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THE SUN AND NEW YORK HERALD, SUNDAY, AUGUST 1, 1920.
Dividing the Spoils at Spa
Under Cover of Diplomacy
Measures Veiled in Conference Are Only What Would Have Taken
Place in Open in Old Order of Things--Analysis of Coal Victory Won
bv France Discloses Real Status of Affairs in Europe and the East.
By B. M. TALBOT.
HisT iKV will record t pa Belgium,
that il mi the scene' of many ex-i-itLitK
episodes, social, military .m.l
ll; lonutic, hut the annul of this pretty,
war stricken watering place will embrace no
more significant event than the re-cent confer
enee held there tiy the Entente Ministers of
State to Mil the Germans to account for re
fractions of the WrfHlllte peace treaty, which
now has la-come ujiieiuc among peace treaties
because of its lack of fulfilment.
Fun- dtcreed that the flint meeting of the
Teutons with their conquerors after the ac
tual signing of the treaty should occur In n
place which haU bean the KCM of one of the
initial German advance In the war. Hut
asidi from Its sentimental WelKht thin fail
had no more significance- or Influence than
if tin- conference had been held in Paris,
Berlin, London or The HaKue.
Under Cover of Diplomatic Discussion.
What the puss deapatChea delineated as
new decisions and orders by the Allien to
enforce the execution of the Versailles treaty
were simply addenda to the original docu
im nt drawn up with the hep of President
Wilson, and in which his influence prevented
the. Inclusion of the measures now taken.
The division of spoils which would have
taken place openly and frankly except for
the Interference of president Wilson, is now
taking pl.o e under cover of diplomatic dis
cussion winch obscures the real status, of
Germany was protected by the treaty oi
Vctsailles from Hiving up territory as a pen
alty for her crimes in the war. She lost
Alsace-Lorraine because it was properly
Kronen territory, and she lost the Up
per Schleswlg Zone by plebiscite and
may similarly lose Silesia only if Hie
people show by their Votes that they
prefer to be governed by some other coun
try Except where the Allies took German
Colonies, tin right of victors to confiscate
I rritory was not exercised. If this doctrine
i f Confiscating territory had prevailed at
Versailles there is utile doubt that Trance
i,uld have taken the entire Rh.ne region,
which contains immense co.il deposits, ex
tending from the southeastern border of the
Netherlands to the northwestern border of
Switzerland. This would have been doing
nothing contrary to the precedent established
1 y Germany In taking the iron ore regions
of Alsace-Lorraine after the Kranco-i'i us-
Tin thine district and Alsace-Lorraine
are Inseparable in an industrial sense. The
Rhine 'Valley constitutes one of the most
thii tilj populated and efficient Industrial sec
tions of Europe, it contains huge manu
facturing plants of every description situ
ated in the strategic centre of a territory
abounding in fuel. Southward from Essen
on the upper line there are numberless iron
works, blast furnaces and steel mills
throiighcut this area and down to the border
For Germany it was only necessary to go
a short distance into Alsace-Lorraine to ex
tract the necessary ore to keep these plants
on the llhlne supplied with raw materials.
The coal and coke were right at hand The
combination made It possible for German in
dustry to grow and prosper beyond the
dreams of the promoters themselves.
Trying to Keep France in Shade.
France recovered Alsace-Lorraine, but the
Rhine Valley remained German territory,
although it Is to be policed by allied forces
for fifteen years, more or less. Nothing would
have been more natural, had the old time
Carthaginian Ideas of drafting peace treaties
held sway at Versailles, than for France to
annex this whole region for herself. The
world might then have seen France dupli
cate the feat of Germany in building up her
industrial power and becoming .1 formidable
rival of England.
It was not to be. The British Prime Min
ister, the tight Hon. David Lloyd George,
'wen to Versailles intent on preventing
France from taking Germany's place in the
sun, .ind iie has not deviated from this pur
pose for a moment down to the present day.
in this he had the consistent, though per
haps unconscious, assistance of President
Wilson. The war has left England more
secure than ever in her ability to divide
F.urope against itself and in her own favor,
ami that is the fascinating pastime Lloyd
George has been engaged In since November.
With no chance of territorial annexation
because of the combined opposition of Wil
son and Lloyd George, the French Premier,
M. Clemenceau. had to deal with great ob
stacles if he was to obtain an advantage
that in other ways might gve France some
thing like the benefits that would accrue
from actual annexation.
Clemenceau was able to work up an At
mosphere of reality for his fear of a future
I. erman invasion, and in tftis way he ob
tained the concession which provides for
policing the Rhine. Very likely he saw that
before the end of the fifteen year period the
Allies would tire of keeping soldiers on the
Khme and eventually none but French
fe.rces would remain there. Ostensible Ger
man ownership, but actual French domina
tion, would be little different from actual
French ownership. At least the new scheme
would do as a substitute for annexation.
Even with this prospect Clemences 1 knew
well that even French domination would
pever be permitted by Kngland without a
strong protest. It was therefore necessary
for Clemenceau to go further and provide
more safeguards for his policy. So, despite'
the Implied agreement against punitive in
demnities, a maximum penalty of about
II. 0,000,000,000 German marks, or $40,000,
000.000. was the money indemnity provided.
This was supposed to be solely under the
head of reparations, but it was soon shown
that It exceeded the amount of actual dam
age done by the Germans and was therefore
When it became evident that such an
amount could not be .collected the allied
statesmen started a series of conferences,
which resulted in meetings at Ixmdon. Paris,
gin Kemo, Boulogne and Brussels. The
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WHERE THE SPA CONFERENCE WAS HELD
French Premiership had been transferred to
M. Millerand and on him devolved the task
of preventing it, t'lemenceau's programme
from being utterly shattered at the hands of
Lloyd George. The task was no easy one.
Millerand was face to face with the fact
that Germany was in the mhlst of indus
tllal stagnation, and that even if he had the
peace treaty and public sentiment on his
side, logical evidence was against him. It
needed no proof to show that a modifica
tion must be made somehow. Millerand set
himself to oppose every move toward scal
ing down the Indemnity unless an offsetting
ii'.vantage could be gained in some other
Germany's Inability to pay was not alto
g ther useless as a weapon In Millerand's
hands, for he could use it as u means of ob
taittlng more qpal from the Rhine valley.
He could face Lloyd George and say: 'Father
give me the Hhine coal or the indemnity."
Rhine coal meant industrial strength for
Prance and added competition against Eng
land. F'ull indemnity to France meant cut
ting down the amount of Indemnity to Eng
land, Italy and the others.
In this diplomatic game the F'rench Pre
mier had another valuable argument. It was
the Near East question. ISngland had ob
tained Mesopotamia from the Turks, al
though the French influence in Syria should
have brought Mesopotamia to France if the
English idea of claiming territory next to
he,- colonies had been carried out. However,
at the time Kngland had olltlliaSMiSfllHI
tan la Clemenceau did not know of its rich
oil deposits, and therefore he consented to
English control by mandate. But when the
oil rt sources were revealed the F"rcnch were
The uprising of the Turkish Nationalists
against the terms of the Turkish peace
treaty gave France an opportunity to ex
press her indignation and make it count for
something. One way or another she con
trived to let It be known to Iondon that It
France chose to side with the Turkish Na
tionalists for a revision of the Turkish treaty,
the English Influence not only in Mesopo
tamia but In Persia and Southeastern Rus
sia might suffer great damage.
Lloyd George Turns Another Card.
F'runee was thus able to present a still
stronger argument to England: "Give us the
hint region or the majority of its coal
and abandon your policy of leniency toward
Germany. Otherwise you may lose your pos--scfslons
In the Near Beat."
It was a strong argument. But Lloyd
George must have been expecting it. At any
rate he was prepared. With the deft hand
of the experienced player he turned over an-
otr.er card, tin the face of it were the large,
red, sinister letters, "RUSSIA."
I'p to that time, which was only a few
weeks ago. at Hrussels it had Ix-en a two
hardeel game, with Italy participating only
at intervals when Lloyd George needed the
sit; port of the Italian Premier against the
forceful arguments of the FYench leader.
The Introduction of Russia created a fu
ror. Millerand stood aghast, for he had not
expected Great Itritaln to desert the cause
of a Polish State which was supposed to be
the special means the Allies had taken to
keep Bolshevism in check. But when Lloyd
George deserted Poland by extending tho
hand of friendship to Russia it became ap
parent that the Polish State was more of a
French protege, intended to prevent a union
of German and Russian interests.
Warming up handily to the task he had
set for himself, the ltritlsh Premier promised
n relieve Russia of the war on her southern
border with Poland if the Bolsheviks would
cease to harass the independent States of
Georgia and Asarabaljan, dow n in the south
eastern corner of Russia. Lloyd George had
contrived to Jiave the States set up because
they encompassed British oil interests at
Baku, Batum and Titlis. They also consti
tuted buffer States between Persia and Rus
sia Persia being a British protectorate
and a third purpose was to check the prog-
PREtflER MILLERAND OF FRANCE
WHO &AINED THE. COAL VICTORY
less of Bolshevism toward India. The Brit
ish, it was apparent, had checkmated Mil
lerand at the same time that they had gained
a distinct advantage for themselves.
But Lloyd George hail not finished He
turned up another card on which was de
picted the name of Greece. He showed Mil
lerand that Greek fences could be relied upon
to finish off the Turkish Nationalists and
make Mesopotamia safe for British oil wells.
By this time F'rance was fairly well sub
dued. She had been shorn of the powerful
eounter argument In the Near lOast. Lloy.l
George saw that the propitious moment for
the Spa conference with the Germans had
arrived, and It was arranged.
Millerand Still Undaunted.
Still undaunted, though seriously handi
capped, Millerand kept in the centre of his
mind the Rhine territory and its indispen
sable coal supply. The Versailles treaty
called for a maximum of 43,000,000 tons a
year to be delivered to the Allies by Germany
to replace lost production in FYench mines
and to help rebuild industry In Belgium
a ml F"rance.
F'ull deliveries of the amount stipulated in
the treaty were not possible. The figure
was scaled down to lM.uoO.000 tons a year,
or 2,000,000 tons a month, and lower than
tills figure France refused to go. She had
behind her the Versailles treaty, which au
thorized the use of force to compel the coal
deliveries, and she served notice on Lloyd
George that, do what he might, the coal
must be delivered or the Ruhr district
would be occupied.
For once Lloyd George had to yield. His
own people at home, not realizing as clear
ly as the Premier the real reason for the
French insistence, would not tolerate more
leniency toward Germany. Against his own
people Lloyd George was helpless. He
yielded and the Germans were given the
choice of delivering coal or stating their ex
cuses to an allied army.
The future alone will ell whether the
scheme will work an . tnus give F'ranee
much of the benefit that would have re
sulted from actuiU annexation. The money
indemnity remains to he fixed, and from
previous events it is easy enough to imag
ine that the skilful maneeuvr-s of diplo
mats, bringing into play hidden Influences
and reactions, may either enhance or an
nul altogether the value of M. Millerand's
doubtful diplomatic victory on the Rhine.
Bolshevism Outdone by Mexico's Constitution
Continued" from yir.11 Page,
guards by day, where human life was
c heaply held and human rights disregarded.
It' was a system which grew out of the
ancient Spanish encomiendas, against which
Las Casas fought and men thought him mad
because he would champion the rights of an
Labor Laws Are Progressive.
1'nder the Constitution of PjlT e ight hours
is a working day and the maximum limit
for night work Is seven hours. Night work
in factories is forbidden to women and chil
dren under sixteen years old; nor may they
I employed in commercial establishments
after 10 o'clock at night.
"The minimum wage received by a work
man shall Ik- that which is considered suffi
cient, according to the conditions prevail
ing in the resective regions of the country,
to satisfy the normal needs of life of a
workman, his education and his lawful
pleasures, considering him as the bead of
a family." it provides. "In all agricultural,
commercial, manufacturing or mining enter
prises the workman shall have the right to
participate in the profits In the manner
fixed by Clause 9 of thiB article.
""(Clause 9. The determination of the mini
irum wag" and of the rate of profit sharing
ascribed in Clause 7 shall be mad by spe
cial commissions to be appointed in each
municipality and to be subordinated to the
central board of conciliation to be estab
lished In each State).
"When, owing to special circumstances. It
becomes necessary to Increase the working
hours, the' shall be paid as wages for over
time 100 per cent, more than is fixed for
regular time. In no case shall the overtime
exceed three hours nor conttnue for more
than three consecutive days, and no women
of whatever age nor boys under sixteen
years of age may engage In overtime work.
"In every agricultural, industrial, mining
or other class of work employers are bound
to furnish their workmen j-omfortable and
sanitary dwelling places, for which they
may charge rents not exceeding one-half of
1 per cent, a month of the assessed value of
the properties. Likewise they shall estab
lish schools, dispensaries and other services
necessary to the community."
Employers' liability Is provided for In
Article 123. as follows:
"Employers shall be liable for labor acci
dents and occupational diseases arising from
work. Therefore, employers shall pay the
pioper indemnity, acordnig to whether death
or merely temporary or permanent disabil
ity has ensued."
Whereas under the Constitution of 185"
Gen. Diaz put down with tui iron hand, as
in Put-bis, any strike movements by la.bor,
the Constitution of 1 a 1 7 recognises the right
of workers to strike and oi employers to
lock out. Article 123 provides:
"XVI. Workmen and employers shall have
the right to unite for the oefence of their
respective interests by forming syndicates,
"XVII. The law shall recognize the right
of workmen and of employers to strike and
to lock out.
"XVIII. Strikes shall be lawful when by
the employment of peaceful means they
Khali aim to bring about a balance between
the various factors of production and to
harmonize the rights of capital and Labor,
In the case of pubdc se rvices, the workmen
shall be obliged to give ten days notice in
advance to the Boa,rd of Conciliation and
Arbitration of the date set for the suspen
sion of work. Strikes shall only e con
sidered unlawful when the majority of the
strikers shall resort to acts of violence
against persons or property, or in CSM of
v.ar when the strikers belong to establish
ments ami services dependent on the Gov
ernment. . . .
XIX. Loc kouts shall only be lawful when
IDS excess of production shall rentier It
1 i tOSSSiy to shut dow n in order to maintain
prices reasonably above the cost of produc
tion, subject to the approval of the Board
of Conciliation and Arbitration.
"XX. Differences or disputes between
capital and labor shall be submittted for
settlement to a board of conciliation and ar
bitration, to consist of an equal number of
representatives of the workmen and of the
employers and of one representative of the
"XXI. If the employer shall refuse to sub
mit his differences to arbitration or to ae
cc pt the award rendered by the board, the
hi I or contract shall lie Considered as termi
nated, and the employer shall be bound to
indemnify the workman by the payment to
h'm of three months wages, in addition to
the liability which he may have incurred by
reason of the dispute. If the workman re
Jtcts the award. Ihe contract will be held to
Another radical change from the Consti
tution of 1857 Is contained in that provision
cf Article 123 to the effect that "all debts
contracted by worklngmen on account uf
work up to the date of this Constitution
with masters, their subordinates and agents
are hereby entirely discharged.''
In keeping with the spirit manifested by
dropping the preamble of the Constitution of
'.857. "In the name Oi God and by authority
of the Mexican people . . .," the Consti
tution of 1917 strengthens the so-called
"reform laws" and provides:
"Religious Institutions known ss churches,
irrespective of creed, slial? in no case have
legal capacity to acquire, hold or administer
real property or loans made on ral prop
erty. All such real property or loans as
may be held at the pre set. t time by religious
Institutions, either on their own behalf or
through third parties, shad vest in the na
tion, and any one shall have the rigtit to
deniunce property so heed Pre-sumptive
proof shall lie' sufficient to declare the de
nunciation well founded. Places of public
worship are the prope rty of the nation, as
represented by the Federal Government,
which shall determine which of them shall
continue to be devoted to their present pur
poses. Flpiscopal reside ccs, rectories, semi
naries, orphan asylums or collegiate estab
lishments of religious Institutions, convents
or any other buiLlngs built or designed for
administrative, propaganda or the teaching of
the tenets of any religio :s creed, shall forth
with vest directly In the nation, to be used
e xclusively for public services of the F'ed
1 ration or of the States within their respec
tive Jurisdictions. All plac es of public woe -ship
which shall later be erected shall be
the property of the nation.''
The Constitution gives exclusive power to
the State Legislatures to "determine the
maximum number of ministers of religious
creeds, according to the needs of each lo
cality." Only a Mexican by birth can be a
minister of any religious creed In Mexico, it
Peace Seemi Still Far Off.
These are the chie, features of the Con
stitution of 1917, dlfferjns from that of 1857.
They are the features against which foreign
business, foreign investments and the
church have protested. They have been
the storm centres around which foreigners
and the Carranza Government clashed and
nrnund which foreign Interests and the
present and coming Mexican Governments
will clash unless an agreement Is reached
between representatives of thes foreign In
terests and the De la Huerta admlnistntion
and Uefn. Obregon. What these clashes will
lead to no one knows, but this is certain,
that they will not lead to a speedy solutbyi
of the Mexican problem to the extinguish
ing of that "conflagration next door to us"
by peaceful means. Instead, with new revo
lutions now In the making, with Mexican
political "outs" striving to get In and ready
to resort to arms to force their power on
the nation; with an empty treasury, the
problem before Sc nor de la Huerta and Gen.
obregon is not an easy one. He must lie
Indeed an optimist who can see a huppy
end to it.
There will be a change in the White House
in Washington next year. The policy of the
American administration with regard) to
Mexico will constitute) a most important
Chapter in Mexican history. The conditions
which have obtained there for the last eight
ears cannot continue for another four
years. If there ever was a time when Mexi
cans should cease to plot, should cease to
resort to arms against constituted authority,
as they themselves constituted and accepted
it, this is the time.
The Time for Patriotic Service.
To-day Mexico needs the services of every
one of her sons, and she needs them at home,
to build constructively, to reform the courts,
to enforce the laws, to abide by the laws,
to forget old hates, old ambitions, to put
away grerd for power. Whether it be Obre
gon or Roblei Dominguez who is the next
President of Mexico, he needs the help of
e very Mexican, whether Porflrista. Cientifico.
Madertsta. Carranzista. Obregonista. Vllllsta
Mexico has the men possessing the brains
and the ability to pull her out of the,jnire
and to put her on her (eet sciuarely and
hrmly. if Mexican will but forget the past
and get together and work for M xieo In
stead of for self or party. These Mexican
Intellectuals have the inherent honesty to
do It If they will conscientiously and patrioti
cally try. They can be fair to their own
people and to foreigners.
When Mexicans understand this there will
he no more fights over constitutional pro
visions of Executive decrees; there will be
no "MexieMn question." Instead, there will
he peace in Mexico and rich . harvests and
full granaries; and those spectral mountains,
veiled In fleecy clouds through which the
sun casts rainbow colors, will give up their
great riches of gold and silver and copper,
and there will flow from the Inexhaustable
fields of Tamaullpas and Vera Cruz a never
ending stream of fuel oil to drive cargo
carrying ships through the seven seas and
lo generate power for countless industries
at home and in foreign lands.
Danseuse Back From
Europe Tells of
V a r Profiteers'
VIENNA, the once gay capital of A is.
trla and one of the greatest music
and art centres in all Furor".. j no
more the same, is the contention of Albcr
tina Rasch, the young Polish dancer, who
has Just returned from Furope after a two
months stay. As Mme. Rasch has lived
ind dancenl In this country for several yens,
from opera ballet to vaudeville, She. needs
.no introduction to American theatregoers.
rlor to sailing for FHurope she appeared at
the Capitol Theatre, where she delighted
thousands of dance lovers.
"I spent hut a few days In Vienna," said
Mme. Rasch in tedllng of her trip. "I went
there to pay my respects to my old dancing
teacher and see If there was anything I
could do to add to his comfort In Paris I
was told that conditions were in a sad plight
and 1 was advised not to take the Journey;
but then I had lived and studied In Vienna,
so 1 could not resist the temptation, be it
ever so inconvenient. Through my man
ager, M. de Valsey, and some Influential
friends in the F'rench Government, I was
able to secure a berth on the Orient Ex
pu ss, so I travelled without difficulty.
"I found the Vienna of to-day just what
It had been described to me. It was not the
once gay city I had known It before the war.
The streets were filled with hungry and
half fed people and the city looked neglected
and dirty. Nearly every one seemed despon
dc nt except a few profiteers who had made
millions out of the war. These lived and
dressed like royalty, and from what 1 could
see had formed an aristocracy of their own.
In living upon what little fat there was left
in the land they had skinned the poor out of
the real necessities of life, and this was evl
de nt everywhere. Had It not lieen for the
food sent by the I'nited States, Holland and
Sweden famine would have reigned every
where. "1 want to tell you the people are cer
tainly grateful to this exiuntry. They now
understand the generous hearts you have.
They do not look upon you as unfriendly. It
was the food and medicines sent that prac
tically saved the people. F'ood was scarce a
few months ago, but there Is some relief
now. The summer crops have been good,
but food is still very high. The profiteer still
holds a strong hand and prices are sueti the
poorer classes are unable to pay. This c auses
a great deal of unrost and makes it hard to
establish a favorable government. The now
ruling class know nothing about forming a
government, and never will.
"Yes, I vicUed many of the theatres, and
was surprised to And them crowded. The
plays are by no means up to the standard,
but they seem to suit the public, and thai is
all the managers care aliout. I visited the
Impe rial Opera House on several occasions.
Opera se-ems to stimulate the people. But
the audiences were not the same as one
WOUld expect to see in such a cultured city.
Th' boxes were filled with the most or
dinary class one could imagine. It looked
more' like a picnic than anything else. Pa
trons, if they can be called such, brought
their lunches, and It was not an uncommon
sight to see them crash boiled eggs on the
brass railings and then toss the shells on
those below. During the best arias these
people talked and rattled papers, much to
the annoyance of everybody. But such Is
the new society."
Still Rich in Art.
Mme. Rasch then went on to state that
Vienna was still rich In art treasures. In
mcny of the first class shops one could pur
chase good clothes, boots and shoes. The
people have not forgotten how to dress, but
the- lack of money, work and food has
caused the majority to go about poorly clad.
Mme. Rasch went to Paris last May as the
r.uest of friends who invited her to witness
the premier of "Pulcenella," which was given
nt the Paris Opera May 14. In the cast
were Leonide Masslne, Thomas Karsavina.
Lubor Tchernlcherva and otheu well known
here in the Russian ballet. During her stay
In the FTench metropolis she purchased
several new gowns to be worn this season
during her American tour under the direc
tion of Martin Beck. She alstf visited the
races and attended the Grand Prix. From
Paris she went to London, where she ap
peared at a benefit held at Bournemouth
with the Municipal Orchestra, under the
direction of Daniel Godfrey.
There she made such a pronounced suc
cess that she was offered several contracts
to tour England and the British Isles.
These she could not accept. Her manager
raid he had scoured Europe for novelties,
but was unable to find anything suitable
for the American public. Mme. Rasch said
she was glad to get back. Her trip abroad
lasted but two months, but it seemed a loll?
time, specially when a big season stands
in the way.
EXPER1MF1NTS aimed at developing
the resistance of brass to the ac
tion of sen water, with a view to it'
employment for constructing submarines in
F'rnnce, have, It is reported, shown some
remarkable results from the addition '
aluminum. The internal structure nt the
alloy Is strikingly changed by a very SBtS
percentage of aluminum, and the color
changes are surprising.
F'rom half of 1 per cent, up 1 1 5 per cent,
of aluminum gives the brass a deep golden
color. If the quantity of aluminum Is IB"
creased beyond 6 per cent, a superb rose
color results, which reaches its maxima"1
when the aluminum amounts to 7
With 10 per cent, of aluminum Uiu cai
turns to a silvery white.