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THE SUN AND NEW YORK HERALD, SUNDAY, AUGUST 1, 1920.
Dividing the Spoils at Spa Under Cover of Diplomacy Measures Veiled in Conference Are Only What Would Have Taken Place in Open in Old Order of Things--Analysis of Coal Victory Won bv France Discloses Real Status of Affairs in Europe and the East. By B. M. TALBOT. HisT iKV will record t pa Belgium, that il mi the scene' of many ex-i-itLitK episodes, social, military .m.l ll; lonutic, hut the annul of this pretty, war stricken watering place will embrace no more significant event than the re-cent confer enee held there tiy the Entente Ministers of State to Mil the Germans to account for re fractions of the WrfHlllte peace treaty, which now has la-come ujiieiuc among peace treaties because of its lack of fulfilment. Fun- dtcreed that the flint meeting of the Teutons with their conquerors after the ac tual signing of the treaty should occur In n place which haU bean the KCM of one of the initial German advance In the war. Hut asidi from Its sentimental WelKht thin fail had no more significance- or Influence than if tin- conference had been held in Paris, Berlin, London or The HaKue. Under Cover of Diplomatic Discussion. What the puss deapatChea delineated as new decisions and orders by the Allien to enforce the execution of the Versailles treaty were simply addenda to the original docu im nt drawn up with the hep of President Wilson, and in which his influence prevented the. Inclusion of the measures now taken. The division of spoils which would have taken place openly and frankly except for the Interference of president Wilson, is now taking pl.o e under cover of diplomatic dis cussion winch obscures the real status, of affairs. Germany was protected by the treaty oi Vctsailles from Hiving up territory as a pen alty for her crimes in the war. She lost Alsace-Lorraine because it was properly Kronen territory, and she lost the Up per Schleswlg Zone by plebiscite and may similarly lose Silesia only if Hie people show by their Votes that they prefer to be governed by some other coun try Except where the Allies took German Colonies, tin right of victors to confiscate I rritory was not exercised. If this doctrine i f Confiscating territory had prevailed at Versailles there is utile doubt that Trance i,uld have taken the entire Rh.ne region, which contains immense co.il deposits, ex tending from the southeastern border of the Netherlands to the northwestern border of Switzerland. This would have been doing nothing contrary to the precedent established 1 y Germany In taking the iron ore regions of Alsace-Lorraine after the Kranco-i'i us- SiaD war. Tin thine district and Alsace-Lorraine are Inseparable in an industrial sense. The Rhine 'Valley constitutes one of the most thii tilj populated and efficient Industrial sec tions of Europe, it contains huge manu facturing plants of every description situ ated in the strategic centre of a territory abounding in fuel. Southward from Essen on the upper line there are numberless iron works, blast furnaces and steel mills throiighcut this area and down to the border of Alsace-Lorraine. For Germany it was only necessary to go a short distance into Alsace-Lorraine to ex tract the necessary ore to keep these plants on the llhlne supplied with raw materials. The coal and coke were right at hand The combination made It possible for German in dustry to grow and prosper beyond the dreams of the promoters themselves. Trying to Keep France in Shade. France recovered Alsace-Lorraine, but the Rhine Valley remained German territory, although it Is to be policed by allied forces for fifteen years, more or less. Nothing would have been more natural, had the old time Carthaginian Ideas of drafting peace treaties held sway at Versailles, than for France to annex this whole region for herself. The world might then have seen France dupli cate the feat of Germany in building up her industrial power and becoming .1 formidable rival of England. It was not to be. The British Prime Min ister, the tight Hon. David Lloyd George, 'wen to Versailles intent on preventing France from taking Germany's place in the sun, .ind iie has not deviated from this pur pose for a moment down to the present day. in this he had the consistent, though per haps unconscious, assistance of President Wilson. The war has left England more secure than ever in her ability to divide F.urope against itself and in her own favor, ami that is the fascinating pastime Lloyd George has been engaged In since November. 1S18. With no chance of territorial annexation because of the combined opposition of Wil son and Lloyd George, the French Premier, M. Clemenceau. had to deal with great ob stacles if he was to obtain an advantage that in other ways might gve France some thing like the benefits that would accrue from actual annexation. Clemenceau was able to work up an At mosphere of reality for his fear of a future I. erman invasion, and in tftis way he ob tained the concession which provides for policing the Rhine. Very likely he saw that before the end of the fifteen year period the Allies would tire of keeping soldiers on the Khme and eventually none but French fe.rces would remain there. Ostensible Ger man ownership, but actual French domina tion, would be little different from actual French ownership. At least the new scheme would do as a substitute for annexation. Even with this prospect Clemences 1 knew well that even French domination would pever be permitted by Kngland without a strong protest. It was therefore necessary for Clemenceau to go further and provide more safeguards for his policy. So, despite' the Implied agreement against punitive in demnities, a maximum penalty of about II. 0,000,000,000 German marks, or $40,000, 000.000. was the money indemnity provided. This was supposed to be solely under the head of reparations, but it was soon shown that It exceeded the amount of actual dam age done by the Germans and was therefore punitive. When it became evident that such an amount could not be .collected the allied statesmen started a series of conferences, which resulted in meetings at Ixmdon. Paris, gin Kemo, Boulogne and Brussels. The I iWlfcjpHBA ' I tm rrj-nw, . yrr' m fggvugga mmam wmmmmam xv 3& JSf ntHgggggggT I H 7 Z2fjf Loff lv S wtn WHERE THE SPA CONFERENCE WAS HELD French Premiership had been transferred to M. Millerand and on him devolved the task of preventing it, t'lemenceau's programme from being utterly shattered at the hands of Lloyd George. The task was no easy one. Millerand was face to face with the fact that Germany was in the mhlst of indus tllal stagnation, and that even if he had the peace treaty and public sentiment on his side, logical evidence was against him. It needed no proof to show that a modifica tion must be made somehow. Millerand set himself to oppose every move toward scal ing down the Indemnity unless an offsetting ii'.vantage could be gained in some other direction. Germany's Inability to pay was not alto g ther useless as a weapon In Millerand's hands, for he could use it as u means of ob taittlng more qpal from the Rhine valley. He could face Lloyd George and say: 'Father give me the Hhine coal or the indemnity." Rhine coal meant industrial strength for Prance and added competition against Eng land. F'ull indemnity to France meant cut ting down the amount of Indemnity to Eng land, Italy and the others. In this diplomatic game the F'rench Pre mier had another valuable argument. It was the Near East question. ISngland had ob tained Mesopotamia from the Turks, al though the French influence in Syria should have brought Mesopotamia to France if the English idea of claiming territory next to he,- colonies had been carried out. However, at the time Kngland had olltlliaSMiSfllHI tan la Clemenceau did not know of its rich oil deposits, and therefore he consented to English control by mandate. But when the oil rt sources were revealed the F"rcnch were indignant. The uprising of the Turkish Nationalists against the terms of the Turkish peace treaty gave France an opportunity to ex press her indignation and make it count for something. One way or another she con trived to let It be known to Iondon that It France chose to side with the Turkish Na tionalists for a revision of the Turkish treaty, the English Influence not only in Mesopo tamia but In Persia and Southeastern Rus sia might suffer great damage. Lloyd George Turns Another Card. F'runee was thus able to present a still stronger argument to England: "Give us the hint region or the majority of its coal and abandon your policy of leniency toward Germany. Otherwise you may lose your pos--scfslons In the Near Beat." It was a strong argument. But Lloyd George must have been expecting it. At any rate he was prepared. With the deft hand of the experienced player he turned over an- otr.er card, tin the face of it were the large, red, sinister letters, "RUSSIA." I'p to that time, which was only a few weeks ago. at Hrussels it had Ix-en a two hardeel game, with Italy participating only at intervals when Lloyd George needed the sit; port of the Italian Premier against the forceful arguments of the FYench leader. The Introduction of Russia created a fu ror. Millerand stood aghast, for he had not expected Great Itritaln to desert the cause of a Polish State which was supposed to be the special means the Allies had taken to keep Bolshevism in check. But when Lloyd George deserted Poland by extending tho hand of friendship to Russia it became ap parent that the Polish State was more of a French protege, intended to prevent a union of German and Russian interests. Warming up handily to the task he had set for himself, the ltritlsh Premier promised n relieve Russia of the war on her southern border with Poland if the Bolsheviks would cease to harass the independent States of Georgia and Asarabaljan, dow n in the south eastern corner of Russia. Lloyd George had contrived to Jiave the States set up because they encompassed British oil interests at Baku, Batum and Titlis. They also consti tuted buffer States between Persia and Rus sia Persia being a British protectorate and a third purpose was to check the prog- PREtflER MILLERAND OF FRANCE WHO &AINED THE. COAL VICTORY AT SPA less of Bolshevism toward India. The Brit ish, it was apparent, had checkmated Mil lerand at the same time that they had gained a distinct advantage for themselves. But Lloyd George hail not finished He turned up another card on which was de picted the name of Greece. He showed Mil lerand that Greek fences could be relied upon to finish off the Turkish Nationalists and make Mesopotamia safe for British oil wells. By this time F'rance was fairly well sub dued. She had been shorn of the powerful eounter argument In the Near lOast. Lloy.l George saw that the propitious moment for the Spa conference with the Germans had arrived, and It was arranged. Millerand Still Undaunted. Still undaunted, though seriously handi capped, Millerand kept in the centre of his mind the Rhine territory and its indispen sable coal supply. The Versailles treaty called for a maximum of 43,000,000 tons a year to be delivered to the Allies by Germany to replace lost production in FYench mines and to help rebuild industry In Belgium a ml F"rance. F'ull deliveries of the amount stipulated in the treaty were not possible. The figure was scaled down to lM.uoO.000 tons a year, or 2,000,000 tons a month, and lower than tills figure France refused to go. She had behind her the Versailles treaty, which au thorized the use of force to compel the coal deliveries, and she served notice on Lloyd George that, do what he might, the coal must be delivered or the Ruhr district would be occupied. For once Lloyd George had to yield. His own people at home, not realizing as clear ly as the Premier the real reason for the French insistence, would not tolerate more leniency toward Germany. Against his own people Lloyd George was helpless. He yielded and the Germans were given the choice of delivering coal or stating their ex cuses to an allied army. The future alone will ell whether the scheme will work an . tnus give F'ranee much of the benefit that would have re sulted from actuiU annexation. The money indemnity remains to he fixed, and from previous events it is easy enough to imag ine that the skilful maneeuvr-s of diplo mats, bringing into play hidden Influences and reactions, may either enhance or an nul altogether the value of M. Millerand's doubtful diplomatic victory on the Rhine. Bolshevism Outdone by Mexico's Constitution Continued" from yir.11 Page, guards by day, where human life was c heaply held and human rights disregarded. It' was a system which grew out of the ancient Spanish encomiendas, against which Las Casas fought and men thought him mad because he would champion the rights of an Indian. Labor Laws Are Progressive. 1'nder the Constitution of PjlT e ight hours is a working day and the maximum limit for night work Is seven hours. Night work in factories is forbidden to women and chil dren under sixteen years old; nor may they I employed in commercial establishments after 10 o'clock at night. "The minimum wage received by a work man shall Ik- that which is considered suffi cient, according to the conditions prevail ing in the resective regions of the country, to satisfy the normal needs of life of a workman, his education and his lawful pleasures, considering him as the bead of a family." it provides. "In all agricultural, commercial, manufacturing or mining enter prises the workman shall have the right to participate in the profits In the manner fixed by Clause 9 of thiB article. ""(Clause 9. The determination of the mini irum wag" and of the rate of profit sharing ascribed in Clause 7 shall be mad by spe cial commissions to be appointed in each municipality and to be subordinated to the central board of conciliation to be estab lished In each State). "When, owing to special circumstances. It becomes necessary to Increase the working hours, the' shall be paid as wages for over time 100 per cent, more than is fixed for regular time. In no case shall the overtime exceed three hours nor conttnue for more than three consecutive days, and no women of whatever age nor boys under sixteen years of age may engage In overtime work. "In every agricultural, industrial, mining or other class of work employers are bound to furnish their workmen j-omfortable and sanitary dwelling places, for which they may charge rents not exceeding one-half of 1 per cent, a month of the assessed value of the properties. Likewise they shall estab lish schools, dispensaries and other services necessary to the community." Employers' liability Is provided for In Article 123. as follows: "Employers shall be liable for labor acci dents and occupational diseases arising from work. Therefore, employers shall pay the pioper indemnity, acordnig to whether death or merely temporary or permanent disabil ity has ensued." Whereas under the Constitution of 185" Gen. Diaz put down with tui iron hand, as in Put-bis, any strike movements by la.bor, the Constitution of 1 a 1 7 recognises the right of workers to strike and oi employers to lock out. Article 123 provides: "XVI. Workmen and employers shall have the right to unite for the oefence of their respective interests by forming syndicates, unions, &c. "XVII. The law shall recognize the right of workmen and of employers to strike and to lock out. "XVIII. Strikes shall be lawful when by the employment of peaceful means they Khali aim to bring about a balance between the various factors of production and to harmonize the rights of capital and Labor, In the case of pubdc se rvices, the workmen shall be obliged to give ten days notice in advance to the Boa,rd of Conciliation and Arbitration of the date set for the suspen sion of work. Strikes shall only e con sidered unlawful when the majority of the strikers shall resort to acts of violence against persons or property, or in CSM of v.ar when the strikers belong to establish ments ami services dependent on the Gov ernment. . . . XIX. Loc kouts shall only be lawful when IDS excess of production shall rentier It 1 i tOSSSiy to shut dow n in order to maintain prices reasonably above the cost of produc tion, subject to the approval of the Board of Conciliation and Arbitration. "XX. Differences or disputes between capital and labor shall be submittted for settlement to a board of conciliation and ar bitration, to consist of an equal number of representatives of the workmen and of the employers and of one representative of the G ivernment. "XXI. If the employer shall refuse to sub mit his differences to arbitration or to ae cc pt the award rendered by the board, the hi I or contract shall lie Considered as termi nated, and the employer shall be bound to indemnify the workman by the payment to h'm of three months wages, in addition to the liability which he may have incurred by reason of the dispute. If the workman re Jtcts the award. Ihe contract will be held to have terminated." Another radical change from the Consti tution of 1857 Is contained in that provision cf Article 123 to the effect that "all debts contracted by worklngmen on account uf work up to the date of this Constitution with masters, their subordinates and agents are hereby entirely discharged.'' In keeping with the spirit manifested by dropping the preamble of the Constitution of '.857. "In the name Oi God and by authority of the Mexican people . . .," the Consti tution of 1917 strengthens the so-called "reform laws" and provides: "Religious Institutions known ss churches, irrespective of creed, slial? in no case have legal capacity to acquire, hold or administer real property or loans made on ral prop erty. All such real property or loans as may be held at the pre set. t time by religious Institutions, either on their own behalf or through third parties, shad vest in the na tion, and any one shall have the rigtit to deniunce property so heed Pre-sumptive proof shall lie' sufficient to declare the de nunciation well founded. Places of public worship are the prope rty of the nation, as represented by the Federal Government, which shall determine which of them shall continue to be devoted to their present pur poses. Flpiscopal reside ccs, rectories, semi naries, orphan asylums or collegiate estab lishments of religious Institutions, convents or any other buiLlngs built or designed for administrative, propaganda or the teaching of the tenets of any religio :s creed, shall forth with vest directly In the nation, to be used e xclusively for public services of the F'ed 1 ration or of the States within their respec tive Jurisdictions. All plac es of public woe -ship which shall later be erected shall be the property of the nation.'' The Constitution gives exclusive power to the State Legislatures to "determine the maximum number of ministers of religious creeds, according to the needs of each lo cality." Only a Mexican by birth can be a minister of any religious creed In Mexico, it provides. Peace Seemi Still Far Off. These are the chie, features of the Con stitution of 1917, dlfferjns from that of 1857. They are the features against which foreign business, foreign investments and the church have protested. They have been the storm centres around which foreigners and the Carranza Government clashed and nrnund which foreign Interests and the present and coming Mexican Governments will clash unless an agreement Is reached between representatives of thes foreign In terests and the De la Huerta admlnistntion and Uefn. Obregon. What these clashes will lead to no one knows, but this is certain, that they will not lead to a speedy solutbyi of the Mexican problem to the extinguish ing of that "conflagration next door to us" by peaceful means. Instead, with new revo lutions now In the making, with Mexican political "outs" striving to get In and ready to resort to arms to force their power on the nation; with an empty treasury, the problem before Sc nor de la Huerta and Gen. obregon is not an easy one. He must lie Indeed an optimist who can see a huppy end to it. There will be a change in the White House in Washington next year. The policy of the American administration with regard) to Mexico will constitute) a most important Chapter in Mexican history. The conditions which have obtained there for the last eight ears cannot continue for another four years. If there ever was a time when Mexi cans should cease to plot, should cease to resort to arms against constituted authority, as they themselves constituted and accepted it, this is the time. The Time for Patriotic Service. To-day Mexico needs the services of every one of her sons, and she needs them at home, to build constructively, to reform the courts, to enforce the laws, to abide by the laws, to forget old hates, old ambitions, to put away grerd for power. Whether it be Obre gon or Roblei Dominguez who is the next President of Mexico, he needs the help of e very Mexican, whether Porflrista. Cientifico. Madertsta. Carranzista. Obregonista. Vllllsta or Zapatista Mexico has the men possessing the brains and the ability to pull her out of the,jnire and to put her on her (eet sciuarely and hrmly. if Mexican will but forget the past and get together and work for M xieo In stead of for self or party. These Mexican Intellectuals have the inherent honesty to do It If they will conscientiously and patrioti cally try. They can be fair to their own people and to foreigners. When Mexicans understand this there will he no more fights over constitutional pro visions of Executive decrees; there will be no "MexieMn question." Instead, there will he peace in Mexico and rich . harvests and full granaries; and those spectral mountains, veiled In fleecy clouds through which the sun casts rainbow colors, will give up their great riches of gold and silver and copper, and there will flow from the Inexhaustable fields of Tamaullpas and Vera Cruz a never ending stream of fuel oil to drive cargo carrying ships through the seven seas and lo generate power for countless industries at home and in foreign lands. Mme. Rasch Finds Vienna TheatreMad Danseuse Back From Europe Tells of V a r Profiteers' Revelry in Austria's Stricken Capital. VIENNA, the once gay capital of A is. trla and one of the greatest music and art centres in all Furor".. j no more the same, is the contention of Albcr tina Rasch, the young Polish dancer, who has Just returned from Furope after a two months stay. As Mme. Rasch has lived ind dancenl In this country for several yens, from opera ballet to vaudeville, She. needs .no introduction to American theatregoers. rlor to sailing for FHurope she appeared at the Capitol Theatre, where she delighted thousands of dance lovers. "I spent hut a few days In Vienna," said Mme. Rasch in tedllng of her trip. "I went there to pay my respects to my old dancing teacher and see If there was anything I could do to add to his comfort In Paris I was told that conditions were in a sad plight and 1 was advised not to take the Journey; but then I had lived and studied In Vienna, so 1 could not resist the temptation, be it ever so inconvenient. Through my man ager, M. de Valsey, and some Influential friends in the F'rench Government, I was able to secure a berth on the Orient Ex pu ss, so I travelled without difficulty. Vienna's Plight. "I found the Vienna of to-day just what It had been described to me. It was not the once gay city I had known It before the war. The streets were filled with hungry and half fed people and the city looked neglected and dirty. Nearly every one seemed despon dc nt except a few profiteers who had made millions out of the war. These lived and dressed like royalty, and from what 1 could see had formed an aristocracy of their own. In living upon what little fat there was left in the land they had skinned the poor out of the real necessities of life, and this was evl de nt everywhere. Had It not lieen for the food sent by the I'nited States, Holland and Sweden famine would have reigned every where. "1 want to tell you the people are cer tainly grateful to this exiuntry. They now understand the generous hearts you have. They do not look upon you as unfriendly. It was the food and medicines sent that prac tically saved the people. F'ood was scarce a few months ago, but there Is some relief now. The summer crops have been good, but food is still very high. The profiteer still holds a strong hand and prices are sueti the poorer classes are unable to pay. This c auses a great deal of unrost and makes it hard to establish a favorable government. The now ruling class know nothing about forming a government, and never will. "Yes, I vicUed many of the theatres, and was surprised to And them crowded. The plays are by no means up to the standard, but they seem to suit the public, and thai is all the managers care aliout. I visited the Impe rial Opera House on several occasions. Opera se-ems to stimulate the people. But the audiences were not the same as one WOUld expect to see in such a cultured city. Th' boxes were filled with the most or dinary class one could imagine. It looked more' like a picnic than anything else. Pa trons, if they can be called such, brought their lunches, and It was not an uncommon sight to see them crash boiled eggs on the brass railings and then toss the shells on those below. During the best arias these people talked and rattled papers, much to the annoyance of everybody. But such Is the new society." Still Rich in Art. Mme. Rasch then went on to state that Vienna was still rich In art treasures. In mcny of the first class shops one could pur chase good clothes, boots and shoes. The people have not forgotten how to dress, but the- lack of money, work and food has caused the majority to go about poorly clad. Mme. Rasch went to Paris last May as the r.uest of friends who invited her to witness the premier of "Pulcenella," which was given nt the Paris Opera May 14. In the cast were Leonide Masslne, Thomas Karsavina. Lubor Tchernlcherva and otheu well known here in the Russian ballet. During her stay In the FTench metropolis she purchased several new gowns to be worn this season during her American tour under the direc tion of Martin Beck. She alstf visited the races and attended the Grand Prix. From Paris she went to London, where she ap peared at a benefit held at Bournemouth with the Municipal Orchestra, under the direction of Daniel Godfrey. There she made such a pronounced suc cess that she was offered several contracts to tour England and the British Isles. These she could not accept. Her manager raid he had scoured Europe for novelties, but was unable to find anything suitable for the American public. Mme. Rasch said she was glad to get back. Her trip abroad lasted but two months, but it seemed a loll? time, specially when a big season stands in the way. Aluminum Brass EXPER1MF1NTS aimed at developing the resistance of brass to the ac tion of sen water, with a view to it' employment for constructing submarines in F'rnnce, have, It is reported, shown some remarkable results from the addition ' aluminum. The internal structure nt the alloy Is strikingly changed by a very SBtS percentage of aluminum, and the color changes are surprising. F'rom half of 1 per cent, up 1 1 5 per cent, of aluminum gives the brass a deep golden color. If the quantity of aluminum Is IB" creased beyond 6 per cent, a superb rose color results, which reaches its maxima"1 when the aluminum amounts to 7 With 10 per cent, of aluminum Uiu cai turns to a silvery white. JJ