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The Sun and the New York herald. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1920-1920, August 08, 1920, Section 4 Sunday Magazine, Image 42

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Enough Coal Wasted
To Offset Shortage
Data Compiled by Experts Show Where the
Fuel Goes and How Industrial Plants
Easily Might Effect Enormous Saving
By F. F.
UNLESS there In a marked improve
mi nt In the fuel initiation the Gov
ernment will undoubtedly revive the
Fuel Administration as the most practlca
blt means of coping with the present fuel
situation. If that happens doubtless the
Fuel Administration will start In where It
left off by enforcing the rule that needless
waste of coal In power plant Hhall cease.
Till rule and the effective penalty of with
holding fuel from persistent wasters were
udopted hy It Just prior to the armistice.
KnormotiH fuel savings inn easily he made
In pbwer plants, which would not only
benefit the plant owners themselves but
would ajso help all classes of coal con
sumers hy reducing the demand.
Th" popular Impression Is that produc
tion hasnearly halted, and the render may
Is gin td wonder how coal can be saved If
it cany be bought. The truth Is that pres
ent production Is only slightly under nor
mal probaWy less than 10 per cent. Hence
.injflverage saving of in per cent, by every
ll user would more than counterbalance
J the shortage.
Where the Coal Goes.
Much greater savings can be made In
general Industry than In homes, because
moat of the coal Is used for other than do
mestic purposes. The table Illustrates this
fact. It will be noted from the chart that
domestic consumption is only about IT per
cent, of the total, whereas 2,1 per cent, is
utilized by the railroads and over 30 per
cent, by industrial plants.
Railroads , 153,700, Oiio
Industrial plants 176.366.000
Electrical utilities 11.693,000
I'sed at mines 12.117.000
For making beehive coke 11,147,000
Por making by-ptoduct coke 31,'.'6,oon
For making coal gas 4.S60.000
Ocean stenrners lfl.8St.000
Exports 23.S4n.nno
Domestic purposes 57.in4.000
Total bituminous 5.".4. 41 7.000
Railroads, approximately R.f.oo.OOO
Industrial, approximately uo.oooooo
Domestic, approximately 50,000,000
Fxpnrts. approximately 6,000.000
Total anthracite S2.5OO.0OU
Total consumption bituminous and
anthracite 636.917.000
Industrial, electrical utility and mine
pants consume about 240.000,000 tons, or
nearly 40 per cent, of the total. This Is not
only the greatest field for fuel saving, but It
Is the easiest one to improve, for the rea
son thnt each boiler attendant consumes a
relatively large amount of fuel and to teach
U small number of men to burn a large
ciiantlty Is easier than to teach a larger
aggregation of domestic or other consumers
tc burn a smaller quantity.
The 210,000,000 tons consumed in indus
trial and public utility plants, costing say
$S,50 per ton, totals over 12.000,000,000. Of
this gigantic amount about 90 per cent. Is
dissipated in various ways, leaving but a
remnant of 10 per cent, of the energy orig
inally In the fuel to be delivered in the form
trf light and power.
Biggr.t Waste It Up the Chimney.
The I'nlted Ktates Bureau of Mines states
that 35 per cent, of the coal Is wasted up
the chimney alone In the average boiler
plant. When heat worth more than $700,
000.000 escapes yearly from the chimneys
of Industrial plants alone It Is time to sit
up and take notice. My own experience
convinces me that the Government's esti
mate of 35 per cent, chimney waste Is most
conservative, for I believe It to lie nearer 50
per cent. Some waste s Inevitable, but a
material reduction can be effected; In fact.
In very efficient plants the chimney waste
is less than 15 per cent. Instead of 35 per
cent., a saving of 20 per cent., by simply
preventing some of the unnecessary stack
This saving Is accomplished primarily by
turning fuel with the correct quantity of
air. Maximum fire temperature require a
definite amount of air for every pound of
fuel bumed. Too much air reduces this
tmperature to an astounding degree and la
responsible for most of the heat wasted up
the chimney.
A l per cent, saving, which is easily ob
tainable fa the average plant.' would repre
sent 36.000.000 tons, or more than $300,000,
000. Let us now see how far this saving
alone could go In meetinc our present fuel
Production Little Below Normal.
In 1870 the average consumption per per
son til 0.S6 tons, whereas In 191 the per
capita consumption was 6.44 tons. Produc
tion of coal has been Increasing rapidly to
meet this demand as shown below until the
year 1 919. when a deficit of nearly 20 per
e nt. resulted, largely owing to the miners'
Pennsylvania Bituminous,
Year. Anthracite, Tons. Tons.
1913 91. .",25, 000 4711,485,000
1914 90.821,000 422.704.000
Kit 88,995,000 442.624.000
1916 87.578,000 502.BIO.00O
1917 99,611,000 551.790,000
1918 98,826,000 579.386,000
1911i 86,200,000 458. 063, 000
The termination of the strike found us
with a very small reserve supply, and ever
since we have led a hand to mouth sort of
existence. Present production Is really not
as bad as represented; in fact, it la con
siderably higher than during a correspond
ing period last year and is less than id per
cfni. below normal. Still the lag in pro
duction Is enough to prevent getting caught
up am' refilling our bins.
5 0.8
Pilgrim Mothers Gain
Recognition at Last
Women's Bravery Equal to Men's in Perils of
the Mayflower's Voyage and Hardships
of the Wilderness
This year's diffl ultle are due principally
to the unusual shortage of cars.
The Government contemplates spending
$75,000,000 shortly for new freight cars. Coal
constitutes one-third of the total tonnage
transported by rail, hence If one-thltd of
the above amount Is used for purchasing
real cars this sum would purchase 8,333 cars
at $3,000 per car. not counting locomotives
to haul them.
There are nearly 1,000,000 cars suitable
for transporting cool; therefore such new
cars would not help much because they
represent less than 1 per cent., whereas 10
er cent. Increase or more is required. Fur
thermore, new cars cannot lie delivered In
The alternative solution is, therefore, the
reduction of waste in using fuel. This can
b put Into effect almost immediately. Fur
thermore. It would not be necessary to dis
arrange commerce through embargoes In
favor of coal shipments, nor would It be
necessary to adopt heat less days and fight
less nights in order to accomplish the de
sired result.
1 do not mean by this that the Idea of
new cars should be abandoned; we must
have them. Better iransportatlon facilities
are esf-entlal.
' All the needless waste In this country of
coal alone has been calculated to be more
than 100,000,000 tonH per year enough to
meet the entire fuel requirements of all gas
and electric utility confpanles In the United
States for about three years, or to keep all
the railroads In this country running for
nearly eight months, or to keep every home
Pre burning for about a year.
Specific Instructions for saving fuel need
not be gone Into here. They are available
to all who seek them. The entire contents
of many text books, Government bulletin
and technical periodicals are devoted to this
To-day It Is compulsory by law to equip
every boiler with a safety valve and gauge
1( terminlng the amount Of water. These"
precautions are necessary to prevent explo
sions. Plant owners are not, however, com
pelled to Install appliances for- saving fuel.
Our present as well as our future pros
it rity Involves this principle, for it Is in
disputable that nearly every necessity and
pleasure of modern life is entirely dependent
upon fuel.
Marvels of a Real Soundproof Room
IT Is said that the Physiological Institute
of the University of Utrecht possesses
what is probably the most remarkable
room In the world, a, chamber about seven
and a half feet square, which Is claimed to be
absolutely noiseless, as far as the entrance
of soands from outside Is concerned.
It Is on the top story of a laboratory build
ing and Is an Inside room, but is so pranged
that it can be ventilated and inundated with
sunshine. The walls, floor and celling each
consist of half a dozen layers of different
substances, with air spaces and interstices
filled with sound deadening materials.
Some persons when In the room experience
a peculiar sensation in the ears. While every
effort has been made to exclude sounds that
ire not wanted, of course the object of con
structing this singular room was to experi
ment with phenomena connected with sound.
Some of the sounds employed are made In
the room itself; others are introduced from
outside 'by means of a copper tube, which is
plugged with b ad when not In use.
THE Pilgrim Mothers are about to come
into their own. For generations tha
descendants of that doughty little
band who came over on the Mayflower, and
the people of the United States who are
wont to trace back to the Plymouth Colony
the beginnings of free lnstitutiona In
America, have given honor to the Pilgrim
Fathers, and this year are celebrating their
tercentenary. Hut with that they are about
to pay tribute to the brave women who came
with the fathers and shared their bitter
struggle with the wilderness.
When the Pilgrim tercentenary was first
planned by the Sulgrave Institution, which
is conducting both the celebrations now go
ing on In England and the early celebrations
in this country, the people of Provlncetown,
where the. Pilgrims first landed, decided to
give belated recognition to the women of
Elder Brewster's church.
Tribute to Their Courage.
Their courage Is to be commemorated by
a great memorial that will rise near the
monument to the Pilgrim Fathers at Prov
lncetown. The local committee at Province
town has announced lhat it has asked Con
gress and the Massachusetts Legislature for
appropriations of fJOO.000, and will raise
$50,000 more from among the descendants
of the Mayflower women, with Which to
build the monument and construct a stone
pier and approach to the two pillars that,
will mark the curving sandbanks which were
the Pilgrims' first sight of the new world.
How any of the Pilgrim women survived
the terrors of that perilous voyage and the
famine and cold of the following winter Is
not the least of the remarkable features of
the adventure. In a raw climate, with in
adequate shelter and food, with a desolate
sea before them and behind them dark
woods filled with Indians, they went through
privations that reduced their little band to
exactly half its numbers in the first few
months of their settlement.
Only the strongest and those judged mos
fit to bear the burden of home building had
embarked on the Mayflower, the others hav
ing been left at Leyden until conditions were
such that it would be possible for them also
to come over with a fair chance of survival.
Without these women It Is doubtful If the
colony would have succeeded, for they helped
t uild homes, eought food to eke out their
meagre supplies, tended the sick and sus
tained the others by their quiet courage,
even when their situation seemed hopeless.
They had not come without anticipating
many troubles, and they met those which
came In a way that la the brightest chapter
In that hard winter.
On the voyage, which lasted from Septem
ber 6 to November 11. the women must have
suffered severely. They left Southampton
in a gale and storms followed them the whole
way, until the ship cracked and leaked and
much of their food was spoiled. One big
plank In the ship was so bent that It was
only repaired by the fortunate chance of a
passenger having brought a hlg lr n screw
And In the midst of all this turmr. i (t,
misery one of the women gave birth to
No sooner had the Mayflower swung to
her anchor and those aboard giver then,
selves up to a Sunday spent in prayer of
thanksgiving for their safe arrival tain the
vromen began to pick up the threail of their
broken domestic routine under condttioM
which none of them had ever faced tfor..
One of the early chroniclers relates:
"Our people went on shore to refresh
tnemselves and our women to wash, a they
had great need."
They must have, after two month in a
tiny ship scarce big enough to h"M them
and their goods. The first tragedj UMOI
them came only a few weeks later, whe..
during the cruise of a shallop and befi
the landing at Plymouth. Dorothy Bradford
wife of William Bradford, fell overboard and
was drowned." And but a short time later
sickness claimed many and deaths came fas'
In January Rose Standish. wife of Capr
Miles fltandish, died. Mary Allerton. the
Wife of Isaac Allerton, died In February, mi1
F.llzabeth Wlnslow. wife of Edward Window
died in March. John Carver and his
also died that month. Just before their for
tunes began to turn with the coming of
warm weather.
Death's Heavy Toll.
It was In March that a despairing entry is
found In the chronicles of the settlement:
"This month thirteen of our number d;e
And In three months past dies half our com
pany; the greatest part In the depth of win
ter, wanting houses and other comforts, belni
Infected with the scurvy and other disease
which their long voyage and UlACCOmfflotjItt
condition brought upon them, so as there
die sometimes two or three a day. Of the
hundred persons scarce fifty remain, the
living scarce able to bury the dead, the till
not sufficient to tend the sick, there being la
their time of greatest distress hut six or
seven who spare no pains to help them.
Two of the seven were Mr. Brewster, their
reverend elder, and Mr. Standish, their cap
tain." They buried their dead In the b,nl ind
sowed corn above the levelled graves to thai
the Indians would not suspect their pligh:
and realise how their numbers had dwindle.!
But when the Mayflower returned t,. Eng
land In April not one of them, man or wom
an, fled from the prospect of another winter
as desperate as the first.
Naturally, where they were so dependent
upon each other, those left alone by the
death of husband or wife sought another
mate for their mutual aid and protection
against hunger and sickness. The story of
the wooing of Miles Standish. who sent the
youthful John Alden to plead with Prlsrlllji
Mulllngs, is an American classic, hut it la not
so generally known that Alden was a Smith
ampton cooper who had come on the May
flower probably for the sole reason that he
would be able to be near his Priscllla. A
bashful youth, indeed, to follow his ladv
across the sea and then not dare to plead
his own cause until she prompted him.
American Financiers Invade Pall Mall, Historic Street of Leisure
London, July 27.
Ti I open o new American branch of
fice in London is no great achieve
ment. Every one is doing It. But
a historic, philosophic and artistic guidebook
of the new office's locality is apparently go
ing beyond the powers usually attributed to
the soulless banking corporation. Incident
ally the Guaranty Trust Company's little
brochure on Pall Mall will clear up the
origin of the street's name and the names
of the various austere and magnificent clubs
which line Its walks. Their descriptive mat
ter speaks thus:
"Pall Mail! It sounds like no other street,
and It Is like no other street In the world.
Its name came from a game played by Stuart
princes near their padace, and it is been a
Ftreet of gallant leisure to those nearest the
court for nigh three hundred years. The
Paltce of the Tudors is at one end and Tra
falgar Square at the other. Marlborough
House, where the great Duke lived! and
where the eldest son of Queen Victoria took
up house on his marriage, and remained un
til he became king, has Its gates entering on
its western end. Pepys wrote of it as a place
ior clubbing, and even to-day it is virtually
a street of clubs. The club Is an English In
stitution, and although It has spread all over
the world there is no city except London
that has a whole street of clubs. They set
i he tone and pace of the street.
A Street of Leisure.
"Ordinarily this is a street of leisure, where
people walk with pleasure and expect every
y .id or two to see a friend. The returned
.Anglo-Indian, or big game hunter from
Africa, or official from distant parts of the
.irth does not feel that he Is back In London
Mil he has taken his lean, brown face along
Call Mall and exchanged nods with old
f choolfellowB and (If In an expansive mood)
a word or two with the old commissionaire
of his club. Pall Mall was home to most of
the originals of Kipling's stories. Truly the
UnktUrWll poet expressed the vrl-tle-corur of
his countrymen when he wrote:
"'There's no plaee like club.'
"Most of these 'material monasteries' date
from the first half of the last century. The
I nited Service Club, on the east side of
Waterloo place, was the Duke of Welling
ton's favorite club, and the members bene
fited by his Intrepidity, for here he bearded
the committee and had the price of the mid
day chop reduced to a shilling.
"On the other side of Waterloo place is
the Athenirum, guarded by Minerva over the
porch, the only lady who has so far taken a
permanent place in a Pall Mall club. The
Clubhouse Is the work of Declmus Burton,
who built the Hyde Park corner entrance,
and It has the finest club library in London.
Membership of the Athonseum connotes emi
nence In the arts or in the church. Ik Is a
favorite retreat to-day of Sir James Barrie.
and there in an atmosphere of Anglican
bishops and the greauat living authorities
New York Bank Sets Up London Branch in Thoroughfare Famed for Three Hundred Years
as Centre of Clubdom Recalls Traditions of Its Magnificent Neighbors and the
Romances of Nell Gwyn and Emma Lyon
on the most difficult subjects, and guarded
by their silence Sir James writes his fairy
stories and his gcots dialect romances.
"Next to the Athenaeum Is the Travellers'
flub. Its membership Is limited to those
who have travelled at least BOO miles, a
much easier qualification nowadays than
when the club was formed, but It is still a
V( ry exclusive body and keeps out of the
newspapers. Then come the Reform, with
Its (rrim Italianate exterior that recalls the
Farnese Palace In Rome. It looks like a
place of secrets, but Is really the final ges
ture of the Whig party and It now houses
snch varied and democratic figures as Mr.
Arnold Bennett. Mr. Wells. Mr Masslng
h;.m and many others. Nevertheless the
Reform is still the club of Liberal Cabinet
Ministers and the aristocratic families who
hold to the Liberal side.
"The Carlton Club, separated from the Re
form by a little alley, is a more ornate edifice
and suggests rather the modem business
man than the political and landed gentry
whose stronghold It originally was. Every
Oorservatlve M.-mber of Parliament is eligi
ble for membership.
"The Marlborough Club, at No. 52. was es
tablished not long after his marriage by that
Plincc of Wales who was afterward Edward
VII. Every candidate for membership had
to b approved by the Prince, who found at
thifc club, a few steps from Ills own door, a
place where he could meet his friends with
out ceremony. It was the custom in the
club that he was treated only as a fellow
mmber, and It was considered bad form If
any one put down his newspaper when he
entered the room. He often sat In the bow
window overlooking Pall Mall, but his favor
ite place was in a room on the ground floor
Club Is Little Changed.
'The club has been little changed and It
st ill has the steel engravings and comfort
able furniture of the mid-Victorian period,
and the members still dine at separate square
tables with well oiled casters, so that when
one member desires company at his meal ht
sinply pushes his table along until It Join
his friend's.
"Next to the Marlborough Club, and sepa
rated by the entrance to the little inlet o'
Pall Mall Court, is the Ouaranty Trust Com
pany of New York's new West End offices
They occupy the site of one of the most fa
mous London literary rendezvous of th
eighteenth century the bookshop with th
hign of 'Tully's Head." It was kept by Rob
irt Dodsley, footman, poet and playwright
who made enough money by these activities
to set up here as a publisher and bookseller.
He published Sterne's 'Tristram Shandy'
and several other works which 'struck the
gong of London' in those days.
"In this shop was published in 17"p9 the
first volume of the Annual Register under
the editorship of the famous Edmund Burke,
a compendium of information and selective
last a which had a life of over a century' The
shop was one of the sunniest slopes of Par
nassus for many years. Pope, Johnson.
P.urke, Chesterfield, iloldsmlth, Sterne, Hor
ace Walpole. Oarrick, Reynolds and other
yreat ones of-the period met often at 'Tul
ly's Head.' anJ stayed late. Dodsley's plays
had a good deal of success, particularly 'The
Toy Shop.' 'The King and the Miller of
Mansfield' and The Blind Beggar of Beth
nal Green,' and a tragedy called 'Cleone.'
Ik was an amiable, honest and able man.
ana did much for the advancement of letters.
No. 51 must have bee,n at that time a near
approach to the Mermaid Tavern in Shake--neare's
"But to return to our clubs. Pall Mall also
houses the Junior Carlton, whose windows
look out on St. James's Square. 'Junior '
does not mean that the members are youths.
as any one can see for himself by looking
up at the honorable heads at the windows.
It only means that, as a club, it is Junior to
the original club, although the majority of
the members may at one time or other be
the elder brethren of the senior club mem
bers. There is, too, -the Oxford and Cam
bridge Club and the New Oxford and Cam
bridge Club l which overlooks Marlborough
House), for which members of these ancient
universities only are eligible. Tha parent
club has a famous staircase and a series of
panels over the upper windows that are un
derstood to lie In the best classic manner,
and it was designed by the brothers Smirke.
"The I'nited 1'nlversity Club, at the corner
o' Suffolk street, was reconstructed recently
to the designs of Sir Reginald Blomfield. and
is an interesting piece of modern scholarly
club architecture. The old and the new work
In the building bring about some curious re
sults, and there is a legend of a guest who
was separated from his host after dinner
and Is believed to be wandering about the
p. ssages there to this very day. The Guards'
Club has recently deserted its narrow bow
fronted building in which Disraeli. Ouida
and so many novelists 'of last century loved
to depict their heroes. Then there is the
Royal Automobile Club, with Its ls.OOO mem
bers, which has swallowed up half a dozen
eld club buildings and Is an imperial club
l-i a sense that none of the other Pall Mall
cubs are.
"It is a man's street clubs and cigar
shops and wine merchants and military
tailors and bootmakers, and one shop that
sells nothing but swords. But there are
women whose memories live in the street,
and give it some of Its golden light and
Atlventurei of Nail Gwyn.
"There was Nell Gwyn, orange seller,
player, mistress to a king, mother of a duke,
a favorite of the people, whose kind thought
gave London the adornment of Wren's Chel
sea Hospital, which has sheltered old war
rtOfC for over two hundred years. 8he lived
at No. "9, on the south side, and at the foot
of her garden she once leaned over the wall
and had a saucy talk with Charles II., walk
ing In the Mall, as the scandalized Evelyn
reports In his Journal. Her house was swept
away long ago. and the Society for the
Propaaation of the Gospel sanctified the spot
with Its headquarters, hut even the godly
Bislu'ip Cox of NVw York, who stayed In the
house in 1850, let his thoughts stray to tha'
Mistress Nelly and came to the conclusion
that mercy would be found for her. On th
North Side she lived for some time in a
house whose site Is now occupied by th
Army and Navy Club, and the mirror that
ri fleeted her fair and provoking face hung
then- for a while.
"Next to Nell Gwyn's house, In a build
ing that still exists, although shorn of om
wing, another lost lady of old years held .1
sort of court. Emma Lyon, a Cheshire vil
lage girl, who. after many adventures, t
cime fAady Hamilton, figured here as vjri"
in the 'Temple of Health' of a quack doctor
named Graham. There Gainsborough saw
her and in his studio, which was in the sam
building, be painted her as 'Musadora Bath
ing.' In the picture that Is now In the
National Gallery. Conway painted her. too.
and later Romnej; began his great series of
pictures with the 'divine Emma' as hi?
theme. It was In Naples that Nelson met
" 'Pretty to think' (as Pepys would sa'
that to-day, in Christie's auction rooms
(which were first in Pall Mall), in Kins
street, a stone's throw away, collectors still
scramble for the letters of Emma Lyon, and
her face In millions of reproductions haunts
the world. Nelson loved her. Hers was the
face that launched a thousand ships. Some
say that she inspired him (Nelson said so)
aa she inspired Romney. She is lighted down
the ages by the blaze of Nelson's fame and
the glow of Romney and Gainsborough's art.
Time cannot close his shadows over her
Where Gaimborough Died.
"Gainsborough died In that Dutch lookinc
bouse with its old red brick and stone dress
ings and Its caryatided porch, and accordlnp
to thi story he said to his rival, the great
Reynolds, at his bedside. 'We are all going U
heaven and Van Dyck Is of the company
The Duke of Cumberland lived here after
Ciilloden, and In a house somewhere in the
street Charles Edward Stuart. Bonnie Prince
Charlie." the man the Duke vanquished, is
said to have held a secret meeting of his re
rnnlnlng friends four years after the battle
He wauld not then have had the long spring'
Step eif the wanderer In the r-oor tartans who
marched and hid In the Islands after CUB;
den. for the 'lad that was born to be king
was already sinking under dissipation fJ
frustrated hopes.
"The trumpets and drums from St. JanM J
Palace probably sounded out as ttie sit aj
the meeting and the last of the Stuarts wotw
look at the fifty faithful who were thirl and
think of the thousands thnt lay un r UK
heather. It la strange to think of th a
guiseo figure stepping along Pall Mall. Pfr'
haps through the queer narrow lacatl
haunted passage of Pall Mill Court, that
sil.l keeps some of Its eighteenth centun
air, and away to his lurking coach or sedar.
chair and so farewell to Ensland.
"Pall Mall Is a street in which hliMC
never has a holiday."

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