 Unan. Unui.
. R R Dec. 1. Unan. Unan.
. R R Jan. 6 37-1 89-1
. R DIv'd Jan. 30-8 71-25
. R R Jan. 1? Unan. Unan.
. It R Jan. 16 it-t Unan.
. R R Jan. 27 Unan. Unan.
, D DlVd Feb. 7 Unan. Unan.
. D R Feb. 10 18-2 84-21
. R R Feb. 11 29-6 Unan.
. R D Feb. 12 Unan. Unan.
R R Feb. 19 17-5 86-10
D D Feb. 27 24-15 84-12
. D D March 10 15-14 47-40
31 'Arliona
34 'West Virginia
(Katllled at special session. )
t Alabama D
3 Georgia
3 Mississippi D
4 South Carolina
h Virginia
6 Maryland j
Washington nnrt Delaware have called sessions for March 22
Guv Lcgls.
!ov. I.egls. Senate. House.
D I) Sept. 3 18-13 No vote
I) I) July 24 39-8 118-20
I) D Jan. 21 21-16 106-25
D I) Jan. "24 No vote 93-21
I) D Feb. 12 24-10 62-22
I) D Feb. 17 18-9 64-36
1 Connecticut R R
3 Louisiana j) D
5 Florida i D
Gov. Legls.
2 Vermont R R
4 North Carollnn D D
6 Tennessee D I)
tho Senate voted on It for the second time
in 1914.
While Miss Anthony led the national cam
paign at Washington, Miss Stone and Julia
Ward Howe had been looking after tho State
work. In 1900 the two national associations
decided to comblnp their activities and unite
under the namo of the Nntionnl American
Woman Suffrage Association. Mrs. Stanton
was elected presldert of the combined asso
ciations and Miss Anthony continued to as
sist In the work.
It was after the amalgamation had been
effected that the New York city headquar
ters wer opened. Three years after estab
lishing 'tself here the association removed to
Warren, Ohio, where Mrs. Harriet Taylor
Upton had full charge ol the campaign work.
In 1909 the association returned to New
York city, and since that time has conducted
Its campaign from here, first from offices at
505 Fifth, avenue, partially maintained by
Mrs. O. H. P. Belmont, who becamp active In
tho movement then, and later from 171 Mad
ison averitre, the present homo of the rxi'lr
ing organization.
In 1912 the association formed a Congres
sional committee, with headquarter in
Washington, and with some of its best
trained and brainiest women In charge.
It was in this yes.r that Miss Alice Paul
and Miss Lucy Burns Identified themselves
with tho national association. Miss Paul was
made chairman of the Congressional com
mittee and Miss Burns her chief assistant.
The former, a young, pale faced girl, had
served a term in Ho.lowny Juil for her mili
tant activities under the guidance of Mrs.
Emmeltne Pankhurst, then the head of the
Women's Social And Political Union of Great
Miss Paul and Miss Burns did not long
remain with the national association. They
orjranlaad tha Conralon-1 Union on line
similar to those on wliich the Pankhurst
organization was formed. In 1916 this bo
camo known as the National Woman's
The Woman's Party leaders, the "rllcket
Ing suffragists," as they are often allied,
began to work for the passage of tho
Eighteenth Amendment, but they followed
an entirely different course. They adopted
militant tactics, they staged the spectacular,
and they helped materially to win the victor-.
Their success lay In a 'psychological
analysis of men's character hitherto not
considered In the suffrage campaign. They
understood the dislike, almost fear, that men
have of being ridiculed. And the Woman's
Party leaders played on that fear. They
caused Senators and Representatives to lie
laughed at and ridiculed whenever they
could, and they did not draw the line at the
. President. Whether men and women approve
of their methods or not. It must be admitted
th-H the National Woman's Party hnvp ac
complished a great deal In their four years of
concentrated effort.
The conservative wing of the suffrage
movement, then led by Mrs. Carrie Chapman
Catt. frequently disapproved of the Woman's
Party's tactics. They would never have at
tempted such methods themselves. But
when a recalcitrant Senator or Representa
tive was made to see the light all women
and most men rejoiced, whether tho conver
sion had been accomplished through a course
of conservative, persuasive and educational
methods, or by. reminding him of his neg
lected duties by means of truthful, If some
what Impertinent, placards.
The "Woman's Party organizers went to
prison, and Mies Paul was forcibly fed. ITor
followers here were ready and willing to
submit to the same treatment. Many of
them did go to Occoquan, whero they wore
tha ordinary prlnon .run, at Um ordinary
prison food and slept on the ordinary prison
beds. They told of their treatment In detail
ifter they were released, and later they or
ganized the "lYlson Special," n train which
toured the country and carried most of the
women who hud twen Imprisoned for having
picketed the White House.
Tho National American Woman Suffrage
Association has a membership of some two
million women and is organized in practi
cally every State. The National Woman's
Party has a large membership nnd has
Amendment was to come before the State
Both organizations have had representatives
in each of the States where tho Eighteenth
amendment was to come before the State
Legislature, whether in regular or special
Tho victory so far belongs tlrst to those
pioneer women who started the movement,
then to the leaders of both factions who de
cided to abandon the old and slower method
of winning suffrage State by State, and who
renewed the campaign for the passage of the
Federal amendment.
The National American Woman Suffrage
Association has Its weekly organization, The
Woman CMzen, through which It keeps the
suffragists Informed of the progress of their
cause. The Nutlonal Woman's party has Its
publication, The Suffrapist, dedicated to the
same purpose. Both have frequently ben
sold by feminine "newsies," whoso appear
ance even a few years ago was looked upon
as unusual, almost militant.
But as far bark as 1868 Susan B. Anthony
and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, founders of The
Revolution, were spreading their political
tquallty propaganda by means of this jour
nal, when It was sold In the streets by girls
dressed In red and green uniforms with their
suffrage papers tucked Into bags.
When Susan B. Anthony retired from the
presidency of the national suffrage associa
tion the organization had a debt amounting
to S2.000. Miss Anthony did not leave this
for her successor to pay off, but with the
help of a few friends, who hnd before come
to hor financial aid. she paid off the entire
sum. Some, of those who assisted her In this
way were Mrs. Leland Stanford, Mr. and Mrs.
Mrs. Russell Sago and Senator Thomas W.
Palmer of Michigan.
Women Uae Own Namei,
The sanction, of the custom among mar
ried women of using their own nameB rather
than those of their husbands tn relation to
activities in which they personally partici
pate may be traced to Miss Anthony. Within
the last decado tho custom has gained such
ground that one no longer is startled to find
tho husband's and wife's names on the same
letter box. When writing to Senator Palmer
about tho association's deficit sho said,
"Please write out Mrs. Palmer's name In full
her very own name, I mean for I do not
want hor to go down on the page of history
as only an attachment of Thomas W.; she
13 a full-orbed SUn nil by herself."
Periodically the suffrage movement rallied
to Its support women of society. In 1909.
when the national headquarters were re
moved from Ohio to New York, many of the
social leaders Joined the suffrage ranks. They
organized their own leagues nnd always
gathered for one of the big parades which
wero then a feature of the State campaign
for tho vote.
But long before that social celebrities
looked with favor on the cause. .Mrs. Ruther
ford Hayes, as the "First Lady of the Land."
graced the suffrage convention when It met
In Washington in 18S1. With her were some
of her White House guests, members of the
Supreme Court nnd of Congress and other
persons of note in the diplomatic centre.
In 1894 New York city's fashionable set
Joined tho movement. The constitutional
convention was being held at that
time, and Mrs. Josephine Shaw Lowell
nnd Mrs. Joseph H. Chonte called a meeting
at Sherry's to sign a petition to strike from
the New York State Constitution the word
"male.: The list of names affixed to this
petition Included n score or more of those
best known In the city's fashionable circle.
On tho list were tho names of Chauncey M.
Dopow, Russell Sage, Frederic U. Coudert.
the Rev. Dr. Rnlnsfonl, Bishop Potter and
William Dean HowpIIs.
Weary of besieging Congress year after
year with no results, the leaders In the move
ment soon began to see that their hope
of political recognition lay In winning the
States. Of this change In tactics Mrs. Ida
Husted Harper of tho Leslie Woman Suf
frage Committee says:
"It early became apparent to the leaders
cf tho movement that there would have to
fc a good oval of furorahla actios try f
States before t'ongress would give serious
consideration to this question, and therefore,
under tho auspices of the National American
Association, they have continuously helped
with money nnd work the campaigns for
securing the suffrago by amendment of
State constitutions.
"In 1910 at insurgent movement devel
oped In Congress and extended Into various
States to throw off the party yoke nnd adopt
progressive measures. One of Its first fruits
was tho granting of suffrage to women by
the voters of tho State of Washington.
Under the same Influence tho women of
California were enfranchised in 1911, a far
reaching victory. In 1912 Oregon, Arizona
and the well populated State of Kansas
adopted woman suffrage. In 1913 the Leg
islature of Alaska granted It, and that of
Illinois gave all that was possible without
a referendum to the voters, Including mu
nicipal, county and that for Presidential
electors. In 1914 Nevada and Montana
completed tho enfranchisement of women in
the western part of the United States, ex
cept in New Mexico, over a third of thf
whole area,
"The effect upon Congress of the addi
tion of from three to four million women to
the electorate was immediately apparent. A
woman suffrage amendment to the Federal
Constitution had suddenly become a live
"There were altogether fifty-six of these
separate suffrage campaigns, with victories
In only fifteen States as the meagre result."
Next the women leaders turned their at
tention to obtaining Presidential suffrage,
and up to 1917' this had been won In North
Dakota, Nebraska, Indiana, Michigan", Ohio
and Rhode Island. Then came Arkansas,
giving Its women full suffrage In all pri
maries, equivalent to a vote In regular elec
tions. t
The Victory in New York.
In November, 1917, came the full victory
in Now York State, the first Eastern Stato
to enfranchise women. Fresh from their
victory here, the New York women turned
their guns on Washington to help their sis
ters win the Federal franchise fight. The
nmendment was Anally passed June 4, 1919,
Then begun the ratification campaign,
participated in by the conservatives and
the militants. And the battle f.ir ratification,
ended In nine months, marks the shortest
time it has taken to ratify a Constitutional
amendment. In the 1920 elections more than
25,000,000 women will vote in the United
Although ratification of tho Eighteenth
Amendment has broken the record In regard
to the number of special sessions called and
the speed with which it has been secured,
the speed has been attained in spite of ob
stacles that ranged from the Japanese men
ace tn fjchool code lights, and from ancient
personal prejudices about women and the
home to modern political fears of the "Irre
concllables" that women. If they had the
chance, would vote for the League of Na
tions. Campaigns were directed against
either the Governors or the Legislatures in
all but five of the thirty-six States that havo
ratified Wisconsin, Ohio, New York, Ar
kansas and Montana.
How bitter tho opposition to suffrage wns
became evident as ratification ncared con.
pletlon. In the last doubtful States- New
Jersey, "West Virginia nnd New Mexico
"plots" had to be thwarted, parliamentary
tricks turned, powerful Interests circum
vented. In West Virginia the Lcglslatut
deadlocked, was held in session while a vo'e
was rushed from California. It was cnlj
when the supporters of suffrage appeared
armed with pillows, thtrmos bottle and packs
of cards that the opponents gave up tnelr
effort to adjourn theesslon before the extra
vote on the suffrage side arrived.
In Now Mexico a plot to make the native
vote "the goat" and so wreck the chance ,
of women voting in the next election was
spoiled In the nick of time.
Old Documents
Present Problem
WHAT to destroy and what to savo In
tho way of old documents, news
paper nnd other publications has
given rise to the organization of tho com
mittees of Congress bearing those peculiar
titles: "Disposition of Useless Papers In the
Executive Departments" nnd "Examination
and Disposition of Documents." The names
of the committees Indicate the duties devolv
ing upon their members.
Moreover, not only public officers, but the
directors of libraries and museums, to say
.nothing of private collectors, are often puz
zled by the accumulation of matter issuing
from modern printing presses. A hill was
some time ago Introduced In Parliament to
enablo the trustees of the British Museum to
distribute or destroy "valueless printed mat-,
ter In tholr possession."
Immediately a Shakespearian scholar of
prominence objected. He argued that no one
could discriminate between what may bo
valuable and valueless for the historical In
vestigator of tho future. "Who knows," he
nsked. "hut that the trade circular, the
country newspaper or tho street song may
throw a most Important light several hun
dred years hence upon some mooted qmutlaa
of our present UfaT"

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